Complete SAT Vocabulary Words

Below are the complete list of SAT Vocabulary Words identified by VocabularyShop and grouped together in the Select function.  When choosing SAT word group in the Select function, these SAT vocabulary words will be displayed in the Source List for you to choose for your study.

You can download this list of SAT vocabulary words at the bottom of this page and use it to plan your study and set up your priority and strategy.  For example, you can put all words you already knew into the Known List, leaving only the new words you need to learn in the Source List.  You can then figure out how much work is needed to reach your goal and make your plan accordingly.  There are words more important than the others for the SAT test, and there are words much easier or more difficult for you as well.  Your plan should be based on your situation and the information from the College Board to enable you to reach your goal with maximum speed and efficiency.

In the SAT vocabulary words listed below, only the primary or the most popular definition is provided for each word.  You will see the complete dictionary definition and plenty of useful information of each word when you access the Dictionary Dialog in VocabularyShop.


abase [əˈbeis] – v. cause to feel shame; hurt the pride of

abasement [əˈbeismənt] – n. a low or downcast state: each confession brought her into an attitude of abasement

abate [əˈbeit] – v. make less active or intense

abbess [ˈæbis] – n. the superior of a group of nuns

abbey [ˈæbi] – n. a church associated with a monastery or convent

abbot [ˈæbət] – n. the superior of an abbey of monks

abdicate [ˈæbdikeit] – v. give up, such as power, as of monarchs and emperors, or duties and obligations: The King abdicated when he married a divorcee

abdomen [ˈæbdəmen] – n. the region of the body of a vertebrate between the thorax and the pelvis

abdominal [æbˈdɔminl] – n. the muscles of the abdomen

abduct [æbˈdʌkt] – v. take away to an undisclosed location against their will and usually in order to extract a ransom

abduction [æbˈdʌkʃən] – n. (physiology) moving of a body part away from the central axis of the body

abed [əˈbed] – adv. in bed

aberrant [æˈberənt] – n. one whose behavior departs substantially from the norm of a group

aberration [æbəˈreiʃən] – n. a state or condition markedly different from the norm

abet [əˈbet] – v. assist or encourage, usually in some wrongdoing

abeyance [əˈbeiəns] – n. temporary cessation or suspension

abhor [əbˈhɔ:] – v. find repugnant: She abhors cats

abhorrence [əbˈhɔrəns] – n. hate coupled with disgust

abhorrent [əbˈhɔrənt] – adj. offensive to the mind: an abhorrent deed

abidance [əˈbaidəns] – n. acting according to certain accepted standards

abide [əˈbaid] – v. dwell

abject [ˈæbdʒekt] – adj. of the most contemptible kind: abject cowardice

abjure [əbˈdʒuə] – v. formally reject or disavow a formerly held belief, usually under pressure: She abjured her beliefs

able-bodied  – adj. having a strong healthy body: every able-bodied young man served in the army

ablution [əˈblu:ʃən] – n. the ritual washing of a priest’s hands or of sacred vessels

abnegate [ˈæbnigeit] – v. deny oneself (something); restrain, especially from indulging in some pleasure

abnegation [.æbniˈgeiʃən] – n. the denial and rejection of a doctrine or belief: abnegation of the Holy Trinity

abnormal [æbˈnɔ:məl] – adj. not normal; not typical or usual or regular or conforming to a norm: abnormal powers of concentration

abominable [əˈbɔminəbəl] – adj. unequivocally detestable: abominable treatment of prisoners

abominate [əˈbɔmineit] – v. find repugnant

abomination [əbɔmiˈneiʃən] – n. a person who is loathsome or disgusting

aboriginal [æbəˈridʒənəl] – adj. of or pertaining to members of the indigenous people of Australia

aborigine  – n. an indigenous person who was born in a particular place

abort [əˈbɔ:t] – v. terminate before completion: abort the mission

aboveboard [əˈbʌvˈbɔ:d] – adj. without concealment or deception; honest: their business was open and aboveboard

abrade [əˈbreid] – v. wear away

abrasion [əˈbreiʒən] – n. erosion by friction

abrasive [əˈbreisiv] – adj. sharply disagreeable; rigorous: an abrasive character

abridge [əˈbridʒ] – v. reduce in scope while retaining essential elements

abridgment [əˈbridʒmənt] – n. a shortened version of a written work

abrogate [ˈæbrəgeit] – v. revoke formally

abrupt [əˈbrʌpt] – adj. marked by sudden changes in subject and sharp transitions: abrupt prose

abscess [ˈæbsis] – n. symptom consisting of a localized collection of pus surrounded by inflamed tissue

abscission [æbˈsiʒən] – n. shedding of flowers and leaves and fruit following formation of scar tissue in a plant

abscond [əbˈskɔnd] – v. run away; usually includes taking something or somebody along: the accountant absconded with the cash from the safe

absentminded [.æbsəntˈmaindid] – adj. lost in thought; showing preoccupation: an absentminded professor

absolution [.æbsəˈlu:ʃən] – n. the condition of being formally forgiven by a priest in the sacrament of penance

absolve [əbˈzɔlv] – v. grant remission of a sin to: The priest absolved him and told him to say ten Hail Mary’s

absorption [əbˈsɔ:pʃən] – n. (chemistry) a process in which one substance permeates another; a fluid permeates or is dissolved by a liquid or solid

abstain [əbˈstein] – v. refrain from voting

abstemious [əbˈsti:miəs] – adj. sparing in consumption of especially food and drink: the pleasures of the table, never of much consequence to one naturally abstemious

abstinence [ˈæbstinəns] – n. the trait of abstaining (especially from alcohol)

abstract [ˈæbstrækt] – v. make off with belongings of others

abstruse [əbˈstru:s] – adj. difficult to penetrate; incomprehensible to one of ordinary understanding or knowledge: the professor’s lectures were so abstruse that students tended to avoid them

absurd [əbˈsə:d] – adj. inconsistent with reason or logic or common sense: the absurd predicament of seeming to argue that virtue is highly desirable but intensely unpleasant

abundant [əˈbʌndənt] – adj. present in great quantity: an abundant supply of water

abusive [əˈbju:siv] – adj. expressing offensive reproach

abut [əˈbʌt] – v. lie adjacent to another or share a boundary

abyss [əˈbis] – n. a bottomless gulf or pit; any unfathomable (or apparently unfathomable) cavity or chasm or void extending below (often used figuratively)

academician [ə.kædəˈmiʃən] – n. a scholar who is skilled in academic disputation

academy [əˈkædəmi] – n. a secondary school (usually private)

accede [ækˈsi:d] – v. yield to another’s wish or opinion

accelerate [ækˈseləreit] – v. move faster: The car accelerated

accentuate [əkˈsentʃueit] – v. to stress, single out as important

accessible [əkˈsesəbl] – adj. capable of being reached: a town accessible by rail

accession [əkˈseʃən] – n. a process of increasing by addition (as to a collection or group): the art collection grew through accession

accessory [ækˈsesəri] – n. clothing that is worn or carried, but not part of your main clothing

acclaim [əˈkleim] – v. praise vociferously

accolade [ˈækəleid] – n. a tangible symbol signifying approval or distinction

accommodate [əˈkɔmədeit] – v. be agreeable or acceptable to

accommodating [əˈkɔmədeitiŋ] – adj. helpful in bringing about a harmonious adaptation: the warden was always accommodating in allowing visitors in

accompaniment [əˈkʌmpənimənt] – n. an event or situation that happens at the same time as or in connection with another

accompanist [əˈkʌmpənist] – n. a person who provides musical accompaniment (usually on a piano)

accomplice [əˈkʌmplis] – n. a person who joins with another in carrying out some plan (especially an unethical or illegal plan)

accomplish [əˈkɔmpliʃ] – v. put in effect

accord [əˈkɔ:d] – n. harmony of people’s opinions or actions or characters

accordion [əˈkɔ:djən] – n. a portable box-shaped free-reed instrument; the reeds are made to vibrate by air from the bellows controlled by the player

accost [əˈkɔst] – v. speak to someone

accountable [əˈkauntəbəl] – adj. liable to account for one’s actions: governments must be accountable to someone beside themselves

accouter [əˈku:tə] – v. provide with military equipment

accredit [əˈkredit] – v. grant credentials to

accretion [əˈkri:ʃən] – n. an increase by natural growth or addition

accrue [əˈkru:] – v. grow by addition: The interest accrues

accumulate [əˈkju:mjuleit] – v. get or gather together

accuracy [ˈækjurəsi] – n. the quality of being near to the true value: he was beginning to doubt the accuracy of his compass

accursed [əˈkə:sid] – adj. under a curse

accusation [ækju(:)ˈzeiʃən] – n. a formal charge of wrongdoing brought against a person; the act of imputing blame or guilt

accusatory [əˈkju:zətəri] – adj. containing or expressing accusation: black accusatory looks

accustom [əˈkʌstəm] – v. make psychologically or physically used (to something)

acerbic  – adj. sour or bitter in taste

acerbity [əˈsə:biti] – n. a sharp bitterness

acetate [ˈæsitit] – n. a salt or ester of acetic acid

acetic [əˈsi:tik] – adj. relating to or containing acetic acid

ache [eik] – v. feel physical pain

achromatic [ækrəuˈmætik] – adj. having no hue

acidify [əˈsidifai] – v. make sour or more sour

acknowledgment [əkˈnɔlidʒmənt] – n. a short note recognizing a source of information or of a quoted passage: the acknowledgments are usually printed at the front of a book

acme [ˈækmi] – n. the highest level or degree attainable; the highest stage of development: his landscapes were deemed the acme of beauty

acoustic [əˈku:stik] – n. a remedy for hearing loss or deafness

acquaint [əˈkweint] – v. cause to come to know personally: permit me to acquaint you with my son

acquiesce [.ækwiˈes] – v. to agree or express agreement

acquiescence [ækwiˈesns] – n. acceptance without protest

acquit [əˈkwit] – v. pronounce not guilty of criminal charges

acquittal [əˈkwitl] – n. a judgment of not guilty

acquittance [əˈkwitəns] – n. a legal document evidencing the discharge of a debt or obligation

acreage [ˈeikəridʒ] – n. an area of ground used for some particular purpose (such as building or farming): he wanted some acreage to build on

acrid [ˈækrid] – adj. strong and sharp: the acrid smell of burning rubber

acrimonious [ækriˈməuniəs] – adj. marked by strong resentment or cynicism: an acrimonious dispute

acrimony [ˈækriməni] – n. a rough and bitter manner

acrophobia  – n. a morbid fear of great heights

actionable [ˈækʃənəbl] – adj. affording grounds for legal action: slander is an actionable offense

actuality [.æktjuˈæliti] – n. the state of actually existing objectively: a hope that progressed from possibility to actuality

actuary [ˈæktjuəri] – n. someone versed in the collection and interpretation of numerical data (especially someone who uses statistics to calculate insurance premiums)

actuate [ˈæktjueit] – v. put in motion or move to act: actuate the circuits

acuity  – n. sharpness of vision; the visual ability to resolve fine detail (usually measured by a Snellen chart)

acumen [əˈkjumən, əˈkju:mən] – n. a tapering point

acute [əˈkju:t] – adj. having or experiencing a rapid onset and short but severe course: acute appendicitis

adage [ˈædidʒ] – n. a condensed but memorable saying embodying some important fact of experience that is taken as true by many people

adamant [ˈædəmənt] – n. very hard native crystalline carbon valued as a gem

addendum [əˈdendəm] – n. textual matter that is added onto a publication; usually at the end

addict [əˈdikt] – v. to cause (someone or oneself) to become dependent (on something, especially a narcotic drug)

addle [ˈædl] – v. mix up or confuse

adduce [əˈdju:s] – v. advance evidence for

adept [ˈædept] – n. someone who is dazzlingly skilled in any field

adhere [ədˈhiə] – v. be compatible or in accordance with: You must adhere to the rules

adherence [ədˈhiərəns] – n. faithful support for a cause or political party or religion: adherence to a fat-free diet

adherent [ədˈhiərənt] – n. someone who believes and helps to spread the doctrine of another

adhesion [ədˈhi:ʒən] – n. abnormal union of bodily tissues; most common in the abdomen

adieu [əˈdju:] – n. a farewell remark

adjacency [əˈdʒeisənsi] – n. the attribute of being so near as to be touching

adjudge [əˈdʒʌdʒ] – v. declare to be

adjunct [ˈædʒʌŋkt] – n. something added to another thing but not an essential part of it

adjuration [ædʒuəˈreiʃən] – n. a solemn and earnest appeal to someone to do something

adjutant [ˈædʒutənt] – n. an officer who acts as military assistant to a more senior officer

administrator [ədˈministreitə] – n. someone who administers a business

admissible [ədˈmisəbl] – adj. deserving to be admitted: admissible evidence

admittance [ədˈmitəns] – n. the right to enter

admonition [ædməˈniʃən] – n. cautionary advice about something imminent (especially imminent danger or other unpleasantness): a letter of admonition about the dangers of immorality

ado [əˈdu:] – n. a rapid active commotion

adoration [.ædəˈreiʃən] – n. a feeling of profound love and admiration

adorn [əˈdɔ:n] – v. make more attractive by adding ornament, colour, etc.

adroit [əˈdrɔit] – adj. quick or skillful or adept in action or thought: an exceptionally adroit pianist

adroitness  – n. skillful performance or ability without difficulty

adulation [.ædʒuˈleiʃən] – n. servile flattery; exaggerated and hypocritical praise

adulterant [əˈdʌltərənt] – n. any substance that lessens the purity or effectiveness of a substance: it is necessary to remove the adulterants before use

adulterate [əˈdʌltəreit] – adj. mixed with impurities

adumbrate [ˈædʌmbreit] – v. describe roughly or briefly or give the main points or summary of

advent [ˈædvent] – n. arrival that has been awaited (especially of something momentous): the advent of the computer

adversary [ˈædvəsəri] – n. someone who offers opposition

adverse [ˈædvə:s] – adj. contrary to your interests or welfare: adverse circumstances

adversity [ədˈvə:siti] – n. a state of misfortune or affliction: debt-ridden farmers struggling with adversity

advert [ˈædvə:t] – v. give heed (to)

advertiser [ˈædvətaizə] – n. someone whose business is advertising

advisory [ədˈvaizəri] – n. an announcement that usually advises or warns the public of some threat: a frost advisory

advocacy [ˈædvəkəsi] – n. active support of an idea or cause etc.; especially the act of pleading or arguing for something

advocate [ˈædvəkeit,ˈædvəkit] – n. a person who pleads for a cause or propounds an idea

aerial [ˈɛəriəl] – n. a pass to a receiver downfield from the passer

aeronaut [ˈɛərənɔ:t] – n. someone who operates an aircraft

aeronautics [.eərəuˈnɔ:tiks] – n. the theory and practice of navigation through air or space

aesthetic [i:sˈθetik] – adj. concerning or characterized by an appreciation of beauty or good taste: the aesthetic faculties

affability  – n. a disposition to be friendly and approachable (easy to talk to)

affable [ˈæfəbəl] – adj. diffusing warmth and friendliness: an affable smile

affectation [.æfekˈteiʃən] – n. a deliberate pretense or exaggerated display

affiliate [əˈfilieit] – v. keep company with; hang out with: She affiliates with her colleagues

affinity [əˈfiniti] – n. (immunology) the attraction between an antigen and an antibody

affirmation [əfə:ˈmeiʃən] – n. a statement asserting the existence or the truth of something

affirmative [əˈfə:mətiv] – adj. expecting the best: an affirmative outlook

affix [əˈfiks,ˈæfiks] – v. attach to: affix the seal here

affluence [ˈæfluəns] – n. abundant wealth

affluent [ˈæfluənt] – n. a branch that flows into the main stream

affront [əˈfrʌnt] – n. a deliberately offensive act or something producing the effect of deliberate disrespect

afire [əˈfai] – adj. lighted up by or as by fire or flame: forests set ablaze (or afire) by lightning

afoot [əˈfut] – adj. traveling by foot: she was afoot when I saw her this morning

aforesaid [əˈfɔ:sed] – adj. being the one previously mentioned or spoken of

afresh [əˈfreʃ] – adv. again but in a new or different way: start afresh

afterthought [ˈɑ:ftəθɔ:t] – n. thinking again about a choice previously made

agglomerate [əˈglɔməreit] – n. volcanic rock consisting of large fragments fused together

aggrandize [əˈgrændaiz] – v. add details to

aggravate [ˈægrəveit] – v. make worse: This drug aggravates the pain

aggravation [.ægrəˈveiʃən] – n. an exasperated feeling of annoyance

aggregate [ˈægrigeit,ˈægrigit] – n. the whole amount

aggress [əˈgres] – v. take the initiative and go on the offensive

aggression [əˈgreʃən] – n. a feeling of hostility that arouses thoughts of attack

aggrieve [əˈgri:v] – v. infringe on the rights of

aghast [əˈgɑ:st] – adj. struck with fear, dread, or consternation

agile [ˈædʒail] – adj. moving quickly and lightly: sleek and agile as a gymnast

agitate [ˈædʒiteit] – v. try to stir up public opinion

agnostic [ægˈnɔstik] – n. someone who is doubtful or noncommittal about something

agog [əˈgɔg] – adj. highly excited

agrarian [əˈgrɛəriən] – adj. relating to rural matters: an agrarian (or agricultural) society

aide-de-camp  – n. an officer who acts as military assistant to a more senior officer

ailment [ˈeilmənt] – n. an often persistent bodily disorder or disease; a cause for complaining

airy [ˈɛəri] – adj. not practical or realizable; speculative: airy theories about socioeconomic improvement

aisle [ail] – n. a long narrow passage (as in a cave or woods)

akin [əˈkin] – adj. similar in quality or character: a feeling akin to terror

alabaster [ˈæləbɑ:stə] – n. a compact fine-textured, usually white gypsum used for carving

alacrity [əˈlækriti] – n. liveliness and eagerness: he accepted with alacrity

albino [ælˈbi:nəu] – n. a person with congenital albinism: white hair and milky skin; eyes are usually pink

alchemy [ˈælkəmi] – n. the way two individuals relate to each other: a mysterious alchemy brought them together

alcoholism [ˈælkəhɔlizəm] – n. an intense persistent desire to drink alcoholic beverages to excess

alcove [ˈælkəuv] – n. a small recess opening off a larger room

alder [ˈɔ:ldə] – n. north temperate shrubs or trees having toothed leaves and conelike fruit; bark is used in tanning and dyeing and the wood is rot-resistant

alderman [ˈɔ:ldəmən] – n. a member of a municipal legislative body (as a city council)

alias [ˈeiliəs] – n. a name that has been assumed temporarily

alibi  – n. (law) a defense by an accused person purporting to show that he or she could not have committed the crime in question

alien [ˈeiljən] – n. a person who comes from a foreign country; someone who does not owe allegiance to your country

alienable [ˈeiljənəbl] – adj. transferable to another owner

alienate [ˈeiljəneit] – v. arouse hostility or indifference in where there had formerly been love, affection, or friendliness: She alienated her friends when she became fanatically religious

alienation [.eiljəˈneiʃən] – n. separation resulting from hostility

aliment [ˈælimənt] – n. a source of materials to nourish the body

alkali [ˈælkəlai] – n. any of various water-soluble compounds capable of turning litmus blue and reacting with an acid to form a salt and water

allay [əˈlei] – v. lessen the intensity of or calm

allege [əˈledʒ] – v. report or maintain: He alleged that he was the victim of a crime

allegory [ˈæligəri] – n. a short moral story (often with animal characters)

alleviate [əˈli:vieit] – v. provide physical relief, as from pain

alleviation  – n. the feeling that comes when something burdensome is removed or reduced

alley [ˈæli] – n. a lane down which a bowling ball is rolled toward pins

allot [əˈlɔt] – v. give out

allotment [əˈlɔtmənt] – n. a share set aside for a specific purpose

allude [əˈlu:d] – v. make a more or less disguised reference to: He alluded to the problem but did not mention it

allusion [əˈlu:ʒən] – n. passing reference or indirect mention

alluvion [əˈlu:viən; əˈlju] – n. gradual formation of new land, by recession of the sea or deposit of sediment

almanac [ˈɔ:lmənæk] – n. an annual publication including weather forecasts and other miscellaneous information arranged according to the calendar of a given year

aloof [əˈlu:f] – adj. remote in manner: stood apart with aloof dignity

altar [ˈɔ:ltə] – n. the table in Christian churches where communion is given

alteration [.ɔ:ltəˈreiʃən] – n. an event that occurs when something passes from one state or phase to another

altercate [ˈɔ:ltəkeit] – v. have a disagreement over something

altercation [.ɔ:ltəˈkeiʃən] – n. noisy quarrel

alternate [ɔ:lˈtə:nit,ˈɔ:ltə:neit] – v. go back and forth; swing back and forth between two states or conditions

altitude [ˈæltitju:d] – n. elevation especially above sea level or above the earth’s surface: the altitude gave her a headache

alto [ˈæltəu] – n. the lowest female singing voice

altruism [ˈæltruizəm] – n. the quality of unselfish concern for the welfare of others

altruist [ˈæltruist] – n. someone who makes charitable donations intended to increase human well-being

altruistic  – adj. showing unselfish concern for the welfare of others

amalgam [əˈmælgəm] – n. a combination or blend of diverse things: his theory is an amalgam of earlier ideas

amalgamate [əˈmælgəmeit] – v. to bring or combine together or with something else

amalgamation  – n. the combination of two or more commercial companies

amass [əˈmæs] – v. collect or gather

amateur [ˈæmətə:] – n. someone who pursues a study or sport as a pastime

amatory [ˈæmətəri] – adj. expressive of or exciting sexual love or romance: her amatory affairs

ambidextrous [.æmbiˈdekstrəs] – adj. equally skillful with each hand: an ambidextrous surgeon

ambiguity [.æmbiˈgju:iti] – n. an expression whose meaning cannot be determined from its context

ambiguous [æmˈbigjuəs] – adj. open to two or more interpretations; or of uncertain nature or significance; or (often) intended to mislead: the polling had a complex and equivocal (or ambiguous) message for potential female candidates

ambitious [æmˈbiʃəs] – adj. having a strong desire for success or achievement

ambivalence [æmˈbiveiləns] – n. mixed feelings or emotions

ambivalent [æmˈbivələnt] – adj. uncertain or unable to decide about what course to follow: was ambivalent about having children

ambrosial [æmˈbrəuʒiəl] – adj. extremely pleasing to the taste; sweet and fragrant: ambrosial food

ambulance [ˈæmbjuləns] – n. a vehicle that takes people to and from hospitals

ambulate [ˈæmbjuleit] – v. walk about; not be bedridden or incapable of walking

ambulatory [ˈæmbjulətəri] – adj. relating to or adapted for walking: an ambulatory corridor

ambush [ˈæmbuʃ] – v. wait in hiding to attack

ameliorate [əˈmi:ljəreit] – v. to make better

ameliorating  – adj. tending to ameliorate

amelioration  – n. the act of relieving ills and changing for the better

amenable [əˈmi:nəbəl] – adj. disposed or willing to comply: someone amenable to persuasion

amenity [əˈmi:niti] – n. pleasantness resulting from agreeable conditions

Americanism [əˈmerəkənizm] – n. loyalty to the United States and its institutions

amiable [ˈeimjəbl] – adj. disposed to please: an amiable villain with a cocky sidelong grin

amicable [ˈæmikəbəl] – adj. characterized by friendship and good will

amity [ˈæmiti] – n. a cordial disposition

amorous [ˈæmərəs] – adj. inclined toward or displaying love: feeling amorous

amorphous [əˈmɔ:fəs] – adj. having no definite form or distinct shape: amorphous clouds of insects

amour [əˈmuə] – n. a usually secretive or illicit sexual relationship

ampere [ˈæmpeə] – n. the basic unit of electric current adopted under the Systeme International d’Unites

ampersand [ˈæmpəsænd] – n. a punctuation mark (&) used to represent conjunction (and)

amphibious [æmˈfibiəs] – adj. relating to or characteristic of animals of the class Amphibia

amphitheater [ˈæmfiθi:ətə] – n. a sloping gallery with seats for spectators (as in an operating room or theater)

amplitude [ˈæmplitju:d] – n. (physics) the maximum displacement of a periodic wave

amply [ˈæmpli] – adv. sufficiently; more than adequately: the evidence amply (or fully) confirms our suspicions

amputate [ˈæmpjuteit] – v. remove surgically: amputate limbs

amusement [əˈmju:zmənt] – n. a feeling of delight at being entertained

anachronism [əˈnækrənizəm] – n. something located at a time when it could not have existed or occurred

anachronistic  – adj. chronologically misplaced: English public schools are anachronistic

anagram [ˈænəgræm] – n. a word or phrase spelled by rearranging the letters of another word or phrase

analgesic [.ænəlˈdʒi:zik] – n. a medicine used to relieve pain

analogous [əˈnæləgəs] – adj. similar or equivalent in some respects though otherwise dissimilar: brains and computers are often considered analogous

analogy [əˈnælədʒi] – n. an inference that if things agree in some respects they probably agree in others

analyst [ˈænəlist] – n. someone who is skilled at analyzing data

analyze [ˈænəlaiz] – v. make a mathematical, chemical, or grammatical analysis of; break down into components or essential features: analyze a specimen

anarchist [ˈænəkist] – n. an advocate of anarchism

anarchy [ˈænəki] – n. a state of lawlessness and disorder (usually resulting from a failure of government)

anathema [əˈnæθimə] – n. a detested person: he is an anathema to me

anatomy [əˈnætəmi] – n. the branch of morphology that deals with the structure of animals

ancestry [ˈænsistri] – n. the descendants of one individual

ancillary [ænˈsiləri] – adj. furnishing added support: an ancillary pump

anecdote [ˈænik.dəut] – n. short account of an incident (especially a biographical one)

anemia [əˈni:miə] – n. a deficiency of red blood cells

anemic [əˈni:mik] – adj. lacking vigor or energy: an anemic attempt to hit the baseball

anemometer [,æniˈmɔmitə] – n. a gauge for recording the speed and direction of wind

anesthesia [.ænisˈθi:ziə] – n. loss of bodily sensation with or without loss of consciousness

anesthetic [.ænəsˈθetik] – adj. relating to or producing insensibility

anew [əˈnju:] – adv. again but in a new or different way: wanted to write the story anew

angelic [ænˈdʒelik] – adj. of or relating to angels: angelic messenger

Anglophobia [,æŋgləuˈfəubiə] – n. dislike (or fear) of Britain and British customs

anguish [ˈæŋgwiʃ] – n. extreme mental distress

angular [ˈæŋgjulə] – adj. measured by an angle or by the rate of change of an angle: angular momentum

anhydrous [ænˈhaidrəs] – adj. without water; especially without water of crystallization

animadversion [ænəmædˈvə:ʃən] – n. harsh criticism or disapproval

animadvert [.ænimædˈvə:t] – v. express one’s opinion openly and without fear or hesitation

animalcule [,æniˈmælkju:l] – n. microscopic organism such as an amoeba or paramecium

animate [ˈæni.meit] – v. heighten or intensify

animated [ˈænimeitid] – adj. having life or vigor or spirit: an animated and expressive face

animosity [æniˈmɔsiti] – n. a feeling of ill will arousing active hostility

annalist [ˈænəlist] – n. a historian who writes annals

annals [ˈænəlz] – n. reports of the work of a society or learned body etc

annex [əˈneks] – v. take (territory) as if by conquest: Hitler annexed Lithuania

annihilate [əˈnaiəleit] – v. kill in large numbers

annihilated  – adj. destroyed completely

annotate [ˈænəteit] – v. add explanatory notes to or supply with critical comments: The scholar annotated the early edition of a famous novel

annuity [əˈnju:iti] – n. income from capital investment paid in a series of regular payments: his retirement fund was set up to be paid as an annuity

annul [əˈnʌl] – v. declare invalid: The contract was annulled

annunciation [ə,nʌnsiˈeiʃən] – n. (Christianity) the announcement to the Virgin Mary by the angel Gabriel of the incarnation of Christ

anode [ˈænəud] – n. a positively charged electrode by which electrons leave an electrical device

anomalous [əˈnɔmələs] – adj. deviating from the general or common order or type: advanced forms of life may be anomalous in the universe

anomaly [əˈnɔməli] – n. deviation from the normal or common order or form or rule

anonymous [əˈnɔniməs] – adj. having no known name or identity or known source: anonymous authors

antagonism [ænˈtægənizəm] – n. a state of deep-seated ill-will

antagonistic  – adj. indicating opposition or resistance

Antarctic [ænˈtɑ:ktik] – adj. at or near the south pole

ante [ˈænti] – n. (poker) the initial contribution that each player makes to the pot

antecede [ˈæntiˈsi:d] – v. be earlier in time; go back further

antecedent [.æntəˈsi:dənt] – n. someone from whom you are descended (but usually more remote than a grandparent)

antechamber [ˈæntitʃeimbə] – n. a large entrance or reception room or area

antedate [ˈæntiˈdeit] – v. be earlier in time; go back further

antediluvian [.æntidiˈlu:viən] – n. any of the early patriarchs who lived prior to the Noachian deluge

antemeridian [,æntiməˈridiən] – adj. before noon

antenatal [æntiˈneitl] – adj. occurring or existing before birth: antenatal care

anterior [ænˈtiəriə] – adj. of or near the head end or toward the front plane of a body

anteroom [ˈæntiru:m] – n. a large entrance or reception room or area

anthology [ænˈθɔlədʒi] – n. a collection of selected literary passages

anthracite [ˈænθrəsait] – n. a hard natural coal that burns slowly and gives intense heat

anthropocentrism  – n. an inclination to evaluate reality exclusively in terms of human values

anthropology [ænθrəˈpɔlədʒi] – n. the social science that studies the origins and social relationships of human beings

anthropomorphous [,ænθrəpəuˈmɔ:fəs] – adj. suggesting human characteristics for animals or inanimate things

antic [ˈæntik] – n. a ludicrous or grotesque act done for fun and amusement

Antichrist [ˈæntikraist] – n. (Christianity) the adversary of Christ (or Christianity) mentioned in the New Testament; the Antichrist will rule the world until overthrown by the Second Coming of Christ

anticlimax [æntiˈklaimæks] – n. a disappointing decline after a previous rise: the anticlimax of a brilliant career

anticyclone [ˈæntiˈsaikləun] – n. (meteorology) winds spiraling outward from a high pressure center; circling clockwise in the northern hemisphere and counterclockwise in the southern

antidote [ˈæntidəut] – n. a remedy that stops or controls the effects of a poison

antipathy [ænˈtipəθi] – n. a feeling of intense dislike

antiphon [ˈæntifən] – n. a verse or song to be chanted or sung in response

antiphony [æn`tifəni] – n. alternate (responsive) singing by a choir in two parts

antipode  – n. direct opposite: quiet: an antipode to focused busyness

antipodes [ænˈtipədi:z] – n. any two places or regions on diametrically opposite sides of the Earth: the North Pole and the South Pole are antipodes

antiquary [ˈæntikwəri] – n. an expert or collector of antiquities

antiquate [ˈæntikweit] – v. make obsolete or old-fashioned

antiquated [ˈæntikweitid] – adj. so extremely old as seeming to belong to an earlier period

antique [ænˈti:k] – adj. made in or typical of earlier times and valued for its age: the beautiful antique French furniture

antiseptic [.æntiˈseptik] – adj. thoroughly clean and free of or destructive to disease-causing organisms: doctors in antiseptic green coats

antispasmodic [ˈæntispæzˈmɔdik] – n. a drug used to relieve or prevent spasms (especially of the smooth muscles)

antistrophe [ænˈtistrəfi] – n. the section of a choral ode answering a previous strophe in classical Greek drama; the second of two metrically corresponding sections in a poem

antithesis [ænˈtiθəsis] – n. exact opposite: his theory is the antithesis of mine

antitoxin [æntiˈtɔksin] – n. an antibody that can neutralize a specific toxin

antonym [ˈæntənim] – n. a word that expresses a meaning opposed to the meaning of another word, in which case the two words are antonyms of each other: to him the antonym of `gay’ was `depressed’

apathetic [.æpəˈθetik] – adj. showing little or no emotion or animation: a woman who became active rather than apathetic as she grew older

apathy [ˈæpəθi] – n. an absence of emotion or enthusiasm

aperture [ˈæpətjuə] – n. a device that controls amount of light admitted

apex [ˈeipeks] – n. the highest point (of something)

aphorism [ˈæfərizəm] – n. a short pithy instructive saying

apiary [ˈeipiəri] – n. a shed containing a number of beehives

aplomb [əˈplɔm] – n. great coolness and composure under strain

apocryphal [əˈpɔkrifəl] – adj. being of questionable authenticity

apogee [ˈæpədʒi:] – n. a final climactic stage

apology [əˈpɔlədʒi] – n. an expression of regret at having caused trouble for someone: he wrote a letter of apology to the hostess

apostasy [əˈpɔstəsi] – n. the act of abandoning a party for cause

apostate [əˈpɔsteit] – n. a disloyal person who betrays or deserts his cause or religion or political party or friend etc.

apostle [əˈpɔsl] – n. an ardent early supporter of a cause or reform: an apostle of revolution

apothecary [əˈpɔθikeri] – n. a health professional trained in the art of preparing and dispensing drugs

apotheosis [ə.pɔθiˈəusis] – n. model of excellence or perfection of a kind; one having no equal

appall [əˈpɔ:l] – v. strike with disgust or revulsion

apparition [.æpəˈriʃən] – n. a ghostly appearing figure: we were unprepared for the apparition that confronted us

appease [əˈpi:z] – v. cause to be more favorably inclined; gain the good will of

appellate [əˈpelit] – adj. of or relating to or taking account of appeals (usually legal appeals): appellate court

appellation [.æpəˈleiʃən] – n. identifying word or words by which someone or something is called and classified or distinguished from others

append [əˈpend] – v. add to the very end: He appended a glossary to his novel where he used an invented language

appertain [æpəˈtein] – v. be a part or attribute of

apposite [ˈæpəzit] – adj. being of striking appropriateness and pertinence: the successful copywriter is a master of apposite and evocative verbal images

apposition [,æpəˈziʃən] – n. a grammatical relation between a word and a noun phrase that follows: `Rudolph the red-nosed reindeer’ is an example of apposition

appraise [əˈpreiz] – v. evaluate or estimate the nature, quality, ability, extent, or significance of: I will have the family jewels appraised by a professional

appreciable [əˈpri:ʃəbl] – adj. enough to be estimated or measured: appreciable amounts of noxious wastes are dumped into the harbor

apprehend [.æpriˈhend] – v. get the meaning of something

apprehensible [æpriˈhensəbl] – adj. capable of being apprehended or understood

apprehension [.æpriˈhenʃən] – n. fearful expectation or anticipation: the student looked around the examination room with apprehension

apprehensive [.æpriˈhensiv] – adj. quick to understand: a kind and apprehensive friend

aquatic [əˈkwætik] – adj. relating to or consisting of or being in water: an aquatic environment

aqueduct [ˈækwidʌkt] – n. a conduit that resembles a bridge but carries water over a valley

aqueous [ˈeikwiəs] – adj. similar to or containing or dissolved in water: aqueous solutions

arable [ˈærəbəl] – adj. (of farmland) capable of being farmed productively

arbiter [ˈɑ:bitə] – n. someone with the power to settle matters at will: she was the final arbiter on all matters of fashion

arbitrary [ˈɑ:bitrəri] – adj. based on or subject to individual discretion or preference or sometimes impulse or caprice: an arbitrary decision

arbitrate [ˈɑ:bitreit] – v. act between parties with a view to reconciling differences

arbitration [.ɑ:biˈtreiʃən] – n. the act of deciding as an arbiter; giving authoritative judgment: they submitted their disagreement to arbitration

arbor [ˈa:bə] – n. tree (as opposed to shrub)

arboreal [ɑ:ˈbɔ:riəl] – adj. of or relating to or formed by trees

arborescent  – adj. resembling a tree in form and branching structure: arborescent coral found off the coast of Bermuda

arboretum [.ɑ:bəˈri:təm] – n. a facility where trees and shrubs are cultivated for exhibition

arboriculture [ˈɑ:bərikʌltʃə] – n. the cultivation of tree for the production of timber

arcade [a:ˈkeid] – n. a covered passageway with shops and stalls on either side

arcane [ɑ:ˈkein] – adj. requiring secret or mysterious knowledge: the arcane science of dowsing

archaeology [.ɑ:kiˈɔlədʒi] – n. the branch of anthropology that studies prehistoric people and their cultures

archaic [ɑ:ˈkei-ik] – adj. so extremely old as seeming to belong to an earlier period: archaic laws

archaism [ˈɑ:keiizm] – n. the use of an archaic expression

archangel [ˈɑ:keindʒəl] – n. an angel ranked above the highest rank in the celestial hierarchy

archbishop [ˈa:tʃˈbiʃəp] – n. a bishop of highest rank

archdeacon [ˈɑ:tʃˈdi:kən] – n. (Anglican Church) an ecclesiastical dignitary usually ranking just below a bishop

archetypal  – adj. representing or constituting an original type after which other similar things are patterned: archetypal patterns

archetype [ˈɑ:kitaip] – n. something that serves as a model or a basis for making copies

archipelago [.ɑ:kiˈpeləgəu] – n. a group of many islands in a large body of water

archives [ˈɑ:kaivz] – n. collection of records especially about an institution

ardent [ˈɑ:dənt] – adj. characterized by intense emotion: ardent love

ardor [ˈɑ:də] – n. a feeling of strong eagerness (usually in favor of a person or cause): they were imbued with a revolutionary ardor

argot [ˈɑ:gəu] – n. a characteristic language of a particular group (as among thieves)

arid [ˈærid] – adj. lacking sufficient water or rainfall: an arid climate

aristocracy [.ærisˈtɔkrəsi] – n. a privileged class holding hereditary titles

aristocrat [ˈæristəkræt] – n. a member of the aristocracy

armada [ɑ:ˈmɑ:də] – n. a large fleet

armament  – n. weaponry used by military or naval force

armful [ˈairmful] – n. the quantity that can be contained in the arms

armory [ˈɑ:məri] – n. a collection of resources: he dipped into his intellectual armory to find an answer

aroma [əˈrəumə] – n. any property detected by the olfactory system

arraign [əˈrein] – v. call before a court to answer an indictment

arrant [ˈærənt] – adj. without qualification; used informally as (often pejorative) intensifiers: an arrant fool

arrogance [ˈærəgəns] – n. overbearing pride evidenced by a superior manner toward inferiors

arrogant [ˈærəgənt] – adj. having or showing feelings of unwarranted importance out of overbearing pride: an arrogant official

arrogate [ˈærəugeit] – v. demand as being one’s due or property; assert one’s right or title to

artesian  – adj. (of water) rising to the surface under internal hydrostatic pressure: an artesian well

artful [ˈɑ:tful] – adj. not straightforward or candid; giving a false appearance of frankness

Arthurian [ɑ:ˈθjuəriən] – adj. of or relating to King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table

articulate [ɑ:ˈtikjuleit] – v. provide with a joint

artifact  – n. a man-made object taken as a whole

artifice [ˈɑ:tifis] – n. a deceptive maneuver (especially to avoid capture)

artisan [ˈɑ:ti.zæn] – n. a skilled worker who practices some trade or handicraft

artless [ˈɑ:tləs] – adj. characterized by an inability to mask your feelings; not devious

ascendancy [əˈsendənsi] – n. the state that exists when one person or group has power over another

ascendant [əˈsendənt] – n. position or state of being dominant or in control: that idea was in the ascendant

ascension [əˈsenʃən] – n. (Christianity) celebration of the Ascension of Christ into heaven; observed on the 40th day after Easter

ascent [əˈsent] – n. an upward slope or grade (as in a road)

ascertain [.æsəˈtein] – v. establish after a calculation, investigation, experiment, survey, or study

ascetic [əˈsetik] – adj. practicing great self-denial: Be systematically ascetic…do…something for no other reason than that you would rather not do it

ascribe [əˈskraib] – v. attribute or credit to

asexual [æˈseksjuəl] – adj. not having or involving sex: an asexual spore

ashen [ˈæʃən] – adj. anemic looking from illness or emotion: a face turned ashen

asinine [ˈæsinain] – adj. devoid of intelligence

askance [əˈskæns] – adv. with suspicion or disapproval: he looked askance at the offer

asperity [æˈsperiti] – n. something hard to endure: the asperity of northern winters

aspersion [əˈspə:ʃən] – n. a disparaging remark: in the 19th century any reference to female sexuality was considered a vile aspersion

aspirant [əˈspaiərənt] – n. an ambitious and aspiring young person: a lofty aspirant

aspiration [.æspəˈreiʃən] – n. a will to succeed

aspire [əsˈpaiə] – v. have an ambitious plan or a lofty goal

assail [əˈseil] – v. attack someone physically or emotionally: Nightmares assailed him regularly

assailant [əˈseilənt] – n. someone who attacks

assassin [əˈsæsin] – n. a member of a secret order of Muslims (founded in the 12th century) who terrorized and killed Christian Crusaders

assassinate [əˈsæsineit] – v. murder; especially of socially prominent persons: Anwar Sadat was assassinated because many people did not like his peace politics with Israel

assassination [ə.sæsiˈneiʃən] – n. an attack intended to ruin someone’s reputation

assay [əˈsei] – n. an appraisal of the state of affairs: they made an assay of the contents

assent [əˈsent] – n. agreement with a statement or proposal to do something: he gave his assent eagerly

assessor [əˈsesə] – n. an official who evaluates property for the purpose of taxing it

assets  – n. anything of material value or usefulness that is owned by a person or company

assignee [,æsiˈni:] – n. (law) the party to whom something is assigned (e.g., someone to whom a right or property is legally transferred)

assimilate [əˈsimileit] – v. take up mentally

assonance [ˈæsənəns] – n. the repetition of similar vowels in the stressed syllables of successive words

assonant [ˈæsənənt] – adj. having the same sound (especially the same vowel sound) occurring in successive stressed syllables: note the assonant words and syllables in `tilting at windmills’

assonate [`æsəuneit] – v. correspond in vowel sounds; rhyme in assonance: The accented vowels assonated in this poem

astringent [əˈstrindʒənt] – adj. sour or bitter in taste

astute [əˈstju:t] – adj. marked by practical hardheaded intelligence: an astute tenant always reads the small print in a lease

asylum [əˈsailəm] – n. a shelter from danger or hardship

atheism [ˈeiθi-izəm] – n. the doctrine or belief that there is no God

atheist [ˈeiθiist] – n. someone who denies the existence of god

athirst [əˈθə:st] – adj. (usually followed by `for’) extremely desirous: athirst for knowledge

athwart [əˈθwɔ:t] – adv. at right angles to the center line of a ship

atomizer [ˈætəmaizə] – n. a dispenser that turns a liquid (such as perfume) into a fine mist

atone [əˈtəun] – v. make amends for

atonement [əˈtəunmənt] – n. compensation for a wrong

atrocious [əˈtrəuʃəs] – adj. shockingly brutal or cruel: murder is an atrocious crime

atrocity [əˈtrɔsiti] – n. the quality of being shockingly cruel and inhumane

atrophy [ˈætrəfi] – n. a decrease in size of an organ caused by disease or disuse

attache [əˈtæʃei] – n. a specialist assigned to the staff of a diplomatic mission

attain [əˈtein] – v. to gain with effort

attenuate [əˈtenjueit] – v. weaken the consistency of (a chemical substance)

attest [əˈtest] – v. authenticate, affirm to be true, genuine, or correct, as in an official capacity: I attest this signature

attrition [əˈtriʃən] – n. erosion by friction

atypical [eiˈtipikəl] – adj. not representative of a group, class, or type: a group that is atypical of the target audience

auburn [ˈɔ:bən] – adj. (of hair) colored a moderate reddish-brown: auburn hair

audacious [ɔ:ˈdeiʃəs] – adj. invulnerable to fear or intimidation: audacious explorers

audible [ˈɔ:dibəl] – n. a football play is changed orally after both teams have assumed their positions at the line of scrimmage

audition [ɔ:ˈdiʃən] – n. a test of the suitability of a performer

auditory [ˈɔ:ditəri] – adj. of or relating to the process of hearing: auditory processing

augment [ɔ:gˈment] – v. enlarge or increase: The recent speech of the president augmented tensions in the Near East

augur [ˈɔ:gə] – v. indicate by signs

augury [ˈɔ:gjuri] – n. an event that is experienced as indicating important things to come: he hoped it was an augury

Augustinian [,ɔ:gəsˈtiniən] – n. a Roman Catholic friar or monk belonging to one of the Augustinian monastic orders

aura [ˈɔ:rə] – n. an indication of radiant light drawn around the head of a saint

aural [ˈɔ:rəl] – adj. of or pertaining to hearing or the ear: an animal with a very sensitive aural apparatus

auricle [ˈɔ:rikl] – n. a small conical pouch projecting from the upper anterior part of each atrium of the heart

auricular [ɔ:ˈrikjulə] – adj. of or relating to near the ear

auriferous [ɔ:ˈrifərəs] – adj. containing gold: auriferous quartz veins

aurora [ɔ:ˈrɔ:rə] – n. the first light of day

auspice [ˈɔ:spis] – n. a favorable omen

auspicious [ɔ:ˈspiʃəs] – adj. auguring favorable circumstances and good luck: an auspicious beginning for the campaign

austere [ɔˈstiə] – adj. severely simple

autarchy [ˈɔ:tɑ:ki] – n. economic independence as a national policy

authentic [ɔ:ˈθentik] – adj. conforming to fact and therefore worthy of belief: an authentic account by an eyewitness

authenticity [ɔ:θenˈtisiti] – n. undisputed credibility

authoritarian [ɔ:.θɔriˈteəriən] – adj. characteristic of an absolute ruler or absolute rule; having absolute sovereignty: an authoritarian regime

autobiography [.ɔ:təbaiˈɔgrəfi] – n. a biography of yourself

autocracy [ɔ:ˈtɔkrəsi] – n. a political system governed by a single individual

autocrat [ˈɔ:təkræt] – n. a cruel and oppressive dictator

automaton [ɔ:ˈtɔmətən] – n. someone who acts or responds in a mechanical or apathetic way: only an automaton wouldn’t have noticed

autonomous [ɔ:ˈtɔnəməs] – adj. (of political bodies) not controlled by outside forces: an autonomous judiciary

autonomy [ɔ:ˈtɔnəmi] – n. immunity from arbitrary exercise of authority: political independence

autopsy [ˈɔ:tɔpsi] – n. an examination and dissection of a dead body to determine cause of death or the changes produced by disease

autumnal [ɔ:ˈtʌmnl] – adj. characteristic of late maturity verging on decline: a serene autumnal mood

auxiliary [ɔ:gˈziljəri] – adj. functioning in a supporting capacity: the main library and its auxiliary branches

avalanche [ˈævəlɑ:nʃ] – n. a slide of large masses of snow and ice and mud down a mountain

avarice [ˈævəris] – n. reprehensible acquisitiveness; insatiable desire for wealth (personified as one of the deadly sins)

avenge [əˈvendʒ] – v. take revenge for a perceived wrong: He wants to avenge the murder of his brother

aver [əˈvə:] – v. report or maintain

averse [əˈvə:s] – adj. (usually followed by `to’) strongly opposed: averse to taking risks

aversion [əˈvə:ʃən] – n. a feeling of intense dislike

avert [əˈvə:t] – v. prevent the occurrence of; prevent from happening: avert a strike

aviary [ˈeiviəri] – n. a building where birds are kept

avidity [əˈviditi] – n. a positive feeling of wanting to push ahead with something

avocation [.ævəˈkeiʃən] – n. an auxiliary activity

avow [əˈvau] – v. to declare or affirm solemnly and formally as true

avuncular [əˈvʌŋkjulə] – adj. resembling a uncle in kindness or indulgence

awaken [əˈweikən] – v. stop sleeping

awry [əˈrai] – adj. turned or twisted toward one side: a…youth with a gorgeous red necktie all awry

axiom [ˈæksiəm] – n. a saying that is widely accepted on its own merits

azalea [əˈzeijə] – n. any of numerous ornamental shrubs grown for their showy flowers of various colors

azure [ˈæʒə, ˈæʒjuə] – n. a light shade of blue

bacterium [bækˈtiəriəm] – n. (microbiology) single-celled or noncellular spherical or spiral or rod-shaped organisms lacking chlorophyll that reproduce by fission; important as pathogens and for biochemical properties; taxonomy is difficult; often considered to be plants

badger [ˈbædʒə] – n. a native or resident of Wisconsin

baffle [ˈbæfl] – v. be a mystery or bewildering to

bailiff [ˈbeilif] – n. an officer of the court who is employed to execute writs and processes and make arrests etc.

baize [beiz] – n. a bright green fabric napped to resemble felt; used to cover gaming tables

bale [beil] – n. a large bundle bound for storage or transport

baleful [ˈbeilfəl] – adj. deadly or sinister: the Florida eagles have a fierce baleful look

balk [bɔ:lk] – n. something immaterial that interferes with or delays action or progress

ballad [ˈbæləd] – n. a narrative song with a recurrent refrain

balsam [ˈbɔ:lsəm] – n. any of various fragrant oleoresins used in medicines and perfumes

banal [bəˈnɑ:l] – adj. repeated too often; overfamiliar through overuse

banality  – n. a trite or obvious remark

bandy  – v. toss or strike a ball back and forth

bane [bein] – n. something causing misery or death: the bane of my life

barcarole [bɑ:kəˈrɔl] – n. a boating song sung by Venetian gondoliers

bard  – n. a lyric poet

baritone [ˈbærətəun] – n. a male singer

barograph [ˈbærəgræf] – n. a recording barometer; automatically records on paper the variations in atmospheric pressure

barometer [bəˈrɔmitə] – n. an instrument that measures atmospheric pressure

barrage [ˈbærɑ:ʒ] – n. the rapid and continuous delivery of linguistic communication (spoken or written): a barrage of questions

barring [ˈbɑ:riŋ] – n. the act of excluding someone by a negative vote or veto

bashful [ˈbæʃful] – adj. self-consciously timid: I never laughed, being bashful; lowering my head, I looked at the wall

bask [bɑ:sk] – v. derive or receive pleasure from; get enjoyment from; take pleasure in: She relished her fame and basked in her glory

bass [beis] – n. the lowest part of the musical range

baste [beist] – v. cover with liquid before cooking: baste a roast

bastion  – n. a group that defends a principle: a bastion against corruption

baton [ˈbætɔn] – n. a thin tapered rod used by a conductor to lead an orchestra or choir

battalion [bəˈtæljən] – n. an army unit usually consisting of a headquarters and three or more companies

batten [ˈbætn] – n. stuffing made of rolls or sheets of cotton wool or synthetic fiber

batter [ˈbætə] – v. strike against forcefully

battery [ˈbætəri] – n. group of guns or missile launchers operated together at one place

bauble [ˈbɔ:bəl] – n. a mock scepter carried by a court jester

bawl [bɔ:l] – v. shout loudly and without restraint

beatify [bi:ˈætifai] – v. fill with sublime emotion

beatitude [biˈætitju:d] – n. a state of supreme happiness

beau [bəu] – n. a man who is the lover of a girl or young woman

becalm [biˈkɑ:m] – v. make steady

beck [bek] – n. a beckoning gesture

bedaub [biˈdɔ:b] – v. spread or daub (a surface)

bedeck [biˈdek] – v. decorate

bedlam [ˈbedləm] – n. a state of extreme confusion and disorder

befog [biˈfɔg] – v. make less visible or unclear

befriend [biˈfrend] – v. become friends with

befuddle  – v. be confusing or perplexing to; cause to be unable to think clearly: This question befuddled even the teacher

beget [biˈget] – v. make children

begrudge [biˈgrʌdʒ] – v. be envious of; set one’s heart on

beguile [biˈgail] – v. influence by slyness

behemoth  – n. someone or something that is abnormally large and powerful

belabor [biˈleibə] – v. to work at or to absurd length: belabor the obvious

belated [biˈleitid] – adj. after the expected or usual time; delayed: a belated birthday card

belay [biˈlei] – v. turn a rope round an object or person in order to secure it or him

beleaguer [biˈli:gə] – v. annoy persistently

belie [biˈlai] – v. be in contradiction with

belittle [biˈlitl] – v. cause to seem less serious; play down: Don’t belittle his influence

belle [bel] – n. a young woman who is the most charming and beautiful of several rivals: she was the belle of the ball

bellicose [ˈbelikəus] – adj. having or showing a ready disposition to fight: bellicose young officers

belligerence  – n. hostile or warlike attitude or nature

belligerent [biˈlidʒərənt] – adj. characteristic of an enemy or one eager to fight: a belligerent tone

bemoan [biˈməun] – v. regret strongly

benediction [beniˈdikʃən] – n. the act of praying for divine protection

benefactor [ˈbeni.fæktə] – n. a person who helps people or institutions (especially with financial help)

benefice [ˈbenifis] – n. an endowed church office giving income to its holder

beneficent [biˈnefisnt] – adj. doing or producing good: the most beneficent regime in history

beneficial [.beniˈfiʃəl] – adj. promoting or enhancing well-being: an arms limitation agreement beneficial to all countries

beneficiary [.beniˈfiʃəri] – n. the semantic role of the intended recipient who benefits from the happening denoted by the verb in the clause

benevolence [biˈnevələns] – n. disposition to do good

benevolent [biˈnevələnt] – adj. intending or showing kindness: a benevolent society

benighted [biˈnaitid] – adj. overtaken by night or darkness: benighted (or nighted) travelers hurrying toward home

benign [biˈnain] – adj. not dangerous to health; not recurrent or progressive (especially of a tumor)

benignant [biˈnignənt] – adj. pleasant and beneficial in nature or influence

benignity [biˈnigniti] – n. the quality of being kind and gentle

benison [ˈbenizn] – n. a spoken blessing

bequeath [biˈkwi:ð] – v. leave or give by will after one’s death: My aunt bequeathed me all her jewelry

bequest [biˈkwest] – n. (law) a gift of personal property by will

berate [biˈreit] – v. censure severely or angrily

bereave [bəˈri:v] – v. deprive through death

bereft [biˈreft] – adj. unhappy in love; suffering from unrequited love

beret [ˈberei] – n. a cap with no brim or bill; made of soft cloth

berth [bə:θ] – n. a job in an organization

beseech [biˈsi:tʃ] – v. ask for or request earnestly

beset [biˈset] – v. annoy continually or chronically

besmear [biˈsmiə] – v. spread or daub (a surface)

bestial [ˈbestjəl] – adj. resembling a beast; showing lack of human sensibility: a bestial nature

bestrew [biˈstru:] – v. cover by strewing

bestride [biˈstraid] – v. get up on the back of

bethink [biˈθiŋk] – v. cause oneself to consider something

betide [biˈtaid] – v. become of; happen to

betimes [biˈtaimz] – adv. in good time: he awoke betimes that morning

betroth [biˈtrəuð] – v. give to in marriage

betrothal [biˈtrɔ:θəl] – n. a mutual promise to marry

bevel [ˈbevl] – n. two surfaces meeting at an angle different from 90 degrees

bevy [ˈbevi] – n. a large gathering of people of a particular type: he was surrounded by a bevy of beauties in bathing attire

bewilder [biˈwildə] – v. cause to be confused emotionally

bias [ˈbaiəs] – n. a partiality that prevents objective consideration of an issue or situation

bibliography [.bibliˈɔgrəfi] – n. a list of writings with time and place of publication (such as the writings of a single author or the works referred to in preparing a document etc.)

bibliomania [bibliəuˈmeiniə] – n. preoccupation with the acquisition and possession of books

bibliophile [ˈbibliəufail] – n. someone who loves (and usually collects) books

bibulous [ˈbibjuləs] – adj. given to or marked by the consumption of alcohol: a bibulous fellow

bide [baid] – v. dwell

biennial [baiˈeniəl] – adj. having a life cycle lasting two seasons: a biennial life cycle

bier [biə] – n. a coffin along with its stand: we followed the bier to the graveyard

bifurcation  – n. the place where something divides into two branches

bigamist [ˈbigəmist] – n. someone who marries one person while already legally married to another

bigamy [ˈbigəmi] – n. having two spouses at the same time

bight [bait] – n. a loop in a rope

bigot [ˈbigət] – n. a prejudiced person who is intolerant of any opinions differing from his own

bilateral [baiˈlætərəl] – adj. having identical parts on each side of an axis

bilingual [baiˈliŋgwəl] – n. a person who speaks two languages fluently

bilk  – v. cheat somebody out of what is due, especially money

biography [baiˈɔgrəfi] – n. an account of the series of events making up a person’s life

biology [baiˈɔlədʒi] – n. the science that studies living organisms

biped [ˈbaiped] – n. an animal with two feet

birthright [ˈbə:θrait] – n. an inheritance coming by right of birth (especially by primogeniture)

bitterness [ˈbitənis] – n. a rough and bitter manner

bland [blænd] – adj. lacking taste or flavor or tang: a bland diet

blandish  – v. praise somewhat dishonestly

blandishment [ˈblændiʃmənt] – n. flattery intended to persuade

blase [ˈblɑ:zei] – adj. very sophisticated especially because of surfeit; versed in the ways of the world: the blase traveler refers to the ocean he has crossed as `the pond’

blaspheme [blæsˈfi:m] – v. utter obscenities or profanities

blasphemy [ˈblæsfimi] – n. blasphemous behavior; the act of depriving something of its sacred character

blatant [ˈbleitənt] – adj. without any attempt at concealment; completely obvious: blatant disregard of the law

blatantly  – adv. in a blatant manner: they blatantly violated the laws

blaze [bleiz] – n. a strong flame that burns brightly: the blaze spread rapidly

blazon [ˈbleizn] – n. the official symbols of a family, state, etc.

bleak [bli:k] – adj. offering little or no hope: prospects were bleak

blemish [ˈblemiʃ] – v. mar or spoil the appearance of

blight [blait] – n. any plant disease resulting in withering without rotting

blithe [ˈblaið] – adj. lacking or showing a lack of due concern: spoke with blithe ignorance of the true situation

blithesome [ˈblaiðsəm] – adj. carefree and happy and lighthearted: a merry blithesome nature

blockade [blɔˈkeid] – v. hinder or prevent the progress or accomplishment of

blunderbuss  – n. a short musket of wide bore with a flared muzzle

boatswain [ˈbəutswein] – n. a petty officer on a merchant ship who controls the work of other seamen

bodice [ˈbɔdis] – n. part of a dress above the waist

bodily [ˈbɔdili] – adj. affecting or characteristic of the body as opposed to the mind or spirit: bodily needs

boisterous [ˈbɔistərəs] – adj. noisy and lacking in restraint or discipline: a boisterous crowd

bole [bəul] – n. a soft oily clay used as a pigment (especially a reddish brown pigment)

bolero [bəˈlɛərəu] – n. a short jacket; worn mostly by women

boll [bəul] – n. the rounded seed-bearing capsule of a cotton or flax plant

bolster [ˈbəulstə] – v. support and strengthen: bolster morale

bombard [bɔmˈba:d] – v. cast, hurl, or throw repeatedly with some missile

bombardier [,bɔmbəˈdiə] – n. a noncommissioned officer in the British artillery

bombast [ˈbɔmbæst] – n. pompous or pretentious talk or writing

bombastic [bɔmˈbæstik] – adj. ostentatiously lofty in style

boon [bu:n] – n. a desirable state: a spanking breeze is a boon to sailors

boorish [ˈbuəriʃ] – adj. ill-mannered and coarse and contemptible in behavior or appearance: was boorish and insensitive

boorishness  – n. the manner of a rude or insensitive person

bootleg  – n. whiskey illegally distilled from a corn mash

booty  – n. goods or money obtained illegally

bore [bɔ:] – n. a high wave (often dangerous) caused by tidal flow (as by colliding tidal currents or in a narrow estuary)

borough [ˈbʌrə] – n. one of the administrative divisions of a large city

bosom [ˈbuzəm] – n. the chest considered as the place where secret thoughts are kept: his bosom was bursting with the secret

botanical [bəˈtænikəl] – n. a drug made from part of a plant (as the bark or root or leaves)

botanize [ˈbɔtənaiz] – v. collect and study plants

botany [ˈbɔtəni] – n. all the plant life in a particular region or period: the botany of China

bountiful [ˈbauntiful] – adj. given or giving freely: bountiful compliments

bourgeois [buəˈʒwɑ:] – adj. (according to Marxist thought) being of the property-owning class and exploitive of the working class

bovine [ˈbəuvain] – adj. of or relating to or belonging to the genus Bos (cattle)

bowdlerize  – v. edit by omitting or modifying parts considered indelicate: bowdlerize a novel

bowler [ˈbəulər] – n. a cricketer who delivers the ball to the batsman in cricket

boycott [ˈbɔikɔt] – n. a group’s refusal to have commercial dealings with some organization in protest against its policies

brae [brei] – n. a slope or hillside

braggart [ˈbrægət] – n. a very boastful and talkative person

brandish [ˈbrændiʃ] – v. move or swing back and forth

bravado [brəˈvɑ:dəu] – n. a swaggering show of courage

bravo [brɑ:vəu] – n. a cry of approval as from an audience at the end of great performance

brawny [ˈbrɔ:ni] – adj. (of a person) possessing physical strength and weight; rugged and powerful

bray [brei] – v. reduce to small pieces or particles by pounding or abrading

braze [breiz] – v. solder together by using hard solder with a high melting point

brazen [ˈbreizən] – adj. unrestrained by convention or propriety: brazen arrogance

brazier [ˈbreiʒə] – n. large metal container in which coal or charcoal is burned; warms people who must stay outside for long times

breaker [ˈbreikə] – n. a quarry worker who splits off blocks of stone

breech [bri:tʃ] – n. opening in the rear of the barrel of a gun where bullets can be loaded

brethren [ˈbreðrən] – n. (plural) the lay members of a male religious order

brevity [ˈbreviti] – n. the use of brief expressions

bric-a-brac  – n. miscellaneous curios

bridle [ˈbraidl] – v. anger or take offense: She bridled at his suggestion to elope

brigade [briˈgeid] – n. army unit smaller than a division

brigadier [brigəˈdiə] – n. a general officer ranking below a major general

brigand [ˈbrigənd] – n. an armed thief who is (usually) a member of a band

brimstone [ˈbrimstəun] – n. an old name for sulfur

brine [brain] – n. water containing salts

brink [briŋk] – n. a region marking a boundary

bristle [ˈbrisl] – v. be in a state of movement or action: The garden bristled with toddlers

Briticism [ˈbritisizəm] – n. an expression that is used in Great Britain (especially as contrasted with American English)

brittle [ˈbritl] – adj. having little elasticity; hence easily cracked or fractured or snapped: brittle bones

broach [brəutʃ] – n. a decorative pin worn by women

broadcast [ˈbrɔ:dkɑ:st] – v. sow over a wide area, especially by hand: broadcast seeds

brogan [ˈbrəugən] – n. a thick and heavy shoe

brogue [brəug] – n. a thick and heavy shoe

brokerage [ˈbrəukəridʒ] – n. the business of a broker; charges a fee to arrange a contract between two parties

bromine [ˈbrəumi:n] – n. a nonmetallic heavy volatile corrosive dark brown liquid element belonging to the halogens; found in sea water

bronchitis [brɔŋˈkaitis] – n. inflammation of the membranes lining the bronchial tubes

bronchus [ˈbrɔŋkəs] – n. either of the two main branches of the trachea

brooch [bru:tʃ] – n. a decorative pin worn by women

brotherhood [ˈbrʌðəhud] – n. the kinship relation between a male offspring and the siblings

brouhaha  – n. loud confused noise from many sources

browbeat [ˈbraubi:t] – v. be bossy towards

brusque [bru:sk, brusk] – adj. marked by rude or peremptory shortness: try to cultivate a less brusque manner

bucolic [bju:ˈkɔlik] – n. a country person

buffet [ˈbʌfit] – n. a piece of furniture that stands at the side of a dining room; has shelves and drawers

buffoon [bəˈfu:n] – n. a rude or vulgar fool

buffoonery [bə`fU:nəri] – n. acting like a clown or buffoon

bulbous [ˈbʌlbəs] – adj. curving outward

bullock [ˈbulək] – n. castrated bull

bulrush [ˈbulrʌʃ] – n. tall rush with soft erect or arching stems found in Eurasia, Australia, New Zealand, and common in North America

bulwark [ˈbulwək] – n. an embankment built around a space for defensive purposes

bumper [ˈbʌmpə] – n. a glass filled to the brim (especially as a toast): we quaffed a bumper of ale

bumptious [ˈbʌmpʃəs] – adj. offensively self-assertive

bungle [ˈbʌŋgl] – v. make a mess of, destroy or ruin

buoyancy [ˈbɔiənsi] – n. cheerfulness that bubbles to the surface

buoyant [ˈbɔiənt] – adj. tending to float on a liquid or rise in air or gas: buoyant balloons

bureau [ˈbjuərəu] – n. an administrative unit of government

bureaucracy [bjuəˈrɔkrəsi] – n. nonelective government officials

burgeon [ˈbə:dʒən] – v. grow and flourish: The burgeoning administration

burgess [ˈbə:dʒis] – n. English writer of satirical novels (1917-1993)

burgher [ˈbə:gə] – n. a citizen of an English borough

burnish [ˈbə:niʃ] – n. the property of being smooth and shiny

bursar [ˈbə:sə] – n. the treasurer at a college or university

bustle [ˈbʌsəl] – n. a rapid active commotion

butt [bʌt] – n. thick end of the handle

butte [bju:t] – n. a hill that rises abruptly from the surrounding region; has a flat top and sloping sides

buttress [ˈbʌtrəs] – v. make stronger or defensible: buttress your thesis

bylaw  – n. a rule adopted by an organization in order to regulate its own affairs and the behavior of its members

byzantine  – adj. of or relating to the Eastern Orthodox Church or the rites performed in it

cabal [kəˈbæl] – n. a clique (often secret) that seeks power usually through intrigue

cabalism [ˈkæbəlizəm] – n. the doctrines of the Kabbalah

cabbalah  – n. an esoteric or occult matter resembling the Kabbalah that is traditionally secret

cacophonous  – adj. having an unpleasant sound: as cacophonous as a henyard

cacophony [kəˈkɔfəni] – n. a loud harsh or strident noise

cadaverous [kəˈdævərəs] – adj. very thin especially from disease or hunger or cold

cadence [ˈkeidəns] – n. (prosody) the accent in a metrical foot of verse

cadenza [kəˈdenzə] – n. a brilliant solo passage occurring near the end of a piece of music

caitiff [ˈkeitif] – n. a cowardly and despicable person

cajole [kəˈdʒəul] – v. influence or urge by gentle urging, caressing, or flattering

cajolery [kəˈdʒəuləri] – n. flattery intended to persuade

calamity [kəˈlæmiti] – n. an event resulting in great loss and misfortune: the whole city was affected by the irremediable calamity

calculable [ˈkælkjuləbl] – adj. capable of being calculated or estimated: a calculable risk

calculated  – adj. carefully thought out in advance: a calculated insult

calculus [ˈkælkjuləs] – n. a hard lump produced by the concretion of mineral salts; found in hollow organs or ducts of the body

caldron  – n. a very large pot that is used for boiling

calibrate [ˈkælibreit] – v. make fine adjustments or divide into marked intervals for optimal measuring: calibrate an instrument

callosity [kæˈlɔsiti] – n. an area of skin that is thick or hard from continual pressure or friction (as the sole of the foot)

callous [ˈkæləs] – adj. emotionally hardened: a callous indifference to suffering

callousness  – n. devoid of passion or feeling; hardheartedness

callow [ˈkæləu] – adj. young and inexperienced

calorie [ˈkæləri] – n. a unit of heat equal to the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water by one degree at one atmosphere pressure; used by nutritionists to characterize the energy-producing potential in food

calumny [ˈkæləmni] – n. a false accusation of an offense or a malicious misrepresentation of someone’s words or actions

Calvary [ˈkælvəri] – n. a hill near Jerusalem where Jesus was crucified

Calvinism [ˈkælvinizəm] – n. the theological system of John Calvin and his followers emphasizing omnipotence of God and salvation by grace alone

camaraderie  – n. the quality of affording easy familiarity and sociability

cameo [kæmiəu] – n. engraving or carving in low relief on a stone (as in a brooch or ring)

Canaanite [ˈkeinənait] – n. the extinct language of the Semitic people who occupied Canaan before the Israelite conquest

canary [kəˈnɛəri] – n. someone acting as an informer or decoy for the police

candid [ˈkændid] – adj. characterized by directness in manner or speech; without subtlety or evasion: I gave them my candid opinion

candor [ˈkændə] – n. ability to make judgments free from discrimination or dishonesty

canine [ˈkeinain] – n. one of the four pointed conical teeth (two in each jaw) located between the incisors and the premolars

canny [ˈkæni] – adj. showing self-interest and shrewdness in dealing with others

canon [ˈkænən] – n. a priest who is a member of a cathedral chapter

canopy [ˈkænəpi] – n. the transparent covering of an aircraft cockpit

cant [kænt] – n. stock phrases that have become nonsense through endless repetition

cantankerous [kænˈtæŋkərəs] – adj. stubbornly obstructive and unwilling to cooperate

cantata [kænˈtɑ:tə] – n. a musical composition for voices and orchestra based on a religious text

canto [ˈkæntəu] – n. the highest part (usually the melody) in a piece of choral music

cantonment [kænˈtu:nmənt] – n. temporary living quarters specially built by the army for soldiers

canvas [ˈkænvəs] – n. a heavy, closely woven fabric (used for clothing or chairs or sails or tents)

capacious [kəˈpeiʃəs] – adj. large in capacity: she carried a capacious bag

capillary [kəˈpiləri] – n. any of the minute blood vessels connecting arterioles with venules

capitulate [kəˈpitjuleit] – v. surrender under agreed conditions

caprice [kəˈpri:s] – n. a sudden desire

capricious [kəˈpriʃəs] – adj. changeable: a capricious summer breeze

caption [ˈkæpʃən] – n. translation of foreign dialogue of a movie or TV program; usually displayed at the bottom of the screen

captious [ˈkæpʃəs] – adj. tending to find and call attention to faults: a captious pedant

captivate [ˈkæptiveit] – v. attract; cause to be enamored

captivating  – adj. capturing interest as if by a spell: Roosevelt was a captivating speaker

carcass [ˈkɑ:kəs] – n. the dead body of an animal especially one slaughtered and dressed for food

cardiac [ˈkɑ:diæk] – adj. of or relating to the heart: cardiac arrest

cardinal [ˈkɑ:dinəl] – n. the number of elements in a mathematical set; denotes a quantity but not the order

caret [ˈkærit] – n. a mark used by an author or editor to indicate where something is to be inserted into a text

caricature [.kærikəˈtjuə] – n. a representation of a person that is exaggerated for comic effect

carnage [ˈkɑ:nidʒ] – n. the savage and excessive killing of many people

carnal [ˈkɑ:nəl] – adj. marked by the appetites and passions of the body: carnal knowledge

carnivore [ˈkɑ:nivɔ:] – n. a terrestrial or aquatic flesh-eating mammal: terrestrial carnivores have four or five clawed digits on each limb

carnivorous [kɑ:ˈnivərəs] – adj. (used of plants as well as animals) feeding on animals: carnivorous plants are capable of trapping and digesting small animals especially insects

carouse [kəˈrauz] – n. revelry in drinking; a merry drinking party

carp  – n. any of various freshwater fish of the family Cyprinidae

carping [ˈkarpiŋ] – n. persistent petty and unjustified criticism

carrion [ˈkæriən] – n. the dead and rotting body of an animal; unfit for human food

cartilage [ˈkɑ:tilidʒ] – n. tough elastic tissue; mostly converted to bone in adults

cartographer [kɑ:ˈtɔgrəfə] – n. a person who makes maps

cartridge [ˈkɑ:tridʒ] – n. ammunition consisting of a cylindrical casing containing an explosive charge and a bullet; fired from a rifle or handgun

cascade [kæˈskeid] – n. a small waterfall or series of small waterfalls

caste [kɑ:st] – n. social status or position conferred by a system based on class: lose caste by doing work beneath one’s station

castigate [ˈkæstigeit] – v. censure severely

casual [ˈkæʒjuəl] – adj. marked by blithe unconcern: an ability to interest casual students

casualty [ˈkæʒjuəlti] – n. someone injured or killed or captured or missing in a military engagement

cataclysm [ˈkætəklizəm] – n. a sudden violent change in the earth’s surface

catalog [ˈkætəlɔ:g] – n. a book or pamphlet containing an enumeration of things: he found it in the Sears catalog

catalyze [ˈkætəlaiz] – v. change by catalysis or cause to catalyze

cataract [ˈkætərækt] – n. an eye disease that involves the clouding or opacification of the natural lens of the eye

catastrophe [kəˈtæstrəfi] – n. an event resulting in great loss and misfortune

catharsis [kæˈθɑ:sis] – n. (psychoanalysis) purging of emotional tensions

cathode [ˈkæθəud] – n. a negatively charged electrode that is the source of electrons entering an electrical device

Catholicism [kəˈθɔlisizm] – n. the beliefs and practices of a Catholic Church

catholicity [,kæθəˈlisiti] – n. the beliefs and practices of a Catholic Church

caucus [ˈkɔ:kəs] – n. a closed political meeting

causal [ˈkɔ:zəl] – adj. involving or constituting a cause; causing: a causal relationship between scarcity and higher prices

caustic [ˈkɔ:stik] – adj. harsh or corrosive in tone: caustic jokes about political assassination, talk-show hosts and medical ethics

cauterize [ˈkɔ:təraiz] – v. burn, sear, or freeze (tissue) using a hot iron or electric current or a caustic agent: The surgeon cauterized the wart

cavalcade [.kævəlˈkeid] – n. a procession of people traveling on horseback

cavalier [.kævəˈliə] – n. a gallant or courtly gentleman

cavort  – v. play boisterously

cede [si:d] – v. give over; surrender or relinquish to the physical control of another

celerity [siˈleriti] – n. a rate that is rapid

censor [ˈsensə] – n. someone who censures or condemns

censorious [senˈsɔ:riəs] – adj. harshly critical or expressing censure: was censorious of petty failings

censure [ˈsenʃə] – n. harsh criticism or disapproval

census [ˈsensəs] – n. a periodic count of the population

centenary [senˈti:nəri] – n. the 100th anniversary (or the celebration of it)

centiliter [ˈsentili:tər] – n. a metric unit of volume equal to one hundredth of a liter

centimeter [ˈsenti.mi:tə] – n. a metric unit of length equal to one hundredth of a meter

centurion [senˈtjuriən] – n. (ancient Rome) the leader of 100 soldiers

cereal [ˈsiəriəl] – n. grass whose starchy grains are used as food: wheat; rice; rye; oats; maize; buckwheat; millet

cerebral [ˈseribrəl] – adj. involving intelligence rather than emotions or instinct: a cerebral approach to the problem

ceremonial [.seriˈməunjəl] – n. a formal event performed on a special occasion

ceremonious [seriˈməunjəs] – adj. rigidly formal or bound by convention: their ceremonious greetings did not seem heartfelt

certitude  – n. total certainty or greater certainty than circumstances warrant

cessation [seˈseiʃ(ə)n] – n. a stopping: a cessation of the thunder

cession [ˈseʃən] – n. the act of ceding

chagrin [ˈʃægrin] – n. strong feelings of embarrassment

chameleon [kəˈmi:liən] – n. a changeable or inconstant person

chancery [ˈtʃænsəri] – n. a court with jurisdiction in equity

chaos [ˈkeiɔs] – n. a state of extreme confusion and disorder

characterize [ˈkæriktəraiz] – v. be characteristic of: What characterizes a Venetian painting?

charlatan [ˈʃɑ:lətn] – n. a flamboyant deceiver; one who attracts customers with tricks or jokes

chary [ˈtʃeəri] – adj. characterized by great caution and wariness: chary of the risks involved

chasm [ˈkæzəm] – n. a deep opening in the earth’s surface

chasten [ˈtʃeisən] – v. censure severely

chastise [tʃæsˈtaiz] – v. censure severely: She chastised him for his insensitive remarks

chastity [ˈtʃæstiti] – n. abstaining from sexual relations (as because of religious vows)

chateau [ˈʃɑ:təu] – n. an impressive country house (or castle) in France

chattel [ˈtʃætl] – n. personal as opposed to real property; any tangible movable property (furniture or domestic animals or a car etc)

cherish [ˈtʃeriʃ] – v. be fond of; be attached to

chicanery [ʃiˈkeinəri] – n. the use of tricks to deceive someone (usually to extract money from them)

chide [tʃaid] – v. censure severely or angrily

chiffon [ˈʃifɔn] – n. a sheer fabric of silk or rayon

chimerical [kaiˈmerikəl] – adj. produced by a wildly fanciful imagination: his Utopia is not a chimerical commonwealth but a practical improvement on what already exists

chivalry [ˈʃivəlri] – n. courtesy towards women

cholera [ˈkɔlərə] – n. an acute intestinal infection caused by ingestion of contaminated water or food

choleric [ˈkɔlərik] – adj. easily moved to anger: men of the choleric type take to kicking and smashing

choral [ˈkɔ:rəl] – n. a stately Protestant (especially Lutheran) hymn tune

choreography [.kɔ(:)riˈɔgrəfi] – n. a show involving artistic dancing

Christ [kraist] – n. a teacher and prophet born in Bethlehem and active in Nazareth; his life and sermons form the basis for Christianity (circa 4 BC – AD 29)

christen [ˈkrisn] – v. administer baptism to

Christendom [ˈkrisndəm] – n. the collective body of Christians throughout the world and history (found predominantly in Europe and the Americas and Australia): for a thousand years the Roman Catholic Church was the principal church of Christendom

chromatic [krəuˈmætik] – adj. able to refract light without spectral color separation: chromatic lens

chronicle  – n. a record or narrative description of past events

chronicler  – n. someone who writes chronicles

chronological [.krɔnəˈlɔdʒikəl] – adj. relating to or arranged according to temporal order: chronological age

chronology [krəˈnɔlədʒi] – n. an arrangement of events in time

chronometer [krəˈnɔmitə] – n. an accurate clock (especially used in navigation)

churlish [ˈtʃə:liʃ] – adj. rude and boorish

cipher [ˈsaifə] – n. a message written in a secret code

circuitous [sə:ˈkju:itəs] – adj. marked by obliqueness or indirection in speech or conduct: the explanation was circuitous and puzzling

circulate [ˈsə:kjuleit] – v. become widely known and passed on

circumference [səˈkʌmfərəns] – n. the size of something as given by the distance around it

circumlocution [.sə:kəmləˈkju:ʃən] – n. a style that involves indirect ways of expressing things

circumnavigate [sə:kəmˈnævəgeit] – v. travel around, either by plane or ship

circumscribe [ˈsə:kəmskraib] – v. draw a line around

circumscribed  – adj. subject to limits or subjected to limits

circumspect [ˈsə:kəmspekt] – adj. heedful of potential consequences: circumspect actions

circumstantial  – adj. fully detailed and specific about particulars: a circumstantial report about the debate

circumvent [.sə:kəmˈvent] – v. surround so as to force to give up

citadel [ˈsitədəl] – n. a stronghold into which people could go for shelter during a battle

cite [sait] – v. make reference to

claimant [ˈkleimənt] – n. someone who claims a benefit or right or title: claimants of unemployment compensation

clairvoyance [kleəˈvɔiəns] – n. apparent power to perceive things that are not present to the senses

clairvoyant [klɛəˈvɔiənt] – adj. perceiving things beyond the natural range of the senses

clamor [ˈklæmə] – v. make loud demands: he clamored for justice and tolerance

clamorous [ˈklæmərəs] – adj. conspicuously and offensively loud; given to vehement outcry: a clamorous uproar

clan [klæn] – n. group of people related by blood or marriage

clandestine [klænˈdestin] – adj. conducted with or marked by hidden aims or methods: clandestine intelligence operations

clangor [ˈklæŋgə, -ŋə] – v. make a loud resonant noise: the alarm clangored throughout the building

clarify [ˈklærifai] – v. make clear and (more) comprehensible: clarify the mystery surrounding her death

clarion [ˈklæriən] – n. a medieval brass instrument with a clear shrill tone

classify [ˈklæsifai] – v. declare unavailable, as for security reasons

clearance [ˈkliərəns] – n. vertical space available to allow easy passage under something

cleave [kli:v] – v. separate or cut with a tool, such as a sharp instrument: cleave the bone

clemency [ˈklemənsi] – n. good weather with comfortable temperatures

clement [ˈklemənt] – adj. (of weather or climate) physically mild: clement weather

clergy [ˈklə:dʒi] – n. in Christianity, clergymen collectively (as distinguished from the laity)

cliche [ˈkli:ʃei] – n. a trite or obvious remark

clientele [.kli:ɑ:nˈteil] – n. customers collectively: they have an upper class clientele

clone [kləun] – n. a person who is almost identical to another

close-hauled  – adj. having the sails trimmed for sailing as close to the wind as possible

clothier [ˈkləuðiə] – n. a merchant who sells men’s clothing

clumsy [ˈklʌmzi] – adj. lacking grace in movement or posture: clumsy fingers

coagulant [kəʊˈægjʊlənt] – n. an agent that produces coagulation

coagulate [kəuˈægjuleit] – v. change from a liquid to a thickened or solid state: coagulated blood

coalesce [.kəuəˈles] – v. mix together different elements

coalescence [.kəuəˈlesns] – n. the union of diverse things into one body or form or group; the growing together of parts

cobbler [ˈkɔblə] – n. a person who makes or repairs shoes

coddle [ˈkɔdl] – v. treat with excessive indulgence: Let’s not mollycoddle our students!

codicil [ˈkəudisil] – n. a supplement to a will; a testamentary instrument intended to alter an already executed will

coerce [kəuˈə:s] – v. to cause to do through pressure or necessity, by physical, moral or intellectual means :

coercion [kəuˈə:ʃən] – n. the act of compelling by force of authority

coercive [kəuˈə:siv] – adj. serving or intended to coerce: authority is directional instead of coercive

coeval [kəuˈi:vəl] – n. a person of nearly the same age as another

cogent [ˈkəudʒənt] – adj. powerfully persuasive: a cogent argument

cogitate [ˈkɔdʒiteit] – v. consider carefully and deeply; reflect upon; turn over in one’s mind

cognate [ˈkɔgneit] – adj. related in nature

cognition  – n. the psychological result of perception and learning and reasoning

cognizant [ˈkɔnizənt] – adj. (sometimes followed by `of’) having or showing knowledge or understanding or realization or perception

cohere [kəuˈhiə] – v. come or be in close contact with; stick or hold together and resist separation: The sushi rice grains cohere

coherent [kəuˈhiərənt] – adj. marked by an orderly, logical, and aesthetically consistent relation of parts: a coherent argument

cohesion [kəuˈhi:ʒən] – n. (botany) the process in some plants of parts growing together that are usually separate (such as petals)

cohesive [kəuˈhi:siv] – adj. cohering or tending to cohere; well integrated: a cohesive organization

coincide [.kəuinˈsaid] – v. go with, fall together

coincidence [kəuˈinsidəns] – n. an event that might have been arranged although it was really accidental

coincident [kəuˈinsidənt] – adj. occurring or operating at the same time: a series of coincident events

collaborate [kəˈlæbə.reit] – v. work together on a common enterprise of project

collage [ˈkɔlɑ:ʒ] – n. a paste-up made by sticking together pieces of paper or photographs to form an artistic image: he used his computer to make a collage of pictures superimposed on a map

collapsible [kəˈlæpsəbəl] – adj. capable of collapsing or being collapsed: a collapsible boat

collate [kəˈleit] – v. compare critically; of texts

collateral [kəˈlætərəl] – adj. descended from a common ancestor but through different lines: cousins are collateral relatives

collective [kəˈlektiv] – adj. done by or characteristic of individuals acting together: the collective mind

collector [kəˈlektə] – n. a person who is employed to collect payments (as for rent or taxes)

collegian [kəˈli:dʒjən] – n. a student (or former student) at a college or university

collide [kəˈlaid] – v. be incompatible; be or come into conflict

collier [ˈkɔljə] – n. someone who works in a coal mine

collision [kəˈliʒən] – n. (physics) a brief event in which two or more bodies come together: the collision of the particles resulted in an exchange of energy and a change of direction

colloquial [kəˈləukwiəl] – adj. characteristic of informal spoken language or conversation: wrote her letters in a colloquial style

colloquialism [kəˈləʊkwiəliz(ə)m] – n. a colloquial expression; characteristic of spoken or written communication that seeks to imitate informal speech

colloquy [ˈkɔləkwi] – n. a conversation especially a formal one

collusion [kəˈlu:ʒən] – n. secret agreement

colossus [kəˈlɔsəs] – n. someone or something that is abnormally large and powerful

combustion [kəmˈbʌstʃən] – n. a process in which a substance reacts with oxygen to give heat and light

comely [ˈkʌmli] – adj. according with custom or propriety: comely behavior

comestible [kəˈmestibl] – n. any substance that can be used as food

comical [ˈkɔmik(ə)l] – adj. arousing or provoking laughter: a comical look of surprise

commandeer [.kɔmənˈdiə] – v. take arbitrarily or by force: The Cubans commandeered the plane and flew it to Miami

commemorate [kəˈmeməreit] – v. mark by some ceremony or observation

commendation  – n. an official award (as for bravery or service) usually given as formal public statement

commensurate [kəˈmenʃərit] – adj. corresponding in size or degree or extent: pay should be commensurate with the time worked

commentary [ˈkɔməntəri] – n. a written explanation or criticism or illustration that is added to a book or other textual material

commingle [kəˈmiŋgl] – v. mix or blend: His book commingles sarcasm and sadness

commissariat [kɔmiˈsɛəriət] – n. a stock or supply of foods

committal [kəˈmitl] – n. the official act of consigning a person to confinement (as in a prison or mental hospital)

commodious [kəˈməudiəs] – adj. large and roomy (`convenient’ is archaic in this sense): a commodious harbor

commodity [kəˈmɔditi] – n. articles of commerce

commotion [kəˈməuʃən] – n. a disorderly outburst or tumult

commute [kəˈmju:t] – v. exchange positions without a change in value: These operators commute with each other

comparable [ˈkɔmpərəbl] – adj. conforming in every respect

comparative [kəmˈpærətiv] – adj. estimated by comparison; not absolute or complete

compelling [kəmˈpeliŋ] – adj. driving or forcing: compelling ambition

compensate [ˈkɔmpenseit] – v. adjust for

competence [ˈkɔmpitəns] – n. the quality of being adequately or well qualified physically and intellectually

competent [ˈkɔmpitənt] – adj. properly or sufficiently qualified or capable or efficient: a competent typist

competitor [kəmˈpetitə] – n. the contestant you hope to defeat

compile [kəmˈpail] – v. get or gather together

complacence [kəmˈpleisəns] – n. the feeling you have when you are satisfied with yourself

complacency [kəmˈpleisənsi] – n. the feeling you have when you are satisfied with yourself: his complacency was absolutely disgusting

complacent [kəmˈpleisənt] – adj. contented to a fault with oneself or one’s actions: he had become complacent after years of success

complaisance [kəmˈpleizəns] – n. a disposition or tendency to yield to the will of others

complaisant [kəmˈpleizənt] – adj. showing a cheerful willingness to do favors for others: to close one’s eyes like a complaisant husband whose wife has taken a lover

complement [ˈkɔmplimənt] – n. a complete number or quantity: a full complement

compliance [kəmˈplaiəns] – n. acting according to certain accepted standards

compliant [kəmˈplaiənt] – adj. disposed or willing to comply: children compliant with the parental will

complicate [ˈkɔmplikeit] – v. make more complex, intricate, or richer

complication [.kɔmpliˈkeiʃən] – n. a situation or condition that is complex or confused: her coming was a serious complication

complicity [kəmˈplisiti] – n. guilt as an accomplice in a crime or offense

compliment [ˈkɔmplimənt] – v. say something to someone that expresses praise: He complimented her on her last physics paper

comport [kəmˈpɔ:t] – v. behave well or properly

composure [kəmˈpəuʒə] – n. steadiness of mind under stress: he accepted their problems with composure and she with equanimity

compound [ˈkɔmpaund,kɔmˈpaund] – v. make more intense, stronger, or more marked

comprehensible [.kɔmpriˈhensəbl] – adj. capable of being comprehended or understood: an idea comprehensible to the average mind

comprehension [.kɔmpriˈhenʃən] – n. an ability to understand the meaning or importance of something (or the knowledge acquired as a result): how you can do that is beyond my comprehension

compress [ˈkɔmpres,kəmˈpres] – v. squeeze or press together: she compressed her lips

compressible [kəm`presəbl] – adj. capable of being easily compressed

compression [kəmˈpreʃ(ə)n] – n. an increase in the density of something

compulsion [kəmˈpʌlʃ(ə)n] – n. an urge to do or say something that might be better left undone or unsaid: he felt a compulsion to babble on about the accident

compulsory [kəmˈpʌlsəri] – adj. required by rule: in most schools physical education is compulsory

compunction [kəmˈpʌŋkʃən] – n. a feeling of deep regret (usually for some misdeed)

compute [kəmˈpju:t] – v. make a mathematical calculation or computation

concatenate [kɔnˈkætineit] – v. combine two strings to form a single one

concatenation [kɔn.kætiˈneiʃən] – n. the state of being linked together as in a chain; union in a linked series

concede [kənˈsi:d] – v. admit (to a wrongdoing)

conceit [kənˈsi:t] – n. feelings of excessive pride

conceive [kənˈsi:v] – v. have the idea for: He conceived of a robot that would help paralyzed patients

concerto [kənˈtʃə:təu] – n. a composition for orchestra and a soloist

concession [kənˈseʃən] – n. a contract granting the right to operate a subsidiary business: he got the beer concession at the ball park

conciliate [kənˈsilieit] – v. cause to be more favorably inclined; gain the good will of

conciliatory [kənˈsiliətəri] – adj. making or willing to make concessions

concise [kənˈsais] – adj. expressing much in few words: a concise explanation

conclusive [kənˈklu:siv] – adj. forming an end or termination; especially putting an end to doubt or question: conclusive proof

concoct [kənˈkɔkt] – v. prepare or cook by mixing ingredients: concoct a strange mixture

concomitant [kənˈkɔmitənt] – n. an event or situation that happens at the same time as or in connection with another

concord [ˈkɔŋkɔ:d] – n. capital of the state of New Hampshire; located in south central New Hampshire on the Merrimack river

concordance [kənˈkɔ:dəns] – n. agreement of opinions

concur [kənˈkə:] – v. be in accord; be in agreement

concurrence [kənˈkʌrəns] – n. agreement of results or opinions

concurrent [kənˈkʌrənt] – adj. occurring or operating at the same time

concussion [kənˈkʌʃən] – n. injury to the brain caused by a blow; usually resulting in loss of consciousness

condensation [kɔndenˈseiʃən] – n. (psychoanalysis) an unconscious process whereby two ideas or images combine into a single symbol; especially in dreams

condense [kənˈdens] – v. make more concise: condense the contents of a book into a summary

condescend [.kɔndiˈsend] – v. do something that one considers to be below one’s dignity

condolence [kənˈdəuləns] – n. an expression of sympathy with another’s grief: they sent their condolences

condone [kənˈdəun] – v. excuse, overlook, or make allowances for; be lenient with: She condoned her husband’s occasional infidelities

conduce [kənˈdju:s] – v. be conducive to

conducive [kənˈdju:siv] – adj. tending to bring about; being partly responsible for: working conditions are not conducive to productivity

conduit [ˈkɔndit] – n. a passage (a pipe or tunnel) through which water or electric wires can pass: the computers were connected through a system of conduits

confection [kənˈfekʃən] – n. a food rich in sugar

confectionery [kənˈfekʃənəri] – n. candy and other sweets considered collectively: the business decided to concentrate on confectionery and soft drinks

confederacy [kənˈfedərəsi] – n. the southern states that seceded from the United States in 1861

confederate [kənˈfedərit] – n. a supporter of the Confederate States of America

confer [kənˈfə:] – v. present: The university conferred a degree on its most famous former student, who never graduated

conferee [,kɔnfəˈri:] – n. a person on whom something is bestowed: six honorary were conferred; the conferees were…

confessor [kənˈfesə] – n. someone who confesses (discloses information damaging to themselves)

confidant [kɔnfiˈdænt] – n. someone to whom private matters are confided

confide [kənˈfaid] – v. confer a trust upon

confinement [kənˈfainmənt] – n. concluding state of pregnancy; from the onset of contractions to the birth of a child

confiscate [ˈkɔnfiskeit] – v. take temporary possession of as a security, by legal authority: The police confiscated the stolen artwork

conflagration [.kɔnfləˈgreiʃən] – n. a very intense and uncontrolled fire

confluence [ˈkɔnfluəns] – n. a place where things merge or flow together (especially rivers): Pittsburgh is located at the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers

confluent [ˈkɔnfluənt] – n. a branch that flows into the main stream

conformable [kənˈfɔ:məbl] – adj. quick to comply: I have been to you a true and humble wife, at all times to your will conformable

conformance [kɔnˈfɔ:məns] – n. correspondence in form or appearance

conformation [,kɔnfɔ:ˈmeiʃən] – n. a symmetrical arrangement of the parts of a thing

conformist  – adj. adhering to established customs or doctrines (especially in religion)

conformity [kənˈfɔ:miti] – n. correspondence in form or appearance

confound  – v. mistake one thing for another

congeal [kənˈdʒi:l] – v. become gelatinous

congenial [kənˈdʒi:njəl] – adj. suitable to your needs: a congenial atmosphere to work in

congenital [kɔnˈdʒenitl] – adj. present at birth but not necessarily hereditary; acquired during fetal development

congest [kənˈdʒest] – v. become or cause to become obstructed

congregate [ˈkɔŋgrigeit] – v. come together, usually for a purpose: The crowds congregated in front of the Vatican on Christmas Eve

congregation [.kɔŋgriˈgeiʃən] – n. a group of people who adhere to a common faith and habitually attend a given church

congruity [kənˈgruəti] – n. the quality of agreeing; being suitable and appropriate

coniferous [kəuˈnifərəs] – adj. of or relating to or part of trees or shrubs bearing cones and evergreen leaves

conjecture [kənˈdʒektʃə] – n. a message expressing an opinion based on incomplete evidence

conjoin [kənˈdʒɔin] – v. make contact or come together

conjugal [ˈkɔndʒugəl] – adj. of or relating to marriage or to the relationship between a wife and husband: conjugal visits

conjugate [ˈkɔndʒugeit] – adj. joined together especially in a pair or pairs

conjugation [kɔndʒuˈgeiʃən] – n. the state of being joined together

conjunction [kənˈdʒʌŋkʃən] – n. the temporal property of two things happening at the same time

connive [kəˈnaiv] – v. encourage or assent to illegally or criminally

connoisseur [.kɔniˈsə:] – n. an expert able to appreciate a field; especially in the fine arts

connote [kɔˈnəut] – v. express or state indirectly

connubial [kəˈnju:bjəl] – adj. of or relating to marriage or to the relationship between a wife and husband: connubial bliss

conquer [.kɔŋkə] – v. to put down by force or authority: conquer one’s desires

consanguineous [kɔnsæŋˈgwiniəs] – adj. related by blood

conscience [ˈkɔnʃəns] – n. motivation deriving logically from ethical or moral principles that govern a person’s thoughts and actions

conscientious [.kɔnʃiˈenʃəs] – adj. characterized by extreme care and great effort: conscientious application to the work at hand

conscript [ˈkɔnskript] – n. someone who is drafted into military service

consecrate [ˈkɔnsikreit] – v. appoint to a clerical posts

consecrated  – adj. solemnly dedicated to or set apart for a high purpose: a life consecrated to science

consecration  – n. a solemn commitment of your life or your time to some cherished purpose (to a service or a goal): his consecration to study

consecutive [kənˈsekjutiv] – adj. one after the other

consensus [kənˈsensəs] – n. agreement in the judgment or opinion reached by a group as a whole: the lack of consensus reflected differences in theoretical positions

conservatism [kənˈsə:vətizəm] – n. a political or theological orientation advocating the preservation of the best in society and opposing radical changes

conservatory [kənˈsə:vətəri] – n. the faculty and students of a school specializing in one of the fine arts

consign [kənˈsain] – v. commit forever; commit irrevocably

consignee [kɔnsaiˈni:] – n. the person to whom merchandise is delivered over

consignor [kən`sainər] – n. the person who delivers over or commits merchandise

consistency [kənˈsistənsi] – n. the property of holding together and retaining its shape: when the dough has enough consistency it is ready to bake

consolation [.kɔnsəˈleiʃən] – n. the act of consoling; giving relief in affliction: his presence was a consolation to her

console [ˈkɔnsəul,kənˈsəul] – n. a small table fixed to a wall or designed to stand against a wall

consolidate [kənˈsɔlideit] – v. unite into one: The companies consolidated

consonance [ˈkɔnsənəns] – n. the property of sounding harmonious

consonant [ˈkɔnsənənt] – n. a speech sound that is not a vowel

consort [ˈkɔnsɔ:t] – v. keep company with; hang out with

conspicuous [kənˈspikjuəs] – adj. obvious to the eye or mind: a tower conspicuous at a great distance

conspirator [kənˈspirətə] – n. a member of a conspiracy

conspire [kənˈspaiə] – v. act in unison or agreement and in secret towards a deceitful or illegal purpose: The two companies conspired to cause the value of the stock to fall

constable [ˈkʌnstəbl] – n. a lawman with less authority and jurisdiction than a sheriff

constellation [kɔnstəˈleiʃən] – n. an arrangement of parts or elements

consternation [.kɔnstə(:)ˈneiʃən] – n. fear resulting from the awareness of danger

constituent [kənˈstitjuənt] – n. a member of a constituency; a citizen who is represented in a government by officials for whom he or she votes: needs continued support by constituents to be re-elected

constrain [kənˈstrein] – v. hold back

constrict [kənˈstrikt] – v. squeeze or press together

construe [kənˈstru:] – v. make sense of; assign a meaning to

consul [ˈkɔnsəl] – n. a diplomat appointed by a government to protect its commercial interests and help its citizens in a foreign country

consulate [ˈkɔnsjulit] – n. diplomatic building that serves as the residence or workplace of a consul

consummate [kɔnˈsʌmit] – adj. having or revealing supreme mastery or skill: a consummate artist

consumptive [kənˈsʌmptiv] – adj. afflicted with or associated with pulmonary tuberculosis: a consumptive patient

contagion [kənˈteidʒən] – n. an incident in which an infectious disease is transmitted

contagious [kənˈteidʒəs] – adj. easily diffused or spread as from one person to another: a contagious grin

contaminate [kənˈtæmineit] – v. make impure

contemplate [ˈkɔntem.pleit] – v. look at thoughtfully; observe deep in thought: contemplate one’s navel

contemporaneous [kəntempəˈreinjəs] – adj. occurring in the same period of time: a rise in interest rates is often contemporaneous with an increase in inflation

contemptible [kənˈtemptəbəl] – adj. deserving of contempt or scorn

contemptuous [kənˈtemptjuəs] – adj. expressing extreme contempt

contend [kənˈtend] – v. maintain or assert: He contended that Communism had no future

contender [kənˈtendə(r)] – n. the contestant you hope to defeat

contentious [kənˈtenʃəs] – adj. inclined or showing an inclination to dispute or disagree, even to engage in law suits: a style described as abrasive and contentious

contiguity [.kɔntiˈgju:iti] – n. the attribute of being so near as to be touching

contiguous [kənˈtigjuəs] – adj. very close or connected in space or time: contiguous events

continence [ˈkɔntinəns] – n. the exercise of self constraint in sexual matters

contingency [kənˈtindʒənsi] – n. a possible event or occurrence or result

contingent [kənˈtindʒənt] – adj. possible but not certain to occur: they had to plan for contingent expenses

continuance [kənˈtinjuəns] – n. the period of time during which something continues

continuation [kən.tinjuˈeiʃən] – n. a part added to a book or play that continues and extends it

continuity [.kɔntiˈnju:iti] – n. uninterrupted connection or union

continuum [kənˈtinjuəm] – n. a continuous nonspatial whole or extent or succession in which no part or portion is distinct or distinguishable from adjacent parts

contort [kənˈtɔ:t] – v. twist and press out of shape

contraband [ˈkɔntrəbænd] – n. goods whose importation or exportation or possession is prohibited by law

contradiction [.kɔntrəˈdikʃən] – n. opposition between two conflicting forces or ideas

contradictory [.kɔntrəˈdiktəri] – adj. of words or propositions so related that both cannot be true and both cannot be false: `perfect’ and `imperfect’ are contradictory terms

contravene [.kɔntrəˈvi:n] – v. go against, as of rules and laws

contributor [kənˈtribjutə] – n. a writer whose work is published in a newspaper or magazine or as part of a book

contrite [ˈkɔntrait] – adj. feeling or expressing pain or sorrow for sins or offenses

contrition [kənˈtriʃən] – n. sorrow for sin arising from fear of damnation

contrivance [kənˈtraivəns] – n. a device or control that is very useful for a particular job

contrive [kənˈtraiv] – v. make or work out a plan for; devise: They contrived to murder their boss

controller [kənˈtrəulə] – n. someone who maintains and audits business accounts

contumacious [.kɔntjuˈmeiʃəs] – adj. wilfully obstinate; stubbornly disobedient

contumacy [ˈkɔntjuməsi] – n. willful refusal to appear before a court or comply with a court order; can result in a finding of contempt of court

contuse [kənˈtju:z] – v. injure the underlying soft tissue or bone of

contusion [kənˈtju:ʒən] – n. an injury that doesn’t break the skin but results in some discoloration

conundrum [kəˈnʌndrəm] – n. a difficult problem

convalesce [.kɔnvəˈles] – v. get over an illness or shock

convalescence [kənvəˈlesns] – n. gradual healing (through rest) after sickness or injury

convalescent [,kɔnvəˈlesnt] – n. a person who is recovering from illness

convene [kənˈvi:n] – v. meet formally: The council convened last week

convenience [kənˈvi:njəns] – n. the state of being suitable or opportune: chairs arranged for his own convenience

converge [kənˈvə:dʒ] – v. be adjacent or come together: The lines converge at this point

convergence  – n. the occurrence of two or more things coming together

convergent [kənˈvə:dʒənt] – adj. tending to come together from different directions

conversant [kənˈvə:sənt] – adj. (usually followed by `with’) well informed about or knowing thoroughly: conversant with business trends

convertible [kənˈvə:təbl] – n. a car that has top that can be folded or removed

convex [ˈkɔnˈveks] – adj. curving or bulging outward

conveyance [kənˈveiəns] – n. document effecting a property transfer

convivial [kənˈviviəl] – adj. occupied with or fond of the pleasures of good company: a convivial atmosphere at the reunion

convoluted [ˈkɔnvəlju:tid] – adj. rolled longitudinally upon itself

convolution [kɔnvəˈlu:ʃən] – n. the shape of something rotating rapidly

convolve [kənˈvɔlv] – v. curl, wind, or twist together

convoy [ˈkɔnvɔi] – n. a procession of land vehicles traveling together

convulse [kənˈvʌls] – v. be overcome with laughter

convulsion [kənˈvʌlʃən] – n. a sudden uncontrollable attack: convulsions of laughter

copious [ˈkəupiəs] – adj. large in number or quantity (especially of discourse): she took copious notes

coquette [kəuˈket, kɔˈket] – n. a seductive woman who uses her sex appeal to exploit men

cordial [ˈkɔ:djəl] – adj. diffusing warmth and friendliness: cordial relations

cornice [ˈkɔ:nis] – n. a decorative framework to conceal curtain fixtures at the top of a window casing

cornucopia [.kɔ:njuˈkəupiə] – n. a goat’s horn filled with grain and flowers and fruit symbolizing prosperity

corollary [ˈkɑ:ələri] – n. a practical consequence that follows naturally: blind jealousy is a frequent corollary of passionate love

coronation [.kɔrəˈneiʃən] – n. the ceremony of installing a new monarch

coronet [ˈkɔrənit] – n. a small crown; usually indicates a high rank but below that of sovereign

corporal [ˈkɔ:pərəl] – adj. affecting or characteristic of the body as opposed to the mind or spirit: a corporal defect

corporeal [kɔ:ˈpɔ:riəl] – adj. having material or physical form or substance: that which is created is of necessity corporeal and visible and tangible

corps [kɔ:] – n. an army unit usually consisting of two or more divisions and their support

corpse [kɔ:ps] – n. the dead body of a human being: the end of the police search was the discovery of a corpse

corpulence [ˈkɔ:pjʊləns] – n. the property of excessive fatness

corpulent [ˈkɔ:pjulənt] – adj. excessively fat

corpuscle [ˈkɔ:pəsəl] – n. (nontechnical usage) a tiny piece of anything

correlate [ˈkɔ:rə.leit] – v. to bear a reciprocal or mutual relation: Do these facts correlate?

correlative [kəˈrelətiv] – adj. mutually related

corrigible [ˈkɔridʒəbl] – adj. capable of being corrected or set right: a corrigible defect

corroborate [kəˈrɔbəreit] – v. establish or strengthen as with new evidence or facts

corroboration [kə.rɔbəˈreiʃən] – n. confirmation that some fact or statement is true through the use of documentary evidence

corrode [kəˈrəud] – v. cause to deteriorate due to the action of water, air, or an acid: The acid corroded the metal

corrosion [kəˈrəuʒən] – n. a state of deterioration in metals caused by oxidation or chemical action

corrosive [kəˈrəusiv] – adj. of a substance, especially a strong acid; capable of destroying or eating away by chemical action

corrugated  – adj. shaped into alternating parallel grooves and ridges: the surface of the ocean was rippled and corrugated

corruptible [kəˈrʌptəbl] – adj. capable of being corrupted: corruptible judges

corruption [kəˈrʌpʃən] – n. lack of integrity or honesty (especially susceptibility to bribery); use of a position of trust for dishonest gain

cosmetic [kɔzˈmetik] – adj. serving an esthetic rather than a useful purpose: cosmetic fenders on cars

cosmic [ˈkɔzmik] – adj. inconceivably extended in space or time

cosmogony [kɔzˈmɔgəni] – n. the branch of astrophysics that studies the origin and evolution and structure of the universe

cosmography [ˈkɔzˈmɔgrəfi] – n. a representation of the earth or the heavens: the cosmography of Ptolemy

cosmology [kɔzˈmɔlədʒi] – n. the metaphysical study of the origin and nature of the universe

cosmopolitan [.kɔzməˈpɔlitən] – adj. growing or occurring in many parts of the world: a cosmopolitan herb

cosmos [ˈkɔzmɔs] – n. everything that exists anywhere

counteract [.kauntəˈrækt] – v. act in opposition to

counterbalance [ˈkauntə.bæləns] – n. a weight that balances another weight

countercharge [ˈkauntətʃɑ:dʒ] – n. a charge brought by an accused person against the accuser

counterfeit [ˈkauntəfit] – n. a copy that is represented as the original

counterfeiter  – n. someone who makes copies illegally

counterpart [ˈkauntəpɑ:t] – n. a person or thing having the same function or characteristics as another

countervail [ˈkauntəveil] – v. oppose and mitigate the effects of by contrary actions

countryman [ˈkʌntrimən] – n. a man who lives in the country and has country ways

coup [ku:] – n. a sudden and decisive change of government illegally or by force

courageous [kəˈreidʒəs] – adj. possessing or displaying courage; able to face and deal with danger or fear without flinching: a frank courageous heart…triumphed over pain

courier [ˈkuriə] – n. a person who carries a message

courser [ˈkɔ:sə] – n. a huntsman who hunts small animals with fast dogs that use sight rather than scent to follow their prey

courtesy [ˈkə:tisi] – n. a courteous or respectful or considerate remark

covenant [ˈkʌvənənt] – n. a signed written agreement between two or more parties (nations) to perform some action

covert [kʌvət] – n. a flock of coots

covet [ˈkʌvit] – v. wish, long, or crave for (something, especially the property of another person): She covets her sister’s house

covey [ˈkʌvi] – n. a small collection of people

cower [ˈkauə] – v. crouch or curl up

coxswain [ˈkɔkswein] – n. the helmsman of a ship’s boat or a racing crew

crag [kræg] – n. a steep rugged rock or cliff

cranium [ˈkreinjəm] – n. the part of the skull that encloses the brain

crass [kræs] – adj. (of persons) so unrefined as to be lacking in discrimination and sensibility

craving [ˈkreiviŋ] – n. an intense desire for some particular thing

creak [kri:k] – n. a squeaking sound: the creak of the floorboards gave him away

creamery [ˈkri:məri] – n. a workplace where dairy products (butter and cheese etc.) are produced or sold

creamy [ˈkri:mi] – adj. thick like cream

credence [ˈkri:dəns] – n. the mental attitude that something is believable and should be accepted as true: he gave credence to the gossip

credible [ˈkredəbəl] – adj. capable of being believed: completely credible testimony

creditable [ˈkreditəbəl] – adj. worthy of often limited commendation: the student’s effort on the essay–though not outstanding–was creditable

credulity [kriˈdju:liti] – n. tendency to believe readily

credulous [ˈkredjuləs] – adj. disposed to believe on little evidence: the gimmick would convince none but the most credulous

creed [kri:d] – n. any system of principles or beliefs

crematory [ˈkremətəri] – n. a furnace where a corpse can be burned and reduced to ashes

crepuscular [kriˈpʌskjulə] – adj. like twilight; dim: the evening’s crepuscular charm

crescendo [kriˈʃendəu] – n. (music) a gradual increase in loudness

crevasse [kriˈvæs] – n. a deep fissure

crevice [ˈkrevis] – n. a long narrow depression in a surface

cringe [krindʒ] – v. draw back, as with fear or pain

critique [kriˈti:k] – n. a serious examination and judgment of something

crockery [ˈkrɔkəri] – n. tableware (eating and serving dishes) collectively

crony  – n. a close friend who accompanies his buddies in their activities

crucible [ˈkru:sibl] – n. a vessel made of material that does not melt easily; used for high temperature chemical reactions

crusade [kru:ˈseid] – n. a series of actions advancing a principle or tending toward a particular end

crustacean [krʌsˈteiʃjən] – n. any mainly aquatic arthropod usually having a segmented body and chitinous exoskeleton

crustaceous [krʌ`steiʃjəs] – adj. of or belonging to the class Crustacea

crux [krʌks] – n. a small conspicuous constellation in the southern hemisphere in the Milky Way near Centaurus

cryptic [ˈkriptik] – adj. of an obscure nature: the new insurance policy is written without cryptic or mysterious terms

cryptogram [ˈkriptəgræm] – n. a piece of writing in code or cipher

crystallize [ˈkristəlaiz] – v. cause to take on a definite and clear shape: He tried to crystallize his thoughts

cudgel [ˈkʌdʒəl] – n. a club that is used as a weapon

culinary [ˈkʌlinəri] – adj. of or relating to or used in cooking

cull [kʌl] – v. remove something that has been rejected: cull the sick members of the herd

culmination [.kʌlmiˈneiʃən] – n. a final climactic stage: their achievements stand as a culmination of centuries of development

culpable [ˈkʌlpəbəl] – adj. deserving blame or censure as being wrong or evil or injurious: culpable negligence

culprit [ˈkʌlprit] – n. someone who perpetrates wrongdoing

cultivate [ˈkʌltiveit] – v. foster the growth of

culvert [ˈkʌlvət] – n. a transverse and totally enclosed drain under a road or railway

cumulative [ˈkju:mjulətiv] – adj. increasing by successive addition: the benefits are cumulative

cunning [ˈkʌniŋ] – adj. attractive especially by means of smallness or prettiness or quaintness: cunning kittens

cupidity [kjuˈpiditi] – n. extreme greed for material wealth

curable [ˈkjurəbl] – adj. curing or healing is possible: curable diseases

curator [kjuəˈreitə] – n. the custodian of a collection (as a museum or library)

curb [kə:b] – n. a horse’s bit with an attached chain or strap to check the horse

curio [ˈkjuəriəu] – n. something unusual — perhaps worthy of collecting

cursive [ˈkə:siv] – adj. having successive letter joined together: cursive script

cursory [ˈkə:səri] – adj. hasty and without attention to detail; not thorough: a casual (or cursory) inspection failed to reveal the house’s structural flaws

curt [kə:t] – adj. marked by rude or peremptory shortness: a curt reply

curtail [kə:ˈteil] – v. place restrictions on: curtail drinking in school

curtsy [ˈkə:tsi] – v. bend the knees in a gesture of respectful greeting

cycloid [ˈsaiklɔid] – n. a line generated by a point on a circle rolling along a straight line

cygnet [ˈsignit] – n. a young swan

cynical [ˈsinikəl] – adj. believing the worst of human nature and motives; having a sneering disbelief in e.g. selflessness of others

cynicism [ˈsinisizəm] – n. a cynical feeling of distrust

cynosure [ˈsinəzjuə] – n. something that provides guidance (as Polaris guides mariners): let faith be your cynosure to walk by

dalliance [ˈdæliəns] – n. the deliberate act of delaying and playing instead of working

daring [ˈdɛəriŋ] – n. a challenge to do something dangerous or foolhardy

darkling [ˈdɑ:kliŋ] – adj. (poetic) occurring in the dark or night: a darkling journey

Darwinism [ˈdɑ:winizəm] – n. a theory of organic evolution claiming that new species arise and are perpetuated by natural selection

dastard [ˈdæstəd] – n. a despicable coward

datum [ˈdeitəm] – n. an item of factual information derived from measurement or research

dauntless [ˈdɔ:ntlis] – adj. invulnerable to fear or intimidation

dearth [də:θ] – n. an acute insufficiency

debacle [deiˈbɑ:kəl] – n. a sudden and violent collapse

debase [diˈbeis] – v. corrupt morally or by intemperance or sensuality

debatable [diˈbeitəbl] – adj. open to argument or debate

debauch [diˈbɔ:tʃ] – n. a wild gathering involving excessive drinking and promiscuity

debilitated  – adj. lacking strength or vigor

debility [diˈbiliti] – n. the state of being weak in health or body (especially from old age)

debonair [.debəˈneə] – adj. having a sophisticated charm: a debonair gentleman

debunk [.di:ˈbʌŋk] – v. expose while ridiculing; especially of pretentious or false claims and ideas: The physicist debunked the psychic’s claims

debunking  – n. the exposure of falseness or pretensions: the debunking of religion has been too successful

debut [ˈdeibju:] – v. present for the first time to the public: The band debuts a new song or two each month

decagon [ˈdekəgɔn] – n. a polygon with 10 sides and 10 angles

decagram [ˈdekəgræm] – n. 10 grams

decaliter  – n. a metric unit of volume or capacity equal to 10 liters

decalogue  – n. the biblical commandments of Moses

decameter [ˈdekəmi:tər] – n. a metric unit of length equal to ten meters

decamp [diˈkæmp] – v. leave a camp: The hikers decamped before dawn

decapitate [diˈkæpiteit] – v. cut the head of

decapod [ˈdekəpɔd] – n. crustaceans characteristically having five pairs of locomotor appendages each joined to a segment of the thorax

decasyllabic  – adj. having or characterized by or consisting of ten syllables

decasyllable [,dekəˈsiləbl] – n. a verse line having ten syllables

decathlon  – n. an athletic contest consisting of ten different events

deceit [diˈsi:t] – n. the quality of being fraudulent

deceitful [diˈsi:tfʊl] – adj. intended to deceive: deceitful advertising

deceive [diˈsi:v] – v. be false to; be dishonest with

decency [ˈdi:snsi] – n. the quality of conforming to standards of propriety and morality

decent [ˈdi:snt] – adj. socially or conventionally correct; refined or virtuous: from a decent family

deciduous [diˈsidjuəs] – adj. (of plants and shrubs) shedding foliage at the end of the growing season

decimal [ˈdesiməl] – n. a proper fraction whose denominator is a power of 10

decimate [ˈdesimeit] – v. kill one in every ten, as of mutineers in Roman armies

decimation  – n. destroying or killing a large part of the population (literally every tenth person as chosen by lot)

decipher [diˈsaifə] – v. convert code into ordinary language

decisive [diˈsaisiv] – adj. determining or having the power to determine an outcome: cast the decisive vote

declamation [.dekləˈmeiʃən] – n. vehement oratory

declamatory [diˈklæmətəri] – adj. ostentatiously lofty in style

declarative [diˈklærətiv] – adj. relating to the use of or having the nature of a declaration

declension [diˈklenʃən] – n. the inflection of nouns and pronouns and adjectives in Indo-European languages

decorate [ˈdekəreit] – v. make more attractive by adding ornament, colour, etc.

decorous [ˈdekərəs] – adj. characterized by propriety and dignity and good taste in manners and conduct: the tete-a-tete was decorous in the extreme

decorum [diˈkɔ:rəm] – n. propriety in manners and conduct

decoy [ˈdi:kɔi] – n. a beguiler who leads someone into danger (usually as part of a plot)

decrepit [diˈkrepit] – adj. worn and broken down by hard use: a decrepit bus…its seats held together with friction tape

decry [diˈkrai] – v. express strong disapproval of

dedication [dediˈkeiʃən] – n. complete and wholehearted fidelity

deduce [diˈdju:s] – v. conclude by reasoning; in logic

deface [diˈfeis] – v. mar or spoil the appearance of: scars defaced her cheeks

defalcate [diˈfælkeit] – v. appropriate (as property entrusted to one’s care) fraudulently to one’s own use

defamation [difəˈmeiʃən] – n. a false accusation of an offense or a malicious misrepresentation of someone’s words or actions

defamatory [diˈfæmətəri] – adj. (used of statements) harmful and often untrue; tending to discredit or malign

defame [diˈfeim] – v. charge falsely or with malicious intent; attack the good name and reputation of someone: The journalists have defamed me!

default [diˈfɔ:lt] – n. loss due to not showing up: he lost the game by default

defensible [diˈfensəbl] – adj. capable of being defended

defensive [diˈfensiv] – adj. attempting to justify or defend in speech or writing

defer [diˈfə:] – v. hold back to a later time

deference [ˈdefərəns] – n. a courteous expression (by word or deed) of esteem or regard: his deference to her wishes was very flattering

deferential [.difəˈrenʃəl] – adj. showing deference

deferment  – n. act of putting off to a future time

defiant [diˈfaiənt] – adj. boldly resisting authority or an opposing force: brought up to be aggressive and defiant

deficiency [diˈfiʃənsi] – n. the state of needing something that is absent or unavailable: water is the critical deficiency in desert regions

deficient [diˈfiʃənt] – adj. inadequate in amount or degree: a deficient education

defile [diˈfail] – v. place under suspicion or cast doubt upon

definite [ˈdefinit] – adj. known for certain: it is definite that they have won

deflect [diˈflekt] – v. prevent the occurrence of; prevent from happening

defoliate  – v. strip the leaves or branches from: defoliate the trees with pesticides

deforest [diˈfɔrist] – v. remove the trees from: The landscape was deforested by the enemy attacks

deform [di:ˈfɔ:m] – v. make formless: the heat deformed the plastic sculpture

deformity [diˈfɔ:miti] – n. an affliction in which some part of the body is misshapen or malformed

defraud [diˈfrɔ:d] – v. deprive of by deceit: She defrauded the customers who trusted her

defray [diˈfrei] – v. bear the expenses of

deft [deft] – adj. skillful in physical movements; especially of the hands: a deft waiter

defunct [diˈfʌŋkt] – adj. no longer in force or use; inactive: a defunct law

degeneracy [diˈdʒenərəsi] – n. moral perversion; impairment of virtue and moral principles: moral degeneracy followed intellectual degeneration

degenerate [diˈdʒenəreit] – n. a person whose behavior deviates from what is acceptable especially in sexual behavior

degradation [.degrəˈdeiʃən] – n. changing to a lower state (a less respected state)

degrade [diˈgreid] – v. reduce the level of land, as by erosion

dehydrate [di:ˈhaidreit] – v. preserve by removing all water and liquids from: carry dehydrated food on your camping trip

deify [ˈdi:ifai] – v. consider as a god or godlike: These young men deify financial success

deign [dein] – v. do something that one considers to be below one’s dignity

deism  – n. the form of theological rationalism that believes in God on the basis of reason without reference to revelation

deist [ˈdist] – n. a person who believes that God created the universe and then abandoned it

deity [ˈdi:iti] – n. any supernatural being worshipped as controlling some part of the world or some aspect of life or who is the personification of a force

deject [diˈdʒekt] – v. lower someone’s spirits; make downhearted

dejection [diˈdʒekʃən] – n. a state of melancholy depression

delectable [diˈlektəbəl] – adj. extremely pleasing to the sense of taste

delectation [.di:lekˈteiʃən] – n. a feeling of extreme pleasure or satisfaction

delegate [ˈdeligeit,ˈdeligit] – v. transfer power to someone

deleterious [.deliˈtiəriəs] – adj. harmful to living things: deleterious chemical additives

deliberate [diˈlibərit] – v. think about carefully; weigh

deliberation [di.libəˈreiʃə n] – n. (usually plural) discussion of all sides of a question: the deliberations of the jury

delicacy [ˈdelikəsi] – n. something considered choice to eat

delineate [diˈlinieit] – v. show the form or outline of

delineation [diˈliniˈeʃən] – n. a graphic or vivid verbal description

delinquency [diˈliŋkwənsi] – n. nonpayment of a debt when due

deliquesce [deliˈkwes] – v. melt away in the process of decay: The fungi eventually deliquesced

delirious [diˈliriəs] – adj. marked by uncontrolled excitement or emotion: a crowd of delirious baseball fans

delude [diˈlu:d] – v. be false to; be dishonest with

deluge [ˈdelju:dʒ] – n. an overwhelming number or amount

delusion [diˈlu:ʒən] – n. (psychology) an erroneous belief that is held in the face of evidence to the contrary

demagnetize [di:ˈmægnitaiz] – v. erase (a magnetic storage device)

demagogue [ˈdeməgɔg] – n. a political leader who seeks support by appealing to popular passions and prejudices

demarcation  – n. the boundary of a specific area

demean [diˈmi:n] – v. reduce in worth or character, usually verbally

demeanor [diˈmi:nə] – n. (behavioral attributes) the way a person behaves toward other people

demented [diˈmentid] – adj. affected with madness or insanity

demerit [di:ˈmerit] – n. a mark against a person for misconduct or failure; usually given in school or armed forces: ten demerits and he loses his privileges

demise [diˈmaiz] – n. the time when something ends

demobilize [di:ˈməʊbilaiz] – v. release from military service or remove from the active list of military service

demolish [diˈmɔliʃ] – v. destroy completely: the wrecking ball demolished the building

demonstrable [ˈdemənstrəbl] – adj. capable of being demonstrated or proved: a demonstrable lack of concern for the general welfare

demonstrative [diˈmɔnstrətiv] – adj. given to or marked by the open expression of emotion: an affectionate and demonstrative family

demonstrator [ˈdemənstreitə] – n. someone who demonstrates an article to a prospective buyer

demulcent [diˈmʌlsənt] – n. a medication (in the form of an oil or salve etc.) that soothes inflamed or injured skin

demur [diˈmə:] – v. take exception to: he demurred at my suggestion to work on Saturday

demure [diˈmjuə] – adj. affectedly modest or shy especially in a playful or provocative way

demurrage [diˈmʌridʒ] – n. detention of a ship or freight car or other cargo beyond its scheduled time of departure

dendroid  – adj. resembling a tree in form and branching structure

denigrate [ˈdenigreit] – v. cause to seem less serious; play down

denizen [ˈdenizən] – n. a person who inhabits a particular place

denominate [diˈnɔmineit] – v. assign a name or title to

denomination [di.nɔmiˈneiʃən] – n. a group of religious congregations having its own organization and a distinctive faith

denominator [diˈnamənetə] – n. the divisor of a fraction

denote [diˈnəut] – v. be a sign or indication of: Her smile denoted that she agreed

denouement [deiˈnu:mɑŋ] – n. the outcome of a complex sequence of events

denounce [diˈnauns] – v. speak out against: He denounced the Nazis

dentifrice [ˈdentifris] – n. a substance for cleaning the teeth; applied with a toothbrush

denude [diˈnju:d] – v. lay bare: denude a forest

denuded  – adj. without the natural or usual covering

denunciation [dinʌnsiˈeiʃən] – n. a public act of denouncing

deplete [diˈpli:t] – v. use up (resources or materials)

deplorable [diˈplɔ:rəbl] – adj. bad; unfortunate: my finances were in a deplorable state

deplore [diˈplɔ:] – v. express strong disapproval of: We deplore the government’s treatment of political prisoners

deploy [diˈplɔi] – v. place troops or weapons in battle formation

deponent [diˈpəunənt] – n. a person who testifies or gives a deposition

depopulate [di:ˈpɔpjuleit] – v. reduce in population: The epidemic depopulated the countryside

deport [diˈpɔ:t] – v. behave in a certain manner

deportment [diˈpɔ:tmənt] – n. (behavioral attributes) the way a person behaves toward other people

deposition [.depəˈziʃən, di:-] – n. (law) a pretrial interrogation of a witness; usually conducted in a lawyer’s office

depositor [diˈpɔzitə] – n. a person who has deposited money in a bank or similar institution

depository [diˈpɔzitəuri] – n. a facility where things can be deposited for storage or safekeeping

deprave [diˈpreiv] – v. corrupt morally or by intemperance or sensuality

depravity [diˈpræviti] – n. moral perversion; impairment of virtue and moral principles: its brothels, its opium parlors, its depravity

deprecate [ˈdeprikeit] – v. express strong disapproval of; deplore

depreciate [diˈpri:ʃieit] – v. belittle

depreciation [di.pri:ʃiˈeiʃən] – n. a decrease in price or value: depreciation of the dollar against the yen

depress [diˈpres] – v. lower someone’s spirits; make downhearted: These news depressed her

derail  – v. cause to run off the tracks: they had planned to derail the trains that carried atomic waste

derelict [ˈderilikt] – adj. worn and broken down by hard use

deride [diˈraid] – v. treat or speak of with contempt: He derided his student’s attempt to solve the biggest problem in mathematics

derision [diˈriʒən] – n. contemptuous laughter

derivation [deriˈveiʃən] – n. (historical linguistics) an explanation of the historical origins of a word or phrase

derivative [diˈrivətiv] – n. the result of mathematical differentiation; the instantaneous change of one quantity relative to another; df(x)/dx

dermatology [.də:məˈtɔlədʒi] – n. the branch of medicine dealing with the skin and its diseases

derogatory [diˈrɔgətəri] – adj. expressive of low opinion: derogatory comments

derrick [ˈderik] – n. a framework erected over an oil well to allow drill tubes to be raised and lowered

descendant [diˈsendənt] – adj. going or coming down

descendent [diˈsendənt] – adj. going or coming down

descent [diˈsent] – n. a movement downward

descry [diˈskrai] – v. catch sight of

desecrate [ˈdesikreit] – v. violate the sacred character of a place or language: desecrate a cemetery

desecration  – n. blasphemous behavior; the act of depriving something of its sacred character: desecration of the Holy Sabbath

desert [ˈdezət,diˈzə:t] – v. leave someone who needs or counts on you; leave in the lurch: The mother deserted her children

desiccant [ˈdesikənt] – n. a substance that promotes drying (e.g., calcium oxide absorbs water and is used to remove moisture)

desiccated  – adj. thoroughly dried out: old boxes of desiccated Cuban cigars

designate [ˈdezigneit] – v. assign a name or title to

desist [diˈsist, diˈzist] – v. choose not to consume

desolate [ˈdesəleit,ˈdesəlit] – v. leave someone who needs or counts on you; leave in the lurch

despair [diˈspɛə] – n. a state in which all hope is lost or absent: in the depths of despair

desperado [despəˈrɑ:dəu] – n. a bold outlaw (especially on the American frontier)

despicable [diˈspikəbəl] – adj. morally reprehensible: would do something as despicable as murder

despite [diˈspait] – n. lack of respect accompanied by a feeling of intense dislike: the despite in which outsiders were held is legendary

despond [diˈspɔnd] – v. lose confidence or hope; become dejected: The supporters of the Presidential candidate desponded when they learned the early results of the election

despondent [diˈspɔndənt] – adj. without or almost without hope: despondent about his failure

despot [ˈdespɔt] – n. a cruel and oppressive dictator

despotic [diˈspɔtik] – adj. ruled by or characteristic of a despot: moved from a feudal to a despotic order

despotism [ˈdespətizəm] – n. dominance through threat of punishment and violence

destitute [ˈdestitju:t] – adj. poor enough to need help from others

destitution  – n. a state without friends or money or prospects

desuetude [ˈdiˈsju:itju:d] – n. a state of inactivity or disuse

desultory [ˈdesəltəri] – adj. marked by lack of definite plan or regularity or purpose; jumping from one thing to another: desultory thoughts

deter [diˈtə:] – v. try to prevent; show opposition to

deteriorate [diˈtiəriəreit] – v. become worse or disintegrate: His mind deteriorated

determinate [diˈtə:minit] – adj. not continuing to grow indefinitely at the apex: determinate growth

deterrent [diˈterənt] – n. something immaterial that interferes with or delays action or progress

detest [diˈtest] – v. dislike intensely; feel antipathy or aversion towards: She detests politicians

detract [diˈtrækt] – v. take away a part from; diminish: His bad manners detract from his good character

detriment [ˈdetrimənt] – n. a damage or loss

detrimental [.detriˈmentl] – adj. (sometimes followed by `to’) causing harm or injury

detritus [diˈtraitəs] – n. the remains of something that has been destroyed or broken up

deviate [ˈdi:vieit] – v. turn aside; turn away from

devilry [ˈdevlri] – n. wicked and cruel behavior

deviltry [ˈdevltri] – n. wicked and cruel behavior

devious [ˈdi:viəs] – adj. indirect in departing from the accepted or proper way; misleading: used devious means to achieve success

devise [diˈvaiz] – v. come up with (an idea, plan, explanation, theory, or principle) after a mental effort

devoid [diˈvɔid] – adj. completely wanting or lacking: the sentence was devoid of meaning

devout [diˈvaut] – adj. deeply religious

dexterity [dekˈsteriti] – n. adroitness in using the hands

dexterous [ˈdekstərəs] – adj. skillful in physical movements; especially of the hands: dexterous of hand and inventive of mind

diabolic [ˈdaiəˈbɔlik] – adj. showing the cunning or ingenuity or wickedness typical of a devil: the cold calculation and diabolic art of some statesmen

diacritical [daiəˈkritikəl] – adj. capable of distinguishing

diagnose [ˈdaiəgnəuz] – v. subject to a medical analysis

diagnosis [.daiəgˈnəusis] – n. identifying the nature or cause of some phenomenon

dialect [ˈdaiəlekt] – n. the usage or vocabulary that is characteristic of a specific group of people: the immigrants spoke an odd dialect of English

dialectician [,daiəlekˈtiʃən] – n. a logician skilled in dialectic

dialogue [ˈdaiəlɔg] – n. a conversation between two persons

diaphanous [daiˈæfənəs] – adj. so thin as to transmit light: a hat with a diaphanous veil

diatomic [,daiəˈtɔmik] – adj. of or relating to a molecule made up of two atoms: a diatomic molecule

diatribe [ˈdaiətraib] – n. thunderous verbal attack

dichotomy [daiˈkɔtəmi] – n. being twofold; a classification into two opposed parts or subclasses: the dichotomy between eastern and western culture

dictum [ˈdiktəm] – n. an authoritative declaration

didactic [diˈdæktik] – adj. instructive (especially excessively)

differentia [,difəˈrenʃiə] – n. distinguishing characteristics (especially in different species of a genus)

differential [.difəˈrenʃəl] – n. a quality that differentiates between similar things

differentiate [.difəˈrenʃi.eit] – v. be a distinctive feature, attribute, or trait; sometimes in a very positive sense

diffidence [ˈdifədəns] – n. lack of self-confidence

diffident [ˈdifidənt] – adj. showing modest reserve: she was diffident when offering a comment on the professor’s lecture

diffuse [diˈfju:s,diˈfju:z] – v. move outward

diffusion [diˈfju:ʒən] – n. the spread of social institutions (and myths and skills) from one society to another

dignitary [ˈdignitəri] – n. an important or influential (and often overbearing) person

digraph [ˈdaigrɑ:f] – n. two successive letters (especially two letters used to represent a single sound: `sh’ in `shoe’)

digress [daiˈgres] – v. wander from a direct or straight course

digression [daiˈgreʃən] – n. a message that departs from the main subject

dike [daik] – n. (slang) offensive term for a lesbian who is noticeably masculine

dilapidated [diˈlæpideitid] – adj. in deplorable condition

dilate [daiˈleit] – v. become wider: His pupils were dilated

dilatory [ˈdilətəri] – adj. wasting time

dilemma [diˈlemə] – n. state of uncertainty or perplexity especially as requiring a choice between equally unfavorable options

dilettante [.diliˈtænti] – n. an amateur who engages in an activity without serious intentions and who pretends to have knowledge

diligence [ˈdilidʒəns] – n. conscientiousness in paying proper attention to a task; giving the degree of care required in a given situation

diligent [ˈdilidʒənt] – adj. quietly and steadily persevering especially in detail or exactness: a diligent (or patient) worker

dilute [daiˈlju:t] – v. lessen the strength or flavor of a solution or mixture

diminution [dimiˈnju:ʃən] – n. change toward something smaller or lower

diminutive [diˈminjutiv] – n. a word that is formed with a suffix (such as -let or -kin) to indicate smallness

dimly [ˈdimli] – adv. with a dim light: a dimly lit room

diorama  – n. a picture (or series of pictures) representing a continuous scene

diphthong [ˈdifθɔŋ] – n. a vowel sound that starts near the articulatory position for one vowel and moves toward the position for another

diplomacy [diˈpləuməsi] – n. negotiation between nations

diplomat [ˈdipləmæt] – n. an official engaged in international negotiations

diplomatic [.dipləˈmætik] – adj. using or marked by tact in dealing with sensitive matters or people: the hostess averted a confrontation with a diplomatic chenage of subject

diplomatist [diˈpləumətist] – n. an official engaged in international negotiations

dire [ˈdaiə] – adj. fraught with extreme danger; nearly hopeless: a dire emergency

dirge [də:dʒ] – n. a song or hymn of mourning composed or performed as a memorial to a dead person

disaffected [.disəˈfektid] – adj. discontented as toward authority

disagree [.disəˈgri:] – v. be of different opinions: She disagrees with her husband on many questions

disallow [ˈdisəˈlau, dis-] – v. command against

disapprobation  – n. an expression of strong disapproval; pronouncing as wrong or morally culpable

disapprove [.disəˈpru:v] – v. consider bad or wrong

disarm [disˈɑ:m] – v. remove offensive capability from

disarrange [.disəˈreindʒ] – v. destroy the arrangement or order of: My son disarranged the papers on my desk

disavow [disəˈvau] – v. refuse to acknowledge; disclaim knowledge of; responsibility for, or association with: Her husband disavowed her after 30 years of marriage and six children

disavowal [disəˈvauəl] – n. denial of any connection with or knowledge of

disbeliever [,disbiˈli:v] – n. someone who refuses to believe (as in a divinity)

disburden [disˈbə:dn] – v. take the burden off; remove the burden from

disburse [disˈbə:s] – v. expend, as from a fund

discard [ˈdiskɑ:d,disˈkɑ:d] – n. (cards) the act of throwing out a useless card or of failing to follow suit

discern [diˈzə:n] – v. detect with the senses

discernible [diˈsɜ:nəbl, -ˈzɜ:-] – adj. perceptible by the senses or intellect: things happen in the earth and sky with no discernible cause

discerning [diˈsɜ:niŋ] – adj. having or revealing keen insight and good judgment: a discerning critic

discernment [diˈsə:nmənt] – n. the cognitive condition of someone who understands

disciple [diˈsaipl] – n. someone who believes and helps to spread the doctrine of another

disciplinary [ˈdisiplinəri] – adj. relating to a specific field of academic study: economics in its modern disciplinary sense

disclaim [disˈkleim] – v. renounce a legal claim or title to

disclose [disˈkləuz] – v. make known to the public information that was previously known only to a few people or that was meant to be kept a secret: The auction house would not disclose the price at which the van Gogh had sold

discolor [disˈkʌlə] – v. lose color or turn colorless: The painting discolored

discomfit [disˈkʌmfit] – v. cause to lose one’s composure

discomfort [disˈkʌmfət] – n. the state of being tense and feeling pain

disconcert [.diskənˈsə:t] – v. cause to feel embarrassment

disconnect [.diskəˈnekt] – v. pull the plug of (electrical appliances) and render inoperable

disconsolate [disˈkɔnsəlit] – adj. sad beyond comforting; incapable of being consoled

discontinuance [,diskənˈtinjuəns] – n. the act of discontinuing or breaking off; an interruption (temporary or permanent)

discord [ˈdiskɔ:d] – n. lack of agreement or harmony

discordance  – n. a harsh mixture of sounds

discordant [disˈkɔ:dənt] – adj. not in agreement or harmony: views discordant with present-day ideas

discountenance [disˈkauntinəns] – v. look with disfavor on: The republic soon discountenanced its few friends

discredit [disˈkredit] – v. cause to be distrusted or disbelieved: The paper discredited the politician with its nasty commentary

discreet [diˈskri:t] – adj. marked by prudence or modesty and wise self-restraint: his trusted discreet aide

discrepancy [disˈkrepənsi] – n. a difference between conflicting facts or claims or opinions

discrepant [dis`krepənt] – adj. not compatible with other facts

discretion [diˈskreʃən] – n. freedom to act or judge on one’s own

discriminate [diˈskrimineit] – v. recognize or perceive the difference

discriminating [diˈskrimineitiŋ] – adj. showing or indicating careful judgment and discernment especially in matters of taste: the discriminating eye of the connoisseur

discursive [diˈskə:siv] – adj. proceeding to a conclusion by reason or argument rather than intuition

discursiveness  – n. the quality of being discursive

disdain [disˈdein] – n. lack of respect accompanied by a feeling of intense dislike

disenfranchise [ˈdisinˈfræntʃaiz] – v. deprive of voting rights

disengage [ˈdisinˈgeidʒ] – v. release from something that holds fast, connects, or entangles: I want to disengage myself from his influence

disfavor [ˈdisˈfeivə] – n. the state of being out of favor: he is in disfavor with the king

disfigure [disˈfigə] – v. mar or spoil the appearance of: The vandals disfigured the statue

disgruntled [disˈgrʌntld] – adj. in a state of sulky dissatisfaction

dishabille [disæˈbi:l] – n. the state of being carelessly or partially dressed

dishevel  – v. disarrange or rumple; dishevel

dishonest [disˈɔnist] – adj. deceptive or fraudulent; disposed to cheat or defraud or deceive

disillusion [.disiˈlu:ʒən] – n. freeing from false belief or illusions

disinclination  – n. that toward which you are inclined to feel dislike: his disinclination for modesty is well known

disinfect [disinˈfekt] – v. destroy microorganisms or pathogens by cleansing: disinfect a wound

disinfectant [disinˈfekt(ə)nt] – n. an agent (as heat or radiation or a chemical) that destroys microorganisms that might carry disease

disingenuous [.disinˈdʒenjuəs] – adj. not straightforward or candid; giving a false appearance of frankness: an ambitious, disingenuous, philistine, and hypocritical operator, who…exemplified…the most disagreeable traits of his time

disinherit [ˈdisinˈherit] – v. prevent deliberately (as by making a will) from inheriting

disjunctive [disˈdʒʌŋktiv] – adj. serving or tending to divide or separate

dislocate [ˈdisləkeit] – v. move out of position: dislocate joints

dismissal [disˈmisəl] – n. a judgment disposing of the matter without a trial

dismount [ˈdisˈmaunt] – v. alight from (a horse)

disobedience [disəˈbi:diəns] – n. the failure to obey

disobedient [disəˈbi:diənt] – adj. not obeying or complying with commands of those in authority: disobedient children

disown [disˈəun] – v. prevent deliberately (as by making a will) from inheriting

disparage [diˈspæridʒ] – v. express a negative opinion of: She disparaged her student’s efforts

disparaging  – adj. expressive of low opinion: disparaging remarks about the new house

disparate [ˈdispərit] – adj. fundamentally different or distinct in quality or kind: such disparate attractions as grand opera and game fishing

disparity [disˈpæriti] – n. inequality or difference in some respect

dispassionate [disˈpæʃənit] – adj. unaffected by strong emotion or prejudice: a journalist should be a dispassionate reporter of fact

dispatch [diˈspætʃ] – v. send away towards a designated goal

dispel [disˈpel] – v. force to go away; used both with concrete and metaphoric meanings: dispel doubts

dispensation [dispenˈseiʃən] – n. an exemption from some rule or obligation

disperse [disˈpə:s] – v. distribute loosely

displace [disˈpleis] – v. cause to move, usually with force or pressure: the refugees were displaced by the war

disposition [.dispəˈziʃən] – n. your usual mood: he has a happy disposition

dispossess [dispəˈzes] – v. deprive of the possession of real estate

disputation [dispjuˈteiʃən] – n. the formal presentation of a stated proposition and the opposition to it (usually followed by a vote)

disputatious [.dispjuˈteiʃəs] – adj. inclined or showing an inclination to dispute or disagree, even to engage in law suits: a disputatious lawyer

disqualify [disˈkwɔlifai] – v. make unfit or unsuitable

disquiet [disˈkwaiət] – n. a feeling of mild anxiety about possible developments

disregard [.disriˈgɑ:d] – v. refuse to acknowledge

disreputable [disˈrepjutəbəl] – adj. lacking respectability in character or behavior or appearance

disrepute [ˈdisriˈpju:t] – n. the state of being held in low esteem: because of the scandal the school has fallen into disrepute

disrobe [disˈrəub] – v. get undressed

disrupt [disˈrʌpt] – v. make a break in

dissatisfy [disˈsætisfai] – v. fail to satisfy

dissect [diˈsekt] – v. cut open or cut apart: dissect the bodies for analysis

dissection [diˈsekʃən] – n. cutting so as to separate into pieces

disseminate [diˈsemineit] – v. cause to become widely known

dissension [diˈsenʃən] – n. disagreement among those expected to cooperate

dissent [diˈsent] – n. (law) the difference of one judge’s opinion from that of the majority: he expressed his dissent in a contrary opinion

dissentient [diˈsenʃiənt] – adj. (of Catholics) refusing to attend services of the Church of England

dissentious [diˈsenʃəs] – adj. dissenting (especially dissenting with the majority opinion)

dissertation [.disəˈteiʃən] – n. a treatise advancing a new point of view resulting from research; usually a requirement for an advanced academic degree

disservice [disˈsə:vis] – n. an act intended to help that turns out badly: he did them a disservice

dissever [disˈsevə] – v. separate into parts or portions

dissimilar [diˈsimilə] – adj. not similar: a group of very dissimilar people

dissipate [ˈdisipeit] – v. to cause to separate and go in different directions

dissipation [disiˈpeiʃən] – n. breaking up and scattering by dispersion: the dissipation of the mist

dissolute [ˈdisəlu:t] – adj. unrestrained by convention or morality

dissolution [.disəˈlu:ʃən] – n. separation into component parts

dissolve [diˈzɔlv] – v. become weaker

dissonance [ˈdisənəns] – n. a conflict of people’s opinions or actions or characters

dissonant [ˈdisənənt] – adj. lacking in harmony

dissuade [diˈsweid] – v. turn away from by persuasion: Negative campaigning will only dissuade people

dissuasion [diˈsweiʒən] – n. persuading not to do or believe something; talking someone out of a belief or an intended course of action

distemper [disˈtempə] – n. any of various infectious viral diseases of animals

distend [diˈstend] – v. become wider

distensible [disˈtensəbl] – adj. capable of being distended; able to stretch and expand: the stomach is a distensible organ

distension [disˈtenʃən] – n. the act of expanding by pressure from within

distention [dis`tenʃən] – n. the state of being stretched beyond normal dimensions

distill [disˈtil] – v. undergo condensation; change from a gaseous to a liquid state and fall in drops: The acid distills at a specific temperature

distillation [.distiˈleiʃən] – n. the process of purifying a liquid by boiling it and condensing its vapors

distiller [disˈtilə] – n. someone who distills alcoholic liquors

distort [disˈtɔ:t] – v. make false by mutilation or addition; as of a message or story

distrain [disˈtrein] – v. confiscate by distress

distraught [diˈstrɔ:t] – adj. deeply agitated especially from emotion: distraught with grief

distrust [disˈtrʌst] – n. doubt about someone’s honesty

disunion [ˈdisˈju:njən] – n. the termination or destruction of union

disyllable [diˈsiləbl] – n. a word having two syllables

dither [ˈdiðə] – v. act nervously; be undecided; be uncertain

diurnal [daiˈə:nəl] – adj. of or belonging to or active during the day: diurnal animals are active during the day

divagation [ˈdaivəˈgeiʃn] – n. a message that departs from the main subject

divergent [daiˈvə:dʒənt] – adj. tending to move apart in different directions

diverse [daiˈvə:s] – adj. many and different: a person of diverse talents

diversion [daiˈvə:ʒən] – n. a turning aside (of your course or attention or concern): a diversion from the main highway

diversity [daiˈvə:siti] – n. noticeable heterogeneity: a diversity of possibilities

divert [daiˈvə:t] – v. turn aside; turn away from

divest [daiˈvest] – v. take away possessions from someone

divination [diviˈneiʃən] – n. successful conjecture by unusual insight or good luck

divine [diˈvain] – adj. emanating from God: divine judgment

divinity [diˈviniti] – n. the quality of being divine: ancient Egyptians believed in the divinity of the Pharaohs

divisible [diˈvizəbl] – adj. capable of being or liable to be divided or separated: even numbers are divisible by two

divisive  – adj. dissenting (especially dissenting with the majority opinion)

divisor [diˈvaizə] – n. the number by which a dividend is divided

divulge [daiˈvʌldʒ,di-] – v. make known to the public information that was previously known only to a few people or that was meant to be kept a secret

divulgence  – n. the act of disclosing something that was secret or private

docile [ˈdəusail] – adj. willing to be taught or led or supervised or directed: the docile masses of an enslaved nation

docket [ˈdɔkit] – n. (law) the calendar of a court; the list of cases to be tried or a summary of the court’s activities

doctrine [ˈdɔktrin] – n. a belief (or system of beliefs) accepted as authoritative by some group or school

doe [dəu] – n. the federal department responsible for maintaining a national energy policy of the United States; created in 1977

doff [dɔf] – v. remove: He doffed his hat

dogma [ˈdɔgmə] – n. a religious doctrine that is proclaimed as true without proof

dogmatic [dɔgˈmætik] – adj. characterized by assertion of unproved or unprovable principles

dogmatize [ˈdɔgmətaiz] – v. speak dogmatically

doleful [ˈdəulful] – adj. filled with or evoking sadness: the child’s doleful expression

dolor [ˈdəulə] – n. (poetry) painful grief

dolorous [ˈdɔlərəs] – adj. showing sorrow

dolt [dəult] – n. a person who is not very bright

domain [dəˈmein] – n. a particular environment or walk of life

domesticity [.dəumesˈtisiti] – n. domestic activities or life: making a hobby of domesticity

domicile [ˈdɔmisail] – n. housing that someone is living in

dominance [ˈdɔminəns] – n. superior development of one side of the body

domination [ˈdɔmiˈneiʃən] – n. power to dominate or defeat

domineer [dɔmiˈniə] – v. rule or exercise power over (somebody) in a cruel and autocratic manner

don [dɔn] – n. a Spanish gentleman or nobleman

donate [ˈdəuneit] – v. give to a charity or good cause: I donated blood to the Red Cross for the victims of the earthquake

donee  – n. the recipient of funds or other benefits

donor [ˈdəunə] – n. person who makes a gift of property

dormant [ˈdɔ:mənt] – adj. in a condition of biological rest or suspended animation: dormant buds

dotard  – n. an oldster in his dotage; someone whose age has impaired his intellect

doublet [ˈdʌblit] – n. a man’s close-fitting jacket; worn during the Renaissance

doubly [ˈdʌbli] – adv. in a twofold manner: he was doubly wrong

dour [duə] – adj. stubbornly unyielding: dour determination

dowager  – n. a widow holding property received from her deceased husband

dowry [ˈdauri] – n. money or property brought by a woman to her husband at marriage

drachma [ˈdrækmə] – n. a unit of apothecary weight equal to an eighth of an ounce or to 60 grains

dragnet [`drægnet] – n. a system of coordinated measures for apprehending (criminals or other individuals): caught in the police dragnet

dragoon [drəˈgu:n] – v. compel by coercion, threats, or crude means

drainage [ˈdreinidʒ] – n. emptying something accomplished by allowing liquid to run out of it

dramatist [ˈdræmətist] – n. someone who writes plays

dramatize [ˈdræmətaiz] – v. represent something in a dramatic manner: These events dramatize the lack of social responsibility among today’s youth

drastic [ˈdræstik] – adj. forceful and extreme and rigorous: drastic measures

drawl [drɔ:l] – n. a slow speech pattern with prolonged vowels

drivel  – n. a worthless message

droll [drəul] – adj. comical in an odd or whimsical manner: a droll little man with a quiet tongue-in-cheek kind of humor

drone [drəun] – n. stingless male bee in a colony of social bees (especially honeybees) whose sole function is to mate with the queen

drought [draut] – n. a shortage of rainfall: farmers most affected by the drought hope that there may yet be sufficient rain early in the growing season

drowsy [ˈdrauzi] – adj. half asleep: made drowsy by the long ride

drudgery [ˈdrʌdʒəri] – n. hard monotonous routine work

dubious [ˈdju:biəs] – adj. fraught with uncertainty or doubt: dubious about agreeing to go

duckling [ˈdʌkliŋ] – n. young duck

ductile [ˈdʌktail] – adj. easily influenced

duet [dju:ˈet] – n. two items of the same kind

dun [dʌn] – v. treat cruelly

duplex [ˈdju:pleks] – n. a house with two units sharing a common wall

duplicity [dju:ˈplisiti] – n. a fraudulent or duplicitous representation

durance [ˈdjurəns] – n. imprisonment (especially for a long time)

duration [djuˈreiʃən] – n. the period of time during which something continues

duress [djuəˈres] – n. compulsory force or threat: confessed under duress

duteous [ˈdju:tjəs] – adj. willingly obedient out of a sense of duty and respect: Patient Griselda was a chaste and duteous wife

dutiable [ˈdju:tjəbl] – adj. subject to import tax: dutiable imports

dutiful [ˈdju:tiful] – adj. willingly obedient out of a sense of duty and respect: a dutiful child

dwell [dwel] – v. think moodily or anxiously about something

dwindle [ˈdwindl] – v. become smaller or lose substance: Her savings dwindled down

dynamic [daiˈnæmik] – adj. characterized by action or forcefulness or force of personality: a dynamic market

dyne [dain] – n. a unit of force equal to the force that imparts an acceleration of 1 cm/sec/sec to a mass of 1 gram

earnest [ˈə:nist] – adj. characterized by a firm and humorless belief in the validity of your opinions: both sides were deeply in earnest, even passionate

earthenware [ˈə:θənwɛə] – n. ceramic ware made of porous clay fired at low heat

eatable [ˈi:təbl] – n. any substance that can be used as food

ebullience [iˈbʌliəns] – n. overflowing with eager enjoyment or approval

ebullient [iˈbʌliənt] – adj. joyously unrestrained

eccentric [ikˈsentrik] – n. a person with an unusual or odd personality

eccentricity [eksenˈtrisiti] – n. strange and unconventional behavior

eclectic [iˈklektik] – adj. selecting what seems best of various styles or ideas

eclipse [iˈklips] – v. be greater in significance than

economize [i(:)ˈkɔnəmaiz] – v. use cautiously and frugally: I try to economize my spare time

ecstasy [ˈekstəsi] – n. a state of being carried away by overwhelming emotion

ecstatic [ikˈstætik,ek-] – adj. feeling great rapture or delight

edacious  – adj. devouring or craving food in great quantities: edacious vultures

edible [ˈedibl] – n. any substance that can be used as food

edict [ˈi:dikt] – n. a formal or authoritative proclamation

edification [.edifiˈkeiʃən] – n. uplifting enlightenment

edifice [ˈedifis] – n. a structure that has a roof and walls and stands more or less permanently in one place: it was an imposing edifice

edify [ˈedifai] – v. make understand

editorial [.ediˈtɔ:riəl] – adj. of or relating to an article stating opinions or giving perspectives: editorial column

educe [iˈdju:s] – v. develop or evolve from a latent or potential state

efface [iˈfeis] – v. remove completely from recognition or memory: efface the memory of the time in the camps

effacement  – n. shortening of the uterine cervix and thinning of its walls as it is dilated during labor

effectual [iˈfektʃuəl] – adj. having legal efficacy or force

effeminacy [iˈfeminəsi] – n. the trait of being effeminate (derogatory of a man): the students associated science with masculinity and arts with effeminacy

effeminate [iˈfeminit] – adj. having unsuitable feminine qualities

effervesce [.efəˈves] – v. become bubbly or frothy or foaming

effervescent [efəˈvesnt] – adj. used of wines and waters; charged naturally or artificially with carbon dioxide

effete [iˈfi:t] – adj. marked by excessive self-indulgence and moral decay: a group of effete self-professed intellectuals

efficacious [efiˈkeiʃəs] – adj. marked by qualities giving the power to produce an intended effect: written propaganda is less efficacious than the habits and prejudices…of the readers

efficacy [ˈefikəsi] – n. capacity or power to produce a desired effect: concern about the safety and efficacy of the vaccine

effigy [ˈefidʒi] – n. a representation of a person (especially in the form of sculpture): the coin bears an effigy of Lincoln

efflorescence [eflɔ:ˈresns] – n. the period of greatest prosperity or productivity

efflorescent [eflɔ:ˈresnt] – adj. bursting into flower

effluvium [eˈflu:viəm] – n. a foul-smelling outflow or vapor (especially a gaseous waste)

effrontery [eˈfrʌntəri] – n. audacious (even arrogant) behavior that you have no right to

effulgence [iˈfʌldʒəns] – n. the quality of being bright and sending out rays of light

effulgent [iˈfʌldʒənt] – adj. radiating or as if radiating light: the effulgent daffodils

effuse [iˈfju:z] – v. pour out: effused brine

effusion [iˈfju:ʒən] – n. an unrestrained expression of emotion

effusive [iˈfju:siv] – adj. uttered with unrestrained enthusiasm

egalitarian [i.gæliˈteəriən] – n. a person who believes in the equality of all people

egalitarianism  – n. the doctrine of the equality of mankind and the desirability of political and economic and social equality

egoism [ˈi:gəuizəm] – n. (ethics) the theory that the pursuit of your own welfare in the basis of morality

egoist [ˈegəuist] – n. a conceited and self-centered person

egotism [ˈegəutizm] – n. an exaggerated opinion of your own importance

egotist [ˈegəutist] – n. a conceited and self-centered person

egotistical  – adj. characteristic of those having an inflated idea of their own importance

egregious [iˈgri:dʒəs] – adj. conspicuously and outrageously bad or reprehensible: an egregious lie

egress [ˈi:gres] – n. (astronomy) the reappearance of a celestial body after an eclipse

eject [iˈdʒekt] – v. put out or expel from a place

elaborate [iˈlæbəreit] – v. add details, as to an account or idea; clarify the meaning of and discourse in a learned way, usually in writing: She elaborated on the main ideas in her dissertation

elapse [iˈlæps] – v. pass by: three years elapsed

elasticity [ilæsˈtisiti] – n. the tendency of a body to return to its original shape after it has been stretched or compressed

elated [iˈleitid] – adj. exultantly proud and joyful; in high spirits: the elated winner

electrolysis [ilekˈtrɔlisis] – n. removing superfluous or unwanted hair by passing an electric current through the hair root

elegy [ˈelidʒi] – n. a mournful poem; a lament for the dead

elicit [iˈlisit] – v. deduce (a principle) or construe (a meaning)

eligible [ˈelidʒəbl] – adj. qualified for or allowed or worthy of being chosen: eligible to run for office

eliminate [iˈlimineit] – v. terminate, end, or take out: Let’s eliminate the course on Akkadian hieroglyphics

elite [eiˈli:t] – n. a group or class of persons enjoying superior intellectual or social or economic status

elitist  – n. someone who believes in rule by an elite group

Elizabethan [ilizəˈbi:θən] – n. a person who lived during the reign of Elizabeth I: William Shakespeare was an Elizabethan

elliptical [iˈliptikəl] – adj. rounded like an egg

elocution [.eləˈkju:ʃən] – n. an expert manner of speaking involving control of voice and gesture

eloquence [ˈeləkwəns] – n. powerful and effective language: his eloquence attracted a large congregation

eloquent [ˈeləkwənt] – adj. expressing yourself readily, clearly, effectively

elucidate [iˈlu:sideit] – v. make clear and (more) comprehensible

elude [iˈlu:d] – v. escape, either physically or mentally: The thief eluded the police

elusion [iˈlu:ʒən] – n. the act of avoiding capture (especially by cunning)

elusive [iˈlju:siv] – adj. difficult to describe: a haunting elusive odor

emaciate [iˈmeiʃieit] – v. cause to grow thin or weak: The treatment emaciated him

emaciated [iˈmeiʃieitid] – adj. very thin especially from disease or hunger or cold: emaciated bony hands

emanate [ˈeməneit] – v. proceed or issue forth, as from a source: Water emanates from this hole in the ground

emancipate [iˈmænsipeit] – v. give equal rights to; of women and minorities

emancipator  – n. someone who frees others from bondage

embargo [emˈbɑ:gəu] – v. ban the publication of (documents), as for security or copyright reasons: embargoed publications

embark [imˈbɑ:k] – v. go on board

embarrass [imˈbærəs] – v. hinder or prevent the progress or accomplishment of

embellish [imˈbeliʃ] – v. add details to

embezzle [imˈbezl] – v. appropriate (as property entrusted to one’s care) fraudulently to one’s own use: The accountant embezzled thousands of dollars while working for the wealthy family

emblazon [imˈbleizn] – v. decorate with colors

emblem [ˈembləm] – n. special design or visual object representing a quality, type, group, etc.

embodiment [imˈbɔdimənt] – n. a new personification of a familiar idea: the embodiment of hope

embody [imˈbɔdi] – v. represent in bodily form

embolden [imˈbəuldən] – v. give encouragement to

embolism [ˈembəlizəm] – n. an insertion into a calendar

embroil [imˈbrɔil] – v. force into some kind of situation, condition, or course of action

emend [iˈmend] – v. make improvements or corrections to: the text was emended in the second edition

emergence [iˈmə:dʒəns] – n. the gradual beginning or coming forth: figurines presage the emergence of sculpture in Greece

emergent [iˈmə:dʒənt] – adj. occurring unexpectedly and requiring urgent action: emergent repair of an aorta

emeritus [iˈmeritəs] – n. a professor or minister who is retired from assigned duties

emigrant [ˈemigrənt] – n. someone who leaves one country to settle in another

emigrate [ˈemigreit] – v. leave one’s country of residence for a new one: Many people had to emigrate during the Nazi period

eminence [ˈeminəns] – n. high status importance owing to marked superiority: a scholar of great eminence

eminent [ˈeminənt] – adj. standing above others in quality or position: eminent members of the community

emit [iˈmit] – v. expel (gases or odors)

emollient [iˈmɔliənt] – adj. having a softening or soothing effect especially to the skin

emote [iˈməut] – v. give expression or emotion to, in a stage or movie role

empathetic  – adj. showing empathy or ready comprehension of others’ states: a sensitive and empathetic school counselor

empathy [ˈempəθi] – n. understanding and entering into another’s feelings

emphasize [ˈemfəsaiz] – v. to stress, single out as important: Dr. Jones emphasizes exercise in addition to a change in diet

emphatic [imˈfætik] – adj. sudden and strong: an emphatic no

empiric  – adj. relying on medical quackery: empiric treatment

empirical [emˈpirikəl] – adj. derived from experiment and observation rather than theory: an empirical basis for an ethical theory

emporium [emˈpɔ:riəm] – n. a large retail store organized into departments offering a variety of merchandise; commonly part of a retail chain

empower [imˈpauə] – v. give or delegate power or authority to

emulate [ˈemjuleit] – v. strive to equal or match, especially by imitating

enact [iˈnækt] – v. order by virtue of superior authority; decree: the legislature enacted this law in 1985

enamor [iˈnæmə] – v. attract; cause to be enamored

encamp [inˈkæmp] – v. live in or as if in a tent

encomium [inˈkəumiəm] – n. a formal expression of praise

encompass [inˈkʌmpəs] – v. include in scope; include as part of something broader; have as one’s sphere or territory: This group encompasses a wide range of people from different backgrounds

encore [ˈɔŋkɔ:] – n. an extra or repeated performance; usually given in response to audience demand

encroach [inˈkrəutʃ] – v. advance beyond the usual limit

encumber [inˈkʌmbə] – v. hold back

encumbrance [inˈkʌmbrəns] – n. an onerous or difficult concern

encyclical [enˈsiklikəl] – n. a letter from the pope sent to all Roman Catholic bishops throughout the world

encyclopedia [en.saikləuˈpi:diə] – n. a reference work (often in several volumes) containing articles on various topics (often arranged in alphabetical order) dealing with the entire range of human knowledge or with some particular specialty

endanger [inˈdeindʒə] – v. pose a threat to; present a danger to: The pollution is endangering the crops

endear [inˈdiə] – v. make attractive or lovable: This behavior endeared her to me

endemic [enˈdemik,in-] – adj. native to or confined to a certain region: the islands have a number of interesting endemic species

endorse [inˈdɔ:s] – v. be behind; approve of

endorsement [inˈdɔ:smənt] – n. a promotional statement (as found on the dust jackets of books)

endue [inˈdju:] – v. give qualities or abilities to

endurable [inˈdjurəbl] – adj. capable of being borne though unpleasant

endurance [inˈdjuərəns] – n. the power to withstand hardship or stress: the marathon tests a runner’s endurance

enduring [inˈdjuəriŋ] – adj. unceasing

energetic [.enəˈdʒetik] – adj. working hard to promote an enterprise

enervate [ˈenəveit] – v. weaken mentally or morally

enfeeble [inˈfi:bl] – v. make weak

enfranchise [inˈfræntʃaiz] – v. grant freedom to; as from slavery or servitude: Slaves were enfranchised in the mid-19th century

engender [inˈdʒendə] – v. call forth

engrave [inˈgreiv] – v. carve, cut, or etch into a material or surface: engrave a pen

engross [inˈgrəus] – v. devote (oneself) fully to

enigma [iˈnigmə] – n. something that baffles understanding and cannot be explained

enigmatic [.enigˈmætik] – adj. not clear to the understanding: I didn’t grasp the meaning of that enigmatic comment until much later

enjoin [inˈdʒɔin] – v. issue an injunction

enkindle [inˈkindl] – v. cause to start burning

enlighten [inˈlaitn] – v. make understand: Can you enlighten me–I don’t understand this proposal

enlist [inˈlist] – v. join the military

enmity [ˈenmiti] – n. a state of deep-seated ill-will

ennoble [iˈnəubl] – v. confer dignity or honor upon

ennui [ɔnˈwi:] – n. the feeling of being bored by something tedious

enormity [iˈnɔ:məti] – n. the quality of being outrageous

enrage [inˈreidʒ] – v. put into a rage; make violently angry

enrapture [inˈræptʃə] – v. hold spellbound

ensconce [inˈskɔns] – v. fix firmly: He ensconced himself in the chair

enshrine [inˈʃrain] – v. enclose in a shrine: the saint’s bones were enshrined in the cathedral

enshroud  – v. cover as if with a shroud

ensnare [inˈsneə] – v. take or catch as if in a snare or trap

entail [inˈteil] – v. have as a logical consequence

entangle [inˈtæŋgəl] – v. entrap

enthrall [inˈθrɔ:l] – v. hold spellbound

enthrone [inˈθrəun] – v. provide with power and authority

enthuse [inˈθju:z] – v. utter with enthusiasm

enthusiastic [in.θju:ziˈæstik] – adj. having or showing great excitement and interest: enthusiastic crowds filled the streets

entirety [inˈtaiəti] – n. the state of being total and complete: he read the article in its entirety

entomology [.entəˈmɔlədʒi] – n. the branch of zoology that studies insects

entourage  – n. the group following and attending to some important person

entrails [ˈentreilz] – n. internal organs collectively (especially those in the abdominal cavity)

entreat [inˈtri:t] – v. ask for or request earnestly

entreaty [inˈtri:ti] – n. earnest or urgent request: an entreaty to stop the fighting

entree [ˈɔntrei] – n. the principal dish of a meal

entrench [inˈtrentʃ] – v. fix firmly or securely

entwine [inˈtwain] – v. tie or link together

enumerate [iˈnju:məreit] – v. specify individually: She enumerated the many obstacles she had encountered

enunciation [i.nʌnsiˈeiʃən,-ʃi-] – n. the articulation of speech regarded from the point of view of its intelligibility to the audience

envenom  – v. cause to be bitter or resentful

ephemeral [iˈfemərəl] – n. anything short-lived, as an insect that lives only for a day in its winged form

epic [ˈepik] – adj. very imposing or impressive; surpassing the ordinary (especially in size or scale): an epic voyage

epicure [ˈepikjuə] – n. a person devoted to refined sensuous enjoyment (especially good food and drink)

Epicurean  – adj. of Epicurus or epicureanism: Epicurean philosophy

epicycle [ˈepisaikl] – n. a circle that rolls around (inside or outside) another circle; generates an epicycloid or hypocycloid

epicycloid [,epiˈsaiklɔid] – n. a line generated by a point on a circle rolling around another circle

epidemic [.epiˈdemik] – n. a widespread outbreak of an infectious disease; many people are infected at the same time

epidermis [.epiˈdə:mis] – n. the outer layer of the skin covering the exterior body surface of vertebrates

epigram [ˈepigræm] – n. a witty saying

epilogue [ˈepilɔg] – n. a short speech (often in verse) addressed directly to the audience by an actor at the end of a play

epiphany [iˈpifəni] – n. a divine manifestation

episode [ˈepisəud] – n. a happening that is distinctive in a series of related events

epistle [iˈpisl] – n. a specially long, formal letter

epistolary  – adj. written in the form of or carried on by letters or correspondence: an endless sequence of epistolary love affairs

epitaph [ˈepitɑ:f] – n. an inscription on a tombstone or monument in memory of the person buried there

epithet [ˈepiθet] – n. a defamatory or abusive word or phrase

epitome [iˈpitəmi] – n. a standard or typical example

epizootic [,epizəuˈɔtik] – adj. (of animals) epidemic among animals of a single kind within a particular region: an epizootic disease

epoch [ˈi:pɔk] – n. a period marked by distinctive character or reckoned from a fixed point or event

equable [ˈekwəbəl] – adj. not varying: an equable climate

equalize [ˈi:kwəlaiz] – v. make equal, uniform, corresponding, or matching: let’s equalize the duties among all employees in this office

equanimity [.i:kwəˈnimiti] – n. steadiness of mind under stress: he accepted their problems with composure and she with equanimity

equestrian [iˈkwestriən] – adj. of or relating to or composed of knights

equilibrium [.i:kwiˈlibriəm] – n. a stable situation in which forces cancel one another

equitable [ˈekwitəbəl] – adj. fair to all parties as dictated by reason and conscience: equitable treatment of all citizens

equity [ˈekwiti] – n. the difference between the market value of a property and the claims held against it

equivocal [iˈkwivəkəl] – adj. open to two or more interpretations; or of uncertain nature or significance; or (often) intended to mislead: an equivocal statement

equivocate [iˈkwivəkeit] – v. be deliberately ambiguous or unclear in order to mislead or withhold information

eradicate [iˈrædikeit] – v. kill in large numbers

err [ə:] – v. to make a mistake or be incorrect

errant [ˈerənt] – adj. straying from the right course or from accepted standards: errant youngsters

erratic [iˈrætik] – adj. liable to sudden unpredictable change: erratic behavior

erroneous [iˈrəuniəs] – adj. containing or characterized by error: erroneous conclusions

erudite [ˈerudait] – adj. having or showing profound knowledge: an erudite professor

erudition [.eru:ˈdiʃən] – n. profound scholarly knowledge

escapade [ˈeskəpeid] – n. a wild and exciting undertaking (not necessarily lawful)

eschew [isˈtʃu:] – v. avoid and stay away from deliberately; stay clear of

esoteric [.esəˈterik] – adj. confined to and understandable by only an enlightened inner circle: a compilation of esoteric philosophical theories

espouse [iˈspauz] – v. choose and follow; as of theories, ideas, policies, strategies or plans: The candidate espouses Republican ideals

espy [iˈspai] – v. catch sight of

esquire [isˈkwaiə] – n. (Middle Ages) an attendant and shield bearer to a knight; a candidate for knighthood

essence [ˈesns] – n. the choicest or most essential or most vital part of some idea or experience

esthetic [i:sˈθetik] – adj. concerning or characterized by an appreciation of beauty or good taste: the aesthetic faculties

estimable [ˈestiməbəl] – adj. deserving of respect or high regard

estrange [iˈstreindʒ] – v. remove from customary environment or associations: years of boarding school estranged the child from her home

estrangement  – n. separation resulting from hostility

estuary [ˈestʃuəri] – n. the wide part of a river where it nears the sea; fresh and salt water mix

ethereal [iˈθiəriəl] – adj. characterized by lightness and insubstantiality; as impalpable or intangible as air: physical rather than ethereal forms

etymology [.etiˈmɔlədʒi] – n. a history of a word

eugenic [ju:ˈdʒenik] – adj. pertaining to or causing improvement in the offspring produced

eulogize [ˈjulədʒaiz] – v. praise formally and eloquently: The dead woman was eulogized at the funeral

eulogy [ˈju:lədʒi] – n. a formal expression of praise for someone who has died recently

euphemism [ˈju:fimizəm] – n. an inoffensive or indirect expression that is substituted for one that is considered offensive or too harsh

euphonious [ju:ˈfəuniəs] – adj. having a pleasant sound: a euphonious trill of silver laughter

euphony [ˈju:fəni] – n. any agreeable (pleasing and harmonious) sounds

euphoric  – adj. exaggerated feeling of well-being or elation

eureka [juəˈri:kə] – n. an alloy of copper and nickel with high electrical resistance and a low temperature coefficient; used as resistance wire

evacuate [iˈvækjueit] – v. move out of an unsafe location into safety: After the earthquake, residents were evacuated

evade [iˈveid] – v. avoid or try to avoid fulfilling, answering, or performing (duties, questions, or issues): They tend to evade their responsibilities

evanesce [i:vəˈnes] – v. disappear gradually

evanescent [.evəˈnesənt] – adj. tending to vanish like vapor: evanescent beauty

evangelical [ˈi:vænˈdʒelikl, ˈevən-] – adj. of or pertaining to or in keeping with the Christian gospel especially as in the first 4 books of the New Testament

evangelist [iˈvændʒilist] – n. a preacher of the Christian gospel

evasion [iˈveiʒən] – n. a statement that is not literally false but that cleverly avoids an unpleasant truth

evasiveness  – n. intentionally vague or ambiguous

eventual [iˈventjuəl] – adj. expected to follow in the indefinite future from causes already operating: hope of eventual (or ultimate) rescue

evert  – n. United States tennis player who won women’s singles titles in the United States and at Wimbledon (born in 1954)

evict [iˈvikt] – v. expel or eject without recourse to legal process: The landlord wanted to evict the tenants so he banged on the pipes every morning at 3 a.m.

evidential [,eviˈdenʃəl] – adj. serving as or based on evidence: evidential signs of a forced entry

evince [iˈvins] – v. give expression to

evoke [iˈvəuk] – v. call forth (emotions, feelings, and responses): evoke sympathy

evolve [iˈvɔlv] – v. work out

exacerbate [igˈzæsəbeit] – v. make worse

exaggerate [igˈzædʒəreit] – v. to enlarge beyond bounds or the truth: tended to romanticize and exaggerate this `gracious Old South’ imagery

exalt [igˈzɔ:lt, eg-] – v. praise, glorify, or honor

exasperate [igˈzɑ:spəreit] – v. make furious

exasperated  – adj. greatly annoyed; out of patience: had an exasperated look on his face

exasperation [ig.zɑ:spəˈreiʃən] – n. actions that cause great irritation (or even anger)

excavate [ˈekskəveit] – v. recover through digging: Schliemann excavated Troy

excel [ikˈsel] – v. distinguish oneself: She excelled in math

excellence [ˈeksələns] – n. an outstanding feature; something in which something or someone excels: a center of manufacturing excellence

excellency  – n. a title used to address dignitaries (such as ambassadors or governors); usually preceded by `Your’ or `His’ or `Her’

exceptionable [ikˈsepʃənəbəl] – adj. liable to objection or debate; used of something one might take exception to: a thoroughly unpleasant highly exceptionable piece of writing

excerpt [ˈeksə:pt,ekˈsə:pt] – n. a passage selected from a larger work: he presented excerpts from William James’ philosophical writings

excess [ikˈses] – n. a quantity much larger than is needed

excitable [ikˈsaitəbəl] – adj. capable of responding to stimuli

excitation [,eksiˈteiʃən] – n. the state of being emotionally aroused and worked up

exclamation [.ekskləˈmeiʃən] – n. an abrupt excited utterance: she gave an exclamation of delight

exclusion [iksˈklu:ʒən] – n. the state of being excommunicated

excrescence [iksˈkresns] – n. something that bulges out or is protuberant or projects from its surroundings: the bony excrescence between its horns

excretion [eksˈkri:ʃən] – n. the bodily process of discharging waste matter

excruciate [iksˈkru:ʃieit] – v. torment emotionally or mentally

exculpate [ˈekskʌlpeit] – v. pronounce not guilty of criminal charges

excursion [iksˈkə:ʃən] – n. a journey taken for pleasure: many summer excursions to the shore

excusable [iksˈkju:zəbl] – adj. capable of being overlooked

execrable [ˈeksikrəbəl] – adj. of very poor quality or condition

execration [eksiˈkreiʃən] – n. hate coupled with disgust

execute [ˈeksikju:t] – v. kill as a means of socially sanctioned punishment: In some states, criminals are executed

executor [igˈzekjutə] – n. a person appointed by a testator to carry out the terms of the will

exegesis [.eksiˈdʒi:sis] – n. an explanation or critical interpretation (especially of the Bible)

exemplar [igˈzemplə] – n. something to be imitated: an exemplar of success

exemplary [igˈzempləri] – adj. worthy of imitation: exemplary behavior

exemplify [igˈzemplifai] – v. be characteristic of

exempt [igˈzempt] – adj. (of goods or funds) not subject to taxation: income exempt from taxation

exert [igˈzə:t] – v. put to use: exert one’s power or influence

exhale [eksˈheil, egˈzeil] – v. expel air

exhaust [igˈzɔ:st] – v. wear out completely: This kind of work exhausts me

exhaustible [igˈzɔ:stəbl] – adj. capable of being used up

exhaustion [igˈzɔ:stʃən] – n. extreme fatigue

exhaustive [igˈzɔ:stiv] – adj. performed comprehensively and completely: an exhaustive study

exhilarate [igˈziləreit] – v. fill with sublime emotion

exhilarating [igˈziləreitiŋ] – adj. making lively and cheerful: the exhilarating effect of mountain air

exhort [igˈzɔ:t] – v. spur on or encourage especially by cheers and shouts

exhume [igˈzju:m,eksˈhju:m] – v. dig up for reburial or for medical investigation; of dead bodies

exigency [ˈeksidʒənsi] – n. a pressing or urgent situation: the health-care exigency

exigent [ˈeksidʒənt] – adj. demanding attention: regarded literary questions as exigent and momentous

exit [ˈeksit] – n. an opening that permits escape or release

exodus [ˈeksədəs] – n. a journey by a large group to escape from a hostile environment

exonerate [igˈzɔnəreit] – v. pronounce not guilty of criminal charges

exonerated  – adj. freed from any question of guilt

exorbitance [igˈzɔ:bitəns] – n. excessive excess

exorbitant [igˈzɔ:bitənt] – adj. greatly exceeding bounds of reason or moderation: exorbitant rent

exorcise [ˈeksɔ:saiz] – v. expel through adjuration or prayers: exorcise evil spirits

exorcism [ˈeksɔ:sizəm] – n. freeing from evil spirits

exotic [egˈzɔtik] – adj. being or from or characteristic of another place or part of the world: exotic plants in a greenhouse

expanse [iksˈpæns] – n. a wide scope

expatiate [ikˈspeiʃieit] – v. add details, as to an account or idea; clarify the meaning of and discourse in a learned way, usually in writing

expatriate [ekˈspætrieit] – v. expel from a country

expectancy [ikˈspektənsi] – n. something expected (as on the basis of a norm): an indicator of expectancy in development

expectorate [eksˈpektəreit] – v. clear out the chest and lungs: This drug expectorates quickly

expediency [ikˈspi:diənsi] – n. the quality of being suited to the end in view

expedient [iksˈpi:diənt] – adj. serving to promote your interest: was merciful only when mercy was expedient

expedite [ˈekspidait] – v. speed up the progress of; facilitate: This should expedite the process

expeditious [.ekspiˈdiʃəs] – adj. marked by speed and efficiency

expend [iksˈpend] – v. use up, consume fully: The legislature expended its time on school questions

expiate [ˈekspieit] – v. make amends for: expiate one’s sins

explicate [ˈeksplikeit] – v. make plain and comprehensible

explicit [iksˈplisit] – adj. precisely and clearly expressed or readily observable; leaving nothing to implication: explicit instructions

explicitly [ikˈsplisitli] – adv. in an explicit manner: in his foreword Professor Clark puts it explicitly

explode [iksˈpləud] – v. cause to burst with a violent release of energy: We exploded the nuclear bomb

explosion [iksˈpləuʒən] – n. a violent release of energy caused by a chemical or nuclear reaction

explosive [iksˈpləusiv] – adj. liable to lead to sudden change or violence: an explosive issue

exposition [.ekspəˈziʃən] – n. a systematic interpretation or explanation (usually written) of a specific topic

expository [iksˈpɔzi,təri] – adj. serving to expound or set forth: clean expository writing

expostulate [ikˈspɔstʃuleit] – v. reason with (somebody) for the purpose of dissuasion

exposure [iksˈpəuʒə] – n. vulnerability to the elements; to the action of heat or cold or wind or rain: exposure to the weather

expressive [iksˈpresiv] – adj. characterized by expression: a very expressive face

expropriate [ikˈsprəuprieit] – v. deprive of possessions: The Communist government expropriated the landowners

expulsion [ikˈspʌlʃən] – n. the act of forcing out someone or something: the child’s expulsion from school

expunge [ikˈspʌndʒ] – v. remove by erasing or crossing out or as if by drawing a line

expurgate [ˈekspəgeit] – v. edit by omitting or modifying parts considered indelicate

extant [ikˈstænt] – adj. still in existence; not extinct or destroyed or lost: extant manuscripts

extemporaneous [ik.stempəˈreiniəs] – adj. with little or no preparation or forethought: an extemporaneous piano recital

extempore [eksˈtempəri] – adj. with little or no preparation or forethought: an extempore skit

extensible [iksˈtensəbl] – adj. capable of being protruded or stretched or opened out: an extensible measuring rule

extensor [iksˈtensə] – n. a skeletal muscle whose contraction extends or stretches a body part

extenuate [ikˈstenjueit] – v. lessen or to try to lessen the seriousness or extent of: The circumstances extenuate the crime

exterior [eksˈtiəriə] – n. the region that is outside of something

extinct [iksˈtiŋkt] – adj. no longer in existence; lost or especially having died out leaving no living representatives: an extinct species of fish

extinguish [iksˈtiŋgwiʃ] – v. put an end to; kill

extirpate [ˈekstə:peit] – v. destroy completely, as if down to the roots

extirpation  – n. surgical removal of a body part or tissue

extol [iksˈtɔl] – v. praise, glorify, or honor: extol the virtues of one’s children

extort [ikˈstɔ:t] – v. obtain through intimidation

extortion [ikˈstɔ:ʃən] – n. an exorbitant charge

extradite [ˈekstrədait] – v. hand over to the authorities of another country: They extradited the fugitive to his native country so he could be tried there

extradition [ekstrəˈdiʃən] – n. the surrender of an accused or convicted person by one state or country to another (usually under the provisions of a statute or treaty)

extrajudicial [,ekstrədʒu:ˈdiʃəl] – adj. beyond the usual course of legal proceedings; legally unwarranted: an extrajudicial penalty

extraneous [ikˈstreiniəs] – adj. not pertinent to the matter under consideration: an issue extraneous to the debate

extrapolate [ikˈstræpəleit] – v. draw from specific cases for more general cases

extravagance [ikˈstrævəgəns] – n. the quality of exceeding the appropriate limits of decorum or probability or truth: we were surprised by the extravagance of his description

extravagant [iksˈtrævəgənt] – adj. unrestrained, especially with regard to feelings: extravagant praise

extremist  – n. a person who holds extreme views

extremity [iksˈtremiti] – n. an external body part that projects from the body

extricate [ˈekstrikeit] – v. release from entanglement of difficulty: I cannot extricate myself from this task

extrinsic [ekˈstrinsik] – adj. not forming an essential part of a thing or arising or originating from the outside: extrinsic evidence

extrude [ikˈstru:d] – v. form or shape by forcing through an opening: extrude steel

exuberance [igˈzju:bərəns] – n. joyful enthusiasm

exuberant [igˈzju:bərənt] – adj. joyously unrestrained

exult [igˈzʌlt] – v. feel extreme happiness or elation

fa  – n. the syllable naming the fourth (subdominant) note of the diatonic scale in solmization

fabricate [ˈfæbrikeit] – v. put together out of artificial or natural components or parts: the company fabricates plastic chairs

fabrication [.fæbriˈkeiʃən] – n. a deliberately false or improbable account

fabulous [ˈfæbjuləs] – adj. extremely pleasing: a fabulous vacation

facet [ˈfæsit] – n. a distinct feature or element in a problem: he studied every facet of the question

facetious [fəˈsi:ʃəs] – adj. cleverly amusing in tone: facetious remarks

facial [ˈfeiʃəl] – n. care for the face that usually involves cleansing and massage and the application of cosmetic creams

facile [ˈfæsail] – adj. arrived at without due care or effort; lacking depth: too facile a solution for so complex a problem

facilitate [fəˈsiliteit] – v. make easier: you could facilitate the process by sharing your knowledge

facsimile [fækˈsimili] – n. an exact copy or reproduction

faction [ˈfækʃən] – n. a clique (often secret) that seeks power usually through intrigue

factious [ˈfækʃəs] – adj. dissenting (especially dissenting with the majority opinion)

fallacious [fəˈleiʃəs] – adj. intended to deceive: fallacious testimony

fallacy [ˈfæləsi] – n. a misconception resulting from incorrect reasoning

fallible [ˈfæləbəl] – adj. likely to fail or make errors: everyone is fallible to some degree

fallow [ˈfæləu] – adj. left unplowed and unseeded during a growing season: fallow farmland

falter [ˈfɔ:ltə] – v. be unsure or weak: Their enthusiasm is faltering

famish [ˈfæmiʃ] – v. be hungry; go without food

fanatic [fəˈnætik] – n. a person motivated by irrational enthusiasm (as for a cause): A fanatic is one who can’t change his mind and won’t change the subject

fanatical [fəˈnætikəl] – adj. marked by excessive enthusiasm for and intense devotion to a cause or idea

fanaticism [fəˈnætisizəm] – n. excessive intolerance of opposing views

fancier [ˈfænsiə] – n. a person having a strong liking for something

fastidious [fæˈstidiəs] – adj. giving careful attention to detail; hard to please; excessively concerned with cleanliness: a fastidious and incisive intellect

fathom [ˈfæðəm] – n. a linear unit of measurement (equal to 6 feet) for water depth

fatuous [ˈfætʃuəs] – adj. devoid of intelligence

faulty [ˈfɔ:lti] – adj. having a defect

faun [fɔ:n] – n. ancient Italian deity in human shape, with horns, pointed ears and a goat’s tail; equivalent to Greek satyr

fawn [fɔ:n] – v. show submission or fear

fealty [ˈfi:əlti] – n. the loyalty that citizens owe to their country (or subjects to their sovereign)

feasible [ˈfi:zəbl] – adj. capable of being done with means at hand and circumstances as they are

fecund [ˈfekənd, ˈfi:kənd] – adj. capable of producing offspring or vegetation

federate [ˈfedərit] – v. enter into a league for a common purpose: The republics federated to become the Soviet Union

feint [feint] – n. any distracting or deceptive maneuver (as a mock attack)

felicitate [fiˈlisiteit] – v. express congratulations

felicitous [fiˈlisitəs] – adj. exhibiting an agreeably appropriate manner or style: a felicitous speaker

felicity [fiˈlisiti] – n. pleasing and appropriate manner or style (especially manner or style of expression)

felon [ˈfelən] – n. someone who has committed a crime or has been legally convicted of a crime

felonious [fiˈləunjəs] – adj. involving or being or having the nature of a crime: felonious intent

felony [ˈfeləni] – n. a serious crime (such as murder or arson)

feminine [ˈfeminin] – adj. associated with women and not with men: feminine intuition

feral  – adj. wild and menacing: a pack of feral dogs

ferocious [fəˈrəuʃəs] – adj. marked by extreme and violent energy: a ferocious beating

ferocity [fəˈrɔsiti] – n. the property of being wild or turbulent

fervent [ˈfə:vənt] – adj. characterized by intense emotion: a fervent desire to change society

fervid [ˈfə:vid] – adj. characterized by intense emotion

fervor [ˈfə:və] – n. feelings of great warmth and intensity

festal [ˈfestl] – adj. offering fun and gaiety: a festive (or festal) occasion

festive [ˈfestiv] – adj. offering fun and gaiety: a festive (or festal) occasion

fete [feit] – n. an elaborate party (often outdoors)

fetid [ˈfi:tid] – adj. offensively malodorous

fetter [ˈfetə] – n. a shackle for the ankles or feet

fetus [ˈfi:təs] – n. an unborn or unhatched vertebrate in the later stages of development showing the main recognizable features of the mature animal

feudal [ˈfju:dl] – adj. of or relating to or characteristic of feudalism

feudalism [ˈfju:dəlizəm] – n. the social system that developed in Europe in the 8th century; vassals were protected by lords who they had to serve in war

fez [fez] – n. a city in north central Morocco; religious center

fiasco [fiˈæskəu] – n. a sudden and violent collapse

fickle [ˈfikəl] – adj. marked by erratic changeableness in affections or attachments: fickle friends

fictitious [fikˈtiʃəs] – adj. formed or conceived by the imagination

fidelity [fiˈdeliti] – n. accuracy with which an electronic system reproduces the sound or image of its input signal

fiducial [fiˈdju:ʃəl] – adj. relating to or of the nature of a legal trust (i.e. the holding of something in trust for another): fiducial power

fief [fi:f] – n. a piece of land held under the feudal system

figurative [ˈfigjurətiv] – adj. consisting of or forming human or animal figures: the figurative art of the humanistic tradition

filial [ˈfiliəl] – adj. designating the generation or the sequence of generations following the parental generation

filibuster [ˈfilibʌstə] – n. a legislator who gives long speeches in an effort to delay or obstruct legislation that he (or she) opposes

finagle  – v. achieve something by means of trickery or devious methods

finale [fiˈnɑ:li] – n. the closing section of a musical composition

finality [faiˈnæliti] – n. the quality of being final or definitely settled: the finality of death

financier [faiˈnænsiə] – n. a person skilled in large scale financial transactions

finery [ˈfainəri] – n. elaborate or showy attire and accessories

finesse [fiˈnes] – n. subtly skillful handling of a situation

finite [ˈfainait] – adj. bounded or limited in magnitude or spatial or temporal extent

fiscal [ˈfiskəl] – adj. involving financial matters: fiscal responsibility

fishmonger [ˈfiʃmʌŋgər] – n. someone who sells fish

fissure [ˈfiʃə] – n. a long narrow depression in a surface

fitful [ˈfitfəl] – adj. occurring in spells and often abruptly: fitful bursts of energy

fixture [ˈfikstʃə] – n. an object firmly fixed in place (especially in a household)

flaccid [ˈflæksid] – adj. drooping without elasticity; wanting in stiffness: a flaccid penis

flag [flæg] – n. emblem usually consisting of a rectangular piece of cloth of distinctive design

flagrant [ˈfleigrənt] – adj. conspicuously and outrageously bad or reprehensible: flagrant violation of human rights

flamboyant [flæmˈbɔiənt] – adj. marked by ostentation but often tasteless

flatulence [ˈflætjuləns] – n. a state of excessive gas in the alimentary canal

flaunt [flɔ:nt] – n. the act of displaying something ostentatiously: his behavior was an outrageous flaunt

flection [ˈflekʃən] – n. the state of being flexed (as of a joint)

fledgling [ˈfledʒliŋ] – n. any new participant in some activity

flimsy [ˈflimzi] – adj. lacking solidity or strength: a flimsy table

flippant [ˈflipənt] – adj. showing inappropriate levity

floe [fləu] – n. a flat mass of ice (smaller than an ice field) floating at sea

flora [ˈflɔ:rə] – n. all the plant life in a particular region or period: the flora of southern California

floral [ˈflɔ:rəl] – adj. relating to or associated with flowers: floral organs

florid [ˈflɔrid] – adj. elaborately or excessively ornamented: the senator’s florid speech

florist [ˈflɔ:rist] – n. someone who grows and deals in flowers: the florist made up an attractive bouquet

flotsam [ˈflɔtsəm] – n. the floating wreckage of a ship

flout [flaut] – v. treat with contemptuous disregard: flout the rules

fluctuate [ˈflʌktjueit] – v. move or sway in a rising and falling or wavelike pattern

fluctuation [.flʌktjuˈeiʃən] – n. a wave motion: the fluctuations of the sea

flue [flu:] – n. organ pipe whose tone is produced by air passing across the sharp edge of a fissure or lip

fluent [ˈflu:ənt] – adj. smooth and unconstrained in movement

flux [flʌks] – n. a flow or discharge

fly-by-night  – adj. (of businesses and businessmen) unscrupulous

foggy [ˈfɔgi] – adj. stunned or confused and slow to react (as from blows or drunkenness or exhaustion)

foible [ˈfɔibəl] – n. a behavioral attribute that is distinctive and peculiar to an individual

foil [fɔil] – n. a piece of thin and flexible sheet metal: the photographic film was wrapped in foil

foist [fɔist] – v. to force onto another: He foisted his work on me

foliage [ˈfəuliidʒ] – n. the main organ of photosynthesis and transpiration in higher plants

folio [ˈfəuliəu] – n. the system of numbering pages

folklore [ˈfəʊklɔ:(r)] – n. the unwritten lore (stories and proverbs and riddles and songs) of a culture

foment [fəuˈment] – v. try to stir up public opinion

fondle [ˈfɔndl] – v. touch or stroke lightly in a loving or endearing manner: They fondled in the back seat of the taxi

foolery [ˈfu:ləri] – n. foolish or senseless behavior

foppish [ˈfɔpiʃ] – adj. affecting extreme elegance in dress and manner

forage [ˈfɔridʒ] – n. the act of searching for food and provisions

foraging  – n. the act of searching for food and provisions

forbearance [fɔ:ˈbeərəns] – n. good-natured tolerance of delay or incompetence

forcible [ˈfɔ:səbəl] – adj. impelled by physical force especially against resistance: forcible entry

forebode [fɔ:ˈbəud] – v. make a prediction about; tell in advance

foreboding [fɔ:ˈbəudiŋ] – n. a feeling of evil to come: a steadily escalating sense of foreboding

forecastle [ˈfəuksl] – n. living quarters consisting of a superstructure in the bow of a merchant ship where the crew is housed

foreclose [fɔ:ˈkləuz] – v. keep from happening or arising; make impossible

forecourt [ˈfɔ:kɔ:t] – n. the outer or front court of a building or of a group of buildings

forefather [ˈfɔ:.fɑ:ðə] – n. the founder of a family: keep the faith of our forefathers

forego [fɔ:ˈgəu] – v. be earlier in time; go back further

foreground [ˈfɔ:graund] – n. the part of a scene that is near the viewer

foreigner [ˈfɔ:rinə] – n. someone who is excluded from or is not a member of a group

foreknowledge [ˈfɔ:nɔlidʒ] – n. knowledge of an event before it occurs

foreman [ˈfɔ:mən] – n. a person who exercises control over workers: if you want to leave early you have to ask the foreman

forensic [fəˈrensik] – adj. of, relating to, or used in public debate or argument

foreordain [.fɔ:rɔ:ˈdein] – v. foreordain by divine will or decree

foreordination [,fɔ:rɔ:diˈneiʃən] – n. (theology) being determined in advance; especially the doctrine (usually associated with Calvin) that God has foreordained every event throughout eternity (including the final salvation of mankind)

foresail [ˈfɔ:seil] – n. the lowest sail on the foremast of a square-rigged vessel

foresee [fɔ:ˈsi:] – v. picture to oneself; imagine possible

foreshore [ˈfɔ:ʃɔ:] – n. the part of the seashore between the highwater mark and the low-water mark

foresight [ˈfɔ:sait] – n. providence by virtue of planning prudently for the future

forestall [fɔ:ˈstɔ:l] – v. keep from happening or arising; make impossible

foretell [fɔ:ˈtel] – v. make a prediction about; tell in advance

forethought [ˈfɔ:θɔ:t] – n. planning or plotting in advance of acting

forfeit [ˈfɔ:fit] – n. something that is lost or surrendered as a penalty

forfend  – v. prevent the occurrence of; prevent from happening

forgery [ˈfɔ:dʒəri] – n. a copy that is represented as the original

forgo [fɔ:ˈgəu] – v. do without or cease to hold or adhere to

forlorn [fəˈlɔ:n] – adj. marked by or showing hopelessness: the last forlorn attempt

formidable [ˈfɔ:midəbl] – adj. extremely impressive in strength or excellence: a formidable opponent

forsake [fəˈseik] – v. leave someone who needs or counts on you; leave in the lurch

forswear [fɔ:ˈsweə] – v. formally reject or disavow a formerly held belief, usually under pressure

forte [ˈfɔ:ti, ˈfɔ:tei] – n. an asset of special worth or utility: cooking is his forte

forth [fɔ:θ] – adv. forward in time or order or degree: from that time forth

forthright [ˈfɔ:θrait] – adj. characterized by directness in manner or speech; without subtlety or evasion: forthright criticism

fortify [ˈfɔ:tifai] – v. make strong or stronger

fortitude [ˈfɔ:titju:d] – n. strength of mind that enables one to endure adversity with courage

fortuitous [fɔ:ˈtju(:)itəs] – adj. having no cause or apparent cause: fortuitous encounters–strange accidents of fortune

forum [ˈfɔ:rəm] – n. a public facility to meet for open discussion

foster [ˈfɔstə] – v. promote the growth of

foursome  – n. the cardinal number that is the sum of three and one

fractious [ˈfrækʃəs] – adj. stubbornly resistant to authority or control: a fractious animal that would not submit to the harness

fracture [ˈfræktʃə] – v. violate or abuse: This writer really fractures the language

fragile [ˈfrædʒail] – adj. easily broken or damaged or destroyed: fragile porcelain plates

frailty [ˈfreilti] – n. the state of being weak in health or body (especially from old age)

frank [fræŋk] – n. a member of the ancient Germanic peoples who spread from the Rhine into the Roman Empire in the 4th century

frankincense [ˈfræŋkinsens] – n. an aromatic gum resin obtained from various Arabian or East African trees; formerly valued for worship and for embalming and fumigation

frantic [ˈfræntik] – adj. excessively agitated; distraught with fear or other violent emotion: frantic with anger and frustration

fraternal [frəˈtə:nəl] – adj. (of twins) derived from two separate fertilized ova: fraternal twins are biovular

fraudulence [ˈfrɔ:djuləns] – n. the quality of being fraudulent

fraudulent [ˈfrɔ:djulənt] – adj. intended to deceive: a fraudulent scheme to escape paying taxes

fraught [frɔ:t] – adj. marked by distress: a fraught mother-daughter relationship

fray [frei] – v. wear away by rubbing: The friction frayed the sleeve

freemason [ˈfri:meisn] – n. a member of a widespread secret fraternal order pledged to mutual assistance and brotherly love

freethinker [ˈfri:ˈθiŋkə] – n. a person who believes that God created the universe and then abandoned it

frenetic [friˈnetik] – adj. excessively agitated; distraught with fear or other violent emotion: frenetic screams followed the accident

fresco [ˈfreskəu] – n. a mural done with watercolors on wet plaster

freshness [ˈfreʃnis] – n. originality by virtue of being refreshingly novel

fretful [ˈfretfəl] – adj. nervous and unable to relax: a constant fretful stamping of hooves

frightful [ˈfraitful] – adj. provoking horror: a frightful crime of decapitation

frigid [ˈfridʒid] – adj. sexually unresponsive: a frigid woman

frivolity [friˈvɔliti] – n. something of little value or significance

frivolous [ˈfrivələs] – adj. not serious in content or attitude or behavior: a frivolous novel

frizz [friz] – n. the condition of being formed into small tight curls: her hair was in a frizz

frizzle [ˈfrizl] – v. fry something until it curls and becomes crisp

frolicsome [ˈfrɔliksəm] – adj. given to merry frolicking: frolicsome students celebrated their graduation with parties and practical jokes

frontier [ˈfrʌntjə] – n. a wilderness at the edge of a settled area of a country: the individualism of the frontier in Andrew Jackson’s day

frowzy [ˈfrauzi] – adj. negligent of neatness especially in dress and person; habitually dirty and unkempt: filled the door with her frowzy bulk

frugal [ˈfru:gəl] – adj. avoiding waste: a frugal farmer

frugality [fru(:)ˈgæliti] – n. prudence in avoiding waste

fruition [fru:ˈiʃən] – n. enjoyment derived from use or possession

fugacious [fju:ˈgeiʃəs] – adj. lasting a very short time: fugacious blossoms

fulcrum [ˈfulkrəm] – n. the pivot about which a lever turns

fulminate [ˈfulmineit] – v. criticize severely: He fulminated against the Republicans’ plan to cut Medicare

fulsome [ˈfulsəm] – adj. unpleasantly and excessively suave or ingratiating in manner or speech: gave him a fulsome introduction

fumigate [ˈfju:migeit] – v. treat with fumes, expose to fumes, especially with the aim of disinfecting or eradicating pests

functionary [ˈfʌŋkʃənəri] – n. a worker who holds or is invested with an office

funerary  – adj. of or for or relating to a funeral: funerary urn

fungible [ˈfʌndʒibl] – n. a commodity that is freely interchangeable with another in satisfying an obligation

fungous [ˈfʌŋgəs] – adj. of or relating to fungi

fungus [ˈfʌŋgəs] – n. an organism of the kingdom Fungi lacking chlorophyll and feeding on organic matter; ranging from unicellular or multicellular organisms to spore-bearing syncytia

furbish [ˈfə:biʃ] – v. polish and make shiny

furlong [ˈfə:lɔŋ] – n. a unit of length equal to 220 yards

furlough [ˈfə:ləu] – v. dismiss, usually for economic reasons

furrier [ˈfə:riə] – n. someone whose occupation is making or repairing fur garments

furrow [ˈfʌrəu] – v. make wrinkled or creased: furrow one’s brow

furtherance [ˈfə:ðərəns] – n. encouragement of the progress or growth or acceptance of something

furtive [ˈfə:tiv] – adj. marked by quiet and caution and secrecy; taking pains to avoid being observed: a furtive manner

furtiveness  – n. a disposition to be sly and stealthy and to do things surreptitiously

fuse [fju:z] – v. mix together different elements

fusible [ˈfju:zəbl] – adj. capable of being melted and fused

fusillade [.fju:ziˈleid] – n. rapid simultaneous discharge of firearms: our fusillade from the left flank caught them by surprise

futile [ˈfju:tail] – adj. producing no result or effect: a futile effort

futility [fju:ˈtiləti] – n. uselessness as a consequence of having no practical result

futurist [ˈfju:tʃərist] – n. someone who predicts the future

gaiety [ˈgeəti] – n. a gay feeling

gaily [ˈgeili] – adv. in a gay manner: the scandals were gaily diverting

gainsay [.geinˈsei] – v. take exception to

gait [geit] – n. the rate of moving (especially walking or running)

gallant [ˈgælənt] – adj. unflinching in battle or action: a gallant warrior

galleon [ˈgæliən] – n. a large square-rigged sailing ship with three or more masts; used by the Spanish for commerce and war from the 15th to 18th centuries

galore [gəˈlɔ:] – adj. in great numbers: daffodils galore

galvanic [gælˈvænik] – adj. pertaining to or producing electric current by chemical action: a galvanic cell

galvanism [ˈgælvənizm] – n. electricity produced by chemical action

galvanize [ˈgælvənaiz] – v. to stimulate to action: galvanized into action

gambit [ˈgæmbit] – n. an opening remark intended to secure an advantage for the speaker

gamble [ˈgæmbl] – n. money that is risked for possible monetary gain

gambol [ˈgæmbəl] – n. gay or light-hearted recreational activity for diversion or amusement

gamut [ˈgæmət] – n. a complete extent or range:: a face that expressed a gamut of emotions

garble [ˈgɑ:bəl] – v. make false by mutilation or addition; as of a message or story

garish [ˈgeəriʃ] – adj. tastelessly showy: garish colors

garner [ˈgɑ:nə] – v. acquire or deserve by one’s efforts or actions

garnish [ˈgɑ:niʃ] – n. something (such as parsley) added to a dish for flavor or decoration

garrison [ˈgærisn] – n. a fortified military post where troops are stationed

garrote [gəˈrɔt] – n. an instrument of execution for execution by strangulation

garrulous [ˈgærələs] – adj. full of trivial conversation

gaseous [ˈgæsiəs, ˈgeizjəs] – adj. existing as or having characteristics of a gas: steam is water is the gaseous state

gastric [ˈgæstrik] – adj. relating to or involving the stomach: gastric ulcer

gastritis [gæˈstraitis] – n. inflammation of the lining of the stomach; nausea and loss of appetite and discomfort after eating

gastronomy [gæˈstrɔnəmi] – n. a particular style of cookery (as of a region): New England gastronomy

gauge [geidʒ] – v. judge tentatively or form an estimate of (quantities or time)

gaunt [gɔ:nt] – adj. very thin especially from disease or hunger or cold: a nightmare population of gaunt men and skeletal boys

gendarme [ˈʒa:nda:m] – n. a French policeman

genealogist [,dʒi:niˈælədʒist] – n. an expert in genealogy

genealogy [dʒi:niˈælədʒi] – n. successive generations of kin

generality [dʒenəˈræliti] – n. the quality of being general or widespread or having general applicability

generalize [ˈdʒenərəlaiz] – v. speak or write in generalities

generic [dʒiˈnerik] – adj. relating to or common to or descriptive of all members of a genus: the generic name

generosity [.dʒenəˈrɔsiti] – n. the trait of being willing to give your money or time

genesis [ˈdʒenisis] – n. a coming into being

genial [ˈdʒi:niəl] – adj. diffusing warmth and friendliness: a genial host

geniality [.dʒi:niˈæliti] – n. a disposition to be friendly and approachable (easy to talk to)

genital [ˈdʒenitl] – adj. of or relating to the external sex organs: genital herpes

genitive [ˈdʒenitiv] – n. the case expressing ownership

genre [ʒɑ:ŋr] – n. a kind of literary or artistic work

genteel [dʒenˈti:l] – adj. marked by refinement in taste and manners: a genteel old lady

gentile [ˈdʒentail] – n. a person who does not acknowledge your god

geology [dʒiˈɔlədʒi] – n. a science that deals with the history of the earth as recorded in rocks

germane [dʒə:ˈməin] – adj. relevant and appropriate: he asks questions that are germane and central to the issue

germinal  – n. seventh month of the Revolutionary calendar (March and April); the month of buds

germinate [ˈdʒə:mineit] – v. work out

gestation [dʒeˈsteiʃən] – n. the period during which an embryo develops (about 266 days in humans)

gesticulate [dʒeˈstikjuleit] – v. show, express or direct through movement

ghastly [ˈgɑ:stli] – adj. shockingly repellent; inspiring horror: ghastly wounds

gibe [dʒaib] – v. be compatible, similar or consistent; coincide in their characteristics

giddy [ˈgidi] – adj. having or causing a whirling sensation; liable to falling: had a headache and felt giddy

gigantic [dʒaiˈgæntik] – adj. so exceedingly large or extensive as to suggest a giant or mammoth: a gigantic redwood

giver [ˈgivə] – n. someone who devotes himself completely: there are no greater givers than those who give themselves

glacial [ˈgleisjəl, ˈglæs-] – adj. devoid of warmth and cordiality; expressive of unfriendliness or disdain: a glacial handshake

glacier [ˈglæsiə] – n. a slowly moving mass of ice

gladden [ˈglædn] – v. become glad or happy

glazier [ˈgleizjə] – n. someone who cuts flat glass to size

glimmer [ˈglimə] – n. a flash of light (especially reflected light)

glimpse [glimps] – n. a quick look

globose [ˈgləubəus] – adj. having the shape of a sphere or ball

globular [ˈglɔbjulə] – adj. having the shape of a sphere or ball: little globular houses like mud-wasp nests

glorious [ˈglɔ:riəs] – adj. characterized by grandeur: a glorious work of art

glutinous [ˈglu:tinəs] – adj. having the sticky properties of an adhesive

glutton [ˈglʌtn] – n. a person who is devoted to eating and drinking to excess

gluttonous [ˈglʌtnəs] – adj. given to excess in consumption of especially food or drink: over-fed women and their gluttonous husbands

gluttony [ˈglʌtəni] – n. habitual eating to excess

gnash [næʃ] – v. grind together, of teeth

goad [gəud] – v. give heart or courage to

Gordian  – adj. extremely intricate; usually in phrase `Gordian knot’

gosling [ˈgɔ:zliŋ] – n. young goose

gossamer [ˈgɔsəmə] – n. a gauze fabric with an extremely fine texture

gourd [gurd guəd] – n. any of numerous inedible fruits with hard rinds

gourmand [ˈguəmənd] – n. a person who is devoted to eating and drinking to excess

graceless [ˈgreislis] – adj. lacking graciousness: a totally graceless hostess

gradation [greiˈdeiʃən] – n. relative position in a graded series: subtle gradations in color

gradient [ˈgreidiənt] – n. the property possessed by a line or surface that departs from the horizontal: a five-degree gradient

granary [ˈgrænəri] – n. a storehouse for threshed grain or animal feed

grandeur [ˈgrændʒə] – n. the quality of elevation of mind and exaltation of character or ideals or conduct

grandiloquence  – n. high-flown style; excessive use of verbal ornamentation

grandiloquent [grænˈdiləkwənt] – adj. lofty in style

grandiose [ˈgrændiəus] – adj. affectedly genteel

grantee [grɑ:nˈti:] – n. someone to whom the title of property is transferred

grantor [grɑ:nˈtɔ:] – n. a person who makes a grant in legal form: conveyed from grantor to grantee

granular [ˈgrænjulə] – adj. composed of or covered with particles resembling meal in texture or consistency: granular sugar

granulate [ˈgrænjuleit] – v. form into grains

granule [ˈgrænju:l] – n. a tiny grain

grapple [ˈgræpl] – n. a tool consisting of several hooks for grasping and holding; often thrown with a rope

gratification [.grætifiˈkeiʃən] – n. the act or an instance of satisfying

gratify [ˈgrætifai] – v. make happy or satisfied

grating [ˈgreitiŋ] – n. a barrier that has parallel or crossed bars blocking a passage but admitting air

gratis [grætis] – adj. costing nothing

gratuitous [grəˈtju:itəs] – adj. without cause: a gratuitous insult

gratuity [grəˈtju:iti] – n. a relatively small amount of money given for services rendered (as by a waiter)

gravity [ˈgræviti] – n. a manner that is serious and solemn

gregarious [griˈgeəriəs] – adj. (of animals) tending to form a group with others of the same species: gregarious bird species

grenadier [grenəˈdiə] – n. deep-sea fish with a large head and body and long tapering tail

grief [gri:f] – n. intense sorrow caused by loss of a loved one (especially by death)

grievance [ˈgri:vəns] – n. a resentment strong enough to justify retaliation

grievous [ˈgri:vəs] – adj. causing fear or anxiety by threatening great harm: grievous bodily harm

grimace [griˈmeis] – n. a contorted facial expression: she made a grimace at the prospect

grimy  – adj. thickly covered with ingrained dirt or soot: grimy hands

grindstone [ˈgraindstəun] – n. a revolving stone shaped like a disk; used to grind or sharpen or polish edge tools

grisly [ˈgrizli] – adj. shockingly repellent; inspiring horror: a grisly murder

gritty  – adj. composed of or covered with particles resembling meal in texture or consistency

grotesque [grəuˈtesk] – adj. distorted and unnatural in shape or size; abnormal and hideous: tales of grotesque serpents eight fathoms long that churned the seas

grotto [ˈgrɔtəu] – n. a small cave (usually with attractive features)

guffaw [gəˈfɔ:] – n. a burst of deep loud hearty laughter

guile [gail] – n. shrewdness as demonstrated by being skilled in deception

guileless [gailis] – adj. free of deceit

guinea [ˈgini] – n. a former British gold coin worth 21 shillings

guise [gaiz] – n. an artful or simulated semblance: under the guise of friendship he betrayed them

gullibility  – n. tendency to believe too readily and therefore to be easily deceived

gullible [ˈgʌləbəl] – adj. naive and easily deceived or tricked: at that early age she had been gullible and in love

gumption [ˈgʌmpʃən] – n. sound practical judgment

gustatory [ˈgʌstətəri] – adj. of or relating to gustation

gusto [ˈgʌstəu] – n. vigorous and enthusiastic enjoyment

guzzle [ˈgʌzəl] – v. drink greedily or as if with great thirst: The boys guzzled the cheap vodka

gynecocracy  – n. a political system governed by a woman

gynecology [gainəˈkɔlədʒi] – n. the branch of medicine that deals with the diseases and hygiene of women

gyrate [dʒaiˈreit] – v. to wind or move in a spiral course: the young people gyrated on the dance floor

gyroscope [ˈdʒaiərəskəup] – n. rotating mechanism in the form of a universally mounted spinning wheel that offers resistance to turns in any direction

habitable [ˈhæbitəbl] – adj. fit for habitation: the habitable world

habitant [ˈhæbitənt] – n. a person who inhabits a particular place

habitual [həˈbitjuəl] – adj. commonly used or practiced; usual: his habitual comment

habitude [ˈhæbitju:d] – n. habitual mode of behavior

hackney [ˈhækni] – n. a carriage for hire

haggard [ˈhægəd] – adj. showing the wearing effects of overwork or care or suffering: her face was drawn and haggard from sleeplessness

halcyon [ˈhælsiən] – n. (Greek mythology) a woman who was turned into a kingfisher

hale [heil] – n. United States astronomer who discovered that sunspots are associated with strong magnetic fields (1868-1938)

hamper [ˈhæmpə] – n. a restraint that confines or restricts freedom (especially something used to tie down or restrain a prisoner)

handwriting [ˈhænd.raitiŋ] – n. something written by hand: she recognized his handwriting

hangar [ˈhæŋə] – n. a large structure at an airport where aircraft can be stored and maintained

hanger-on  – n. someone who persistently (and annoyingly) follows along

hapless [ˈhæpləs] – adj. deserving or inciting pity: a hapless victim

happy-go-lucky  – adj. cheerfully irresponsible

harangue [həˈræŋ] – n. a loud bombastic declamation expressed with strong emotion

harass [ˈhærəs] – v. annoy continually or chronically: This man harasses his female co-workers

harbinger [ˈhɑ:bindʒə] – n. something that precedes and indicates the approach of something or someone

hardihood [ˈhɑ:dihud] – n. the trait of being willing to undertake things that involve risk or danger

hardy [ˈhɑ:di] – adj. able to survive under unfavorable weather conditions: strawberries are hardy and easy to grow

harmonious [hɑ:ˈməunjəs] – adj. musically pleasing

hasten [ˈheisn] – v. act or move at high speed

haughtiness [ˈhɔ:tinis] – n. overbearing pride evidenced by a superior manner toward inferiors

haughty [ˈhɔ:ti] – adj. having or showing arrogant superiority to and disdain of those one views as unworthy: haughty aristocrats

havoc [ˈhævək] – n. violent and needless disturbance

hawthorn [ˈhɔ:θɔ:n] – n. a spring-flowering shrub or small tree of the genus Crataegus

hazard [ˈhæzəd] – n. a source of danger; a possibility of incurring loss or misfortune: drinking alcohol is a health hazard

headstrong [ˈhedstrɔŋ] – adj. habitually disposed to disobedience and opposition

hearten  – v. give encouragement to

heartrending [ˈhɑ:trendiŋ] – adj. causing or marked by grief or anguish: the heartrending words of Rabin’s granddaughter

heathenish [ˈhi:ðəniʃ] – adj. not acknowledging the God of Christianity and Judaism and Islam

hedonism [ˈhi:dənizəm] – n. the pursuit of pleasure as a matter of ethical principle

hedonist  – n. someone motivated by desires for sensual pleasures

heed [hi:d] – n. paying particular notice (as to children or helpless people): he spends without heed to the consequences

heedless [ˈhi:dlis] – adj. characterized by careless unconcern: the heedless generosity and the spasmodic extravagance of persons used to large fortunes

hegemony [hiˈgeməni] – n. the dominance or leadership of one social group or nation over others: the hegemony of a single member state is not incompatible with a genuine confederation

heifer [ˈhefə] – n. young cow

heinous [ˈheinəs] – adj. extremely wicked, deeply criminal: heinous accusations

hemorrhage [ˈheməridʒ] – n. the flow of blood from a ruptured blood vessel

hemorrhoid  – n. pain caused by venous swelling at or inside the anal sphincter

henchman [ˈhentʃmən] – n. someone who assists in a plot

heptagon [ˈheptəgɔn] – n. a seven-sided polygon

herbaceous [həˈbeiʃəs] – adj. characteristic of a nonwoody herb or plant part

herbarium [hə:ˈbɛəriəm] – n. a collection of dried plants that are mounted and systematically classified for study

herbivorous [hə:ˈbivərəs] – adj. feeding only on plants

hereditary [hiˈreditəri] – adj. inherited or inheritable by established rules (usually legal rules) of descent: hereditary monarchy

heredity [hiˈrediti] – n. the total of inherited attributes

heresy [ˈherisi] – n. any opinions or doctrines at variance with the official or orthodox position

heretic [ˈheritik] – n. a person who holds religious beliefs in conflict with the dogma of the Roman Catholic Church

heritage [ˈheritidʒ] – n. practices that are handed down from the past by tradition: a heritage of freedom

hernia [ˈhə:njə] – n. rupture in smooth muscle tissue through which a bodily structure protrudes

hesitancy [ˈhezitənsi] – n. a feeling of diffidence and indecision about doing something

hesitant [ˈhezitənt] – adj. lacking decisiveness of character; unable to act or decide quickly or firmly

hesitation [.heziˈteiʃən] – n. indecision in speech or action

heterodox [ˈhetərədɔks] – adj. characterized by departure from accepted beliefs or standards

heterogeneity [.hetərəudʒiˈni:iti] – n. the quality of being diverse and not comparable in kind

heterogeneous [.hetərəuˈdʒi:niəs] – adj. consisting of elements that are not of the same kind or nature: the population of the United States is vast and heterogeneous

hexagon [ˈheksəgən] – n. a six-sided polygon

hexangular [heksˈæŋgjulə] – adj. having six sides or divided into hexagons

hexapod [ˈheksəpɔd] – n. an animal having six feet

hiatus [haiˈeitəs] – n. an interruption in the intensity or amount of something

hibernal [haiˈbə:nl] – adj. characteristic of or relating to winter

hidebound [ˈhaidbaund] – adj. stubbornly conservative and narrow-minded

hideous [ˈhidiəs] – adj. grossly offensive to decency or morality; causing horror: a hideous pattern of injustice

hierarchy [ˈhaiərɑ:ki] – n. a series of ordered groupings of people or things within a system: put honesty first in her hierarchy of values

hilarious [həˈleəriəs] – adj. marked by or causing boisterous merriment or convulsive laughter: hilarious broad comedy

hilarity [hiˈlæriti] – n. great merriment

hillock [ˈhilək] – n. a small natural hill

hinder [ˈhində] – v. be a hindrance or obstacle to

hindmost [ˈhaindməust] – adj. located farthest to the rear

hindrance [ˈhindrəns] – n. something immaterial that interferes with or delays action or progress

hirsute [ˈhə:sju:t] – adj. having or covered with hair

histrionic [.histriˈɔnik] – adj. characteristic of acting or a stage performance; often affected: histrionic gestures

hoard [hɔ:d] – v. save up as for future use

hoarse [hɔ:s] – adj. deep and harsh sounding as if from shouting or illness or emotion: hoarse cries

hoary [ˈhɔ:ri] – adj. showing characteristics of age, especially having grey or white hair: nodded his hoary head

hodgepodge  – n. a motley assortment of things

holistic  – adj. emphasizing the organic or functional relation between parts and the whole

homage [ˈhɔmidʒ] – n. respectful deference

homogeneity [həumədʒəˈni:iti] – n. the quality of being similar or comparable in kind or nature: there is a remarkable homogeneity between the two companies

homogeneous [.hɔməˈdʒi:niəs] – adj. all of the same or similar kind or nature: a close-knit homogeneous group

homologous [hɔˈmɔləgəs] – adj. having the same evolutionary origin but not necessarily the same function: the wing of a bat and the arm of a man are homologous

homonym [ˈhɔmənim] – n. two words are homonyms if they are pronounced or spelled the same way but have different meanings

homophone [ˈhɔməfəun] – n. two words are homophones if they are pronounced the same way but differ in meaning or spelling or both (e.g. bare and bear)

hone [həun] – v. make perfect or complete

honorarium [.ɔnəˈreəriəm] – n. a fee paid for a nominally free service

hoodwink [ˈhud.wiŋk] – v. influence by slyness

horde [hɔ:d] – n. a vast multitude

hosiery [ˈhəuziəri] – n. socks and stockings and tights collectively (the British include underwear)

hospitable [ˈhɔspitəbl] – adj. favorable to life and growth: soil sufficiently hospitable for forest growth

hospitality [.hɔspiˈtæliti] – n. kindness in welcoming guests or strangers

hostility [hɔsˈtiliti] – n. a state of deep-seated ill-will

hubris [ˈhju:bris] – n. overbearing pride or presumption

huckster [ˈhʌkstə] – n. a seller of shoddy goods

humane [hju:ˈmein] – adj. marked or motivated by concern with the alleviation of suffering

humanitarian [hju(:).mæniˈtɛəriən] – n. someone devoted to the promotion of human welfare and to social reforms

humanize [ˈhju:mənaiz] – v. make more humane: The mayor tried to humanize life in the big city

humbug [ˈhʌmbʌg] – n. pretentious or silly talk or writing

humiliate [hju:ˈmilieit] – v. cause to feel shame; hurt the pride of: He humiliated his colleague by criticising him in front of the boss

husbandry [ˈhʌzbəndri] – n. the practice of cultivating the land or raising stock

hussar [huˈzɑ:] – n. a member of a European light cavalry unit; renowned for elegant dress

hustle [ˈhʌsl] – v. cause to move furtively and hurriedly: The secret service agents hustled the speaker out of the amphitheater

hybrid [ˈhaibrid] – n. a word that is composed of parts from different languages (e.g., `monolingual’ has a Greek prefix and a Latin root)

hydra [ˈhaidrə] – n. (Greek mythology) monster with nine heads; when struck off each head was replaced by two new ones

hydraulic [haiˈdrɔ:lik] – adj. moved or operated or effected by liquid (water or oil): hydraulic erosion

hydrodynamics [ˈhaidrəudaiˈnæmiks] – n. study of fluids in motion

hydroelectric [ˈhaidrəiˈlektrik] – adj. of or relating to or used in the production of electricity by waterpower: hydroelectric power

hydrometer [haiˈdrɔmitə] – n. a measuring instrument for determining the specific gravity of a liquid or solid

hydrostatics [,haidrəuˈstætiks] – n. study of the mechanical properties of fluids that are not in motion

hydrous [ˈhaidrəs] – adj. containing combined water (especially water of crystallization as in a hydrate)

hygiene [ˈhaidʒi:n] – n. a condition promoting sanitary practices: personal hygiene

hyperbole [haiˈpə:bəli] – n. extravagant exaggeration

hypercritical [.haipəˈkritikəl] – adj. inclined to judge too severely: hypercritical of colloquial speech

hypnosis [hipˈnəusis] – n. a state that resembles sleep but that is induced by suggestion

hypnotic [hipˈnɔtik] – adj. attracting and holding interest as if by a spell: read the bedtime story in a hypnotic voice

hypnotism [ˈhipnətizm] – n. the act of inducing hypnosis

hypnotize [ˈhipnətaiz] – v. induce hypnosis in

hypochondriac [.haipəˈkɔndriæk] – n. a patient with imaginary symptoms and ailments

hypocrisy [hiˈpɔkrəsi] – n. an expression of agreement that is not supported by real conviction

hypocrite [ˈhipəkrit] – n. a person who professes beliefs and opinions that he or she does not hold in order to conceal his or her real feelings or motives

hypocritical [hipəˈkritik] – adj. professing feelings or virtues one does not have: hypocritical praise

hypodermic [haipəˈdə:mik] – adj. relating to or located below the epidermis: hypodermic needle

hypotenuse [haiˈpɔtənju:z] – n. the side of a right triangle opposite the right angle

hypothesis [haiˈpɔθisis] – n. a proposal intended to explain certain facts or observations

hypothetical [.haipəˈθetikəl] – adj. based primarily on surmise rather than adequate evidence: hypothetical situation

hysteria [hisˈtiəriə] – n. state of violent mental agitation

ichthyology [,ikθiˈɔlədʒi] – n. the branch of zoology that studies fishes

icily [ˈaisili] – adv. in a cold and icy manner: `Mr. Powell finds it easier to take it out of mothers, children and sick people than to take on this vast industry,’ Mr Brown commented icily

iciness [ˈaisinis] – n. coldness due to a cold environment

icon [ˈaikɔn] – n. a visual representation (of an object or scene or person or abstraction) produced on a surface

iconoclast [aiˈkɔnəklæst] – n. a destroyer of images used in religious worship

idealize [aiˈdiəlaiz] – v. form ideals: Man has always idealized

idiom [ˈidiəm] – n. a manner of speaking that is natural to native speakers of a language

idiosyncrasy [.idiəˈsiŋkrəsi] – n. a behavioral attribute that is distinctive and peculiar to an individual

idiosyncratic [.idiəsiŋˈkrætik] – adj. peculiar to the individual: we all have our own idiosyncratic gestures

idolatrous [aiˈdɔlətrəs] – adj. blindly or excessively devoted or adoring

idolatry [aiˈdɔlətri] – n. religious zeal; the willingness to serve God

idolize [ˈaidəlaiz] – v. love unquestioningly and uncritically or to excess; venerate as an idol: Many teenagers idolized the Beatles

idyllic [aiˈdilik, iˈdilik] – adj. excellent and delightful in all respects: an idyllic spot for a picnic

ignoble [igˈnəubəl] – adj. completely lacking nobility in character or quality or purpose: something cowardly and ignoble in his attitude

ignominious [.ignəˈminiəs] – adj. (used of conduct or character) deserving or bringing disgrace or shame: an ignominious retreat

ignominy [ˈignəmini] – n. a state of dishonor: suffered the ignominy of being sent to prison

Iliad [ˈiliəd] – n. a Greek epic poem (attributed to Homer) describing the siege of Troy

illegible [iˈledʒəbl] – adj. (of handwriting, print, etc.) not legible: illegible handwriting

illegitimate [.iliˈdʒitimit] – adj. contrary to or forbidden by law: an illegitimate seizure of power

illiberal [iˈlibərəl] – adj. narrow-minded about cherished opinions

illicit [iˈlisit] – adj. contrary to accepted morality (especially sexual morality) or convention: an illicit association with his secretary

illimitable [iˈlimitəbl] – adj. without limits in extent or size or quantity

illiterate [iˈlitərit] – adj. not able to read or write

ill-natured  – adj. having an irritable and unpleasant disposition

illogical [iˈlɔdʒikəl] – adj. lacking in correct logical relation

illuminant [iˈlju:minənt] – n. something that can serve as a source of light

illuminate [iˈlju:mineit] – v. make lighter or brighter

illumine [iˈlju:min] – v. make lighter or brighter

illusion [iˈlu:ʒən] – n. an erroneous mental representation

illusive [iˈlu:siv] – adj. based on or having the nature of an illusion: illusive hopes of finding a better job

illusory [iˈlu:səri] – adj. based on or having the nature of an illusion: Secret activities offer presidents the alluring but often illusory promise that they can achieve foreign policy goals without the bothersome debate and open decision that are staples of democracy

imaginable [iˈmædʒinəbl] – adj. capable of being imagined

imaginary [iˈmædʒinəri] – n. (mathematics) a number of the form a+bi where a and b are real numbers and i is the square root of -1

imbibe [imˈbaib] – v. take in, also metaphorically

imbroglio [imˈbrəuliəu] – n. an intricate and confusing interpersonal or political situation

imbrue [imˈbru:] – v. permeate or impregnate

imbue [imˈbju:] – v. spread or diffuse through

imitation [.imiˈteiʃən] – n. something copied or derived from an original

imitator [ˈimi,teitə] – n. someone who (fraudulently) assumes the appearance of another

immaculate [iˈmækjulit] – adj. completely neat and clean: the apartment was immaculate

immaterial [.iməˈtiəriəl] – adj. of no importance or relevance especially to a law case: an objection that is immaterial after the fact

immature [.iməˈtjuə] – adj. characteristic of a lack of maturity: immature behavior

immeasurable [iˈmeʒərəbl] – adj. impossible to measure

immense [iˈmens] – adj. unusually great in size or amount or degree or especially extent or scope: the Los Angeles aqueduct winds like an immense snake along the base of the mountains

immerse [iˈmə:s] – v. thrust or throw into

immersion [iˈmə:ʃən] – n. sinking until covered completely with water

immigrant [ˈimigrənt] – n. a person who comes to a country where they were not born in order to settle there

immigrate [ˈimigreit] – v. migrate to a new environment: only few plants can immigrate to the island

imminence [ˈiminəns] – n. the state of being imminent and liable to happen soon

imminent [ˈiminənt] – adj. close in time; about to occur: in imminent danger

immiscible [iˈmisib(ə)l] – adj. (chemistry, physics) incapable of mixing

immoderate [iˈmɔdərət] – adj. beyond reasonable limits: immoderate laughter

immoral [iˈmɔrəl] – adj. deliberately violating accepted principles of right and wrong

immortalize [iˈmɔ:təlaiz] – v. be or provide a memorial to a person or an event

immovable [iˈmu:vəbl] – n. property consisting of houses and land

immune [iˈmju:n] – adj. secure against: immune from taxation as long as he resided in Bermuda

immutable [iˈmju:təbəl] – adj. not subject or susceptible to change or variation in form or quality or nature: the view of that time was that all species were immutable, created by God

impair [imˈpɛə] – v. make worse or less effective: His vision was impaired

impalpable [imˈpælpəbəl] – adj. incapable of being perceived by the senses especially the sense of touch

impartial [imˈpɑ:ʃəl] – adj. showing lack of favoritism: the cold neutrality of an impartial judge

impassable [imˈpæsəbl] – adj. incapable of being passed

impassive [imˈpæsiv] – adj. having or revealing little emotion or sensibility; not easily aroused or excited: her impassive remoteness

impatience [imˈpeiʃəns] – n. a lack of patience; irritation with anything that causes delay

impeccable [imˈpekəbəl] – adj. without fault or error: speaks impeccable French

impecunious [.impiˈkju:niəs] – adj. not having enough money to pay for necessities

impede [imˈpi:d] – v. be a hindrance or obstacle to

impel [imˈpel] – v. urge or force (a person) to an action; constrain or motivate

impend [imˈpend] – v. be imminent or about to happen: Changes are impending

imperative [imˈperətiv] – n. a mood that expresses an intention to influence the listener’s behavior

imperceptible [.impəˈseptəbəl] – adj. impossible or difficult to perceive by the mind or senses: an imperceptible drop in temperature

imperfectible  – adj. capable of being made imperfect

imperil [imˈperil] – v. pose a threat to; present a danger to

imperious [imˈpiəriəs] – adj. having or showing arrogant superiority to and disdain of those one views as unworthy

impermissible [ˈimpəˈmisəbl] – adj. not permitted: impermissible behavior

impersonal [imˈpə:sənl] – adj. not relating to or responsive to individual persons: an impersonal corporation

impersonate [imˈpə:səneit] – v. assume or act the character of: She impersonates Madonna

impertinence [imˈpə:tinəns] – n. an impudent statement

impertinent [imˈpə:tnənt] – adj. characterized by a lightly pert and exuberant quality

imperturbable [.impəˈtə:bəbəl] – adj. not easily perturbed or excited or upset; marked by extreme calm and composure: hitherto imperturbable, he now showed signs of alarm

impervious [imˈpə:viəs] – adj. not admitting of passage or capable of being affected: a material impervious to water

impetuosity [impetʃuˈɔsiti] – n. rash impulsiveness

impetuous [imˈpetjuəs] – adj. characterized by undue haste and lack of thought or deliberation: an impetuous display of spending and gambling

impetus [ˈimpitəs] – n. a force that moves something along

impiety [imˈpaiəti] – n. unrighteousness by virtue of lacking respect for a god

impinge  – v. advance beyond the usual limit

impious [ˈimpiəs] – adj. lacking piety or reverence for a god

implacable [imˈplækəbəl] – adj. incapable of being placated: an implacable enemy

implausible [imˈplɔ:zəbl] – adj. having a quality that provokes disbelief: gave the teacher an implausible excuse

implicate [ˈimplikeit] – v. bring into intimate and incriminating connection: He is implicated in the scheme to defraud the government

implicit [imˈplisit] – adj. being without doubt or reserve: implicit trust

impolitic [imˈpɔlitik] – adj. not politic: an impolitic approach to a sensitive issue

imponderable [imˈpɔndərəbəl] – n. a factor whose effects cannot be accurately assessed: human behavior depends on many imponderables

importation [.impɔ:ˈteiʃən] – n. the commercial activity of buying and bringing in goods from a foreign country

importunate [imˈpɔ:tʃənit] – adj. expressing earnest entreaty: an importunate job applicant

importune [.imˈpɔ:tju:n] – v. beg persistently and urgently: I importune you to help them

impotent [ˈimpətənt] – adj. lacking power or ability: Technology without morality is barbarous; morality without technology is impotent

impoverish [imˈpɔvəriʃ] – v. make poor

impracticable [imˈpræktikəbl] – adj. not capable of being carried out or put into practice: refloating the sunken ship proved impracticable because of its fragility

impregnable [imˈgregnəbəl] – adj. immune to attack; incapable of being tampered with: an impregnable fortress

impregnate [ˈimpregneit] – v. fill, as with a certain quality

impromptu [imˈprɔmptju:] – n. an extemporaneous speech or remark: a witty impromptu must not sound premeditated

improper [imˈprɔpə] – adj. not suitable or right or appropriate: slightly improper to dine alone with a married man

impropriety [.imprəˈpraiəti] – n. the condition of being improper

improvident [imˈprɔvidənt] – adj. not provident; not providing for the future

improvise [ˈimprəvaiz] – v. perform without preparation

imprudent [imˈpru:dənt] – adj. not prudent or wise: very imprudent of her mother to encourage her in such silly romantic ideas

impudence [ˈimpjudns] – n. the trait of being rude and impertinent; inclined to take liberties

impudent [ˈimpjudənt] – adj. marked by casual disrespect: the student was kept in for impudent behavior

impugn [imˈpju:n] – v. attack as false or wrong

impulsion [imˈpʌlʃən] – n. a force that moves something along

impulsive [imˈpʌlsiv] – adj. without forethought: letting him borrow her car was an impulsive act that she immediately regretted

impunity [imˈpju:niti] – n. exemption from punishment or loss

impure [imˈpjuə] – adj. combined with extraneous elements

impute [imˈpju:t] – v. attribute or credit to: People impute great cleverness to cats

inaccessible [.inækˈsesəbl] – adj. capable of being reached only with great difficulty or not at all

inaccurate [inˈækjurit] – adj. not exact: an inaccurate translation

inactive [inˈæktiv] – adj. (chemistry) not participating in a chemical reaction; chemically inert: desired amounts of inactive chlorine

inadmissible [inədˈmisəbl] – adj. not deserving to be admitted: inadmissible evidence

inadvertent [.inədˈvə:tənt] – adj. happening by chance or unexpectedly or unintentionally: with an inadvertent gesture she swept the vase off the table

inadvisable [inədˈvaizəbl] – adj. not prudent or wise; not recommended: running on the ice is inadvisable

inane [iˈnein] – adj. devoid of intelligence

inanimate [inˈænimit] – adj. belonging to the class of nouns denoting nonliving things: the word `car’ is inanimate

inapt [inˈæpt] – adj. not elegant or graceful in expression

inarticulate [inɑ:ˈtikjulit] – adj. without or deprived of the use of speech or words: inarticulate beasts

inaudible [inˈɔ:dəbl] – adj. impossible to hear; imperceptible by the ear: an inaudible conversation

inborn [.inˈbɔ:n] – adj. present at birth but not necessarily hereditary; acquired during fetal development

inbred [ˈinˈbred] – adj. normally existing at birth

incandescence [inkænˈdesns] – n. the phenomenon of light emission by a body as its temperature is raised

incandescent [.inkænˈdesnt] – adj. emitting light as a result of being heated: an incandescent bulb

incantation [.inkænˈteiʃən] – n. a ritual recitation of words or sounds believed to have a magical effect

incapacitate [.inkəˈpæsiteit] – v. make unable to perform a certain action

incapacity [.inkəˈpæsiti] – n. lack of intellectual power

incarcerate [inˈkɑ:səreit] – v. lock up or confine, in or as in a jail: the murderer was incarcerated for the rest of his life

incarceration  – n. the state of being imprisoned: his ignominious incarceration in the local jail

incarnate [inˈkɑ:nit] – v. make concrete and real

incendiary [inˈsendiəri] – adj. involving deliberate burning of property: an incendiary fire

inception [inˈsepʃən] – n. an event that is a beginning; a first part or stage of subsequent events

incessant [inˈsesnt] – adj. uninterrupted in time and indefinitely long continuing: night and day we live with the incessant noise of the city

inchoate [inˈkəuit] – adj. only partly in existence; imperfectly formed: a vague inchoate idea

inchoative [`inkəueitiv] – n. aspect with regard to the beginning of the action of the verb

incidence [ˈinsidəns] – n. the relative frequency of occurrence of something

incidentally [.insiˈdentəli] – adv. introducing a different topic; in point of fact: incidentally, I won’t go to the party

incinerate [inˈsinəreit] – v. become reduced to ashes: The paper incinerated quickly

incipience [inˈsipiəns] – n. beginning to exist or to be apparent: he placed the incipience of democratic faith at around 1850

incipient [inˈsipiənt] – adj. only partly in existence; imperfectly formed: incipient civil disorder

incisive [inˈsaisiv] – adj. having or demonstrating ability to recognize or draw fine distinctions: incisive comments

incisor [inˈsaizə] – n. a tooth for cutting or gnawing; located in the front of the mouth in both jaws

incite [inˈsait] – v. provoke or stir up: incite a riot

incitement [in`saitmənt] – n. an act of urging on or spurring on or rousing to action or instigating: the incitement of mutiny

inclination [.inkliˈneiʃən] – n. an attitude of mind especially one that favors one alternative over others: he had an inclination to give up too easily

inclusive [inˈklu:siv] – adj. including much or everything; and especially including stated limits: an inclusive art form

incoherence [inkəu`hiərəns] – n. lack of cohesion or clarity or organization

incoherent [.inkəuˈhiərənt] – adj. without logical or meaningful connection: a turgid incoherent presentation

incombustible [inkəmˈbʌstəbl] – adj. not capable of igniting and burning

incomparable [inˈkɔmpərəbl] – adj. such that comparison is impossible; unsuitable for comparison or lacking features that can be compared: an incomparable week of rest and pleasure

incompatible [.inkəmˈpætəbl] – adj. not compatible: incompatible personalities

incompetence [inˈkɔmpitəns] – n. lack of physical or intellectual ability or qualifications

incompetent [inˈkɔmpitənt] – adj. legally not qualified or sufficient: incompetent witnesses

incomplete [.inkəmˈpli:t] – adj. not complete or total; not completed: an incomplete account of his life

incomprehensible [.inkɔmpriˈhensəbl] – adj. incapable of being explained or accounted for

incompressible [inkəmˈpresəbl] – adj. incapable of being compressed; resisting compression: mounds of incompressible garbage

inconceivable [.inkənˈsi:vəbəl] – adj. totally unlikely

incongruous [inˈkɔŋgruəs] – adj. lacking in harmony or compatibility or appropriateness: a plan incongruous with reason

inconsequential [in.kɔnsiˈkwenʃəl] – adj. lacking worth or importance: his work seems trivial and inconsequential

inconsiderable [inkənˈsidərəbl] – adj. too small or unimportant to merit attention: passed his life in an inconsiderable village

inconsistent [.inkənˈsistənt] – adj. displaying a lack of consistency: inconsistent statements cannot both be true at the same time

inconspicuous  – adj. not prominent or readily noticeable: he pushed the string through an inconspicuous hole

inconstant [inˈkɔnstənt] – adj. likely to change frequently often without apparent or cogent reason; variable: inconstant affections

incontrovertible [inkɔntrəˈvə:təbl] – adj. impossible to deny or disprove: incontrovertible proof of the defendant’s innocence

inconvenient [.inkənˈvi:njənt] – adj. not suited to your comfort, purpose or needs: it is inconvenient not to have a telephone in the kitchen

incorrigible [inˈkɔridʒəbəl] – adj. impervious to correction by punishment

increment [ˈinkrimənt] – n. a process of becoming larger or longer or more numerous or more important

inculcate [inˈkʌlkeit] – v. teach and impress by frequent repetitions or admonitions: inculcate values into the young generation

incumbent [inˈkʌmbənt] – adj. lying or leaning on something else: an incumbent geological formation

indecipherable  – adj. not easily deciphered: indecipherable handwriting

indecorous  – adj. lacking propriety and good taste in manners and conduct: indecorous behavior

indefatigable [.indiˈfætigəbəl] – adj. showing sustained enthusiastic action with unflagging vitality: an indefatigable advocate of equal rights

indefensible [,indiˈfensəbl] – adj. (of theories etc) incapable of being defended or justified

indefinitely [inˈdefinitli] – adv. to an indefinite extent; for an indefinite time: this could go on indefinitely

indelible [inˈdeləbəl] – adj. cannot be removed or erased: an indelible stain

indescribable [.indisˈkraibəbəl] – adj. defying expression or description: indescribable beauty

indestructible [indisˈtrʌktəbl] – adj. not easily destroyed

indicant [ˈindikənt] – n. something that serves to indicate or suggest: symptoms are the prime indicants of disease

indicator [ˈindikeitə] – n. a signal for attracting attention

indict [inˈdait] – v. accuse formally of a crime

indictment [inˈdaitmənt] – n. a formal document written for a prosecuting attorney charging a person with some offense

indifferent [inˈdifrənt] – adj. marked by a lack of interest: the universe is neither hostile nor friendly; it is simply indifferent

indigence [ˈindidʒəns] – n. a state of extreme poverty or destitution: their indigence appalled him

indigenous [inˈdidʒənəs] – adj. originating where it is found: the Ainu are indigenous to the northernmost islands of Japan

indigent [ˈindidʒənt] – adj. poor enough to need help from others

indigestible [indiˈdʒestəbl] – adj. digested with difficulty

indigestion [.indiˈdʒestʃən] – n. a disorder of digestive function characterized by discomfort or heartburn or nausea

indignant [inˈdignənt] – adj. angered at something unjust or wrong: an indignant denial

indignation [.indigˈneiʃən] – n. a feeling of righteous anger

indignity [inˈdigniti] – n. an affront to one’s dignity or self-esteem

indiscernible [.indiˈsə:nəbəl] – adj. difficult or impossible to perceive or discern: an indiscernible increase in temperature

indiscreet [.indisˈkri:t] – adj. lacking discretion; injudicious: her behavior was indiscreet at the very best

indiscriminate [.indisˈkriminit] – adj. failing to make or recognize distinctions

indispensable [.indisˈpensəbl] – adj. not to be dispensed with; essential: foods indispensable to good nutrition

indistinct [indisˈtiŋkt] – adj. not clearly defined or easy to perceive or understand: indistinct shapes in the gloom

indivisible [.indiˈvizəbəl] – adj. impossible of undergoing division: an indivisible union of states

indolence [ˈindələns] – n. inactivity resulting from a dislike of work

indolent [ˈindələnt] – adj. disinclined to work or exertion: an indolent hanger-on

indomitable [inˈdɔmitəbəl] – adj. impossible to subdue

induce [inˈdju:s] – v. cause to arise: induce a crisis

induct [inˈdʌkt] – v. place ceremoniously or formally in an office or position: there was a ceremony to induct the president of the Academy

inductee  – n. someone who is drafted into military service

indulgence [inˈdʌldʒəns] – n. an inability to resist the gratification of whims and desires

indulgent [inˈdʌldʒənt] – adj. characterized by or given to yielding to the wishes of someone: indulgent grandparents

inebriate [iˈni:brieit] – v. fill with sublime emotion: He was inebriated by his phenomenal success

inebriation  – n. a temporary state resulting from excessive consumption of alcohol

inedible [inˈedibl] – adj. not suitable for food

ineffable [inˈefəbəl] – adj. defying expression or description: ineffable ecstasy

inefficiency [.iniˈfiʃənsi] – n. unskillfulness resulting from a lack of efficiency

inefficient [.iniˈfiʃənt] – adj. not producing desired results; wasteful: an inefficient campaign against drugs

ineligible [inˈelidʒəbl] – adj. not eligible: ineligible to vote

ineluctable [.iniˈlʌktəbəl] – adj. impossible to avoid or evade:: an ineluctable destiny

inept [iˈnept] – adj. not elegant or graceful in expression: if the rumor is true, can anything be more inept than to repeat it now?

ineptitude [iˈneptitju:d] – n. unskillfulness resulting from a lack of training

inert [iˈnə:t] – adj. unable to move or resist motion

inertia [iˈnə:ʃjə] – n. (physics) the tendency of a body to maintain its state of rest or uniform motion unless acted upon by an external force

inestimable [inˈestiməbl] – adj. beyond calculation or measure: jewels of inestimable value

inexcusable [inikˈskju:zəbl] – adj. without excuse or justification

inexhaustible [.inigˈzɔ:stəbəl] – adj. that cannot be entirely consumed or used up: an inexhaustible supply of coal

inexorable [inˈeksərəbəl] – adj. not to be placated or appeased or moved by entreaty: Russia’s final hour, it seemed, approached with inexorable certainty

inexpedient [.inikˈspi:diənt] – adj. not suitable or advisable: an inexpedient tactic

inexpensive [.inikˈspensiv] – adj. relatively low in price or charging low prices: inexpensive family restaurants

inexperience [inikˈspiəriəns] – n. lack of experience and the knowledge and understanding derived from experience: procedural inexperience created difficulties

inexplicable [.inikˈsplikəbəl] – adj. incapable of being explained or accounted for: inexplicable errors

inexpressible [iniksˈpresəbl] – adj. defying expression

inextensible [,iniksˈtensəbl] – adj. not extensile

inextricable [inˈekstrikəbəl] – adj. not permitting extrication; incapable of being disentangled or untied: an inextricable knot

infallible [inˈfæləbəl] – adj. incapable of failure or error: an infallible antidote

infamous [ˈinfəməs] – adj. known widely and usually unfavorably: the infamous Benedict Arnold

infamy [ˈinfəmi] – n. a state of extreme dishonor: a date which will live in infamy

infelicity  – n. inappropriate and unpleasing manner or style (especially manner or style of expression)

infer [inˈfə:] – v. reason by deduction; establish by deduction

inference [ˈinfərəns] – n. the reasoning involved in drawing a conclusion or making a logical judgment on the basis of circumstantial evidence and prior conclusions rather than on the basis of direct observation

infernal [inˈfə:nəl] – adj. characteristic of or resembling Hell: infernal noise

infest [inˈfest] – v. invade in great numbers: the roaches infested our kitchen

infidel [ˈinfidl] – n. a person who does not acknowledge your god

infidelity [.infiˈdeliti] – n. the quality of being unfaithful

infinite [ˈinfinit] – adj. having no limits or boundaries in time or space or extent or magnitude: the infinite ingenuity of man

infinity [inˈfiniti] – n. time without end

infirm [inˈfə:m] – adj. lacking bodily or muscular strength or vitality

infirmary [inˈfə:məri] – n. a health facility where patients receive treatment

infirmity [inˈfə:miti] – n. the state of being weak in health or body (especially from old age)

inflammable [inˈflæməbl] – adj. easily ignited

inflammation [infləˈmeiʃən] – n. a response of body tissues to injury or irritation; characterized by pain and swelling and redness and heat

inflexible [inˈfleksəbl] – adj. incapable of change: a man of inflexible purpose

influential [.influˈenʃəl] – adj. having or exercising influence or power: an influential newspaper

influx [ˈinflʌks] – n. the process of flowing in

infrequent [inˈfri:kwənt] – adj. not frequent; not occurring regularly or at short intervals: infrequent outbursts of temper

infringe [inˈfrindʒ] – v. go against, as of rules and laws

infuse [inˈfju:z] – v. teach and impress by frequent repetitions or admonitions

infusion [inˈfju:ʒən] – n. a solution obtained by steeping or soaking a substance (usually in water)

ingenious [inˈdʒi:njəs] – adj. showing inventiveness and skill: an ingenious solution to the problem

ingenuity [.indʒiˈnju:iti] – n. the power of creative imagination

ingenuous [inˈdʒenjuəs] – adj. characterized by an inability to mask your feelings; not devious: an ingenuous admission of responsibility

inglorious [inˈglɔ:riəs] – adj. (used of conduct or character) deserving or bringing disgrace or shame: inglorious defeat

ingraft [inˈgrɑ:ft] – v. cause to grow together parts from different plants

ingrate [inˈgreit] – n. a person who shows no gratitude

ingratiate [inˈgreiʃieit] – v. gain favor with somebody by deliberate efforts

ingratitude [inˈgrætitju:d] – n. a lack of gratitude

ingredient [inˈgri:diənt] – n. a component of a mixture or compound

inherence [in`hiərəns] – n. the state of inhering; the state of being a fixed characteristic: the inherence of polysemy in human language

inherent [inˈhiərənt] – adj. existing as an essential constituent or characteristic

inhibit [inˈhibit] – v. to put down by force or authority

inhospitable [inˈhɔspitəbl] – adj. unfavorable to life or growth: the barren inhospitable desert

inhuman [inˈhju:mən] – adj. without compunction or human feeling

inhume [inˈhju:m] – v. place in a grave or tomb

inimical [iˈnimikəl] – adj. not friendly: an inimical critic

iniquity [iˈnikwiti] – n. absence of moral or spiritual values

initiate [iˈniʃieit] – v. bring into being: He initiated a new program

inject [inˈdʒekt] – v. to introduce (a new aspect or element): He injected new life into the performance

injunction [inˈdʒʌŋkʃən] – n. a formal command or admonition

inkling [ˈiŋkliŋ] – n. a slight suggestion or vague understanding: he had no inkling what was about to happen

inland [ˈinlənd] – adj. situated away from an area’s coast or border

inlet [ˈinlet] – n. an arm off of a larger body of water (often between rocky headlands)

inmost [ˈinməust] – adj. being deepest within the self

innate [.iˈneit] – adj. not established by conditioning or learning

innocuous [iˈnɔkjuəs] – adj. not injurious to physical or mental health

innovate [ˈinəuveit] – v. bring something new to an environment

innuendo [.injuˈendəu] – n. an indirect (and usually malicious) implication

innumerable [iˈnju:mərəbl] – adj. too numerous to be counted: innumerable difficulties

inoculate [iˈnɔkjuleit] – v. introduce an idea or attitude into the mind of: My teachers inoculated me with their beliefs

inoffensive [.inəˈfensiv] – adj. not causing anger or annoyance: inoffensive behavior

inopportune [inˈɔpətju:n] – adj. not opportune: arrived at a most inopportune hour

inquire [inˈkwaiə] – v. have a wish or desire to know something

inquisition [inkwiˈziʃən] – n. a former tribunal of the Roman Catholic Church (1232-1820) created to discover and suppress heresy

inquisitive [inˈkwizitiv] – adj. showing curiosity: if someone saw a man climbing a light post they might get inquisitive

inquisitor [inˈkwizitə] – n. a questioner who is excessively harsh

inroad [ˈinrəud] – n. an encroachment or intrusion: they made inroads in the United States market

insatiable [inˈseiʃiəbl] – adj. impossible to satisfy: an insatiable demand for old buildings to restore

inscribe [inˈskraib] – v. carve, cut, or etch into a material or surface

inscrutable [inˈskru:təbəl] – adj. of an obscure nature: the inscrutable workings of Providence

insecure [insiˈkjuə] – adj. not firm or firmly fixed; likely to fail or give way: the hinge is insecure

insensible [inˈsensəbl] – adj. incapable of physical sensation: insensible to pain

insentient [inˈsenʃənt] – adj. devoid of feeling and consciousness and animation: insentient (or insensate) stone

inseparable [inˈsepərəbl] – adj. not capable of being separated: inseparable pieces of rock

insidious [inˈsidiəs] – adj. beguiling but harmful: insidious pleasures

insight [ˈinsait] – n. clear or deep perception of a situation

insightful  – adj. exhibiting insight or clear and deep perception: an insightful parent

insignificance [insigˈnifikəns] – n. the quality of having little or no significance

insignificant [.insigˈnifikənt] – adj. not worthy of notice

insinuate [inˈsinjueit] – v. introduce or insert (oneself) in a subtle manner: He insinuated himself into the conversation of the people at the nearby table

insipid [inˈsipid] – adj. lacking taste or flavor or tang: insipid hospital food

insistence [inˈsistəns] – n. continual and persistent demands

insistent [inˈsistənt] – adj. repetitive and persistent: the bluejay’s insistent cry

insolence [ˈinsələns] – n. the trait of being rude and impertinent; inclined to take liberties

insolent [ˈinsələnt] – adj. marked by casual disrespect

insolvent [inˈsɔlvənt] – n. someone who has insufficient assets to cover their debts

insomnia [inˈsɔmniə] – n. an inability to sleep; chronic sleeplessness

insouciant [inˈsu:siənt] – adj. marked by blithe unconcern: an utterly insouciant financial policy

instant [ˈinstənt] – adj. occurring with no delay: relief was instantaneous

instantaneous [.instənˈteiniəs] – adj. occurring with no delay: relief was instantaneous

instigate [ˈinstigeit] – v. provoke or stir up

instigator [ˈinstəgeitə] – n. someone who deliberately foments trouble: she was the instigator of their quarrel

instill [inˈstil] – v. impart gradually: Her presence instilled faith into the children

instructive [inˈstrʌktiv] – adj. serving to instruct or enlighten or inform

insufficiency [.insəˈfiʃənsi] – n. a lack of competence

insufficient [.insəˈfiʃənt] – adj. of a quantity not able to fulfill a need or requirement: insufficient funds

insular [ˈinsjulə] – adj. relating to or characteristic of or situated on an island: insular territories

insularity [.insjuˈlæriti] – n. the state of being isolated or detached

insulate [ˈinsjuleit] – v. place or set apart

insuperable [inˈsju:pərəbəl] – adj. impossible to surmount

insurgence [in`sə:dʒəns] – n. an organized rebellion aimed at overthrowing a constituted government through the use of subversion and armed conflict

insurgent [inˈsə:dʒənt] – n. a member of an irregular armed force that fights a stronger force by sabotage and harassment

insurrection [.insəˈrekʃən] – n. organized opposition to authority; a conflict in which one faction tries to wrest control from another

intangible [inˈtændʒəbəl] – adj. (of especially business assets) not having physical substance or intrinsic productive value: intangible assets such as good will

integral [ˈintigrəl] – adj. existing as an essential constituent or characteristic

integrity [inˈtegriti] – n. an undivided or unbroken completeness or totality with nothing wanting: the integrity of the nervous system is required for normal development

intellect [ˈintilekt] – n. the capacity for rational thought or inference or discrimination

intellectual [.intilˈektʃuəl] – adj. of or associated with or requiring the use of the mind: intellectual problems

intelligible [inˈtelidʒəbl] – adj. capable of being apprehended or understood

intemperance [inˈtempərəns] – n. consumption of alcoholic drinks

intension [inˈteʃən] – n. what you must know in order to determine the reference of an expression

intensive [inˈtensiv] – adj. tending to give force or emphasis: an intensive adverb

interact [.intəˈrækt] – v. act together or towards others or with others: He should interact more with his colleagues

intercede [.intəˈsi:d] – v. act between parties with a view to reconciling differences: He interceded in the family dispute

intercept [.intəˈsept] – v. seize on its way: The fighter plane was ordered to intercept an aircraft that had entered the country’s airspace

intercession [intəˈseʃən] – n. a prayer to God on behalf of another person

intercessor [intəˈsesə] – n. a negotiator who acts as a link between parties

interdict [ˈintədikt] – n. a court order prohibiting a party from doing a certain activity

interim [ˈintərim] – n. the time between one event, process, or period and another

interject  – v. to insert between other elements: She interjected clever remarks

interlocutor [.intəˈlɔkjutə] – n. the performer in the middle of a minstrel line who engages the others in talk

interlude [ˈintəlu:d] – n. a brief show (music or dance etc) inserted between the sections of a longer performance

intermediate [.intəˈmi:diət] – adj. lying between two extremes in time or space or state: going from sitting to standing without intermediate pushes with the hands

interminable [inˈtə:minəbəl] – adj. tiresomely long; seemingly without end: an interminable sermon

intermission [.intəˈmiʃən] – n. the act of suspending activity temporarily

intermit [intəˈmit] – v. cease an action temporarily

intermittent [.intəˈmitənt] – adj. stopping and starting at irregular intervals: intermittent rain showers

interpolation [in.tə:pəuˈleiʃən] – n. a message (spoken or written) that is introduced or inserted: with the help of his friend’s interpolations his story was eventually told

interpose [.intəˈpəuz] – v. be or come between

interposition [in.tə:pəˈziʃən] – n. the act or fact of interposing one thing between or among others

interpreter [inˈtə:pritə] – n. someone who mediates between speakers of different languages

interrogate [inˈterəgeit] – v. transmit (a signal) for setting off an appropriate response, as in telecommunication

interrogative [.intəˈrɔgətiv] – n. a sentence of inquiry that asks for a reply

interrogatory [,intəˈrɔgətəri] – n. formal systematic questioning

interrupt [.intəˈrʌpt] – v. make a break in: We interrupt the program for the following messages

intersect [.intəˈsekt] – v. meet at a point

intervene [.intəˈvi:n] – v. get involved, so as to alter or hinder an action, or through force or threat of force: Why did the U.S. not intervene earlier in WW II?

intestacy [inˈtestəsi] – n. the situation of being or dying without a legally valid will

intestate [inˈtesteit] – adj. having made no legally valid will before death or not disposed of by a legal will: he died intestate

intestine [inˈtestin] – n. the part of the alimentary canal between the stomach and the anus

intimacy [ˈintiməsi] – n. close or warm friendship: the absence of fences created a mysterious intimacy in which no one knew privacy

intimation [.intiˈmeiʃən] – n. an indirect suggestion

intimidate [inˈtimideit] – v. make timid or fearful: Her boss intimidates her

intolerable [inˈtɔlərəbl] – adj. incapable of being put up with: an intolerable degree of sentimentality

intolerance [inˈtɔlərəns] – n. impatience with annoyances: his intolerance of interruptions

intolerant [inˈtɔlərənt] – adj. unwilling to tolerate difference of opinion

intoxicant [inˈtɔksikənt] – n. a liquor or brew containing alcohol as the active agent

intoxicate [inˈtɔksikeit] – v. fill with high spirits; fill with optimism

intracellular [,intrəˈseljulə] – adj. located or occurring within a cell or cells: intracellular fluid

intractable [inˈtræktəbəl] – adj. not tractable; difficult to manage or mold: an intractable disposition

intramural [intrəˈmjurəl] – adj. carried on within the bounds of an institution or community: most of the students participated actively in the college’s intramural sports program

intransigence [inˈtrænsidʒəns] – n. the trait of being intransigent; stubbornly refusing to compromise

intransigent [inˈtrænsidʒənt] – adj. impervious to pleas, persuasion, requests, reason: an intransigent conservative opposed to every liberal tendency

intrepid [inˈtrepid] – adj. invulnerable to fear or intimidation: intrepid pioneers

intricacy [ˈintrikəsi] – n. marked by elaborately complex detail

intricate [ˈintrikit] – adj. having many complexly arranged elements; elaborate: intricate lacework

intrigue [inˈtri:g] – n. a crafty and involved plot to achieve your (usually sinister) ends

intrinsic [inˈtrinsik] – adj. belonging to a thing by its very nature: form was treated as something intrinsic, as the very essence of the thing

introductory [.intrəˈdʌktəri] – adj. serving to open or begin: began the slide show with some introductory remarks

intromit [,intrəuˈmit] – v. allow to enter; grant entry to

introspect [ˈintrəˈspekt] – v. reflect on one’s own thoughts and feelings

introspection [.intrəˈspekʃən] – n. the contemplation of your own thoughts and desires and conduct

introversion [intrəˈvə:ʃən] – n. the condition of being folded inward or sheathed

introvert [ˈintrəvə:t] – v. fold inwards

intrude [inˈtru:d] – v. enter uninvited: They intruded on our dinner party

intrusion [inˈtru:ʒən] – n. any entry into an area not previously occupied

intuition [.intju:ˈiʃən] – n. instinctive knowing (without the use of rational processes)

inundate [ˈinəndeit] – v. fill quickly beyond capacity; as with a liquid: the basement was inundated after the storm

inundation [.inənˈdeiʃən] – n. the rising of a body of water and its overflowing onto normally dry land: plains fertilized by annual inundations

inure [iˈnjuə] – v. cause to accept or become hardened to; habituate: He was inured to the cold

invalid [ˈinvəli:d] – v. force to retire, remove from active duty, as of firemen

invalidate [inˈvælideit] – v. make invalid for use

invaluable [inˈvæljuəbl] – adj. having incalculable monetary, intellectual, or spiritual worth

invariable [inˈvɛəriəbl] – n. a quantity that does not vary

invasion [inˈveiʒən] – n. any entry into an area not previously occupied: an invasion of tourists

invective [inˈvektiv] – n. abusive or venomous language used to express blame or censure or bitter deep-seated ill will

inveigh [inˈvei] – v. complain bitterly

inventive [inˈventiv] – adj. (used of persons or artifacts) marked by independence and creativity in thought or action: had an inventive turn of mind

inverse [ˈinˈvə:s] – adj. reversed (turned backward) in order or nature or effect

inversion [inˈvə:ʃən] – n. the layer of air near the earth is cooler than an overlying layer

invert [inˈvə:t] – v. reverse the position, order, relation, or condition of: when forming a question, invert the subject and the verb

investigator [inˈvestigeitə] – n. a scientist who devotes himself to doing research

inveterate [inˈvetərit] – adj. habitual

invidious [inˈvidiəs] – adj. containing or implying a slight or showing prejudice: invidious comparisons

invigorate [inˈvigəreit] – v. heighten or intensify

invincible [inˈvinsəbəl] – adj. incapable of being overcome or subdued: an invincible army

inviolable [inˈvaiələbəl] – adj. incapable of being transgressed or dishonored: the person of the king is inviolable

invocation [.invəˈkeiʃən] – n. a prayer asking God’s help as part of a religious service

invoke [inˈvəuk] – v. summon into action or bring into existence, often as if by magic

involuntary [inˈvɔləntəri] – adj. not subject to the control of the will: involuntary manslaughter

involution [,invəˈlu:ʃən] – n. reduction in size of an organ or part (as in the return of the uterus to normal size after childbirth)

invulnerable [inˈvʌlnərəbəl] – adj. immune to attack; impregnable: gunners raked the beach from invulnerable positions on the cliffs

inwardly [ˈinwədli] – adv. with respect to private feelings: inwardly, she was raging

iota [aiˈəutə] – n. a tiny or scarcely detectable amount

irascible [iˈræsəbəl] – adj. quickly aroused to anger

irate [aiˈreit] – adj. feeling or showing extreme anger: irate protesters

ire [aiə] – n. a strong emotion; a feeling that is oriented toward some real or supposed grievance

iridescence [iriˈdesns] – n. the visual property of something having a milky brightness and a play of colors from the surface

iridescent [.iriˈdesənt] – adj. varying in color when seen in different lights or from different angles: a dragonfly hovered, vibrating and iridescent

irk [ə:k] – v. irritate or vex

irksome [ˈə:ksəm] – adj. so lacking in interest as to cause mental weariness: what an irksome task the writing of long letters is

ironic [aiəˈrɔnik] – adj. humorously sarcastic or mocking: an ironic remark often conveys an intended meaning obliquely

irony [ˈaiərəni] – n. witty language used to convey insults or scorn: irony is wasted on the stupid

irradiate [iˈreidieit] – v. give spiritual insight to; in religion

irrational [iˈræʃənl] – adj. not consistent with or using reason: irrational fears

irreducible [iriˈdju:səbl] – adj. incapable of being made smaller or simpler: an irreducible minimum

irrefutable  – adj. impossible to deny or disprove: an irrefutable argument

irrelevant [iˈrelivənt] – adj. having no bearing on or connection with the subject at issue: an irrelevant comment

irreligious [,iriˈlidʒəs] – adj. hostile or indifferent to religion

irreparable [iˈrepərəbl] – adj. impossible to repair, rectify, or amend: irreparable harm

irrepressible [iriˈpresəbl] – adj. impossible to repress or control: an irrepressible chatterbox

irreproachable [iriˈprəutʃəb(ə)l] – adj. free of guilt; not subject to blame: of irreproachable character

irresistible [.iriˈzistəbl] – adj. impossible to resist; overpowering: irresistible (or resistless) impulses

irresolute  – adj. uncertain how to act or proceed: the committee was timid and mediocre and irresolute

irresponsible [.irisˈpɔnsəbl] – adj. showing lack of care for consequences: behaved like an irresponsible idiot

irreverence [iˈrevərəns] – n. a disrespectful act

irreverent [iˈrevərənt] – adj. showing lack of due respect or veneration: irreverent scholars mocking sacred things

irreversible [.iriˈvə:səbl.-sib-] – adj. incapable of being reversed: irreversible momentum toward revolution

irrevocable [iˈrevəkəbəl] – adj. incapable of being retracted or revoked: firm and irrevocable is my doom

irrigate [ˈirigeit] – v. supply with water, as with channels or ditches or streams

irritable [ˈiritəbl] – adj. abnormally sensitive to a stimulus

irritant [ˈiritənt] – n. something that causes irritation and annoyance

irritate [ˈiriteit] – v. excite to an abnormal condition, or chafe or inflame: Aspirin irritates my stomach

irrupt  – v. enter uninvited: She irrupted into our sitting room

irruption [iˈrʌpʃn] – n. a sudden violent entrance; a bursting in: the recent irruption of bad manners

isle [ail] – n. a small island

islet [ˈailit] – n. a small island

isobar [ˈaisəbɑ:] – n. (meteorology)an isogram connecting points having equal barometric pressure at a given time

isochronous [aiˈsɔkrənəs] – adj. equal in duration or interval

isolate [ˈaisəleit] – v. place or set apart: They isolated the political prisoners from the other inmates

isothermal [aisəˈθə:ml] – adj. of a process or change taking place at constant temperature

itinerant [iˈtinərənt] – n. a laborer who moves from place to place as demanded by employment: itinerant traders

itinerary [aiˈtinərəri] – n. an established line of travel or access

itinerate [iˈtinəreit] – v. travel from place to place, as for work

jaded [ˈdʒeidid] – adj. exhausted: my father’s words had left me jaded and depressed

jargon [ˈdʒɑ:gən] – n. a characteristic language of a particular group (as among thieves)

jaundice [ˈdʒɔ:ndis] – n. a rough and bitter manner

jaundiced [ˈdʒɔ:ndist] – adj. showing or affected by prejudice or envy or distaste: looked with a jaundiced eye on the growth of regimentation

jaunt [dʒɔ:nt] – n. a journey taken for pleasure

jeopardize [ˈdʒepədaiz] – v. pose a threat to; present a danger to

jetsam  – n. the part of a ship’s equipment or cargo that is thrown overboard to lighten the load in a storm

jingoism [ˈdʒiŋgəuizəm] – n. an appeal intended to arouse patriotic emotions

jingoistic  – adj. fanatically patriotic

jocose [dʒəˈkəus] – adj. characterized by jokes and good humor

jocular [ˈdʒɔkjulə] – adj. characterized by jokes and good humor

joggle [ˈdʒɔgl] – n. a fastener that is inserted into holes in two adjacent pieces and holds them together

jollity [ˈdʒɔliti] – n. feeling jolly and jovial and full of good humor

joust [dʒaust] – n. a combat between two mounted knights tilting against each other with blunted lances

jovial [ˈdʒəviəl] – adj. full of or showing high-spirited merriment: a jovial old gentleman

jubilant [ˈdʒu:bilənt] – adj. joyful and proud especially because of triumph or success

jubilation [.dʒu:biˈleiʃən] – n. a feeling of extreme joy

judicature [ˈdʒu:dikətʃə] – n. the system of law courts that administer justice and constitute the judicial branch of government

judiciary [dʒu:ˈdiʃiəri] – n. persons who administer justice

judicious [dʒu(:)ˈdiʃəs] – adj. marked by the exercise of good judgment or common sense in practical matters: judicious use of one’s money

juggle [ˈdʒʌgəl] – v. influence by slyness

jugglery [`dʒʌgləri] – n. artful trickery designed to achieve an end: the senator’s tax program was mere jugglery

jugular [ˈdʒʌgjulə] – n. veins in the neck that return blood from the head

juicy [ˈdʒu:si] – adj. having strong sexual appeal: juicy barmaids

junction [ˈdʒʌŋkʃən] – n. the place where two or more things come together

juncture [ˈdʒʌŋktʃə] – n. an event that occurs at a critical time: at such junctures he always had an impulse to leave

junta [ˈdʒʌntə] – n. a group of military officers who rule a country after seizing power

juridical [dʒuəˈridikəl] – adj. of or relating to the law or jurisprudence: juridical days

jurisdiction [.dʒuərisˈdikʃən] – n. (law) the right and power to interpret and apply the law: courts having jurisdiction in this district

jurisprudence [.dʒuərisˈpru:dəns] – n. the branch of philosophy concerned with the law and the principles that lead courts to make the decisions they do

juror [ˈdʒuərə] – n. someone who serves (or waits to be called to serve) on a jury

justification [dʒʌstifiˈkeiʃ(ə)n] – n. something (such as a fact or circumstance) that shows an action to be reasonable or necessary: he considered misrule a justification for revolution

juvenile [ˈdʒu:vinail] – adj. of or relating to or characteristic of or appropriate for children or young people: juvenile diabetes

juxtapose [.dʒʌkstəˈpəuz] – v. place side by side: The fauvists juxtaposed strong colors

juxtaposition [.dʒʌkstəpəˈziʃən] – n. the act of positioning close together (or side by side): it is the result of the juxtaposition of contrasting colors

keepsake [ˈki:pseik] – n. something of sentimental value

kerchief [ˈkə:tʃiʃ] – n. a square scarf that is folded into a triangle and worn over the head or about the neck

kernel [ˈkə:nl] – n. the inner and usually edible part of a seed or grain or nut or fruit stone: black walnut kernels are difficult to get out of the shell

kiln [kiln, kil] – n. a furnace for firing or burning or drying such things as porcelain or bricks

kiloliter [ˈkiləu,li:tə] – n. a metric unit of volume or capacity equal to 1000 liters

kilometer [ˈkilə.mi:tə] – n. a metric unit of length equal to 1000 meters (or 0.621371 miles)

kilowatt [ˈkiləuwɔt] – n. a unit of power equal to 1000 watts

kimono [kiˈməunəu] – n. a loose robe; imitated from robes originally worn by Japanese

kind-hearted  – adj. having or proceeding from an innately kind disposition

kindle [ˈkindl] – v. catch fire: The dried grass of the prairie kindled, spreading the flames for miles

kindling  – n. material for starting a fire

kingship [ˈkiŋʃip] – n. the dignity or rank or position of a king

kinsfolk  – n. people descended from a common ancestor

kismet [kizmet] – n. (Islam) the will of Allah

knack [næk] – n. a special way of doing something: he had a special knack for getting into trouble

knavery [ˈneivəri] – n. lack of honesty; acts of lying or cheating or stealing

knead [ni:d] – v. make uniform: knead dough

knell [nel] – v. ring as in announcing death

knickknack [ˈniknæk] – n. a small inexpensive mass-produced article

knight [nait] – n. a chessman shaped to resemble the head of a horse; can move two squares horizontally and one vertically (or vice versa)

knighthood [ˈnaithud] – n. aristocrats holding the rank of knight

knotty [ˈnɔti] – adj. making great mental demands; hard to comprehend or solve or believe: I faced the knotty problem of what to have for breakfast

kudos [ˈkju:dɔs] – n. an expression of approval and commendation

laborious [ləˈbɔ:riəs] – adj. characterized by effort to the point of exhaustion; especially physical effort: spent many laborious hours on the project

labyrinth [ˈlæbərinθ] – n. complex system of paths or tunnels in which it is easy to get lost

labyrinthine  – adj. relating to or affecting or originating in the inner ear: labyrinthine deafness

lacerate [ˈlæsəreit] – v. cut or tear irregularly

laceration [.læsəˈreiʃən] – n. a torn ragged wound

lachrymose [ˈlækriməus] – adj. showing sorrow

lackadaisical [lækəˈdeizik(ə)l] – adj. lacking spirit or liveliness: a lackadaisical attempt

lackluster [ˈlæk.lʌstə] – adj. lacking brilliance or vitality: a dull lackluster life

lactation [lækˈteiʃən] – n. the period following birth during which milk is secreted: lactation normally continues until weaning

lacteal [ˈlæktiəl] – n. any of the lymphatic vessels that convey chyle from the small intestine to the thoracic duct

lactic [ˈlæktik] – adj. of or relating to or obtained from milk (especially sour milk or whey): lactic acid

laddie  – n. a male child (a familiar term of address to a boy)

ladle [ˈleidl] – n. a spoon-shaped vessel with a long handle; frequently used to transfer liquids from one container to another

laggard [ˈlægəd] – n. someone who takes more time than necessary; someone who lags behind

lambaste [læmˈbeist] – v. beat with a cane

lament [ləˈment] – n. a cry of sorrow and grief: their pitiful laments could be heard throughout the ward

lamentable [ˈlæməntəbl, ləˈmentəbl] – adj. bad; unfortunate: a lamentable decision

lamentation  – n. a cry of sorrow and grief

lampoon [læmˈpu:n] – n. a composition that imitates or misrepresents somebody’s style, usually in a humorous way

lance [lɑ:ns] – n. a long pointed rod used as a tool or weapon

landholder [ˈlændhəuldər] – n. a holder or proprietor of land

landmark [ˈlændma:k] – n. an event marking a unique or important historical change of course or one on which important developments depend

languid [ˈlæŋgwid] – adj. lacking spirit or liveliness: a languid mood

languish [ˈlæŋgwiʃ] – v. lose vigor, health, or flesh, as through grief

languor [ˈlæŋgə] – n. a relaxed comfortable feeling

lapse [læps] – v. pass into a specified state or condition

larceny [ˈlɑ:səni] – n. the act of taking something from someone unlawfully

largess [ˈlɑ:dʒes, ˈlɑ:dʒis] – n. a gift or money given (as for service or out of benevolence); usually given ostentatiously

lascivious [ləˈsiviəs] – adj. driven by lust; preoccupied with or exhibiting lustful desires

lassie [ˈlæsi] – n. a girl or young woman who is unmarried

lassitude [ˈlæsitju:d] – n. a state of comatose torpor (as found in sleeping sickness)

latency [ˈleitənsi] – n. the time that elapses between a stimulus and the response to it

latent [ˈleitnt] – adj. potentially existing but not presently evident or realized: a latent fingerprint

lateral [ˈlætərəl] – adj. situated at or extending to the side: the lateral branches of a tree

latish [ˈleitiʃ] – adj. somewhat late

lattice [ˈlætis] – n. an arrangement of points or particles or objects in a regular periodic pattern in 2 or 3 dimensions

laud [lɔ:d] – v. praise, glorify, or honor

laudable [ˈlɔ:dəbəl] – adj. worthy of high praise: applaudable efforts to save the environment

laudatory [ˈlɔ:dətəri] – adj. full of or giving praise: a laudatory remark

laundress [ˈlɔ:ndris] – n. a working woman who takes in washing

laureate [ˈlɔ:riit] – n. someone honored for great achievements; figuratively someone crowned with a laurel wreath

lave [leiv] – v. wash or flow against: the waves laved the shore

lawgiver [ˈlɔ:givə] – n. a maker of laws; someone who gives a code of laws

lawmaker [lɔ:ˈmeikə] – n. a maker of laws; someone who gives a code of laws

lax [læks] – adj. lacking in rigor or strictness: such lax and slipshod ways are no longer acceptable

laxative [ˈlæksətiv] – n. a mild cathartic

lea [li:] – n. a field covered with grass or herbage and suitable for grazing by livestock

leaflet [ˈli:flit] – n. a thin triangular flap of a heart valve

leaven [ˈlevən] – n. a substance used to produce fermentation in dough or a liquid

leeward [ˈli:wəd] – n. the direction in which the wind is blowing

left-handed [ˈleftˈhændid] – adj. using or intended for the left hand: left-handed golfers need left-handed clubs

legacy [ˈlegəsi] – n. (law) a gift of personal property by will

legalize [ˈli:gəlaiz] – v. make legal: Marijuana should be legalized

legend [ˈledʒənd] – n. a story about mythical or supernatural beings or events

legerdemain [.ledʒədəˈmein] – n. an illusory feat; considered magical by naive observers

legging [ˈlegiŋ] – n. a garment covering the leg (usually extending from the knee to the ankle)

legible [ˈledʒəbəl] – adj. (of handwriting, print, etc.) capable of being read or deciphered: legible handwriting

legion [ˈli:dʒən] – n. archaic terms for army

legionary [ˈli:dʒənəri] – n. a soldier who is a member of a legion (especially the French Foreign Legion)

legislate [ˈledʒisleit] – v. make laws, bills, etc. or bring into effect by legislation: We cannot legislate how people spend their free time

legislative [ˈledʒislətiv] – adj. of or relating to or created by legislation: legislative proposal

legislator [ˈledʒisleitə] – n. someone who makes or enacts laws

legitimacy [l iˈdʒitiməsi] – n. lawfulness by virtue of being authorized or in accordance with law

legitimate [liˈdʒitimit] – adj. of marriages and offspring; recognized as lawful

leniency [ˈli:njənsi] – n. a disposition to yield to the wishes of someone

lenient [ˈli:niənt] – adj. not strict: lenient rules

leonine [ˈli:ənain] – adj. of or characteristic of or resembling a lion

lethargic [leˈθɑ:dʒik] – adj. deficient in alertness or activity: bullfrogs became lethargic with the first cold nights

lethargy [ˈleθədʒi] – n. a state of comatose torpor (as found in sleeping sickness)

levee [ˈlevi] – n. a formal reception of visitors or guests (as at a royal court)

lever [ˈlev] – n. a rigid bar pivoted about a fulcrum

leviathan [liˈvaiəθən] – n. the largest or most massive thing of its kind: it was a leviathan among redwoods

levity [ˈleviti] – n. feeling an inappropriate lack of seriousness

levy [ˈlevi] – n. the act of drafting into military service

lewd [lu:d] – adj. suggestive of or tending to moral looseness: lewd whisperings of a dirty old man

lexicographer [.leksiˈkɔgrəfə] – n. a compiler or writer of a dictionary; a student of the lexical component of language

lexicography [leksiˈkɔgrəfi] – n. the act of writing dictionaries

lexicon [ˈleksikən] – n. a language user’s knowledge of words

liable [ˈlaiəbl] – adj. at risk of or subject to experiencing something usually unpleasant: she is liable to forget

libel [ˈlaibəl] – n. a false and malicious publication printed for the purpose of defaming a living person

libelous [ˈlaibələs] – adj. (used of statements) harmful and often untrue; tending to discredit or malign

liberalism [ˈlibərəlizm] – n. a political orientation that favors social progress by reform and by changing laws rather than by revolution

liberate [ˈlibəreit] – v. give equal rights to; of women and minorities

libertarian  – n. someone who believes the doctrine of free will

licentious [laiˈsenʃəs] – adj. lacking moral discipline; especially sexually unrestrained: coarse and licentious men

licit [ˈlisit] – adj. sanctioned by custom or morality especially sexual morality: a wife’s licit love

liege [li:dʒ] – n. a person holding a fief; a person who owes allegiance and service to a feudal lord

lien [li:ən] – n. the right to take another’s property if an obligation is not discharged

lieu [lu:] – n. the post or function properly or customarily occupied or served by another: in lieu of

lifelike [ˈlaiflaik] – adj. free from artificiality: a lifelike pose

lifelong [ˈlaifllɔŋ] – adj. continuing through life: a lifelong friend

ligament [ˈligəmənt] – n. a sheet or band of tough fibrous tissue connecting bones or cartilages or supporting muscles or organs

ligature [ˈligətʃə] – n. (music) a group of notes connected by a slur

light-hearted  – adj. carefree and happy and lighthearted

ligneous [ˈligniəs] – adj. consisting of or containing lignin or xylem: ligneous (or woody) tissue

likelihood [ˈlaiklihud] – n. the probability of a specified outcome

liking [ˈlaikiŋ] – n. a feeling of pleasure and enjoyment: I’ve always had a liking for reading

limpid [ˈlimpid] – adj. clear and bright: limpid blue eyes

linchpin  – n. a central cohesive source of support and stability: he is the linchpin of this firm

linear [ˈliniə] – adj. designating or involving an equation whose terms are of the first degree

liner [ˈlainə] – n. (baseball) a hit that flies straight out from the batter: the batter hit a liner to the shortstop

linger [ˈliŋgə] – v. remain present although waning or gradually dying: Her perfume lingered on

lingo [ˈliŋgəu] – n. a characteristic language of a particular group (as among thieves): they don’t speak our lingo

lingua [ˈliŋgwə] – n. a mobile mass of muscular tissue covered with mucous membrane and located in the oral cavity

lingual [ˈliŋgwəl] – adj. consisting of or related to language: lingual diversity

linguist [ˈliŋgwist] – n. a person who speaks more than one language

linguistics [liŋˈgwistiks] – n. the scientific study of language

liniment [ˈlinəmənt] – n. a medicinal liquid that is rubbed into the skin to relieve muscular stiffness and pain

liquefaction  – n. the conversion of a solid or a gas into a liquid

liquefy [ˈlikwifai] – v. make (a solid substance) liquid, as by heating: liquefy the silver

liqueur [liˈkjuə] – n. strong highly flavored sweet liquor usually drunk after a meal

liquidate [ˈlikwideit] – v. get rid of (someone who may be a threat) by killing: The mafia liquidated the informer

liquor [ˈlikə] – n. an alcoholic beverage that is distilled rather than fermented

listless [ˈlistləs] – adj. lacking zest or vivacity: he was listless and bored

literacy [ˈlitərəsi] – n. the ability to read and write

literal [ˈlitərəl] – adj. being or reflecting the essential or genuine character of something: a literal solitude like a desert

lithe [laið] – adj. moving and bending with ease

lithesome [`laiðsəm] – adj. moving and bending with ease

lithograph [ˈliθə.grɑ:f] – v. make by lithography

litigant [ˈlitigənt] – n. (law) a party to a lawsuit; someone involved in litigation: plaintiffs and defendants are both litigants

litigate [ˈlitigeit] – v. engage in legal proceedings

litigious [liˈtidʒəs] – adj. inclined or showing an inclination to dispute or disagree, even to engage in law suits: a litigious and acrimonious spirit

littoral [ˈlitərəl] – n. the region of the shore of a lake or sea or ocean

liturgy [ˈlitədʒi] – n. a Christian sacrament commemorating the Last Supper by consecrating bread and wine

livelihood [ˈlaivlihud] – n. the financial means whereby one lives: he could no longer earn his own livelihood

livid [ˈlivid] – adj. anemic looking from illness or emotion: a face livid with shock

loam [ləum] – n. a rich soil consisting of a mixture of sand and clay and decaying organic materials

loath [ləuθ] – adj. unwillingness to do something contrary to your custom: loath to admit a mistake

loathe [ləuð] – v. find repugnant: I loathe that man

lobby [ˈlɔbi] – n. a large entrance or reception room or area

lobbyist  – n. someone who is employed to persuade legislators to vote for legislation that favors the lobbyist’s employer

locative [ˈlɔkətiv] – n. the semantic role of the noun phrase that designates the place of the state or action denoted by the verb

loch [lɔk] – n. Scottish word for a lake

locomotion [ləʊkəˈməʊʃ(ə)n] – n. the power or ability to move

lode [ləud] – n. a deposit of valuable ore occurring within definite boundaries separating it from surrounding rocks

lodgment  – n. bringing a charge or accusation against someone

lofty [ˈlɔfti] – adj. of high moral or intellectual value; elevated in nature or style: a noble and lofty concept

logician [ləuˈdʒiʃən] – n. a person skilled at symbolic logic

logistics [ləˈdʒistiks] – n. handling an operation that involves providing labor and materials be supplied as needed

loiterer [ˈlɔitərə] – n. someone who lingers aimlessly in or about a place

loneliness [ˈləʊnliniz] – n. the state of being alone in solitary isolation

longevity [lɔnˈdʒeviti] – n. duration of service: her longevity as a star

loot [lu:t] – n. goods or money obtained illegally

loquacious [ləuˈkweiʃəs] – adj. full of trivial conversation

lough  – n. a long narrow (nearly landlocked) cove in Ireland

louse [laus] – n. wingless usually flattened bloodsucking insect parasitic on warm-blooded animals

lovable [ˈlʌvəb(ə)l] – adj. having characteristics that attract love or affection: a mischievous but lovable child

lowly [ˈləuli] – adj. inferior in rank or status: a lowly corporal

low-spirited  – adj. filled with melancholy and despondency

lucid [ˈlu:sid] – adj. (of language) transparently clear; easily understandable: lucid directions

lucrative [ˈlu:krətiv] – adj. producing a sizeable profit

ludicrous [ˈlu:dikrəs] – adj. broadly or extravagantly humorous; resembling farce: ludicrous green hair

lugubrious [lu:ˈgu:briəs] – adj. excessively mournful

lukewarm [.lu:kˈwɔ:m] – adj. moderately warm: he hates lukewarm coffee

luminary [ˈlu:minəri] – n. a celebrity who is an inspiration to others

luminescence [lu:miˈnesns] – n. light not due to incandescence; occurs at low temperatures

luminescent [lu:miˈnesnt] – adj. emitting light not caused by heat

luminosity [.lju:miˈnɔsiti] – n. the quality of being luminous; emitting or reflecting light: its luminosity is measured relative to that of our sun

luminous [ˈlju:minəs] – adj. softly bright or radiant: a sky luminous with stars

lummox  – n. an awkward stupid person

lunacy [ˈlu:nəsi] – n. obsolete terms for legal insanity

lunar [ˈlu:nə] – adj. of or relating to or associated with the moon: lunar surface

lunatic [ˈlu:nətik] – n. an insane person

lurid [ˈljuərid] – adj. horrible in fierceness or savagery: lurid crimes

luscious [ˈlʌʃəs] – adj. having strong sexual appeal

lustrous [ˈlʌstrəs] – adj. made smooth and bright by or as if by rubbing; reflecting a sheen or glow: she brushed her hair until it fell in lustrous auburn waves

luxuriance [lʌgˈzuəriəns] – n. the property of being lush and abundant and a pleasure to the senses

luxuriant [lʌgˈzjuəriənt] – adj. marked by complexity and richness of detail

luxuriate [lʌgˈzjuərieit] – v. enjoy to excess

lying [ˈlaiiŋ] – n. the deliberate act of deviating from the truth

lynch [lintʃ] – v. kill without legal sanction: The blood-thirsty mob lynched the alleged killer of the child

lyre [ˈlaiə] – n. a harp used by ancient Greeks for accompaniment

lyric [ˈlirik] – adj. expressing deep emotion: the dancer’s lyrical performance

macadamize [məˈkædəmaiz] – v. surface with macadam

machinist [məˈʃi:nist] – n. a craftsman skilled in operating machine tools

macrocosm [ˈmækrəukɔzəm] – n. everything that exists anywhere

madden [ˈmædən] – v. cause to go crazy; cause to lose one’s mind

Madonna [məˈdɔnə] – n. the mother of Jesus; Christians refer to her as the Virgin Mary; she is especially honored by Roman Catholics

maelstrom [ˈmeilstrəm] – n. a powerful circular current of water (usually the result of conflicting tides)

magician [məˈdʒiʃən] – n. one who practices magic or sorcery

magisterial [.mædʒiˈstiəriəl] – adj. offensively self-assured or given to exercising usually unwarranted power: managed the employees in an aloof magisterial way

magistracy [ˈmædʒistrəsi] – n. the position of magistrate

magnanimity  – n. liberality in bestowing gifts; extremely liberal and generous of spirit

magnanimous [mægˈnæniməs] – adj. noble and generous in spirit: a magnanimous conqueror

magnate [ˈmægneit] – n. a very wealthy or powerful businessman

magnet [ˈmægnit] – n. a characteristic that provides pleasure and attracts

magnetize [ˈmægnitaiz] – v. attract strongly, as if with a magnet: She magnetized the audience with her tricks

magnificence [mægˈnifisns] – n. splendid or imposing in size or appearance

magnificent [mægˈnifisnt] – adj. characterized by grandeur: magnificent cathedrals

magnitude [ˈmægnitju:d] – n. the property of relative size or extent (whether large or small): they tried to predict the magnitude of the explosion

maharaja [,mɑ:həˈrɑ:dʒə] – n. a great raja; a Hindu prince or king in India ranking above a raja

maidenhood [ˈmeidnhud] – n. the childhood of a girl

maize [meiz] – n. a strong yellow color

makeup [ˈmeikʌp] – n. cosmetics applied to the face to improve or change your appearance

maladroit [.mæləˈdrɔit] – adj. not adroit: a maladroit movement of his hand caused the car to swerve

malady [ˈmælədi] – n. any unwholesome or desperate condition

malaise [mæˈleiz] – n. physical discomfort (as mild sickness or depression)

malaria [məˈlɛəriə] – n. an infective disease caused by sporozoan parasites that are transmitted through the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito; marked by paroxysms of chills and fever

malcontent [ˈmælkəntent] – n. a person who is discontented or disgusted

malediction [.mæləˈdikʃən] – n. the act of calling down a curse that invokes evil (and usually serves as an insult)

malefactor [ˈmælifæktə] – n. someone who has committed a crime or has been legally convicted of a crime

maleficent [məˈlefisnt] – adj. harmful or evil in intent or effect

malevolence [məˈlevələns] – n. wishing evil to others

malevolent [məˈlevələnt] – adj. wishing or appearing to wish evil to others; arising from intense ill will or hatred: a gossipy malevolent old woman

malice [ˈmælis] – n. feeling a need to see others suffer

malicious [məˈliʃəs] – adj. having the nature of or resulting from malice: malicious gossip

malign [məˈlain] – adj. evil or harmful in nature or influence: prompted by malign motives

malignant [məˈlignənt] – adj. dangerous to health; characterized by progressive and uncontrolled growth (especially of a tumor)

malinger [məˈliŋgə] – v. avoid responsibilities and duties, e.g., by pretending to be ill

malingerer  – n. someone shirking their duty by feigning illness or incapacity

malleable [ˈmæliəbəl] – adj. easily influenced

mallet [ˈmælit] – n. a sports implement with a long handle and a head like a hammer; used in sports (polo or croquet) to hit a ball

malodor  – n. a distinctive odor that is offensively unpleasant

maltreat [mælˈtri:t] – v. treat badly

mammoth [ˈmæməθ] – n. any of numerous extinct elephants widely distributed in the Pleistocene; extremely large with hairy coats and long upcurved tusks

mandate [ˈmændeit] – n. a document giving an official instruction or command

mandatory [ˈmændətəri] – n. the recipient of a mandate

mane [mein] – n. growth of hair covering the scalp of a human being

man-eater  – n. a person who eats human flesh

maneuver [məˈnu:və] – n. a military training exercise

mania [ˈmeiniə] – n. an irrational but irresistible motive for a belief or action

maniac [ˈmeiniæk] – n. an insane person

manifest [ˈmænifest] – v. provide evidence for; stand as proof of; show by one’s behavior, attitude, or external attributes: The buildings in Rome manifest a high level of architectural sophistication

manifesto [.mæniˈfestəu] – n. a public declaration of intentions (as issued by a political party or government)

manifold [ˈmænifəuld] – n. a pipe that has several lateral outlets to or from other pipes

manipulative [məˈnipjulətiv] – adj. skillful in influencing or controlling others to your own advantage: the early manipulative techniques of a three-year-old child

manlike [ˈmælaik] – adj. possessing qualities befitting a man

manliness [ˈmænlinis] – n. the trait of being manly; having the characteristics of an adult male

mannerism [ˈmænərizəm] – n. a behavioral attribute that is distinctive and peculiar to an individual

manor [ˈmænə] – n. the landed estate of a lord (including the house on it)

mantel [ˈmæntl] – n. shelf that projects from wall above fireplace: in Britain they call a mantel a chimneypiece

mantle [ˈmæntl] – n. the cloak as a symbol of authority: place the mantle of authority on younger shoulders

manumission [ˈmænjumiʃən] – n. the formal act of freeing from slavery: he believed in the manumission of the slaves

manumit [.mænjuˈmit] – v. free from slavery or servitude

marine [məˈri:n] – adj. of or relating to the sea: marine explorations

maritime [ˈmæritaim] – adj. relating to or involving ships or shipping or navigation or seamen: maritime law

maroon [məˈru:n] – n. a person who is stranded (as on an island): when the tide came in I was a maroon out there

marred  – adj. blemished by injury or rough wear: walls marred by graffiti

marshal [ˈmɑ:ʃəl] – v. place in proper rank: marshal the troops

marsupial [mɑ:ˈsju:piəl] – n. mammals of which the females have a pouch (the marsupium) containing the teats where the young are fed and carried

martial [ˈmɑ:ʃəl] – adj. (of persons) befitting a warrior

Martian [ˈmɑ:ʃiən] – n. imaginary people who live on the planet Mars

martinet [.ma:tiˈnet] – n. someone who demands exact conformity to rules and forms

martyrdom [ˈma:tədəm] – n. death that is imposed because of the person’s adherence of a religious faith or cause

marvel [ˈmɑ:vəl] – v. be amazed at: We marvelled at the child’s linguistic abilities

masochist  – n. someone who obtains pleasure from receiving punishment

masonry [ˈmeisnri] – n. Freemasons collectively

masquerade [.mæskəˈreid] – n. a party of guests wearing costumes and masks

massacre [ˈmæsəkə] – n. the savage and excessive killing of many people

masterpiece [ˈmɑ:stəpi:s] – n. the most outstanding work of a creative artist or craftsman

mastery [ˈma:stəri] – n. great skillfulness and knowledge of some subject or activity

materialism [məˈtiəriəlizəm] – n. (philosophy) the philosophical theory that matter is the only reality

materialize [məˈtiəriəlaiz] – v. come into being; become reality: Her dream really materialized

maternal [məˈtə:nl] – adj. characteristic of a mother: warm maternal affection for her guest

matinee [ˈmætinei] – n. a theatrical performance held during the daytime (especially in the afternoon)

matriarchy [ˈmeitriɑ:ki] – n. a form of social organization in which a female is the family head and title is traced through the female line

matricide [ˈmeitrisaid] – n. a person who murders their mother

matrimony [ˈmætriməni] – n. the state of being a married couple voluntarily joined for life (or until divorce)

matrix [ˈmeitriks] – n. (geology) amass of fine-grained rock in which fossils, crystals, or gems are embedded

maudlin [ˈmɔ:dlin] – adj. effusively or insincerely emotional: maudlin expressions of sympathy

mausoleum [mɔ:səˈliəm] – n. a large burial chamber, usually above ground

maverick [ˈmævərik] – n. someone who exhibits great independence in thought and action

mawkish [ˈmɔ:kiʃ] – adj. effusively or insincerely emotional

maxim [ˈmæksim] – n. a saying that is widely accepted on its own merits

maze [meiz] – n. complex system of paths or tunnels in which it is easy to get lost

mead [mi:d] – n. United States philosopher of pragmatism (1863-1931)

meager [ˈmi:gə] – adj. deficient in amount or quality or extent: meager resources

mealy-mouthed  – adj. hesitant to state facts or opinions simply and directly as from e.g. timidity or hypocrisy

meander [miˈændə] – n. a bend or curve, as in a stream or river

mechanics [miˈkæniks] – n. the branch of physics concerned with the motion of bodies in a frame of reference

medallion [miˈdæljən] – n. any of various large ancient Greek coins

meddlesome [ˈmedlsəm] – adj. intrusive in a meddling or offensive manner

medial [ˈmi:diəl] – adj. dividing an animal into right and left halves

mediate [ˈmidieit] – v. act between parties with a view to reconciling differences: He mediated a settlement

medieval [mediˈi:vəl] – adj. relating to or belonging to the Middle Ages

mediocre [.mi:diˈəukə] – adj. moderate to inferior in quality: they improved the quality from mediocre to above average

meditation [.mediˈteiʃən] – n. continuous and profound contemplation or musing on a subject or series of subjects of a deep or abstruse nature: the habit of meditation is the basis for all real knowledge

medley [ˈmedli] – n. a musical composition consisting of a series of songs or other musical pieces from various sources

meliorate [ˈmi:ljəreit] – v. to make better

mellifluous [miˈlifluəs] – adj. pleasing to the ear

mellow [ˈmeləu] – adj. unhurried and relaxed: a mellow conversation

melodious [miˈləudiəs] – adj. having a musical sound; especially a pleasing tune

melodrama [ˈmelədrɑ:mə] – n. an extravagant comedy in which action is more salient than characterization

memento [miˈmentəu] – n. a reminder of past events

memorable [ˈmemərəbl] – adj. worth remembering

menace [ˈmenis] – v. pose a threat to; present a danger to

menagerie [miˈnædʒəri] – n. a collection of live animals for study or display

mendacious [menˈdeiʃəs] – adj. given to lying: a mendacious child

mendicancy  – n. a solicitation for money or food (especially in the street by an apparently penniless person)

mendicant [ˈmendikənt] – n. a male member of a religious order that originally relied solely on alms

mentality [menˈtæliti] – n. mental ability

mentor [ˈmentə] – n. a wise and trusted guide and advisor

mercantile [ˈmə:kəntail] – adj. profit oriented: preached a mercantile and militant patriotism

mercenary [ˈmə:sinəri] – adj. marked by materialism

merciful [ˈmə:sifəl] – adj. (used conventionally of royalty and high nobility) gracious: our merciful king

merciless [ˈmə:silis] – adj. having or showing no mercy: the merciless enemy

mercurial [mə:ˈkjuəriəl] – adj. liable to sudden unpredictable change: mercurial twists of temperament

meretricious [.meriˈtriʃəs] – adj. like or relating to a prostitute: meretricious relationships

merge [mə:dʒ] – v. become one: the cells merge

meritorious [.meriˈtɔ:riəs] – adj. deserving reward or praise: a lifetime of meritorious service

mesmerize [ˈmezməraiz] – v. attract strongly, as if with a magnet

metallurgy [meˈtælədʒi] – n. the science and technology of metals

metamorphosis [.metəˈmɔ:fəsis] – n. the marked and rapid transformation of a larva into an adult that occurs in some animals

metaphor [ˈmetəfə] – n. a figure of speech in which an expression is used to refer to something that it does not literally denote in order to suggest a similarity

metaphorical [.metəˈfɔrikəl] – adj. expressing one thing in terms normally denoting another: a metaphorical expression

metaphorically  – adv. in a metaphorical manner: she expressed herself metaphorically

metaphysical [metəˈfizikl] – adj. without material form or substance: metaphysical forces

metaphysics [.metəˈfiziks] – n. the philosophical study of being and knowing

mete [mi:t] – n. a line that indicates a boundary

metempsychosis [,metempsiˈkəusis] – n. after death the soul begins a new cycle of existence in another human body

methodical [miˈθɔdikəl] – adj. characterized by method and orderliness: a methodical scholar

meticulous [miˈtikjʊləs] – adj. marked by precise accordance with details: meticulous research

metonymy [miˈtɔnimi] – n. substituting the name of an attribute or feature for the name of the thing itself (as in `they counted heads’)

metric [ˈmetrik] – n. a system of related measures that facilitates the quantification of some particular characteristic

metronome [ˈmetrənəum] – n. clicking pendulum indicates the exact tempo of a piece of music

metropolis [miˈtrɔpəlis] – n. a large and densely populated urban area; may include several independent administrative districts

metropolitan [.metrəˈpɔlitən] – n. a person who lives in a metropolis

mettle [ˈmetl] – n. the courage to carry on

mettlesome [ˈmetlsəm] – adj. having a proud and unbroken spirit

microcosm [ˈmaikrəkɔzəm] – n. a miniature model of something

micrometer [maiˈkrɔmətə] – n. a metric unit of length equal to one millionth of a meter

microphone [ˈmaikrəfəun] – n. device for converting sound waves into electrical energy

microscope [ˈmaikrəskəup] – n. magnifier of the image of small objects: the invention of the microscope led to the discovery of the cell

microscopic [maikrəˈskɔpik] – adj. visible under a microscope; using a microscope

microscopy [maiˈkrəuskəpi] – n. research with the use of microscopes

midsummer [ˈmidsʌmə] – n. June 21, when the sun is at its northernmost point

midwife [ˈmidwaif] – n. a woman skilled in aiding the delivery of babies

mien [mi:n] – n. dignified manner or conduct

migrant [ˈmaigrənt] – n. traveler who moves from one region or country to another

migrate [ˈmaigreit] – v. move from one country or region to another and settle there: Many Germans migrated to South America in the mid-19th century

migratory [ˈmaigrətəri, maiˈgreitəri] – adj. used of animals that move seasonally: migratory birds

mileage [ˈmailidʒ] – n. the ratio of the number of miles traveled to the number of gallons of gasoline burned

milieu [ˈmi:ljə:] – n. the environmental condition

militant [ˈmilitənt] – adj. disposed to warfare or hard-line policies: militant nations

militarism [ˈmilitərizəm] – n. a political orientation of a people or a government to maintain a strong military force and to be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or promote national interests

militate [ˈmiliteit] – v. have force or influence; bring about an effect or change: Politeness militated against this opinion being expressed

militia [miˈliʃə] – n. civilians trained as soldiers but not part of the regular army

millet [ˈmilit] – n. French painter of rural scenes (1814-1875)

mimic [ˈmimik] – v. imitate (a person or manner), especially for satirical effect: The actor mimicked the President very accurately

miniature [ˈminiətʃə] – n. painting or drawing included in a book (especially in illuminated medieval manuscripts)

minimize [ˈminimaiz] – v. make small or insignificant: Let’s minimize the risk

minion [ˈminiən] – n. a servile or fawning dependant

ministration [minisˈtreiʃən] – n. assistance in time of difficulty

minutia [maiˈnju:ʃiə] – n. a small or minor detail: he had memorized the many minutiae of the legal code

mirage [ˈmirɑ:ʒ] – n. something illusory and unattainable

mire [ˈmaiə] – v. entrap: Our people should not be mired in the past

misadventure [ˈmisədˈventʃə] – n. an instance of misfortune

misanthrope [ˈmisənθrəup] – n. someone who dislikes people in general

misanthropic [mizənˈθrɔpik] – adj. believing the worst of human nature and motives; having a sneering disbelief in e.g. selflessness of others

misanthropy [misˈænθrəpi] – n. hatred of mankind

misapprehend [ˈmisæpriˈhend] – v. interpret in the wrong way

misbehave [ˈmisbiˈheiv] – v. behave badly: The children misbehaved all morning

misbehavior [ˈmisbiˈheivjə] – n. improper or wicked or immoral behavior

mischievous [ˈmistʃivəs] – adj. naughtily or annoyingly playful

miscount [ˈmisˈkaunt] – n. an inaccurate count

miscreant [ˈmiskriənt] – n. a person without moral scruples

misdeed [.misˈdi:d] – n. improper or wicked or immoral behavior

misdemeanor [ˈmisdiˈmi:nə] – n. a crime less serious than a felony

miser [ˈmaizə] – n. a stingy hoarder of money and possessions (often living miserably)

miserly  – adj. (used of persons or behavior) characterized by or indicative of lack of generosity: he left a miserly tip

mishap [ˈmishæp, misˈhæp] – n. an unpredictable outcome that is unfortunate

misinterpret [ˈmisinˈtə:prit] – v. interpret falsely

mislay [misˈlei] – v. place (something) where one cannot find it again

mismanage [ˈmisˈmænidʒ] – v. manage badly or incompetently: The funds were mismanaged

misnomer [ˈmisˈnəumə] – n. an incorrect or unsuitable name

misogamy [miˈsɔgəmi] – n. hatred of marriage

misogynist [miˈsɔdʒinist] – n. a misanthrope who dislikes women in particular

misogyny [maiˈsɔdʒini] – n. hatred of women

misplace [ˈmisˈpleis] – v. place (something) where one cannot find it again: I misplaced my eyeglasses

misrepresent [.misrepriˈzent] – v. represent falsely: This statement misrepresents my intentions

misrepresentation  – n. a misleading falsehood

misrule [ˈmisˈru:l] – n. government that is inefficient or dishonest

missal [ˈmisl] – n. (Roman Catholic Church) a book containing all the prayers and responses needed to celebrate Mass throughout the year

missile [ˈmisail] – n. a rocket carrying a warhead of conventional or nuclear explosives; may be ballistic or directed by remote control

missive [ˈmisiv] – n. a written message addressed to a person or organization

mistrust [ˈmisˈtrʌst] – n. doubt about someone’s honesty

misty [ˈmisti] – adj. wet with mist: the misty evening

misunderstand [ˈmisʌndəˈstænd] – v. interpret in the wrong way

misuse [misˈju:z] – v. apply to a wrong thing or person; apply badly or incorrectly

mite [mait] – n. a slight but appreciable amount

miter [ˈmaitə] – n. joint that forms a corner; usually both sides are bevelled at a 45-degree angle to form a 90-degree corner

mitigate [ˈmitigeit] – v. lessen or to try to lessen the seriousness or extent of

mitigated  – adj. made less severe or intense: he gladly accepted the mitigated penalty

mnemonics [ni:ˈmɔniks] – n. a method or system for improving the memory

moat [məut] – n. ditch dug as a fortification and usually filled with water

mobocracy  – n. a political system in which a mob is the source of control; government by the masses

moccasin [ˈmɔkəsin] – n. soft leather shoe; originally worn by Native Americans

mockery [ˈmɔkəri] – n. showing your contempt by derision

moderate [ˈmɔdəreit,ˈmɔdərit] – v. preside over: John moderated the discussion

moderation [mɔdəˈreiʃən] – n. a change for the better

moderator [ˈmɔdəreitə] – n. any substance used to slow down neutrons in nuclear reactors

modernity [mɔˈdə:niti] – n. the quality of being current or of the present: a shopping mall would instill a spirit of modernity into this village

modernize [ˈmɔdən.aiz] – v. make repairs, renovations, revisions or adjustments to

modicum [ˈmɔdikəm] – n. a small or moderate or token amount: England still expects a modicum of eccentricity in its artists

modification [.mɔdifiˈkeiʃən] – n. the act of making something different (as e.g. the size of a garment)

modify [ˈmɔdifai] – v. make less severe or harsh or extreme: please modify this letter to make it more polite

modish [ˈməudiʃ] – adj. in the current fashion or style

modulate [ˈmɔdjuleit] – v. change the key of, in music: modulate the melody

mogul [ˈməugəl] – n. a bump on a ski slope

mollify [ˈmɔlifai] – v. cause to be more favorably inclined; gain the good will of: She managed to mollify the angry customer

molt [məult] – n. periodic shedding of the cuticle in arthropods or the outer skin in reptiles

momentary [ˈməuməntəri] – adj. lasting for a markedly brief time: a momentary glimpse

momentous [məuˈmentəs] – adj. of very great significance: a momentous event

momentum [məuˈmentəm] – n. an impelling force or strength: the car’s momentum carried it off the road

monarchy [ˈmɔnəki] – n. an autocracy governed by a monarch who usually inherits the authority

monastery [ˈmɔnəstri] – n. the residence of a religious community

mongrel [ˈmʌŋgrəl] – n. derogatory term for a variation that is not genuine; something irregular or inferior or of dubious origin

monition [məuˈniʃən] – n. a firm rebuke

monitory [ˈmɔnitəri] – adj. serving to warn: shook a monitory finger at him

monocracy [mɔˈnɔkrəsi] – n. a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)

monogamy [məˈnɔgəmi] – n. having only one spouse at a time

monogram [ˈmɔnəgræm] – n. a graphic symbol consisting of 2 or more letters combined (usually your initials); printed on stationery or embroidered on clothing

monograph [ˈmɔnəgrɑ:f] – n. a detailed and documented treatise on a particular subject

monolith [ˈmɔnəuliθ] – n. a single great stone (often in the form of a column or obelisk)

monologue [ˈmɔnəlɔg] – n. speech you make to yourself

monomania [mɔnəˈmeiniə] – n. a mania restricted to one thing or idea

monopoly [məˈnɔpəli] – n. (economics) a market in which there are many buyers but only one seller: a monopoly on silver

monosyllable [ˈmɔnəsiləbl] – n. a word or utterance of one syllable

monotone [ˈməunətəun] – n. an unchanging intonation

monotonous [məˈnɔtənəs] – adj. tediously repetitious or lacking in variety: nothing is so monotonous as the sea

monotony [məˈnɔtəni] – n. the quality of wearisome constancy, routine, and lack of variety: he had never grown accustomed to the monotony of his work

monsieur [məˈsjə:] – n. used as a French courtesy title; equivalent to English `Mr’

monstrosity [mɔnsˈtrɔsiti] – n. a person or animal that is markedly unusual or deformed

moonbeam [ˈmu:nbi:m] – n. a ray of moonlight

morale [mɔˈrɑ:l] – n. a state of individual psychological well-being based upon a sense of confidence and usefulness and purpose

moralist [ˈmɔrəlist] – n. someone who demands exact conformity to rules and forms

morality [məˈræliti] – n. concern with the distinction between good and evil or right and wrong; right or good conduct

moralize [ˈmɑ:əlaiz] – v. speak as if delivering a sermon; express moral judgements

morass [məˈræs] – n. a soft wet area of low-lying land that sinks underfoot

moratorium [.mɔrəˈtɔ:riəm] – n. a legally authorized postponement before some obligation must be discharged

morbid [ˈmɔ:bid] – adj. suggesting an unhealthy mental state: morbid interest in death

morbidity [mɔ:ˈbiditi] – n. the relative incidence of a particular disease

mordacious [mɔ:ˈdeiʃəs] – adj. capable of wounding

mordant [ˈmɔ:dənt] – adj. harshly ironic or sinister: fun ranging from slapstick clowning … to savage mordant wit

mores [ˈmɔ:reiz] – n. (sociology) the conventions that embody the fundamental values of a group

moribund [ˈmɔribʌnd] – adj. not growing or changing; without force or vitality

morose [məˈrəus] – adj. showing a brooding ill humor: a morose and unsociable manner

morphology [mɔ:ˈfɔlədʒi] – n. the branch of biology that deals with the structure of animals and plants

motley [ˈmɔtli] – n. a collection containing a variety of sorts of things

mottle  – v. mark with spots or blotches of different color or shades of color as if stained

motto [ˈmɔtəu] – n. a favorite saying of a sect or political group

mountaineer [mauntiˈniə] – n. someone who climbs mountains

mountainous [ˈmauntinəs] – adj. having hills and crags

mouthful [ˈmauθful] – n. a small amount eaten or drunk

muddle [ˈmʌdl] – n. a confused multitude of things

muffle [ˈmʌfl] – v. conceal or hide: muffle one’s anger

mulatto [mju:ˈlætəu] – n. an offspring of a black and a white parent

muleteer [ˈmju:liˈtiə] – n. a worker who drives mules

multifaceted  – adj. having many aspects: a multifaceted undertaking

multifarious [.mʌltiˈfeəriəs] – adj. having many aspects: multifarious interests

multiform [ˈmʌltifɔ:m] – adj. occurring in or having many forms or shapes or appearances: the multiform universe of nature and man

multiplicity [mʌltiˈplisiti] – n. a large number

mundane [mʌnˈdein] – adj. found in the ordinary course of events

municipal [mju:ˈnisipəl] – adj. relating or belonging to or characteristic of a municipality: municipal government

municipality [mju:nisiˈpæliti] – n. an urban district having corporate status and powers of self-government

munificence [mju:ˈnifisns] – n. liberality in bestowing gifts; extremely liberal and generous of spirit

munificent [mju:ˈnifisənt] – adj. very generous: a munificent gift

muster [ˈmʌstə] – n. a gathering of military personnel for duty: he was thrown in the brig for missing muster

mutable [ˈmju:təbəl] – adj. capable of or tending to change in form or quality or nature: a mutable substance

mutation [mju:ˈteiʃən] – n. (biology) an organism that has characteristics resulting from chromosomal alteration

mutilate [ˈmju:tileit] – v. destroy or injure severely: The madman mutilates art work

mutinous [ˈmju:tinəs] – adj. consisting of or characterized by or inciting to mutiny: mutinous acts

mutiny [ˈmju:tini] – n. open rebellion against constituted authority (especially by seamen or soldiers against their officers)

myopic [maiˈɔpik] – adj. unable to see distant objects clearly

myriad [ˈmiriəd] – n. a large indefinite number: he faced a myriad of details

mystic [ˈmistik] – adj. having an import not apparent to the senses nor obvious to the intelligence; beyond ordinary understanding: the mystical style of Blake

mystification [mistifiˈkeiʃən] – n. confusion resulting from failure to understand

myth [miθ] – n. a traditional story accepted as history; serves to explain the world view of a people

mythology [miˈθɔlədʒi] – n. myths collectively; the body of stories associated with a culture or institution or person

nadir [ˈneidiə] – n. an extreme state of adversity; the lowest point of anything

naive [nɑˈi:v] – adj. marked by or showing unaffected simplicity and lack of guile or worldly experience: a teenager’s naive ignorance of life

nameless [ˈneimlis] – adj. being or having an unknown or unnamed source: corporations responsible to nameless owners

naphtha [ˈnæfθə] – n. any of various volatile flammable liquid hydrocarbon mixtures; used chiefly as solvents

Narcissus [narˈsisəs] – n. (Greek mythology) a beautiful young man who fell in love with his own reflection

narrate [næˈreit] – v. provide commentary for a film, for example

narration [næˈreiʃən] – n. the act of giving an account describing incidents or a course of events: his narration was hesitant

narrative [ˈnærətiv] – adj. consisting of or characterized by the telling of a story: narrative poetry

narrator [ˈnæreitə] – n. someone who tells a story

narrow-minded  – adj. capable of being shocked

nasal [ˈneizəl] – n. a consonant produced through the nose with the mouth closed

nascent [ˈnæsənt] – adj. being born or beginning: the nascent chicks

natal [ˈneitl] – n. a region of eastern South Africa on the Indian Ocean

nationality [.næʃəˈnæliti] – n. the status of belonging to a particular nation by birth or naturalization

nausea [ˈnɔ:sjə] – n. the state that precedes vomiting

nauseate [ˈnɔ:zieit] – v. cause aversion in; offend the moral sense of

nauseous [ˈnɔ:ʃiəs] – adj. feeling nausea; feeling about to vomit

nautical [ˈnɔ:tikəl] – adj. relating to or involving ships or shipping or navigation or seamen: nautical charts

naval [ˈneivəl] – adj. connected with or belonging to or used in a navy: naval history

navel [ˈneivəl] – n. a scar where the umbilical cord was attached: you were not supposed to show your navel on television

navigable [ˈnævigəbl] – adj. able to be sailed on or through safely: navigable waters

navigate [ˈnævigeit] – v. travel on water propelled by wind or by other means

nebula [ˈnebjulə] – n. a medicinal liquid preparation intended for use in an atomizer

nebulous [ˈnebjuləs] – adj. lacking definite form or limits: nebulous distinction between pride and conceit

necessitate [niˈsesiteit] – v. require as useful, just, or proper

necessity [niˈsesiti] – n. the condition of being essential or indispensable

necrology [neˈkrɔlədʒi] – n. a notice of someone’s death; usually includes a short biography

necromancer [ˈnekrəumænsə] – n. one who practices magic or sorcery

necropolis [niˈkrɔpəlis] – n. a tract of land used for burials

necrosis [neˈkrəusis] – n. the localized death of living cells (as from infection or the interruption of blood supply)

nectar [ˈnektə] – n. a sweet liquid secretion that is attractive to pollinators

nectarine [ˈnektəri:n] – n. variety or mutation of the peach bearing fruit with smooth skin and (usually) yellow flesh

needlework [ˈni:dəlwə:k] – n. work (such as sewing or embroidery) that is done with a needle

needy [ˈni:di] – adj. demanding or needing attention, affection, or reassurance to an excessive degree

nefarious [niˈfeəriəs] – adj. extremely wicked: nefarious schemes

negate [niˈgeit] – v. be in contradiction with

negation [niˈgeiʃən] – n. the speech act of negating

neglectful [nigˈlektful] – adj. not showing due care or attention: neglectful parents

negligee [ˈnegliʒei] – n. a loose dressing gown for women

negligence [ˈneglidʒəns] – n. failure to act with the prudence that a reasonable person would exercise under the same circumstances

negligent [ˈneglidʒənt] – adj. characterized by neglect and undue lack of concern: negligent parents

negligible [ˈneglidʒəbl] – adj. so small as to be meaningless; insignificant: the effect was negligible

negotiable [niˈgəuʃjəbl] – adj. able to be negotiated or arranged by compromise: negotiable demands

nemesis [ˈnemisis] – n. (Greek mythology) the goddess of divine retribution and vengeance

neo-Darwinism  – n. a modern Darwinian theory that explains new species in terms of genetic mutations

Neolithic  – n. latest part of the Stone Age beginning about 10,000 BC in the Middle East (but later elsewhere)

neologism [ni:ˈɔlədʒizəm] – n. a newly invented word or phrase

neology [ni:`ɔlədʒi] – n. a newly invented word or phrase

neophyte [ˈniəfait] – n. a plant that is found in an area where it had not been recorded previously

nestle [ˈnesl] – v. lie in a sheltered position: The little cottage nestles in the forest

nestling [ˈnestliŋ] – n. young bird not yet fledged

nettle [ˈnetl] – v. cause annoyance in; disturb, especially by minor irritations

neural [ˈnjuərəl] – adj. of or relating to the nervous system: neural disorder

neurology [njuˈrɔlədʒi] – n. the branch of medical science that deals with the nervous system

neuter [ˈnju:tə] – adj. of grammatical gender: `it’ is the third-person singular neuter pronoun

neutral [ˈnju:trəl] – adj. having no personal preference: a neutral observer

Newton  – n. English mathematician and physicist; remembered for developing the calculus and for his law of gravitation and his three laws of motion (1642-1727)

Newtonian [nju:ˈtəunjən] – n. a follower of Isaac Newton

niggardly [ˈnigədli] – adj. petty or reluctant in giving or spending: a niggardly tip

nihilism [ˈnaiəlizəm] – n. a revolutionary doctrine that advocates destruction of the social system for its own sake

nihilist [ˈnaiilist] – n. someone who rejects all theories of morality or religious belief

nil [nil] – n. a quantity of no importance: reduced to nil all the work we had done

nimble [ˈnimbəl] – adj. moving quickly and lightly: as nimble as a deer

nit [nit] – n. egg or young of an insect parasitic on mammals especially a sucking louse; often attached to a hair or item of clothing

nocturnal [nɔkˈtə:nl] – adj. belonging to or active during the night: nocturnal animals are active at night

noiseless [ˈnɔizlis] – adj. making no sound: th’ inaudible and noiseless foot of time

noisome [ˈnɔisəm] – adj. causing or able to cause nausea

noisy [ˈnɔizi] – adj. full of or characterized by loud and nonmusical sounds: a noisy cafeteria

nomad [ˈnəumæd] – n. a member of a people who have no permanent home but move about according to the seasons

nomadic [nəuˈmædik] – adj. migratory: the nomadic habits of the Bedouins

nominal [ˈnɔminəl] – adj. relating to or constituting or bearing or giving a name: the Russian system of nominal brevity

nominate [ˈnɔmineit] – v. propose as a candidate for some honor

nomination [nɔmiˈneiʃən] – n. the act of officially naming a candidate: the Republican nomination for Governor

nominee [.nɔmiˈni:] – n. a politician who is running for public office

nonchalance [ˈnɔnʃələns] – n. the trait of remaining calm and seeming not to care; a casual lack of concern

nonchalant [ˈnɔnʃələnt] – adj. marked by blithe unconcern: drove his car with nonchalant abandon

nondescript [ˈnɔndi.skript] – n. a person is not easily classified and not very interesting

nonentity [nɔˈnentiti] – n. the state of not existing

nonpareil [nɔnpəˈrɛl, ˈnɔnpəreil] – n. model of excellence or perfection of a kind; one having no equal

norm [nɔ:m] – n. a standard or model or pattern regarded as typical: the current middle-class norm of two children per family

normalcy [ˈnɔ:məlsi] – n. expectedness as a consequence of being usual or regular or common

Norman [ˈnɔ:mən] – n. United States operatic soprano (born in 1945)

nostalgia [nɔˈstældʒə] – n. longing for something past

nostalgic [nɔˈstældʒik] – adj. unhappy about being away and longing for familiar things or persons

nostrum [ˈnɔstrəm] – n. hypothetical remedy for all ills or diseases; once sought by the alchemists

noticeable [ˈnəutisəbl] – adj. capable or worthy of being perceived: noticeable shadows under her eyes

notoriety [.nətəˈraiəti] – n. the state of being known for some unfavorable act or quality

notorious [nəuˈtɔ:riəs] – adj. known widely and usually unfavorably: a notorious gangster

novelty [ˈnɔvəlti] – n. originality by virtue of being new and surprising

novice [ˈnɔvis] – n. someone who has entered a religious order but has not taken final vows

noxious [ˈnɔkʃəs] – adj. injurious to physical or mental health: noxious chemical wastes

nuance [ˈnju:ɑ:ns, njuˈɑns] – n. a subtle difference in meaning or opinion or attitude: without understanding the finer nuances you can’t enjoy the humor

nucleus [ˈnju:kliəs] – n. a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction

nude [nju:d] – n. a painting of a naked human figure

nugatory [ˈnju:gətəri] – adj. of no real value: a nugatory law

nuisance [ˈnju:sns] – n. a bothersome annoying person

nullify [ˈnʌlifai] – v. declare invalid

numeration [,nju:məˈreiʃən] – n. naming numbers

numerical [nju:ˈmerikəl] – adj. measured or expressed in numbers: numerical value

nunnery [ˈnʌnəri] – n. the convent of a community of nuns

nuptial [ˈnʌpʃəl] – adj. of or relating to a wedding: nuptial day

nurture [ˈnə:tʃə] – v. help develop, help grow: nurture his talents

nutriment [ˈnju:trimənt] – n. a source of materials to nourish the body

nutritive [ˈnju:tritiv] – adj. of or providing nourishment

nuzzle [ˈnʌzəl] – v. move or arrange oneself in a comfortable and cozy position

oaken [ˈəukən] – adj. consisting of or made of wood of the oak tree: the old oaken bucket

oakum [ˈəukəm] – n. loose hemp or jute fiber obtained by unravelling old ropes; when impregnated with tar it was used to caulk seams and pack joints in wooden ships

obdurate [ˈɔbdjurit] – adj. stubbornly persistent in wrongdoing

obelisk [ˈɔblisk] – n. a stone pillar having a rectangular cross section tapering towards a pyramidal top

obese [əuˈbi:s] – adj. excessively fat

obesity [əuˈbisiti] – n. more than average fatness

obfuscate [ˈɔbfʌskeit] – v. make obscure or unclear

obituary [əˈbitʃuəri] – n. a notice of someone’s death; usually includes a short biography

objector [əbˈdʒektə] – n. a person who dissents from some established policy

obligate [ˈɔbligeit] – v. force somebody to do something

obligatory [əˈbligə.təri] – adj. morally or legally constraining or binding: attendance is obligatory

oblique [əˈbli:k] – n. any grammatical case other than the nominative

obliterate [əˈblitəreit] – v. mark for deletion, rub off, or erase

obliterated  – adj. reduced to nothingness

oblivion [əˈbliviən] – n. the state of being disregarded or forgotten

oblivious [əˈbliviəs] – adj. (followed by `to’ or `of’) lacking conscious awareness of: oblivious of the mounting pressures for political reform

oblong [ˈɔblɔŋ] – adj. (of a leaf shape) having a somewhat elongated form with approximately parallel sides

obnoxious [əbˈnɔkʃəs] – adj. causing disapproval or protest

obscure [əbˈskjuə] – adj. not clearly understood or expressed: an obscure turn of phrase

obsequious [əbˈsi:kwiəs] – adj. attempting to win favor from influential people by flattery

observance [əbˈzə:vəns] – n. a formal event performed on a special occasion

observant [əbˈzə:vənt] – adj. paying close attention especially to details

observatory [əbˈzə:vətəri] – n. a structure commanding a wide view of its surroundings

obsession [əbˈseʃən] – n. an irrational motive for performing trivial or repetitive actions, even against your will

obsolescence [ɔbsəˈlesns] – n. the process of becoming obsolete; falling into disuse or becoming out of date: a policy of planned obsolescence

obsolescent [.ɔbsəˈlesənt] – adj. becoming obsolete

obsolete [ˈɔbsə.li:t] – adj. no longer in use: obsolete words

obstetrician [ɔbsteˈtriʃən] – n. a physician specializing in obstetrics

obstetrics [əbˈstetriks] – n. the branch of medicine dealing with childbirth and care of the mother

obstinacy [ˈɔbstinəsi] – n. the trait of being difficult to handle or overcome

obstinate [ˈɔbstinit] – adj. tenaciously unwilling or marked by tenacious unwillingness to yield

obstreperous [əbˈstrepərəs] – adj. noisily and stubbornly defiant: obstreperous boys

obstruct [əbˈstrʌkt] – v. hinder or prevent the progress or accomplishment of

obstruction [əbˈstrʌkʃən] – n. any structure that makes progress difficult

obtrude [əbˈtru:d] – v. push to thrust outward

obtrusive [əbˈtru:siv] – adj. undesirably noticeable: the obtrusive behavior of a spoiled child

obtuse [əbˈtju:s] – adj. of an angle; between 90 and 180 degrees

obviate [ˈɔbvieit] – v. do away with

Occident  – n. the countries of (originally) Europe and (now including) North America and South America

occlude [əˈklu:d] – v. block passage through

occlusion  – n. closure or blockage (as of a blood vessel)

occult [ɔˈkʌlt] – v. cause an eclipse of (a celestial body) by intervention: Planets and stars often are occulted by other celestial bodies

occupant [ˈɔkju:pənt] – n. someone who lives at a particular place for a prolonged period or who was born there

occurrence [əˈkʌrəns] – n. an event that happens

octagon [ˈɔktəgɔn] – n. an eight-sided polygon

octave [ˈɔkteiv, -tiv] – n. a feast day and the seven days following it

octavo [ɔkˈteivəu] – n. the size of a book whose pages are made by folding a sheet of paper three times to form eight leaves

octogenarian [.ɔktədʒəˈneriən] – n. someone whose age is in the eighties

ocular [ˈɔkjulə] – adj. of or relating to or resembling the eye: ocular muscles

oculist [ˈɔkjulist] – n. a person skilled in testing for defects of vision in order to prescribe corrective glasses

oddity [ˈɔditi] – n. eccentricity that is not easily explained

ode [əud] – n. a lyric poem with complex stanza forms

odious [ˈəudiəs] – adj. unequivocally detestable: consequences odious to those you govern

odium [ˈəudiəm] – n. state of disgrace resulting from detestable behavior

odoriferous [.ɔdəˈrifərəs] – adj. morally offensive: odoriferous legislation

odorous [ˈəudərəs] – adj. emitting an odor: odorous salt pork and weevily hardtack

offal [ˈɔfəl] – n. viscera and trimmings of a butchered animal often considered inedible by humans

offhand [ˈɔfˈhænd] – adj. with little or no preparation or forethought: offhand excuses

officiate [əˈfiʃieit] – v. perform duties attached to a particular office or place or function: His wife officiated as his private secretary

officious [əˈfiʃəs] – adj. intrusive in a meddling or offensive manner: bustling about self-importantly making an officious nuisance of himself

offshoot [ˈɔ:fʃu:t] – n. a natural consequence of development

ogle [ˈəugəl] – v. look at with amorous intentions

ogre [ˈəugə] – n. a cruel wicked and inhuman person

ointment [ˈɔintmənt] – n. semisolid preparation (usually containing a medicine) applied externally as a remedy or for soothing an irritation

olfactory [ɔlˈfæktəri] – adj. of or relating to olfaction

ominous [ˈɔminəs] – adj. threatening or foreshadowing evil or tragic developments: ominous rumblings of discontent

omission [əuˈmiʃən] – n. a mistake resulting from neglect

omnipotence [ɔmˈnipətns] – n. the state of being omnipotent; having unlimited power

omnipotent [ɔmˈnipətənt] – adj. having unlimited power

omniscience [ɔmˈniʃəns] – n. the state of being omniscient; having infinite knowledge

omniscient [ɔmˈnisiənt] – adj. infinitely wise

omnivorous [ɔmˈnivərəs] – adj. feeding on both plants and animals

onerous [ˈɔnərəs] – adj. not easily borne; wearing: my duties weren’t onerous; I only had to greet the guests

onrush [ˈɔnrʌʃ] – n. (military) an offensive against an enemy (using weapons)

onset [ˈɔnset] – n. the beginning or early stages: the onset of pneumonia

onslaught [ˈɔnslɔ:t] – n. a sudden and severe onset of trouble

onus [ˈəunəs] – n. an onerous or difficult concern

opalescence [əupəˈlesns] – n. the visual property of something having a milky brightness and a play of colors from the surface

opaque [əuˈpeik] – adj. not transmitting or reflecting light or radiant energy; impenetrable to sight: opaque windows of the jail

operative [ˈɔpərətiv, ˈɔpəreitiv] – adj. being in force or having or exerting force: operative regulations

operetta [.ɔpəˈretə] – n. a short amusing opera

opportune [ˈɔpətju:n, .ɔpəˈt-] – adj. suitable or at a time that is suitable or advantageous especially for a particular purpose: an opportune place to make camp

opportunism  – n. taking advantage of opportunities without regard for the consequences for others

opportunist [ɔpəˈtju:nist] – n. a person who places expediency above principle

opprobrium [əˈprəubriəm] – n. state of disgrace resulting from public abuse

optic [ˈɔpti] – adj. of or relating to or resembling the eye: the optic (or optical) axis of the eye

optician [ɔpˈtiʃən] – n. a worker who makes glasses for remedying defects of vision

optics [ˈɔptiks] – n. the branch of physics that studies the physical properties of light

optimism [ˈɔptimizəm] – n. a general disposition to expect the best in all things

optimist [ˈɔptimist] – n. a person disposed to take a favorable view of things

optometry [ɔpˈtɔmitri] – n. the practice of an optometrist

opulence [apjələns] – n. wealth as evidenced by sumptuous living

opulent [ˈɔpjulənt] – adj. rich and superior in quality

oral [ˈɔ:rəl] – adj. using speech rather than writing: an oral tradition

orate [ˈɔ:reit] – v. talk pompously

oration [əˈreiʃən] – n. an instance of oratory: he delivered an oration on the decline of family values

orator [ˈɔrətə] – n. a person who delivers a speech or oration

oratorio [.ɔrəˈtɔriəu] – n. a musical composition for voices and orchestra based on a religious text

oratory [ˈɔrətəri] – n. addressing an audience formally (usually a long and rhetorical address and often pompous): he loved the sound of his own oratory

ordain [ɔ:ˈdein] – v. appoint to a clerical posts: he was ordained in the Church

ordeal [ɔ:ˈdi:l] – n. a severe or trying experience

ordinal [ˈɔ:dinl] – adj. of or relating to a taxonomic order: family and ordinal names of animals and plants

ordination [.ɔ:diˈneiʃən] – n. the status of being ordained to a sacred office

ordnance [ˈɔ:dnəns] – n. military supplies

originate [əˈridʒineit] – v. come into existence; take on form or shape: A new religious movement originated in that country

ornate [ɔ:ˈneit] – adj. marked by elaborate rhetoric and elaborated with decorative details: ornate rhetoric taught out of the rule of Plato

orthodox [ˈɔ:θədɔks] – adj. of or pertaining to or characteristic of Judaism

orthodoxy [ˈɔ:θədɔksi] – n. a belief or orientation agreeing with conventional standards

orthogonal [ɔ:ˈθɔgənl] – adj. not pertinent to the matter under consideration

orthopedic [,ɔ:θəuˈpi:dik] – adj. of or relating to orthopedics: orthopedic shoes

orthopedist [ɔ:θəu`pi:dist] – n. a specialist in correcting deformities of the skeletal system (especially in children)

oscillate [ˈɔsileit] – v. be undecided about something; waver between conflicting positions or courses of action: He oscillates between accepting the new position and retirement

osculate [ˈɔskjuleit] – v. be intermediate between two taxonomic groups: These species osculate

ossified  – adj. set in a rigidly conventional pattern of behavior, habits, or beliefs: an ossified bureaucratic system

ossify [ˈɔsifai] – v. become bony

ostensible [ɔˈstensibəl] – adj. appearing as such but not necessarily so: the ostensible truth of their theories

ostentation [.ɔstenˈteiʃən] – n. a gaudy outward display

ostentatious [ɔstenˈteiʃəs] – adj. intended to attract notice and impress others: an ostentatious sable coat

ostracism [ˈɔstrəsizəm] – n. the act of excluding someone from society by general consent

ostracize [ˈɔstrəsaiz] – v. expel from a community or group

oust [aust] – v. remove from a position or office: The chairman was ousted after he misappropriated funds

out-and-out  – adj. complete and without restriction or qualification; sometimes used informally as intensifiers: out-and-out mayhem

outbreak [ˈautbreik] – n. a sudden violent spontaneous occurrence (usually of some undesirable condition): the outbreak of hostilities

outburst [ˈautbə:st] – n. an unrestrained expression of emotion

outcast [ˈautkɑ:st] – n. a person who is rejected (from society or home)

outcry [ˈautkrai] – v. utter aloud; often with surprise, horror, or joy

outdo [autˈdu:] – v. be or do something to a greater degree: She outdoes all other athletes

outlandish [autˈlændiʃ] – adj. conspicuously or grossly unconventional or unusual: the outlandish clothes of teenagers

outlast [autˈlɑ:st] – v. live longer than

outlaw [ˈautlɔ:] – adj. contrary to or forbidden by law: an outlaw strike

outlive [ˈautliv] – v. live longer than: She outlived her husband by many years

out-of-the-way  – adj. out of the ordinary: out-of-the-way information

outpost [ˈautpəust] – n. a station in a remote or sparsely populated location

outrage [ˈautreidʒ] – n. a feeling of righteous anger

outrageous [autˈreidʒəs] – adj. grossly offensive to decency or morality; causing horror: subjected to outrageous cruelty

outreach [autˈri:tʃ] – n. the act of reaching out: the outreach toward truth of the human spirit

outride [autˈraid] – v. hang on during a trial of endurance

outrigger [ˈautrigə] – n. a stabilizer for a canoe; spars attach to a shaped log or float parallel to the hull

outright [ˈautˈrait] – adv. without restrictions or stipulations or further payments: buy outright

outskirt [ˈautskə:t] – n. a part of the city far removed from the center: they built a factory on the outskirts of the city

outstrip [autˈstrip] – v. be or do something to a greater degree

outweigh [autˈwei] – v. be heavier than

overdo [ˈəuvəˈdu:] – v. do something to an excessive degree

overdose [ˈəuvədəus] – v. dose too heavily: The rock star overdosed and was found dead in his hotel room

overeat [ˈəuvərˈit] – v. overeat or eat immodestly; make a pig of oneself

overhang [əuvəˈhæŋ] – v. be suspended over or hang over

overhaul [ˈəuvə.hɔ:l] – n. periodic maintenance on a car or machine: it was time for an overhaul on the tractor

overleap [əuvəˈli:p] – v. defeat (oneself) by going too far

overlord [ˈəuvəlɔ:d] – n. a person who has general authority over others

overpass [.əuvˈpæs] – n. bridge formed by the upper level of a crossing of two highways at different levels

overpay [,əuvəˈpei] – v. pay too much

overpower [əuvəˈpauə] – v. overcome by superior force

overproduction [.əuvəprəˈdʌkʃən] – n. too much production or more than expected

overreach [.əuvəˈri:tʃ] – v. fail by aiming too high or trying too hard

overrun [.əuvəˈrʌn] – v. invade in great numbers

oversee [.əuvəˈsi:] – v. watch and direct: Who is overseeing this project?

overseer [ˈəuvəˈsi:ə] – n. a person who directs and manages an organization

overshadow [.əuvəˈʃædəu] – v. be greater in significance than: the tragedy overshadowed the couple’s happiness

overt [əuˈvə:t] – adj. open and observable; not secret or hidden: an overt lie

overthrow [.əuvəˈθrəu] – n. the termination of a ruler or institution (especially by force)

overtone [ˈəuvətəun] – n. (usually plural) an ulterior implicit meaning or quality: overtones of despair

overture [ˈəuvətʃuə, -tjuə] – n. orchestral music played at the beginning of an opera or oratorio

overweight [ˈəuvəweit] – n. the property of excessive fatness

overwrought [.əuvəˈrɔ:t] – adj. deeply agitated especially from emotion

pacific  – adj. relating to or bordering the Pacific Ocean

pacifist [ˈpæsifist] – n. someone opposed to violence as a means of settling disputes

pacify [ˈpæsifai] – v. cause to be more favorably inclined; gain the good will of

packet [ˈpækit] – n. a collection of things wrapped or boxed together

pact [pækt] – n. a written agreement between two states or sovereigns

pagan [ˈpeigən] – n. a person who does not acknowledge your god

pageant [ˈpædʒənt] – n. an elaborate representation of scenes from history etc; usually involves a parade with rich costumes

palatable [ˈpælətəbəl] – adj. acceptable to the taste or mind: palatable food

palate [ˈpælit] – n. the upper surface of the mouth that separates the oral and nasal cavities

palatial [pəˈleiʃəl] – adj. suitable for or like a palace: palatial furnishings

paleontology [,pæliɔnˈtɔlədʒi] – n. the earth science that studies fossil organisms and related remains

palette [ˈpælit] – n. the range of colour characteristic of a particular artist or painting or school of art

palisade [.pæliˈseid] – n. fortification consisting of a strong fence made of stakes driven into the ground

pall [pɔ:l] – v. become less interesting or attractive

palliate [ˈpælieit] – v. lessen or to try to lessen the seriousness or extent of

palliative  – n. remedy that alleviates pain without curing

pallid [ˈpælid] – adj. abnormally deficient in color as suggesting physical or emotional distress: the pallid face of the invalid

palpable [ˈpælpəbəl] – adj. capable of being perceived; especially capable of being handled or touched or felt: a barely palpable dust

palsy [ˈpɔ:lzi] – n. loss of the ability to move a body part

pamphlet [ˈpæmflit] – n. a small book usually having a paper cover

pamphleteer [pæmfliˈtiə] – n. a writer of pamphlets (usually taking a partisan stand on public issues)

panacea [.pænəˈsiə] – n. (Greek mythology) the goddess of healing; daughter of Aesculapius and sister of Hygeia

panache [pəˈnæʃ] – n. distinctive and stylish elegance

pandemic [pænˈdemik] – adj. epidemic over a wide geographical area: a pandemic outbreak of malaria

pandemonium [.pændiˈməuniəm] – n. a state of extreme confusion and disorder

panegyric [.pæniˈdʒirik] – n. a formal expression of praise

panic [ˈpænik] – n. an overwhelming feeling of fear and anxiety

panoply [ˈpænəpli] – n. a complete and impressive array

panorama [.pænəˈrɑ:mə] – n. the visual percept of a region

pantheism [ˈpænθi:izəm] – n. (rare) worship that admits or tolerates all gods

pantomime [ˈpæntəmaim] – n. a performance using gestures and body movements without words

papacy [ˈpeipəsi] – n. the government of the Roman Catholic Church

papyrus [pəˈpaiərəs] – n. tall sedge of the Nile valley yielding fiber that served many purposes in historic times

parable [ˈpærəbəl] – n. a short moral story (often with animal characters)

paradigm [ˈpærədaim] – n. systematic arrangement of all the inflected forms of a word

paradox [ˈpærədɔks] – n. (logic) a statement that contradicts itself: `I always lie’ is a paradox because if it is true it must be false

paradoxically  – adv. in a paradoxical manner: paradoxically, ice ages seem to occur when the sun gets hotter

paragon [ˈpærəgən] – n. an ideal instance; a perfect embodiment of a concept

parallel [ˈpærəlel] – n. something having the property of being analogous to something else

parallelism [ˈpærəlelizm] – n. similarity by virtue of corresponding

paralysis [pəˈrælisis] – n. loss of the ability to move a body part

paralyze [ˈpærəlaiz] – v. make powerless and unable to function: The bureaucracy paralyzes the entire operation

paramount [ˈpærəmaunt] – adj. having superior power and influence

paramour [ˈpærəmuə] – n. a woman’s lover

paraphernalia [.pærəfəˈneiliə] – n. equipment consisting of miscellaneous articles needed for a particular operation or sport etc.

paraphrase [ˈpærəfreiz] – n. rewording for the purpose of clarification

parasite [ˈpærəsait] – n. a follower who hangs around a host (without benefit to the host) in hope of gain or advantage

pare [peə] – v. decrease gradually or bit by bit

parentage [ˈperəntidʒ] – n. the kinship relation of an offspring to the parents

pariah [pəˈraiə, ˈpæriə] – n. a person who is rejected (from society or home)

Paris [ˈpæris] – n. the capital and largest city of France; and international center of culture and commerce

Parisian [pəˈrizjən] – n. a native or resident of Paris

parity [ˈpæriti] – n. (obstetrics) the number of liveborn children a woman has delivered: the parity of the mother must be considered

parlance [ˈpa:ləns] – n. a manner of speaking that is natural to native speakers of a language

parley [ˈpɑ:li] – n. a negotiation between enemies

parlor [ˈpɑ:lə] – n. reception room in an inn or club where visitors can be received

parochial [pəˈrəukiəl] – adj. relating to or supported by or located in a parish: parochial schools

parody [ˈpærədi] – n. a composition that imitates or misrepresents somebody’s style, usually in a humorous way

paroxysm [ˈpærəksizəm] – n. a sudden uncontrollable attack: a paroxysm of giggling

parricide [ˈpærisaid] – n. someone who kills his or her parent

parry [ˈpæri] – n. (fencing) blocking a lunge or deflecting it with a circular motion of the sword

parse [pɑ:z] – v. analyze syntactically by assigning a constituent structure to (a sentence)

parsimonious [.pɑ:siˈməuniəs] – adj. excessively unwilling to spend: parsimonious thrift relieved by few generous impulses

parsimony  – n. extreme care in spending money; reluctance to spend money unnecessarily

partible  – adj. (of e.g. property) capable of being parted or divided: a partible estate

partisan [.pɑ:tiˈzæn] – n. a fervent and even militant proponent of something

partition [pɑ:ˈtiʃən] – n. a vertical structure that divides or separates (as a wall divides one room from another)

passive [ˈpæsiv] – adj. lacking in energy or will: Much benevolence of the passive order may be traced to a disinclination to inflict pain upon oneself

pastoral [ˈpɑ:stərəl] – n. a musical composition that evokes rural life

patent [ˈpætnt] – v. make open to sight or notice: His behavior has patented an embarrassing fact about him

paternal [pəˈtə:nl] – adj. belonging to or inherited from one’s father: spent his childhood on the paternal farm

paternity [pəˈtə:niti] – n. the state of being a father: tests were conducted to determine paternity

pathology [pəˈθɔlədʒi] – n. the branch of medical science that studies the causes and nature and effects of diseases

pathos [ˈpeiθɔs] – n. a quality that arouses emotions (especially pity or sorrow): the film captured all the pathos of their situation

patriarch [ˈpeitrɑ:k] – n. title for the heads of the Eastern Orthodox Churches (in Istanbul and Alexandria and Moscow and Jerusalem)

patrician [pəˈtriʃən] – n. a person of refined upbringing and manners

patrimony [ˈpætriməni] – n. a church endowment

patriotism [ˈpætriətizəm, ˈpei-] – n. love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it: they rode the same wave of popular patriotism

patron [ˈpeitrən] – n. a regular customer

patronize [ˈpætrənaiz] – v. assume sponsorship of

patronymic [pætrəˈnimik] – adj. of or derived from a personal or family name

patter [ˈpætə] – n. plausible glib talk (especially useful to a salesperson)

paucity [ˈpɔ:siti] – n. an insufficient quantity or number

pauper [ˈpɔ:pə] – n. a person who is very poor

pauperism [`pɔ:pərizəm] – n. a state of extreme poverty or destitution

pavilion [pəˈviljən] – n. large and often sumptuous tent

payee [peiˈi:] – n. a person to whom money is paid

peaceable [ˈpi:səbl] – adj. not disturbed by strife or turmoil or war

peaceful [ˈpi:sfəl] – adj. not disturbed by strife or turmoil or war: a peaceful nation

peccable [ˈpekəbl] – adj. liable to sin: a frail and peccable mortal

peccadillo [.pekəˈdiləu] – n. a petty misdeed

peccant [ˈpekənt] – adj. liable to sin

pectoral [ˈpektərəl] – n. either of two large muscles of the chest

pecuniary [piˈkju:niəri] – adj. relating to or involving money: he received thanks but no pecuniary compensation for his services

pedagogics  – n. the principles and methods of instruction

pedagogue [ˈpedəgɔg] – n. someone who educates young people

pedagogy [ˈpedəgɔgi] – n. the principles and methods of instruction

pedal [ˈpedl] – n. a sustained bass note

pedant [ˈpedənt] – n. a person who pays more attention to formal rules and book learning than they merit

peddle [ˈpedl] – v. sell or offer for sale from place to place

peddler [ˈpedlə] – n. someone who travels about selling his wares (as on the streets or at carnivals)

pedestal [ˈpedistl] – n. a support or foundation

pedestrian [piˈdestriən] – n. a person who travels by foot

pediatrics [.pi:diˈætriks] – n. the branch of medicine concerned with the treatment of infants and children

pedigree [ˈpedigri:] – n. the descendants of one individual

peerage [ˈpiridʒ] – n. the peers of a kingdom considered as a group

peerless [ˈpiəlis] – adj. eminent beyond or above comparison: a peerless scholar

peevish [ˈpi:viʃ] – adj. easily irritated or annoyed

peevishness  – n. an irritable petulant feeling

pejorative [piˈdʒɔrətiv] – adj. expressing disapproval

pellucid [piˈlu:sid] – adj. transmitting light; able to be seen through with clarity: a pellucid brook

penance [ˈpenəns] – n. remorse for your past conduct

penchant [ˈpə:ŋʃə:ŋ] – n. a strong liking: the Irish have a penchant for blarney

pendant [ˈpendənt] – n. an adornment that hangs from a piece of jewelry (necklace or earring)

pendulous [ˈpendjuləs] – adj. having branches or flower heads that bend downward: the pendulous branches of a weeping willow

pendulum [ˈpendjuləm] – n. an apparatus consisting of an object mounted so that it swings freely under the influence of gravity

penetrable [ˈpenətrəbl] – adj. capable of being penetrated: penetrable defenses

penetrate [ˈpenitreit] – v. pass into or through, often by overcoming resistance: The bullet penetrated her chest

penetration [peniˈtreiʃən] – n. clear or deep perception of a situation

peninsular [piˈninsjulə] – adj. of or forming or resembling a peninsula: peninsular isolation

penitence [ˈpenətəns] – n. remorse for your past conduct

penitent [ˈpenitənt] – adj. feeling or expressing remorse for misdeeds

penitential [peniˈtenʃəl] – adj. showing or constituting penance: penitential tears

pennant [ˈpenənt] – n. the award given to the champion

pensive [ˈpensiv] – adj. deeply or seriously thoughtful

pentad [ˈpentæd] – n. the cardinal number that is the sum of four and one

pentagon [ˈpentəgən] – n. a government building with five sides that serves as the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense

pentagram [ˈpentəgræm] – n. a star with 5 points; formed by 5 straight lines between the vertices of a pentagon and enclosing another pentagon

pentahedron [pentəˈhedrən] – n. any polyhedron having five plane faces

pentameter [penˈtæmitə] – n. a verse line having five metrical feet

pentathlon [penˈtæθlɔn] – n. an athletic contest consisting of five different events

pentavalent [,pentəˈveilənt] – adj. having a valence of five

penultimate [piˈnʌltimit] – n. the next to last syllable in a word

penurious [piˈnjuəriəs] – adj. not having enough money to pay for necessities

penury [ˈpenjuri] – n. a state of extreme poverty or destitution

perambulate [pəˈræmbjuleit] – v. make an official inspection on foot of (the bounds of a property): Selectmen are required by law to perambulate the bounds every five years

perceptible [pəˈseptəbl] – adj. capable of being perceived by the mind or senses: a perceptible limp

perceptive [pəˈseptiv] – adj. having the ability to perceive or understand; keen in discernment: a perceptive eye

percipient [pəˈsipiənt] – n. a person who becomes aware (of things or events) through the senses

percolate [ˈpə:kəleit] – v. permeate or penetrate gradually

percolator [ˈpə:kəleitə] – n. a coffeepot in which boiling water ascends through a central tube and filters back down through a basket of ground coffee beans

percussion [pəˈkʌʃən] – n. tapping a part of the body for diagnostic purposes

perdition [pəˈdiʃən] – n. (Christianity) the abode of Satan and the forces of evil; where sinners suffer eternal punishment: Hurl’d headlong…To bottomless perdition, there to dwell

peregrination [.perigriˈneiʃən] – n. traveling or wandering around

peremptory [pəˈremptəri] – adj. offensively self-assured or given to exercising usually unwarranted power: a swaggering peremptory manner

perennial [pəˈreniəl] – adj. lasting three seasons or more: the common buttercup is a popular perennial plant

perfectible [pə:ˈfektəbl] – adj. capable of becoming or being made perfect

perfidious [pəˈfidiəs] – adj. tending to betray; especially having a treacherous character as attributed to the Carthaginians by the Romans: the perfidious Judas

perfidy [ˈpə:fidi] – n. betrayal of a trust

perforate [ˈpə:fəreit] – v. make a hole into or between, as for ease of separation: perforate the sheets of paper

perfumery [pəˈfju:məri] – n. store where perfumes are sold

perfunctory [pəˈfʌŋktəri] – adj. hasty and without attention to detail; not thorough: perfunctory courtesy

perigee [ˈperidʒi:] – n. periapsis in Earth orbit; the point in its orbit where a satellite is nearest to the Earth

periodicity [piriəˈdisiti] – n. the quality of recurring at regular intervals

peripatetic [.peripəˈtetik] – n. a person who walks from place to place

peripheral [pəˈrifərəl] – adj. on or near an edge or constituting an outer boundary; the outer area: Russia’s peripheral provinces

perjure [ˈpə:dʒə] – v. knowingly tell an untruth in a legal court and render oneself guilty of perjury

perjury [ˈpə:dʒəri] – n. criminal offense of making false statements under oath

permanence [ˈpə:mənəns] – n. the property of being able to exist for an indefinite duration

permeate [ˈpə:mieit] – v. spread or diffuse through: An atmosphere of distrust has permeated this administration

permissible [pəˈmisəbəl] – adj. that may be permitted especially as according to rule: permissible behavior in school

permutation [.pə:mjuˈteiʃən] – n. an event in which one thing is substituted for another

pernicious [pəˈniʃəs] – adj. exceedingly harmful

perpendicular [.pə:pənˈdikjulə] – n. a straight line at right angles to another line

perpetrator  – n. someone who perpetrates wrongdoing

perpetuate [pəˈpetjueit] – v. cause to continue or prevail: perpetuate a myth

perpetuity [.pə:piˈtju:iti] – n. the property of being perpetual (seemingly ceaseless)

perplex [pəˈpleks] – v. be a mystery or bewildering to

perquisite [ˈpə:kwizit] – n. an incidental benefit awarded for certain types of employment (especially if it is regarded as a right)

persecution [.pə:siˈkju:ʃən] – n. the act of persecuting (especially on the basis of race or religion)

perseverance [.pə:siˈviərəns] – n. persistent determination

persevere [.pə:siˈviə] – v. be persistent, refuse to stop

persiflage [ˈpə:siflɑ:ʒ] – n. light teasing

persist [pəˈsist] – v. continue to exist

persistence [pəˈsistəns, -ˈzis-] – n. the property of a continuous and connected period of time

persnickety [pə(:)ˈsnikiti] – adj. (used colloquially) overly conceited or arrogant: they’re snobs–stuck-up and uppity and persnickety

personable [ˈpə:sənəbl] – adj. (of persons) pleasant in appearance and personality

personage [ˈpə:sənidʒ] – n. a person whose actions and opinions strongly influence the course of events

personification  – n. a person who represents an abstract quality: she is the personification of optimism

personify  – v. invest with or as with a body; give body to

perspicacious [.pə:spiˈkeiʃəs] – adj. acutely insightful and wise: much too perspicacious to be taken in by such a spurious argument

perspicacity [pə:spiˈkæsiti] – n. intelligence manifested by being astute (as in business dealings)

perspicuous [pəˈspikjuəs] – adj. (of language) transparently clear; easily understandable: a perspicuous argument

perspiration [.pə:spəˈreiʃən] – n. salty fluid secreted by sweat glands

perspire [pəˈspaiə] – v. excrete perspiration through the pores in the skin

persuadable [pəˈsweidəbl] – adj. being susceptible to persuasion

pert [pə:t] – adj. characterized by a lightly pert and exuberant quality

pertinacious [.pə:tiˈneiʃəs] – adj. stubbornly unyielding: the most vocal and pertinacious of all the critics

pertinacity [pə:tiˈnæsiti] – n. persistent determination

pertinent [ˈpə:tinənt] – adj. having precise or logical relevance to the matter at hand: a list of articles pertinent to the discussion

perturb [pəˈtə:b] – v. disturb in mind or make uneasy or cause to be worried or alarmed: She was rather perturbed by the news that her father was seriously ill

perturbation [.pə:tə:ˈbeiʃən] – n. an unhappy and worried mental state

perusal [pəˈru:zəl] – n. reading carefully with intent to remember

peruse [pəˈru:z] – v. examine or consider with attention and in detail: Please peruse this report at your leisure

pervade [pəˈveid] – v. spread or diffuse through

pervasion [pəˈveiʒən] – n. the process of permeating or infusing something with a substance

pervasive [pəˈveisiv] – adj. spreading or spread throughout: the pervasive odor of garlic

perverse [pəˈvə:s] – adj. marked by a disposition to oppose and contradict: took perverse satisfaction in foiling her plans

perversion [pəˈvə:ʃən] – n. a curve that reverses the direction of something: the tendrils of the plant exhibited perversion

perversity [pə(:)ˈvə:siti] – n. deliberate and stubborn unruliness and resistance to guidance or discipline

pervert [pəˈvə:t, ˈpə:vət] – v. corrupt morally or by intemperance or sensuality

pervious [ˈpə:viəs] – adj. admitting of passage or entrance: pervious soil

pessimism [ˈpesimizəm] – n. the feeling that things will turn out badly

pestilence [ˈpestiləns] – n. any epidemic disease with a high death rate

pestilent [ˈpestilənt] – adj. exceedingly harmful

pestilential [.pestiˈlenʃəl] – adj. likely to spread and cause an epidemic disease: a pestilential malignancy in the air

peter [ˈpi:tə] – n. disciple of Jesus and leader of the Apostles; regarded by Catholics as the vicar of Christ on earth and first Pope

petrify [ˈpetrifai] – v. cause to become stonelike or stiff or dazed and stunned

petulance [ˈpetjuləns] – n. an irritable petulant feeling

petulant [ˈpetʃulənt] – adj. easily irritated or annoyed

pharmacopoeia [,fɑ:məkəˈpi:ə] – n. a collection or stock of drugs

pharmacy [ˈfɑ:məsi] – n. the art and science of preparing and dispensing drugs and medicines,

phenomenal [fiˈnɔminəl] – adj. exceedingly or unbelievably great

philander [fiˈlændə] – v. have amorous affairs; of men

philanthropic [fiˈlænθrəpic] – adj. generous in assistance to the poor: philanthropic contributions

philanthropist [fiˈlænθrəpist] – n. someone who makes charitable donations intended to increase human well-being

philanthropy [fiˈlænθrəpi] – n. voluntary promotion of human welfare

philately [fiˈlætəli] – n. the collection and study of postage stamps

philharmonic [filɑ:ˈmɔnik, filhɑ:ˈ-] – adj. composing or characteristic of an orchestral group: philharmonic players

philippic  – n. a speech of violent denunciation

philistine [ˈfilistain] – n. a person who is uninterested in intellectual pursuits

philologist [fiˈlɔlədʒist] – n. a humanist specializing in classical scholarship

philology [fiˈlɔlədʒi] – n. the humanistic study of language and literature

philosophize [filəˈsɔfaiz] – v. reason philosophically

phlegmatic [flegˈmætik] – adj. showing little emotion: a phlegmatic…and certainly undemonstrative man

phobic  – adj. suffering from irrational fears

phonetic [fəˈnetik] – adj. of or relating to speech sounds: phonetic transcription

phonic [ˈfəunik] – adj. relating to speech

phonogram [ˈfəunəgræm] – n. any written symbol standing for a sound or syllable or morpheme or word

phonology [fəuˈnɔlədʒi] – n. the study of the sound system of a given language and the analysis and classification of its phonemes

phosphorescence [,fɔsfəˈresns] – n. a fluorescence that persists after the bombarding radiation has ceased

photoelectric [fəutəuiˈlektrik] – adj. of or pertaining to photoelectricity: the photoelectric effect

photometer [fəuˈtɔmitə] – n. photographic equipment that measures the intensity of light

photometry [fəuˈtɔmitri] – n. measurement of the properties of light (especially luminous intensity)

physicist [ˈfizisist] – n. a scientist trained in physics

physics [ˈfiziks] – n. the science of matter and energy and their interactions: his favorite subject was physics

physiognomy [fiziˈɔgnəmi] – n. the human face (`kisser’ and `smiler’ and `mug’ are informal terms for `face’ and `phiz’ is British)

physiography  – n. the study of physical features of the earth’s surface

physiology [.fiziˈɔlədʒi] – n. the branch of the biological sciences dealing with the functioning of organisms

physique [fiˈzi:k] – n. constitution of the human body

picayune [,pikəˈju:n] – adj. (informal) small and of little importance: giving a police officer a free meal may be against the law, but it seems to be a picayune infraction

piccolo [ˈ pikələu] – n. a small flute; pitched an octave above the standard flute

piecemeal [ˈpi:smi:l] – adj. one thing at a time

piety [ˈpaiəti] – n. righteousness by virtue of being pious

piggery  – n. a farm where pigs are raised or kept

pilfer [ˈpilfə] – v. make off with belongings of others

pillage [ˈpilidʒ] – n. goods or money obtained illegally

pillory [ˈpiləri] – v. expose to ridicule or public scorn

pincer  – n. a grasping structure on the limb of a crustacean or other arthropods

pinion [ˈpiniən] – n. a gear with a small number of teeth designed to mesh with a larger wheel or rack

pinnacle [ˈpinəkl] – n. (architecture) a slender upright spire at the top of a buttress of tower

pioneer [.paiəˈniə] – v. open up an area or prepare a way: She pioneered a graduate program for women students

pious [ˈpaiəs] – adj. having or showing or expressing reverence for a deity: pious readings

pique [pi:k] – n. tightly woven fabric with raised cords

piteous [ˈpitiəs] – adj. deserving or inciting pity: piteous appeals for help

pithy [ˈpiθi] – adj. concise and full of meaning: welcomed her pithy comments

pitiable [ˈpitiəbl] – adj. inspiring mixed contempt and pity: pitiable lack of character

pitiful [ˈpitiful] – adj. inspiring mixed contempt and pity: pitiful exhibition of cowardice

pitiless [ˈpitilis] – adj. without mercy or pity

pittance [ˈpitəns] – n. an inadequate payment: they work all day for a mere pittance

pivotal [ˈpivətəl] – adj. being of crucial importance: a pivotal event

placate [pləˈkeit] – v. cause to be more favorably inclined; gain the good will of

placebo [pləˈsi:bəu] – n. an innocuous or inert medication; given as a pacifier or to the control group in experiments on the efficacy of a drug

placid [ˈplæsid] – adj. (of a body of water) free from disturbance by heavy waves: a ribbon of sand between the angry sea and the placid bay

plagiarism [ˈpleidʒiərizəm] – n. a piece of writing that has been copied from someone else and is presented as being your own work

plasticity [plæsˈtisiti] – n. the property of being physically malleable; the property of something that can be worked or hammered or shaped without breaking

platitude [ˈplætitju:d] – n. a trite or obvious remark

plaudit [ˈplɔ:dit] – n. enthusiastic approval: he acknowledged the plaudits of the crowd

plaudits  – n. enthusiastic approval: he acknowledged the plaudits of the crowd

plausible [ˈplɔ:zəbl] – adj. apparently reasonable and valid, and truthful: a plausible excuse

playful [ˈpleiful] – adj. full of fun and high spirits: playful children just let loose from school

playwright [ˈpleirait] – n. someone who writes plays

plea [pli:] – n. a humble request for help from someone in authority

pleasurable [ˈpleʒərəbl] – adj. affording satisfaction or pleasure: full of happiness and pleasurable excitement

plebeian [pliˈbi:ən] – n. one of the common people

pledgee  – n. someone to whom a pledge is made or someone with whom something is deposited as a pledge

pledger  – n. someone who makes or gives a pledge

plenary [ˈpli:nəri] – adj. full in all respects: a plenary session of the legislature

plenipotentiary [plenipəˈtenʃəri] – n. a diplomat who is fully authorized to represent his or her government

plenitude [ˈplenitju:d] – n. a full supply

plenteous [ˈplentjəs] – adj. affording an abundant supply: a plenteous grape harvest

plethora [ˈpleθərə] – n. extreme excess

pliable [ˈplaiəbəl] – adj. susceptible to being led or directed

pliant [ˈplaiənt] – adj. capable of being influenced or formed: a pliant nature

plucky  – adj. marked by courage and determination in the face of difficulties or danger; robust and uninhibited

plumage [ˈplu:midʒ] – n. the light horny waterproof structure forming the external covering of birds

plumb [plʌm] – v. measure the depth of something

plummet [ˈplʌmit] – n. the metal bob of a plumb line

pluperfect [plu:ˈpə:fikt] – n. a perfective tense used to express action completed in the past

plural [ˈpluərəl] – adj. composed of more than one member, set, or kind

plurality [pluəˈræliti] – n. a large indefinite number: a plurality of religions

plutocracy [plu:ˈtɔkrəsi] – n. a political system governed by the wealthy people

pneumatic [nju(:)ˈmætik] – adj. of or relating to or using air (or a similar gas): pneumatic drill

podium [ˈpəudiəm] – n. a platform raised above the surrounding level to give prominence to the person on it

poesy [ˈpəuizi] – n. literature in metrical form

poetic [pəuˈetik] – adj. characterized by romantic imagery: Turner’s vision of the rainbow…was poetic

poetics [pəuˈetiks] – n. study of poetic works

poignancy [ˈpɔinənsi] – n. a state of deeply felt distress or sorrow: a moment of extraordinary poignancy

poignant [ˈpɔinjənt] – adj. arousing affect: poignant grief cannot endure forever

poise [pɔiz] – v. be motionless, in suspension: The bird poised for a few moments before it attacked

poised  – adj. marked by balance or equilibrium and readiness for action: a gull in poised flight

polar [ˈpəulə] – adj. having a pair of equal and opposite charges

polarize [ˈpəʊləraiz] – v. cause to vibrate in a definite pattern: polarize light waves

polemic [pəˈlemik] – n. a writer who argues in opposition to others (especially in theology)

polemical [pəˈlemikəl] – adj. of or involving dispute or controversy

polemics [pəˈlemiks] – n. the branch of Christian theology devoted to the refutation of errors

pollen [ˈpɔlin] – n. the fine spores that contain male gametes and that are borne by an anther in a flowering plant

pollute [pəˈlu:t] – v. make impure: The industrial wastes polluted the lake

poltroon [pɔlˈtru:n] – n. an abject coward

polygamy [pəˈligəmi] – n. having more than one spouse at a time

polyglot [ˈpɔliglɔt] – n. a person who speaks more than one language

polygon [ˈpɔligən] – n. a closed plane figure bounded by straight sides

polyhedron [pɔliˈhedrən] – n. a solid figure bounded by plane polygons or faces

polysyllable [ˈpɔlisiləbl] – n. a word of more than three syllables

polytechnic [pɔliˈteknik] – n. a technical school offering instruction in many industrial arts and applied sciences

polytheism [ˈpɔliθi:izm] – n. belief in multiple Gods

pommel [ˈpʌml] – n. handgrip formed by the raised front part of a saddle

pomposity [pɔmˈpɔsiti] – n. lack of elegance as a consequence of being pompous and puffed up with vanity

pompous [ˈpɔmpəs] – adj. puffed up with vanity: a pompous speech

ponder [ˈpɔndə] – v. reflect deeply on a subject

ponderous [ˈpɔndərəs] – adj. slow and laborious because of weight: ponderous prehistoric beasts

pontiff [ˈpɔntif] – n. the head of the Roman Catholic Church

pontificate  – v. talk in a dogmatic and pompous manner: The new professor always pontificates

populace [ˈpɔpjuləs] – n. people in general considered as a whole

populous [ˈpɔpjuləs] – adj. densely populated

portal  – n. a grand and imposing entrance (often extended metaphorically): the portals of the cathedral

portend [pɔ:ˈtend] – v. indicate by signs

portent [ˈpɔ:tent] – n. a sign of something about to happen

portfolio [pɔ:tˈfəuliəu] – n. a large, flat, thin case for carrying loose papers or drawings or maps; usually leather: he remembered her because she was carrying a large portfolio

poseur [pəuˈzə:] – n. a person who habitually pretends to be something he is not

posit [ˈpɔzit] – v. put (something somewhere) firmly: She posited her hand on his shoulder

posse [ˈpɔsi] – n. a temporary police force

possessive [pəˈzesiv] – adj. desirous of owning: small children are so possessive they will not let others play with their toys

possessor [pəˈzesə] – n. a person who owns something

postdate [ˈpəustˈdeit] – v. be later in time

posterior [pɔˈstiəriə] – n. the fleshy part of the human body that you sit on

posterity [pɔsˈteriti] – n. all of the offspring of a given progenitor: we must secure the benefits of freedom for ourselves and our posterity

postgraduate [pəustˈgrædjuit] – n. a student who continues studies after graduation

posthumous [ˈpɔstjuməs] – adj. occurring or coming into existence after a person’s death: a posthumous award

postscript [ˈpəust.skript] – n. a note appended to a letter after the signature

postulate [ˈpɔstjuleit] – v. maintain or assert

potable [ˈpəutəbəl] – n. any liquid suitable for drinking

potency [ˈpoutənsi] – n. the power or right to give orders or make decisions: a place of potency in the state

potent [ˈpəutənt] – adj. having great influence

potentate [ˈpəutənteit] – n. a ruler who is unconstrained by law

potion [ˈpəuʃən] – n. a medicinal or magical or poisonous beverage

powerless [ˈpauəlis] – adj. lacking power

practicable [ˈpræktikəbl] – adj. usable for a specific purpose: a practicable solution

pragmatic [prægˈmætik] – adj. concerned with practical matters: a matter-of-fact (or pragmatic) approach to the problem

pragmatism [ˈprægmətizəm] – n. (philosophy) the doctrine that practical consequences are the criteria of knowledge and meaning and value

pragmatist  – n. an adherent of philosophical pragmatism

prate [preit] – n. idle or foolish and irrelevant talk

prattle [ˈprætl] – n. idle or foolish and irrelevant talk

preamble [ˈpri:æmbəl] – n. a preliminary introduction to a statute or constitution (usually explaining its purpose)

precarious [priˈkeəriəs] – adj. affording no ease or reassurance: a precarious truce

precaution [priˈkɔ:ʃən] – n. the trait of practicing caution in advance

precedence [ˈpresidəns] – n. status established in order of importance or urgency: …its precedence as the world’s leading manufacturer of pharmaceuticals

precedent [ˈpresidənt] – n. an example that is used to justify similar occurrences at a later time

precedential [,presiˈdenʃəl] – adj. having precedence (especially because of longer service): precedential treatment for senior members of the firm

precept [ˈpri:sept] – n. rule of personal conduct

precession [priˈseʃən] – n. the motion of a spinning body (as a top) in which it wobbles so that the axis of rotation sweeps out a cone

precinct [ˈpri:siŋkt] – n. a district of a city or town marked out for administrative purposes

precipice [ˈpresipis] – n. a very steep cliff

precipitant [priˈsipitənt] – n. an agent that causes a precipitate to form

precipitate [priˈsipiteit] – v. bring about abruptly: The crisis precipitated by Russia’s revolution

precipitous [priˈsipitəs] – adj. done with very great haste and without due deliberation

precision [priˈsiʒən] – n. the quality of being reproducible in amount or performance: note the meticulous precision of his measurements

preclude [priˈklu:d] – v. keep from happening or arising; make impossible: Your role in the projects precludes your involvement in the competitive project

precocious [priˈkəuʃəs] – adj. characterized by or characteristic of exceptionally early development or maturity (especially in mental aptitude): a precocious child

precursor [pri(:)ˈkə:sə] – n. a substance from which another substance is formed (especially by a metabolic reaction)

predator [ˈpredətə] – n. someone who attacks in search of booty

predatory [ˈpredətəri] – adj. characterized by plundering or pillaging or marauding: predatory warfare

predecessor [ˈpri:disesə] – n. one who precedes you in time (as in holding a position or office)

predicament [priˈdikəmənt] – n. a situation from which extrication is difficult especially an unpleasant or trying one: finds himself in a most awkward predicament

predicate [ˈpredikit] – v. affirm or declare as an attribute or quality of: The speech predicated the fitness of the candidate to be President

prediction [priˈdikʃən] – n. a statement made about the future

predilection [pri:diˈlekʃən] – n. a predisposition in favor of something: a predilection for expensive cars

predominance [priˈdɔminəns] – n. the quality of being more noticeable than anything else

predominant [priˈdɔminənt] – adj. most frequent or common

predominate [priˈdɔmineit] – v. be larger in number, quantity, power, status or importance: Hispanics predominate in this neighborhood

preeminence [pri(:)ˈeminəns] – n. high status importance owing to marked superiority

preeminent [pri(:)ˈeminənt] – adj. greatest in importance or degree or significance or achievement: a preeminent archeologist

preempt [pri:ˈempt] – v. acquire for oneself before others can do so

preemption [pri:ˈempʃən] – n. the judicial principle asserting the supremacy of federal over state legislation on the same subject

preexist [pri:igˈzist] – v. exist beforehand or prior to a certain point in time

preexistence [pri:ig`zistLns] – n. existing in a former state or previous to something else

preface [ˈprefis] – n. a short introductory essay preceding the text of a book

prefatory [ˈprefətəri] – adj. serving as an introduction or preface

preferable [ˈprefərəbl] – adj. more desirable than another: coffee is preferable to tea

preferential [.prefəˈrenʃəl] – adj. manifesting partiality: preferential tariff rates

preferment [priˈfə:mənt] – n. the act of making accusations: preferment of charges

prefix [ˈpri:fiks] – n. an affix that is added in front of the word

prehensile [priˈhensl] – adj. adapted for grasping especially by wrapping around an object: a monkey’s prehensile tail

prehension  – n. the act of gripping something firmly with the hands (or the tentacles)

prejudice [ˈpredʒudis] – v. influence (somebody’s) opinion in advance

prelacy [ˈpreləsi] – n. the office or station of a prelate

prelate [ˈprelit] – n. a senior clergyman and dignitary

prelude [ˈprelju:d] – n. something that serves as a preceding event or introduces what follows

premature [.preməˈtʃuə] – adj. born after a gestation period of less than the normal time: a premature infant

premier [ˈpremjə] – n. the person who holds the position of head of the government in the United Kingdom

premonition [pri:məˈniʃən] – n. a feeling of evil to come

preoccupation [pri(:).ɔkjuˈpeiʃən] – n. the mental state of being preoccupied by something

preoccupy [pri(:)ˈɔkjupai] – v. engage or engross the interest or attention of beforehand or occupy urgently or obsessively

preordain [ˈpri:ɔ:ˈdein] – v. foreordain or determine beforehand

preparatory [priˈpærətəri] – adj. preceding and preparing for something: preparatory steps

preponderance [priˈpɔndərɚns] – n. superiority in power or influence: the preponderance of good over evil

preponderant [priˈpɔndərənt] – adj. having superior power and influence

preponderate [priˈpɔndəreit] – v. weigh more heavily

prepossessing [.pri:pəˈzesiŋ] – adj. creating a favorable impression: strong and vigorous and of prepossessing appearance

prepossession [ˈpri:pəˈzeʃn] – n. an opinion formed beforehand without adequate evidence

preposterous [priˈpɔstərəs] – adj. incongruous;inviting ridicule: a preposterous attempt to turn back the pages of history

prerogative [priˈrɔgətiv] – n. a right reserved exclusively by a particular person or group (especially a hereditary or official right): suffrage was the prerogative of white adult males

presage [ˈpresidʒ] – n. a foreboding about what is about to happen

prescience [ˈpresiəns] – n. the power to foresee the future

prescient [ˈpreʃiənt] – adj. perceiving the significance of events before they occur: extraordinarily prescient memoranda on the probable course of postwar relations

prescribe [prisˈkraib] – v. issue commands or orders for

prescript [ˈpri:skript] – n. prescribed guide for conduct or action

prescription [prisˈkripʃən] – n. a drug that is available only with written instructions from a doctor or dentist to a pharmacist: he told the doctor that he had been taking his prescription regularly

presentiment [priˈzentimənt] – n. a feeling of evil to come: the lawyer had a presentiment that the judge would dismiss the case

presentment [priˈzentmənt] – n. an accusation of crime made by a grand jury on its own initiative

preservation [.prezə(:)ˈveiʃən] – n. the activity of protecting something from loss or danger

presumption [priˈzʌmpʃən] – n. an assumption that is taken for granted

presumptive  – adj. having a reasonable basis for belief or acceptance: the presumptive heir (or heir apparent)

presumptuous [priˈzʌmptjuəs] – adj. excessively forward: the duchess would not put up with presumptuous servants

pretense [priˈtens] – n. the act of giving a false appearance

pretension [pri:ˈtenʃən] – n. a false or unsupportable quality

pretentious [priˈtenʃəs] – adj. making claim to or creating an appearance of (often undeserved) importance or distinction: a pretentious country house

preternatural [.pri:təˈnætʃərəl] – adj. surpassing the ordinary or normal: Beyond his preternatural affability there is some acid and some steel

pretext [ˈpri:tekst] – n. something serving to conceal plans; a fictitious reason that is concocted in order to conceal the real reason

prevalence [ˈprevələns] – n. the quality of prevailing generally; being widespread: he was surprised by the prevalence of optimism about the future

prevalent [ˈprevələnt] – adj. most frequent or common

prevaricate [priˈværikeit] – v. be deliberately ambiguous or unclear in order to mislead or withhold information

prevention [priˈvenʃən] – n. the act of preventing: money was allocated to study the cause and prevention of influenza

prickle [ˈprikəl] – v. cause a stinging or tingling sensation

priggish [`prigiʃ] – adj. exaggeratedly proper

prim [prim] – v. contract one’s lips: She primmed her lips after every bite of food

prima [`pri:mə] – adj. indicating the most important performer or role: prima ballerina

primer [ˈpraimə] – n. an introductory textbook

primeval [praiˈmi:vəl] – adj. having existed from the beginning; in an earliest or original stage or state: the forest primeval

primitive [ˈprimitiv] – adj. belonging to an early stage of technical development; characterized by simplicity and (often) crudeness: primitive movies of the 1890s

principality [prinsiˈpæliti] – n. territory ruled by a prince

priory [ˈpraiəri] – n. religious residence in a monastery governed by a prior or a convent governed by a prioress

pristine [ˈpristain] – adj. completely free from dirt or contamination: pristine mountain snow

privateer [praiəˈtiə] – n. a privately owned warship commissioned to prey on the commercial shipping or warships of an enemy nation

privation [praiˈveiʃən] – n. a state of extreme poverty

privet  – n. any of various Old World shrubs having smooth entire leaves and terminal panicles of small white flowers followed by small black berries; many used for hedges

privy [ˈprivi] – n. a room or building equipped with one or more toilets

probate [ˈprəubeit] – n. a judicial certificate saying that a will is genuine and conferring on the executors the power to administer the estate

probation [prəˈbeiʃən] – n. a trial period during which an offender has time to redeem himself or herself

probe [prəub] – n. an inquiry into unfamiliar or questionable activities: there was a congressional probe into the scandal

probity [ˈprəubəti] – n. complete and confirmed integrity; having strong moral principles: in a world where financial probity may not be widespread

proclamation [prɔkləˈmeiʃən] – n. a formal public statement

proclivity [prəˈkliviti] – n. a natural inclination: he has a proclivity for exaggeration

procrastinate [prəuˈkræstineit] – v. postpone doing what one should be doing: He did not want to write the letter and procrastinated for days

procrastination [prəuˈkræstiˈneiʃn] – n. slowness as a consequence of not getting around to it

proctor [ˈprɔktə] – n. someone who supervises (an examination)

procure [prəˈkjuə] – v. get by special effort: He procured extra cigarettes even though they were rationed

prod [prɔd] – v. to push against gently

prodigal [ˈprɔdigəl] – n. a recklessly extravagant consumer

prodigious [prəˈdidʒəs] – adj. so great in size or force or extent as to elicit awe: a prodigious storm

prodigy [ˈprɔdidʒi] – n. an unusually gifted or intelligent (young) person; someone whose talents excite wonder and admiration: she is a chess prodigy

productive [prəˈdʌktiv] – adj. having the ability to produce or originate

profane [prəˈfein] – adj. not concerned with or devoted to religion: sacred and profane music

profanity [prəˈfæniti] – n. vulgar or irreverent speech or action

professor [prəˈfesə] – n. someone who is a member of the faculty at a college or university

proffer [ˈprɔfə] – n. a proposal offered for acceptance or rejection

proficiency [prəˈfiʃənsi] – n. the quality of having great facility and competence

proficient [prəˈfiʃənt] – adj. having or showing knowledge and skill and aptitude: a proficient engineer

profiteer [.prɔfiˈtiə] – n. someone who makes excessive profit (especially on goods in short supply)

profligacy [ˈprɔfləgəsi] – n. the trait of spending extravagantly

profligate [ˈprɔfligit] – n. a dissolute man in fashionable society

profound [prəˈfaund] – adj. showing intellectual penetration or emotional depth: the differences are profound

profundity [prəˈfʌnditi] – n. wisdom that is recondite and abstruse and profound

profuse [prəˈfju:s] – adj. produced or growing in extreme abundance

profusion [prəˈfju:ʒən] – n. the property of being extremely abundant: the profusion of detail

progeny [ˈprɔdʒini] – n. the immediate descendants of a person

prognosis [prɔgˈnəusis] – n. a prediction about how something (as the weather) will develop

progression [prəˈgreʃən] – n. a series with a definite pattern of advance

prohibition [prəuhiˈbiʃən] – n. a law forbidding the sale of alcoholic beverages: in 1920 the 18th amendment to the Constitution established prohibition in the US

prohibitionist  – n. a reformer who opposes the use of intoxicating beverages

prohibitive [prəˈhibitiv, prəu-] – adj. tending to discourage (especially of prices): the price was prohibitive

prohibitory [prəˈhibitəri] – adj. tending to discourage (especially of prices)

projection [prəˈdʒekʃən] – n. a prediction made by extrapolating from past observations

proletarian [.prəuleˈtɛəriən] – n. a member of the working class (not necessarily employed)

proliferation [prəu.lifəˈreiʃən] – n. growth by the rapid multiplication of parts

prolific [prəˈlifik] – adj. intellectually productive: a prolific writer

prolix [ˈprəuliks] – adj. tediously prolonged or tending to speak or write at great length: editing a prolix manuscript

prologue [ˈprəulɔg] – n. an introduction to a play

prolong [prəˈlɔŋ] – v. lengthen in time; cause to be or last longer: We prolonged our stay

promenade [.prɔməˈnɑ:d] – n. a formal ball held for a school class toward the end of the academic year

prominence [ˈprɔminəns] – n. relative importance

prominent [ˈprɔminənt] – adj. having a quality that thrusts itself into attention: a new theory is the most prominent feature of the book

promiscuous [prəˈmiskjuəs] – adj. not selective of a single class or person: Clinton was criticized for his promiscuous solicitation of campaign money

promissory [ˈprɔmisəri] – adj. relating to or having the character of a promise: promissory note

promontory [ˈprɔməntəri] – n. a natural elevation (especially a rocky one that juts out into the sea)

promoter [prəˈməutə] – n. someone who is an active supporter and advocate

promulgate [ˈprɔməlgeit] – v. state or announce

propaganda [,prɔpəˈgændə] – n. information that is spread for the purpose of promoting some cause

propagandist  – n. a person who disseminates messages calculated to assist some cause or some government

propagate [ˈprɔpəgeit] – v. transmit from one generation to the next: propagate these characteristics

propel [prəˈpel] – v. cause to move forward with force: Steam propels this ship

propellant [prəˈpelənt] – n. any substance that propels

propeller [prəˈpelə] – n. a mechanical device that rotates to push against air or water

propensity [prəˈpensiti] – n. an inclination to do something

prophecy [ˈprɔfisi] – n. knowledge of the future (usually said to be obtained from a divine source)

prophesy [ˈprɔfisi] – v. predict or reveal through, or as if through, divine inspiration

propinquity [prəˈpiŋkwiti] – n. the property of being close together

propitious [prəˈpiʃəs] – adj. presenting favorable circumstances; likely to result in or show signs of success: propitious omens

proportionate [prəˈpɔ:ʃənit] – adj. agreeing in amount, magnitude, or degree

propriety [prəˈpraiəti] – n. correct or appropriate behavior

propulsion [prəˈpʌlʃən] – n. a propelling force

prosaic [prəuˈzeiik] – adj. not fanciful or imaginative: a prosaic and unimaginative essay

proscenium [prəuˈsi:njəm] – n. the part of a modern theater stage between the curtain and the orchestra (i.e., in front of the curtain)

proscribe [prəuˈskraib] – v. command against

proscription [prəuˈskripʃən] – n. a decree that prohibits something

proselyte [ˈprɔsilait] – n. a new convert; especially a gentile converted to Judaism

prosody [ˈprɔsədi] – n. the patterns of stress and intonation in a language

prospector [prɔˈspektə(r)] – n. someone who explores an area for mineral deposits

prospectus [prəˈspektəs] – n. a catalog listing the courses offered by a college or university

prostrate [ˈprɔstreit, prɔˈstreit] – v. render helpless or defenseless: They prostrated the enemy

prostration  – n. an abrupt failure of function or complete physical exhaustion: the commander’s prostration demoralized his men

protagonist [prəuˈtægənist] – n. a person who backs a politician or a team etc.

protean [ˈprəutiən, prəuˈti:ən] – adj. taking on different forms: eyes…of that baffling protean grey which is never twice the same

protective [prəˈtektiv] – adj. showing care: a protective mother

protector [prəˈtektə] – n. a person who cares for persons or property

protege [ˈprəuteʒei] – n. a person who receives support and protection from an influential patron who furthers the protege’s career

Protestant  – adj. of or relating to Protestants or Protestantism: Protestant churches

protocol [ˈprɔtəkɔl] – n. (computer science) rules determining the format and transmission of data

protoplasm [ˈprəutəplæzm] – n. the substance of a living cell (including cytoplasm and nucleus)

prototype [ˈprəutətaip] – n. a standard or typical example: he is the prototype of good breeding

protract [prəˈtrækt] – v. lengthen in time; cause to be or last longer

protrude [prəˈtru:d] – v. extend out or project in space

protrusion [prəuˈtru:ʒən] – n. something that bulges out or is protuberant or projects from its surroundings

protuberance [prəˈtju:bərəns] – n. the condition of being protuberant; the condition of bulging out: the protuberance of his belly

protuberant [prəˈtju:bərənt] – adj. curving outward

protuberate [prəu`tjU:bəreit] – v. cause to bulge out or project

proverb [ˈprɔvə:b] – n. a condensed but memorable saying embodying some important fact of experience that is taken as true by many people

provident [ˈprɔvidənt] – adj. careful in regard to your own interests: wild squirrels are provident

providential [prɔviˈdenʃəl] – adj. peculiarly fortunate or appropriate; as if by divine intervention: a providential recovery

provincial [prəˈvinʃəl] – n. a country person

proviso [prəˈvaizəu] – n. a stipulated condition

provocation [prɔvəˈkeiʃən] – n. unfriendly behavior that causes anger or resentment

provocative [prəˈvɔkətiv] – adj. serving or tending to provoke, excite, or stimulate; stimulating discussion or exciting controversy: a provocative remark

prowess [ˈprauis] – n. a superior skill that you can learn by study and practice and observation

proximity [prɔkˈsimiti] – n. the property of being close together

proxy [ˈprɔksi] – n. a person authorized to act for another

prudence [ˈpru:dəns] – n. discretion in practical affairs

prudent [ˈpru:dənt] – adj. careful and sensible; marked by sound judgment: a prudent manager

prudential [pru:ˈdenʃəl] – adj. arising from or characterized by prudence especially in business matters: he abstained partly for prudential reasons

prudery [ˈpru:dəri] – n. excessive or affected modesty

prurient [ˈpruəriənt] – adj. characterized by lust: prurient literature

pseudonym [ˈsju:dənim] – n. a fictitious name used when the person performs a particular social role

psyche [ˈsaiki] – n. that which is responsible for one’s thoughts and feelings; the seat of the faculty of reason

psychiatry [saiˈkaiətri] – n. the branch of medicine dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders

psychic [ˈsaikik] – adj. affecting or influenced by the human mind: psychic energy

psychopathic [saikəˈpæθik] – adj. suffering from an undiagnosed mental disorder

psychotherapy [ˈsaikəuˈθerəpi] – n. the branch of psychiatry concerned with psychological methods

pudgy [ˈpɔdʒi] – adj. short and plump

puerile [ˈpjuərail] – adj. of or characteristic of a child: puerile breathing

pugnacious [pʌgˈneiʃəs] – adj. tough and callous by virtue of experience

puissant [ˈpju:isənt] – adj. powerful

pulchritude [ˈpʌlkritju:d] – n. physical beauty (especially of a woman)

pulmonary [ˈpʌlmənəri] – adj. relating to or affecting the lungs: pulmonary disease

punctilious [pʌŋkˈtiliəs] – adj. marked by precise accordance with details: punctilious in his attention to rules of etiquette

punctual [ˈpʌŋktjuəl] – adj. acting or arriving or performed exactly at the time appointed: she expected guests to be punctual at meals

pungency [ˈpʌndʒənsi] – n. wit having a sharp and caustic quality: he commented with typical pungency

pungent [ˈpʌndʒənt] – adj. strong and sharp: the pungent taste of radishes

punitive [ˈpju:nitiv] – adj. inflicting punishment: punitive justice

purblind [ˈpə:blaind] – adj. having greatly reduced vision

purgatory [ˈpə:gətəri] – n. a temporary condition of torment or suffering: a purgatory of drug abuse

purl [pə:l] – v. flow in a circular current, of liquids

purloin [pə:ˈlɔin] – v. make off with belongings of others

purport [ˈpə:pɔ:t, -pət] – n. the intended meaning of a communication

purportedly  – adv. believed or reputed to be the case

purveyor [pəˈveiə] – n. someone who supplies provisions (especially food)

pusillanimous [pju:siˈlæniməs] – adj. lacking in courage and manly strength and resolution; contemptibly fearful

putrescent [pju:ˈtresnt] – adj. becoming putrid: a trail lined by putrescent carcasses

putrid [ˈpju:trid] – adj. in an advanced state of decomposition and having a foul odor: horrible like raw and putrid flesh

pyre [paiə] – n. wood heaped for burning a dead body as a funeral rite

pyromania [.paiərəuˈmeiniə] – n. an uncontrollable desire to set fire to things

pyrotechnic [,pairəuˈteknik] – adj. of or relating to the craft of making fireworks: pyrotechnic smokes

pyx  – n. a chest in which coins from the mint are held to await assay

quackery [ˈkwækəri] – n. medical practice and advice based on observation and experience in ignorance of scientific findings

quadrate [ˈkwɔdrit] – n. a cubelike object

quadruple [ˈkwɔdrupl] – n. a set of four similar things considered as a unit

quaff [kwɑ:f, kwæf] – n. a hearty draft

quagmire [ˈkwæg.maiə] – n. a soft wet area of low-lying land that sinks underfoot

quail [kweil] – n. small gallinaceous game birds

quaint [kweint] – adj. strange in an interesting or pleasing way: quaint dialect words

qualified [ˈkwɔlifaid] – adj. meeting the proper standards and requirements and training for an office or position or task: many qualified applicants for the job

qualm [kwɑ:m] – n. uneasiness about the fitness of an action

quandary [ˈkwɔndəri] – n. a situation from which extrication is difficult especially an unpleasant or trying one

quarantine [ˈkwɔrən.ti:n] – n. enforced isolation of patients suffering from a contagious disease in order to prevent the spread of disease

quarrelsome [ˈkwɑ:əlsəm] – adj. given to quarreling: quarrelsome when drinking

quarry [ˈkwɔri] – n. a surface excavation for extracting stone or slate: a British term for `quarry’ is `stone pit’

quarterly [ˈkwɔ:təli] – adv. in three month intervals: interest is compounded quarterly

quartet [kwɔ:ˈtet] – n. the cardinal number that is the sum of three and one

quarto [ˈkwɔ:təu] – n. the size of a book whose pages are made by folding a sheet of paper twice to form four leaves

quay [ki:] – n. wharf usually built parallel to the shoreline

quell [kwel] – v. suppress or crush completely

querulous [ˈkwɛrələs] – adj. habitually complaining

query [ˈkwiəri] – n. an instance of questioning

queue [kju:] – n. a line of people or vehicles waiting for something

quibble [ˈkwibəl] – v. evade the truth of a point or question by raising irrelevant objections

quiescence [kwaiˈesns] – n. a state of quiet (but possibly temporary) inaction

quiescent [kwaiˈesənt] – adj. not active or activated: the quiescent level of centimeter wave-length solar radiation

quietude [ˈkwaiə.tjud] – n. a state of peace and quiet

quietus [kwaiˈi:təs] – n. euphemisms for death (based on an analogy between lying in a bed and in a tomb)

quintessence [kwinˈtesəns] – n. the purest and most concentrated essence of something

quintet [kwinˈtet] – n. a musical composition for five performers

quirk [kwə:k] – n. a strange attitude or habit

quotidian [kwəuˈtidiən] – adj. found in the ordinary course of events: there’s nothing quite like a real…train conductor to add color to a quotidian commute

rabid [ˈræbid] – adj. marked by excessive enthusiasm for and intense devotion to a cause or idea: rabid isolationist

raconteur [.rækɑnˈtə] – n. a person skilled in telling anecdotes

racy [ˈreisi] – adj. full of zest or vigor: a racy literary style

radiance [ˈreidjəns] – n. the quality of being bright and sending out rays of light

radiate [ˈreidieit] – v. send out rays or waves: The sun radiates heat

radix [ˈreidiks] – n. (numeration system) the positive integer that is equivalent to one in the next higher counting place: 10 is the radix of the decimal system

raffish [ˈræfiʃ] – adj. marked by up-to-dateness in dress and manners

raillery [ˈreiləri] – n. light teasing repartee

raiment [ˈreimənt] – n. especially fine or decorative clothing

ramble [ˈræmbl] – v. continue talking or writing in a desultory manner: This novel rambles on and jogs

rambunctious [ræmˈbʌŋkʃəs] – adj. noisy and lacking in restraint or discipline: a social gathering that became rambunctious and out of hand

ramify [ˈræmifai] – v. have or develop complicating consequences: These actions will ramify

ramose [`reiməus] – adj. having branches

rampant [ˈræmpənt] – adj. unrestrained and violent: rampant aggression

rampart [ˈræmpɑ:t] – n. an embankment built around a space for defensive purposes: they stormed the ramparts of the city

rancid [ˈrænsid] – adj. smelling of fermentation or staleness

rancor [ˈræŋkə] – n. a feeling of deep and bitter anger and ill-will

rankle [ˈræŋkəl] – v. gnaw into; make resentful or angry: The injustice rankled her

ransack [ˈrænsæk] – v. steal goods; take as spoils

rant [rænt] – n. a loud bombastic declamation expressed with strong emotion

rapacious [rəˈpeiʃəs] – adj. living by preying on other animals especially by catching living prey: the rapacious wolf

rapine [ˈræpain] – n. the act of despoiling a country in warfare

rapport [ræˈpɔ:] – n. a relationship of mutual understanding or trust and agreement between people

rapt [ræpt] – adj. feeling great rapture or delight

raptorial [ræpˈtɔ:riəl] – adj. relating to or characteristic of birds of prey: raptorial claws and bill for seizing prey

rash [ræʃ] – n. any red eruption of the skin

ratify [ˈrætifai] – v. approve and express assent, responsibility, or obligation

ration [ˈræʃən] – n. the food allowance for one day (especially for service personnel): the rations should be nutritionally balanced

rationalism [ˈræʃənəlizəm] – n. (philosophy) the doctrine that knowledge is acquired by reason without resort to experience

raucous [ˈrɔ:kəs] – adj. unpleasantly loud and harsh

ravage [ˈrævidʒ] – v. make a pillaging or destructive raid on (a place), as in wartimes

ravenous [ˈrævənəs] – adj. extremely hungry: a ravenous boy

ravine [rəˈvi:n] – n. a deep narrow steep-sided valley (especially one formed by running water)

raze [reiz] – v. tear down so as to make flat with the ground

razing  – n. the event of a structure being completely demolished and leveled

reactionary [ri(:)ˈækʃənəri] – n. an extreme conservative; an opponent of progress or liberalism

readjust [ri:əˈdʒʌst] – v. adjust anew: After moving back to America, he had to readjust

realism [ˈriəlizəm, ˈri:-] – n. the attribute of accepting the facts of life and favoring practicality and literal truth

rearrange [ri:əˈreindʒ] – v. put into a new order or arrangement: Please rearrange these files

reassure [.ri:əˈʃuə] – v. give or restore confidence in; cause to feel sure or certain: I reassured him that we were safe

rebellious [riˈbeljəs] – adj. resisting control or authority: temperamentally rebellious

rebuff [riˈbʌf] – n. a deliberate discourteous act (usually as an expression of anger or disapproval)

rebuild [ri:ˈbild] – v. build again: The house was rebuild after it was hit by a bomb

rebuke [riˈbju:k] – n. an act or expression of criticism and censure: he had to take the rebuke with a smile on his face

rebut [riˈbʌt] – v. overthrow by argument, evidence, or proof

rebuttal [riˈbʌtl] – n. the speech act of refuting by offering a contrary contention or argument

recalcitrant [riˈkælsitrənt] – adj. stubbornly resistant to authority or control

recant [riˈkænt] – v. formally reject or disavow a formerly held belief, usually under pressure

recapitulate [.ri:kəˈpitjuleit] – v. summarize briefly: Let’s recapitulate the main ideas

recapture [ri:ˈkæptʃə] – v. experience anew: She could not recapture that feeling of happiness

recede [riˈsi:d] – v. pull back or move away or backward

receivable [riˈsi:vəbl] – adj. awaiting payment: accounts receivable

receptacle [riˈseptəkl] – n. a container that is used to put or keep things in

receptive [riˈseptiv] – adj. open to arguments, ideas, or change: receptive to reason and the logic of facts

recessive [riˈsesiv] – adj. (of genes) producing its characteristic phenotype only when its allele is identical

recidivist [riˈsidivist] – n. someone who is repeatedly arrested for criminal behavior (especially for the same criminal behavior)

reciprocal [riˈsiprəkəl] – n. hybridization involving a pair of crosses that reverse the sexes associated with each genotype

reciprocate [riˈsiprəkeit] – v. act, feel, or give mutually or in return: We always invite the neighbors and they never reciprocate!

reciprocity [.resiˈprɔsiti] – n. a relation of mutual dependence or action or influence

recitation [resiˈteiʃ(ə)n] – n. a public instance of reciting or repeating (from memory) something prepared in advance: the program included songs and recitations of well-loved poems

reckless [ˈreklis] – adj. marked by defiant disregard for danger or consequences: became the fiercest and most reckless of partisans

reclaim [riˈkleim] – v. claim back

recline [riˈklain] – v. move the upper body backwards and down

recluse [riˈklu:s] – n. one who lives in solitude

reclusive  – adj. withdrawn from society; seeking solitude: lived an unsocial reclusive life

recognizance [riˈkɔgnizəns] – n. (law) a security entered into before a court with a condition to perform some act required by law; on failure to perform that act a sum is forfeited

recoil [riˈkɔil] – v. draw back, as with fear or pain

recollect [.rekəˈlekt] – v. recall knowledge from memory; have a recollection

reconcilable [ˈrekənsailəbl] – adj. capable of being reconciled: her way of thinking is reconcilable with mine

reconcile [ˈrekənsail] – v. make (one thing) compatible with (another)

recondite [ˈrekəndait] – adj. difficult to penetrate; incomprehensible to one of ordinary understanding or knowledge: some recondite problem in historiography

reconnoiter [,rekəˈnɔitə] – v. explore, often with the goal of finding something or somebody

reconsider [ri:kənˈsidə] – v. consider again; give new consideration to; usually with a view to changing: Won’t you reconsider your decision?

reconstruct [ˈri:kənˈstrʌkt] – v. reassemble mentally: reconstruct the events of 20 years ago

recount [riˈkaunt] – v. narrate or give a detailed account of

recourse [riˈkɔ:s] – n. act of turning to for assistance: have recourse to the courts

recreant [ˈrekriənt] – n. an abject coward

recreate [ˈrekrieit] – v. give new life or energy to

recrimination [ri.krimiˈneiʃən] – n. mutual accusations

recrudescence [ri:kru:ˈdesns] – n. a return of something after a period of abatement: a recrudescence of racism

recrudescent [ri:krU:`desənt] – adj. the revival of an unfortunate situation after a period of abatement: the patient presented with a case of recrudescent gastralgia

recruit [riˈkru:t] – v. register formally as a participant or member: The party recruited many new members

rectify [ˈrektifai] – v. math: determine the length of: rectify a curve

rectitude [ˈrektitju:d] – n. righteousness as a consequence of being honorable and honest

recuperate [riˈkju:pəreit] – v. regain or make up for: recuperate one’s losses

recur [riˈkə:] – v. happen or occur again: This is a recurring story

recurrent [riˈkʌrənt] – adj. recurring again and again

redemption [riˈdempʃən] – n. (theology) the act of delivering from sin or saving from evil

redolence [`redəuləns] – n. a pleasingly sweet olfactory property

redolent [ˈredələnt] – adj. serving to bring to mind: cannot forbear to close on this redolent literary note

redoubtable [riˈdautəbəl] – adj. inspiring fear: a tougher and more redoubtable adversary than the heel-clicking, jackbooted fanatic

redound [riˈdaund] – v. return or recoil: Fame redounds to the heroes

redress [riˈdres] – n. a sum of money paid in compensation for loss or injury

reducible [riˈdju:səbl] – adj. capable of being reduced: reducible to a set of principles of human nature

redundance  – n. the attribute of being superfluous and unneeded

redundant [riˈdʌndənt] – adj. more than is needed, desired, or required: yet another book on heraldry might be thought redundant

reestablish [ri:isˈtæbliʃ] – v. bring back into original existence, use, function, or position: reestablish peace in the region

referable [riˈfə:rəbl] – adj. capable of being assigned or credited to

referee [.refəˈri:] – n. (sports) the chief official (as in boxing or American football) who is expected to ensure fair play

referendum [.refəˈrendəm] – n. a legislative act is referred for final approval to a popular vote by the electorate

refinery [riˈfainəri] – n. an industrial plant for purifying a crude substance

reflector [riˈflektər] – n. optical telescope consisting of a large concave mirror that produces an image that is magnified by the eyepiece

refract [riˈfrækt] – v. subject to refraction: refract a light beam

refractory [riˈfræktəri] – adj. not responding to treatment: a refractory case of acne

refurbish [ri:ˈfə:biʃ] – v. make brighter and prettier: we refurbished the guest wing

refusal [riˈfju:zəl] – n. a message refusing to accept something that is offered

refute [riˈfju:t] – v. overthrow by argument, evidence, or proof: The speaker refuted his opponent’s arguments

regale [riˈgeil] – v. provide with choice or abundant food or drink

regalia [riˈgeiljə] – n. paraphernalia indicative of royalty (or other high office)

regenerate [riˈdʒenərit] – v. reestablish on a new, usually improved, basis or make new or like new

regent [ˈri:dʒənt] – n. members of a governing board

regicide [ˈredʒisaid] – n. the act of killing a king

regimen [ˈredʒəmən] – n. (medicine) a systematic plan for therapy (often including diet)

regiment [ˈredʒimənt] – v. subject to rigid discipline, order, and systematization: regiment one’s children

regnant [ˈregnənt] – adj. exercising power or authority

regress [ˈri:gres] – v. go back to a statistical means

regressive [riˈgresiv] – adj. (of taxes) adjusted so that the rate decreases as the amount of income increases

regretful [riˈgretful] – adj. feeling or expressing regret or sorrow or a sense of loss over something done or undone: felt regretful over his vanished youth

regurgitate [riˈgə:dʒiteit] – v. pour or rush back: The blood regurgitates into the heart ventricle

rehabilitate [.ri:həˈbiliteit] – v. help to readapt, as to a former state of health or good repute: The prisoner was successfully rehabilitated

rehash [ri:ˈhæʃ] – v. present or use over, with no or few changes

reign [rein] – n. a period during which something or somebody is dominant or powerful: he was helpless under the reign of his egotism

reimburse [.ri:imˈbə:s] – v. pay back for some expense incurred: Can the company reimburse me for my professional travel?

rein [rein] – v. keep in check

reinstate [.ri:inˈsteit] – v. restore to the previous state or rank

reiterate [ri:ˈitəreit] – v. to say, state, or perform again

rejoin [ri:ˈdʒɔin] – v. join again

rejuvenate [riˈdʒu:vəneit] – v. cause (a stream or river) to erode, as by an uplift of the land

relapse [riˈlæps] – v. deteriorate in health: he relapsed

relegate [ˈreligeit] – v. refer to another person for decision or judgment: She likes to relegate difficult questions to her colleagues

relent [riˈlent] – v. give in, as to influence or pressure

reliance [riˈlaiəns] – n. certainty based on past experience: he wrote the paper with considerable reliance on the work of other scientists

reliant [riˈlaiənt] – adj. relying on another for support

relinquish [riˈliŋkwiʃ] – v. part with a possession or right: I am relinquishing my bedroom to the long-term house guest

reliquary [ˈrelikwəri] – n. a container where religious relics are stored or displayed (especially relics of saints)

relish [ˈreliʃ] – n. vigorous and enthusiastic enjoyment

reluctance [riˈlʌktəns] – n. (physics) opposition to magnetic flux (analogous to electric resistance)

reluctant [riˈlʌktənt] – adj. unwillingness to do something contrary to your custom: a reluctant smile

remedial [riˈmi:diəl] – adj. tending or intended to rectify or improve: a remedial reading course

remembrance [riˈmembrəns] – n. the ability to recall past occurrences

reminiscence [.remiˈnisns] – n. a mental impression retained and recalled from the past

reminiscent [remiˈnis(ə)nt] – adj. serving to bring to mind

remiss [riˈmis] – adj. failing in what duty requires: remiss of you not to pay your bills

remission [riˈmiʃən] – n. an abatement in intensity or degree (as in the manifestations of a disease): his cancer is in remission

remodel [.ri:ˈmɔdl] – v. do over, as of (part of) a house: We are remodeling these rooms

remonstrance [riˈmɔnstrəns] – n. the act of expressing earnest opposition or protest

remonstrate [riˈmɔnstreit, ˈremənstreit] – v. argue in protest or opposition

remorse [riˈmɔ:s] – n. a feeling of deep regret (usually for some misdeed)

remunerate [riˈmju:nəreit] – v. make payment to; compensate: My efforts were not remunerated

remuneration [ri.mju:nəˈreiʃən] – n. the act of paying for goods or services or to recompense for losses: adequate remuneration for his work

Renaissance  – n. the revival of learning and culture

rendezvous [ˈrɔndivu:] – n. a meeting planned at a certain time and place

rendition [renˈdiʃən] – n. a performance of a musical composition or a dramatic role etc.: they heard a live rendition of three pieces by Schubert

renounce [riˈnauns] – v. give up, such as power, as of monarchs and emperors, or duties and obligations

renovate [ˈrenə.veit] – v. restore to a previous or better condition: They renovated the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel

renown [riˈnaun] – n. the state or quality of being widely honored and acclaimed

renunciation [ri.nʌnsiˈeiʃən] – n. rejecting or disowning or disclaiming as invalid

reorganize [ˈri:ˈɔ:gənaiz] – v. organize anew: We must reorganize the company if we don’t want to go under

reparable [ˈrepərəbəl] – adj. capable of being repaired or rectified: reparable damage to the car

reparation [.repəˈreiʃən] – n. compensation (given or received) for an insult or injury: an act for which there is no reparation

repartee [.repɑ:ˈti:] – n. adroitness and cleverness in reply

repast  – n. the food served and eaten at one time

repeal [riˈpi:l] – n. the act of abrogating; an official or legal cancellation

repel [riˈpel] – v. cause to move back by force or influence: repel the enemy

repellent [riˈpelənt] – n. a chemical substance that repels animals

repentance [riˈpentəns] – n. remorse for your past conduct

repentant [riˈpentənt] – adj. feeling or expressing remorse for misdeeds

repertoire [ˈrepətwɑ:] – n. the entire range of skills or aptitudes or devices used in a particular field or occupation

repertory [ˈrepətəri] – n. a storehouse where a stock of things is kept

repetition [.repiˈtiʃən] – n. an event that repeats

repine [riˈpain] – v. express discontent

replenish [riˈpleniʃ] – v. fill something that had previously been emptied

replete [riˈpli:t] – adj. filled to satisfaction with food or drink

replica [ˈreplikə, riˈpli:kə] – n. copy that is not the original; something that has been copied

repose [riˈpəuz] – v. put or confide something in a person or thing: These philosophers reposed the law in the people

repository [riˈpɔzitəri] – n. a facility where things can be deposited for storage or safekeeping

reprehend [.repriˈhend] – v. express strong disapproval of

reprehensible [.repriˈhensəbəl] – adj. bringing or deserving severe rebuke or censure: adultery is as reprehensible for a husband as for a wife

reprehension [,repriˈhenʃən] – n. an act or expression of criticism and censure

repress [riˈpres] – v. put down by force or intimidation

reprieve [riˈpri:v] – n. a (temporary) relief from harm or discomfort

reprimand [ˈreprima:nd] – v. rebuke formally

reprisal [riˈpraizəl] – n. a retaliatory action against an enemy in wartime

reproach [riˈprəutʃ] – n. a mild rebuke or criticism: words of reproach

reprobate [ˈreprəbeit] – v. reject (documents) as invalid

reproduce [.ri:prəˈdju:s] – v. make a copy or equivalent of: reproduce the painting

reproduction [.ri:prəˈdʌkʃən] – n. the process of generating offspring

reproof [riˈpru:f] – n. an act or expression of criticism and censure

reprove [riˈpru:v] – v. take to task

repudiate [riˈpju:dieit] – v. cast off: The parents repudiated their son

repugnance [riˈpʌgnəns] – n. intense aversion

repugnant [riˈpʌgnənt] – adj. offensive to the mind: morally repugnant customs

repulse [riˈpʌls] – v. force or drive back

repulsive [riˈpʌlsiv] – adj. offensive to the mind: repulsive behavior

reputable [ˈrepjutəbl] – adj. having a good reputation: a reputable business

repute [riˈpju:t] – n. the state of being held in high esteem and honor

requiem [ˈrekwiem] – n. a song or hymn of mourning composed or performed as a memorial to a dead person

requisite [ˈrekwizit] – n. anything indispensable: a place where the requisites of water fuel and fodder can be obtained

requisition [.rekwiˈziʃən] – n. an official form on which a request in made: first you have to fill out the requisition

requital [riˈkwaitl] – n. a justly deserved penalty

requite [riˈkwait] – v. make repayment for or return something

rescind [riˈsind] – v. cancel officially

reseat [ˈri:ˈsi:t] – v. provide with a new seat: reseat the old broken chair

resemblance [riˈzembləns] – n. similarity in appearance or external or superficial details

resent [riˈzent] – v. feel bitter or indignant about: She resents being paid less than her co-workers

reservoir [ˈrezəvwɑ:] – n. a large or extra supply of something: a reservoir of talent

residue [ˈrezidju:] – n. matter that remains after something has been removed

resilience [riˈziliəns] – n. an occurrence of rebounding or springing back

resilient [riˈziliənt] – adj. recovering readily from adversity, depression, or the like

resistant [riˈzistənt] – adj. relating to or conferring immunity (to disease or infection)

resistive [riˈzistiv] – adj. disposed to or engaged in defiance of established authority

resistless [riˈzistlis] – adj. offering no resistance: resistless hostages

resolute [ˈrezə.lu:t] – adj. firm in purpose or belief; characterized by firmness and determination: stood resolute against the enemy

resonance [ˈrezənəns] – n. an excited state of a stable particle causing a sharp maximum in the probability of absorption of electromagnetic radiation

resonant [ˈrezənənt] – adj. serving to bring to mind

resonate [ˈrezəneit] – v. be received or understood

respite [ˈrespait] – n. a (temporary) relief from harm or discomfort

resplendent [riˈsplendənt] – adj. having great beauty and splendor

respondent [riˈspɔndənt] – n. someone who responds

restitution [.restiˈtju:ʃən] – n. a sum of money paid in compensation for loss or injury

restive [ˈrestiv] – adj. being in a tense state

restorative [riˈstɔ:rətiv] – n. a medicine that strengthens and invigorates

restraint [riˈstreint] – n. discipline in personal and social activities: he was a model of polite restraint

resumption [riˈzʌmpʃən] – n. beginning again

resurgence [riˈsə:dʒəns] – n. bringing again into activity and prominence

resurgent [riˈsə:dʒənt] – adj. rising again as to new life and vigor: resurgent nationalism

resurrection [.rezəˈrekʃən] – n. (New Testament) the rising of Christ on the third day after the Crucifixion

resuscitate [riˈsʌsiteit] – v. cause to regain consciousness

retaliate [riˈtælieit] – v. take revenge for a perceived wrong

retch [ri:tʃ] – v. eject the contents of the stomach through the mouth

retention [riˈtenʃən] – n. the act of retaining something

reticence [ˈretisəns] – n. the trait of being uncommunicative; not volunteering anything more than necessary

reticent [ˈretisənt] – adj. temperamentally disinclined to talk

retinue [ˈretinju:] – n. the group following and attending to some important person

retort [riˈtɔ:t] – n. a quick reply to a question or remark (especially a witty or critical one)

retouch [ri:ˈtʌtʃ] – v. alter so as to produce a more desirable appearance: This photograph has been retouched!

retrace [riˈtreis] – v. to go back over again: we retraced the route we took last summer

retract [riˈtrækt] – v. formally reject or disavow a formerly held belief, usually under pressure: He retracted his earlier statements about his religion

retraction [riˈtrækʃən] – n. a disavowal or taking back of a previous assertion

retrench [riˈtrentʃ] – v. tighten one’s belt; use resources carefully

retrenchment  – n. entrenchment consisting of an additional interior fortification to prolong the defense

retrieve [riˈtri:v] – v. get or find back; recover the use of

retroactive [retrəʊˈæktiv] – adj. affecting things past: retroactive tax increase

retrograde [ˈretrəgreid] – v. move backward in an orbit, of celestial bodies

retrogression [retrəˈgreʃən] – n. passing from a more complex to a simpler biological form

retrospect [ˈretrəu.spekt] – n. contemplation of things past: in retrospect

retrospective [.retrəuˈspektiv] – n. an exhibition of a representative selection of an artist’s life work

reunite [ˈri:ju:ˈnait] – v. unify again, as of a country

revel  – v. take delight in

revelation [.revəˈleiʃən] – n. the speech act of making something evident

revere [riˈviə] – n. a lapel on a woman’s garment; turned back to show the reverse side

reverent [ˈrevərənt] – adj. feeling or showing profound respect or veneration: maintained a reverent silence

reverential  – adj. feeling or manifesting veneration

reversion [riˈvə:ʃən] – n. (genetics) a return to a normal phenotype (usually resulting from a second mutation)

revert [riˈvə:t] – v. undergo reversion, as in a mutation

revile [riˈvail] – v. spread negative information about

revisal [riˈvaizl] – n. the act of rewriting something

revise [riˈvaiz] – v. make revisions in: revise a thesis

revisionist  – n. a Communist who tries to rewrite Marxism to justify a retreat from the revolutionary position

revocation [.revəˈkeiʃən] – n. the state of being cancelled or annulled

revoke [riˈvəuk] – v. fail to follow suit when able and required to do so

rhapsodize [ˈræpsədaiz] – v. say (something) with great enthusiasm

rhapsody [ˈræpsədi] – n. an epic poem adapted for recitation

rhetoric [ˈretərik] – n. using language effectively to please or persuade

rhetorical  – adj. given to rhetoric, emphasizing style at the expense of thought: mere rhetorical frippery

rhetorician [retəˈriʃən] – n. a person who delivers a speech or oration

ribald [ˈribəld] – adj. humorously vulgar: ribald language

riddance [ˈridns] – n. the act of removing or getting rid of something

riddled  – adj. (often followed by `with’) damaged throughout by numerous perforations or holes: a sweater riddled with moth holes

ridicule [ˈridikju:l] – n. language or behavior intended to mock or humiliate

ridiculous [riˈdikjuləs] – adj. inspiring scornful pity

rife [raif] – adj. most frequent or common

righteousness [raitʃəsnis] – n. adhering to moral principles

rightful [ˈraitful] – adj. legally valid: a rightful inheritance

rigmarole [ˈrigmərəul] – n. a set of confused and meaningless statements

rigor [ˈrigə] – n. something hard to endure

rigorous [ˈrigərəs] – adj. rigidly accurate; allowing no deviation from a standard: rigorous application of the law

risible [ˈrizəbəl] – adj. arousing or provoking laughter: risible courtroom antics

rivulet [ˈrivjulit] – n. a small stream

robust [rəuˈbʌst] – adj. sturdy and strong in form, constitution, or construction: a robust body

rondo [ˈrɔndəu] – n. a musical form that is often the last movement of a sonata

rookery [ˈrukəri] – n. a breeding ground for gregarious birds (such as rooks)

rotary [ˈrəutəri] – n. a road junction at which traffic streams circularly around a central island: the accident blocked all traffic at the rotary

rotate [rəuˈteit] – v. turn on or around an axis or a center: The lamb roast rotates on a spit over the fire

rote [rəut] – n. memorization by repetition

rotund [rəuˈtʌnd] – adj. spherical in shape

rousing  – n. the act of arousing

rudimentary [ru:diˈmentəri] – adj. being or involving basic facts or principles: these rudimentary truths

rue [ru:] – n. European strong-scented perennial herb with grey-green bitter-tasting leaves; an irritant similar to poison ivy

ruffian [ˈrʌfiən] – n. a cruel and brutal fellow

ruminant [ˈru:minənt] – n. any of various cud-chewing hoofed mammals having a stomach divided into four (occasionally three) compartments

ruminate [ˈru:mineit] – v. chew the cuds: cows ruminate

rupture [ˈrʌptʃə] – n. state of being torn or burst open

ruse [ru:z, ru:s] – n. a deceptive maneuver (especially to avoid capture)

rustic [ˈrʌstik] – adj. characteristic of rural life: rustic awkwardness

ruth  – n. the great-grandmother of king David whose story is told in the Book of Ruth in the Old Testament

s  – n. a unit of conductance equal to the reciprocal of an ohm

saccharin [ˈsækərin] – n. a crystalline substance 500 times sweeter than sugar; used as a calorie-free sweetener

saccharine  – adj. overly sweet

sacrifice [ˈsækrifais] – n. the act of losing or surrendering something as a penalty for a mistake or fault or failure to perform etc.

sacrificial [sækriˈfiʃəl] – adj. used in or connected with a sacrifice: sacrificial lamb

sacrilege [ˈsækrilidʒ] – n. blasphemous behavior; the act of depriving something of its sacred character

sacrilegious [sækriˈlidʒəs] – adj. grossly irreverent toward what is held to be sacred: it is sacrilegious to enter with shoes on

sacrosanct [ˈsækrəusæŋkt] – adj. must be kept sacred

safeguard [ˈseifgɑ:d] – n. a precautionary measure warding off impending danger or damage or injury etc.: an insurance policy is a good safeguard

saga [ˈsɑ:gə] – n. a narrative telling the adventures of a hero or a family; originally (12th to 14th centuries) a story of the families that settled Iceland and their descendants but now any prose narrative that resembles such an account

sagacious [səˈgeiʃəs] – adj. acutely insightful and wise: observant and thoughtful, he was given to asking sagacious questions

sagacity [səˈgæsəti] – n. the mental ability to understand and discriminate between relations

sage [seidʒ] – n. a mentor in spiritual and philosophical topics who is renowned for profound wisdom

salacious [səˈleiʃəs] – adj. characterized by lust: a salacious rooster of a little man

salience [`seiliəns] – n. the state of being salient

salient [ˈseiljənt] – adj. having a quality that thrusts itself into attention: salient traits

saline [ˈseilain] – n. an isotonic solution of sodium chloride and distilled water

sallow [ˈsæləu] – adj. unhealthy looking

salubrious [səˈlu:briəs] – adj. promoting health; healthful: the salubrious mountain air and water

salutary [ˈsæljuətəri, -jəteri] – adj. tending to promote physical well-being; beneficial to health: the salutary influence of pure air

salutation [.sæljuˈteiʃ(ə)n] – n. an act of honor or courteous recognition

salutatory [səˈlu:tətəri] – n. an opening or welcoming statement (especially one delivered at graduation exercises)

salvage [ˈsælvidʒ] – n. property or goods saved from damage or destruction

salvageable  – adj. capable of being saved from ruin: their marriage was not salvageable

salve [sɑ:v] – n. semisolid preparation (usually containing a medicine) applied externally as a remedy or for soothing an irritation

salvo [ˈsælvəu] – n. an outburst resembling the discharge of firearms or the release of bombs

sanctimonious [.sæŋktiˈməuniəs] – adj. excessively or hypocritically pious: a sickening sanctimonious smile

sanction [ˈsæŋkʃən] – n. formal and explicit approval

sanctity [ˈsæŋktiti] – n. the quality of being holy

sanguinary [ˈsæŋgwinəri] – adj. accompanied by bloodshed: this bitter and sanguinary war

sanguine [ˈsæŋgwin] – adj. confidently optimistic and cheerful

sanguineous [sæŋgwiniəs] – adj. accompanied by bloodshed

sapid [ˈsæpid] – adj. full of flavor

sapience [ˈsepiəns] – n. ability to apply knowledge or experience or understanding or common sense and insight

sapient [ˈseipiənt] – adj. acutely insightful and wise: a source of valuable insights and sapient advice to educators

sapiential [,seipiˈenʃəl] – adj. characterized by wisdom, especially the wisdom of God: a sapiential government

saponaceous [ˈsæpəuˈneiʃəs] – adj. resembling or having the qualities of soap

sarcasm [ˈsɑ:kæzəm] – n. witty language used to convey insults or scorn: he used sarcasm to upset his opponent

sarcophagus [sɑ:ˈkɔfəgəs] – n. a stone coffin (usually bearing sculpture or inscriptions)

sardonic [sɑ:ˈdɔnik, sɑrˈdɑnik] – adj. disdainfully or ironically humorous; scornful and mocking: his rebellion is the bitter, sardonic laughter of all great satirists

satiate [ˈseiʃieit] – v. overeat or eat immodestly; make a pig of oneself

satire [ˈsætaiə] – n. witty language used to convey insults or scorn

satiric [səˈtirik] – adj. exposing human folly to ridicule: a persistent campaign of mockery by the satirical fortnightly magazine

satirical [səˈtirikəl] – adj. exposing human folly to ridicule: a persistent campaign of mockery by the satirical fortnightly magazine

satirize [ˈsætəraiz] – v. ridicule with satire: The writer satirized the politician’s proposal

saturate [ˈsætʃəreit] – v. infuse or fill completely

satyr [ˈsætə] – n. man with strong sexual desires

savage [ˈsævidʒ] – adj. (of persons or their actions) able or disposed to inflict pain or suffering: a savage slap

savant [ˈsævənt] – n. someone who has been admitted to membership in a scholarly field

savor [ˈseivə] – v. derive or receive pleasure from; get enjoyment from; take pleasure in

scabbard [ˈskæbəd, -ərd] – n. a sheath for a sword or dagger or bayonet

scanty  – n. short underpants for women or children (usually used in the plural)

scapegoat [ˈskeipgəut] – n. someone who is punished for the errors of others

scarcity [ˈskɛəsiti] – n. a small and inadequate amount

scathing [ˈskeiðiŋ] – adj. marked by harshly abusive criticism: his scathing remarks about silly lady novelists

scholarly [ˈskɔləli] – adj. characteristic of scholars or scholarship: scholarly pursuits

scholastic [skəˈlæstik] – n. a person who pays more attention to formal rules and book learning than they merit

scintilla [sinˈtilə] – n. a tiny or scarcely detectable amount

scintillate [ˈsintileit] – v. give off: the substance scintillated sparks and flashes

scintillating  – adj. brilliantly clever: scintillating wit

scoundrel [ˈskaundrəl] – n. a wicked or evil person; someone who does evil deliberately

scouring  – n. moving over territory to search for something: scouring the entire area revealed nothing

scribble [ˈskribəl] – n. poor handwriting

scribe [skraib] – n. French playwright (1791-1861)

script [skript] – n. a written version of a play or other dramatic composition; used in preparing for a performance

scruple [ˈskru:pl] – n. a unit of apothecary weight equal to 20 grains

scrupulous [ˈskru:pjuləs] – adj. characterized by extreme care and great effort: scrupulous attention to details

scrutinize [ˈskru:tinaiz] – v. to look at critically or searchingly, or in minute detail: he scrutinized his likeness in the mirror

scurrilous [ˈskʌriləs] – adj. expressing offensive reproach

scuttle [ˈskʌtl] – n. container for coal; shaped to permit pouring the coal onto the fire

scythe [saið] – n. an edge tool for cutting grass; has a long handle that must be held with both hands and a curved blade that moves parallel to the ground

seance [ˈseiɔŋs] – n. a meeting of spiritualists: the seance was held in the medium’s parlor

sear [siə] – v. make very hot and dry

sebaceous [siˈbeiʃəs] – adj. containing an unusual amount of grease or oil

secant [ˈsi:kənt] – n. ratio of the hypotenuse to the adjacent side of a right-angled triangle

secede [siˈsi:d] – v. withdraw from an organization or communion

secession [siˈseʃən] – n. an Austrian school of art and architecture parallel to the French art nouveau in the 1890s

seclude [siˈklu:d] – v. keep away from others

secluded [siˈklu:did] – adj. hidden from general view or use: a secluded romantic spot

seclusion [siˈklu:ʒən] – n. the act of secluding yourself from others

second-rate  – adj. moderate to inferior in quality

secrecy [ˈsi:krisi] – n. the condition of being concealed or hidden

secretive [siˈkri:tiv] – adj. inclined to secrecy or reticence about divulging information

sedate [siˈdeit] – adj. characterized by dignity and propriety

sedentary [ˈsedəntəri] – adj. requiring sitting or little activity: forced by illness to lead a sedentary life

sediment [ˈsedimənt] – n. matter that has been deposited by some natural process

sedition [siˈdiʃən] – n. an illegal action inciting resistance to lawful authority and tending to cause the disruption or overthrow of the government

seditious [siˈdiʃəs] – adj. arousing to action or rebellion

seduce [siˈdju:s] – v. induce to have sex: Harry finally seduced Sally

sedulous [ˈsedjuləs] – adj. marked by care and persistent effort: sedulous pursuit of legal and moral principles

seer [ˈsiə] – n. a person with unusual powers of foresight

seethe [si:ð] – v. be noisy with activity

seignior [ˈseinjə] – n. a man of rank in the ancient regime

seismograph [ˈsaizməgrɑ:f] – n. a measuring instrument for detecting and measuring the intensity and direction and duration of movements of the ground (as an earthquake)

selective [siˈlektiv] – adj. characterized by very careful or fastidious selection: the school was very selective in its admissions

self-respect [ˈselfrisˈpekt] – n. the quality of being worthy of esteem or respect

semaphore  – n. an apparatus for visual signaling with lights or mechanically moving arms

semblance [ˈsembləns] – n. an outward or token appearance or form that is deliberately misleading: he hoped his claims would have a semblance of authenticity

semiannual [ˈsemiˈænjuəl] – adj. occurring or payable twice each year

semicircle [ˈsemisə:kl] – n. a plane figure with the shape of half a circle

semiconscious [semiˈkɔnʃəs] – adj. partially conscious; not completely aware of sensations

seminal [ˈseminəl] – adj. pertaining to or containing or consisting of semen: seminal fluid

seminar [ˈseminɑ:] – n. any meeting for an exchange of ideas

seminary [ˈseminəri] – n. a private place of education for the young

senile [ˈsi:nail] – adj. mentally or physically infirm with age

sensation [senˈseiʃən] – n. an unelaborated elementary awareness of stimulation: a sensation of touch

sensibility [.sensiˈbiliti] – n. mental responsiveness and awareness

sensorium [senˈsɔ:riəm] – n. the areas of the brain that process and register incoming sensory information and make possible the conscious awareness of the world

sensual [ˈsenʃuəl] – adj. marked by the appetites and passions of the body: a sensual delight in eating

sensuous [ˈsɛnʃuəs] – adj. taking delight in beauty: the sensuous joy from all things fair

sentience [`senʃiəns] – n. state of elementary or undifferentiated consciousness

sentient [ˈsenʃənt] – adj. endowed with feeling and unstructured consciousness: the living knew themselves just sentient puppets on God’s stage

sentinel [ˈsentinl] – n. a person employed to keep watch for some anticipated event

separable [ˈsepərəbl] – adj. capable of being divided or dissociated: the siamese twins were not considered separable

separatist  – n. an advocate of secession or separation from a larger group (such as an established church or a national union)

sepulcher [ˈsepəlkə] – n. a chamber that is used as a grave

sequel [ˈsi:kwəl] – n. something that follows something else

sequent [ˈsi:kwənt] – adj. in regular succession without gaps

sequester [siˈkwestə] – v. requisition forcibly, as of enemy property: the estate was sequestered

sequestrate [siˈkwestreit] – v. keep away from others

serendipity [.serənˈdipiti] – n. good luck in making unexpected and fortunate discoveries

serene [siˈri:n] – adj. not agitated; without losing self-possession: he remained serene in the midst of turbulence

sergeant [ˈsɑ:dʒənt] – n. any of several noncommissioned officer ranks in the Army or Air Force or Marines ranking above a corporal

serrated [seˈreitid] – adj. notched like a saw with teeth pointing toward the apex

serviceable [ˈsə:visəbl] – adj. capable of being put to good use: a serviceable kitchen gadget

servile [ˈsə:vail] – adj. submissive or fawning in attitude or behavior: spoke in a servile tone

servitude [ˈsə:vitju:d] – n. state of subjection to an owner or master or forced labor imposed as punishment: penal servitude

severance [ˈsevərəns] – n. a personal or social separation (as between opposing factions)

severely [siˈviəli] – adv. with sternness; in a severe manner: peered severely over her glasses

sextet [seksˈtet] – n. a musical composition written for six performers

sextuple [ˈsekstjupl] – adj. having six units or components

sheer [ʃiə] – adj. complete and without restriction or qualification; sometimes used informally as intensifiers: got the job through sheer persistence

shiftless [ˈʃiftlis] – adj. lacking or characterized by lack of ambition or initiative; lazy: a shiftless student

shrewd [ʃru:d] – adj. marked by practical hardheaded intelligence: he was too shrewd to go along with them on a road that could lead only to their overthrow

shriek [ʃri:k] – n. sharp piercing cry

shrinkage [ˈʃrinkidʒ] – n. process or result of becoming less or smaller: the material lost 2 inches per yard in shrinkage

shrivel [ˈʃrivl] – v. wither, as with a loss of moisture: The fruit dried and shriveled

shroud [ʃraud] – n. a line that suspends the harness from the canopy of a parachute

shuffle [ˈʃʌfl] – v. walk by dragging one’s feet: he shuffled out of the room

shunt [ʃʌnt] – n. a passage by which a bodily fluid (especially blood) is diverted from one channel to another: an arteriovenus shunt

sibilant [ˈsibilənt] – n. a consonant characterized by a hissing sound (like s or sh)

sibilate [ˈsibileit] – v. utter a sibilant

sidelong [ˈsaidlɔŋ] – adj. (used especially of glances) directed to one side with or as if with doubt or suspicion or envy: sidelong glances

sidereal [saiˈdiəriəl] – adj. of or relating to the stars or constellations: sidereal bodies

siege [si:dʒ] – n. the action of an armed force that surrounds a fortified place and isolates it while continuing to attack

signification [signifiˈkeiʃən] – n. the message that is intended or expressed or signified: the signification of Chinese characters

simile [ˈsimili] – n. a figure of speech that expresses a resemblance between things of different kinds (usually formed with `like’ or `as’)

similitude [siˈmilitju:d] – n. a duplicate copy

simplify [ˈsimplifai] – v. make simpler or easier or reduce in complexity or extent: We had to simplify the instructions

simulate [ˈsimjuleit] – v. reproduce someone’s behavior or looks

simultaneous [.saiməlˈteinjəs] – adj. occurring or operating at the same time

sinecure [ˈsainikjuə, ˈsin-] – n. a benefice to which no spiritual or pastoral duties are attached

singe [sindʒ] – v. burn superficially or lightly: I singed my eyebrows

sinister [ˈsinistə] – adj. threatening or foreshadowing evil or tragic developments: sinister storm clouds

sinuosity [sinjuˈɔsiti] – n. having curves: he hated the sinuosity of mountain roads

sinuous [ˈsinjuəs] – adj. curved or curving in and out

sinus [ˈsainəs] – n. an abnormal passage leading from a suppurating cavity to the body surface

siren [ˈsaiərin] – n. a sea nymph (part woman and part bird) supposed to lure sailors to destruction on the rocks where the nymphs lived

sirocco [səˈrɔkəu] – n. a windstorm that lifts up clouds of dust or sand

sisterhood [ˈsistəhud] – n. the kinship relation between a female offspring and the siblings

skeptic [ˈskeptik] – n. someone who habitually doubts accepted beliefs

skeptical [ˈskeptikəl] – adj. denying or questioning the tenets of especially a religion: a skeptical approach to the nature of miracles

skepticism [ˈskeptisizəm] – n. doubt about the truth of something

skiff [skif] – n. any of various small boats propelled by oars or by sails or by a motor

skirmish [ˈskə:miʃ] – n. a minor short-term fight

skullduggery [.skʌlˈdʌgəri] – n. verbal misrepresentation intended to take advantage of you in some way

slake [sleik] – v. satisfy (thirst)

sleight [slait] – n. adroitness in using the hands

slipshod  – adj. marked by great carelessness: slipshod spelling

slothful [ˈsləʊθfʊl] – adj. disinclined to work or exertion: slothful employees

sluggard [ˈslʌgəd] – n. an idle slothful person

sluggish [ˈslʌgiʃ] – adj. moving slowly: a sluggish stream

smelt [smelt] – n. small cold-water silvery fish; migrate between salt and fresh water

smorgasbord  – n. a collection containing a variety of sorts of things: a veritable smorgasbord of religions

sobriety [səˈbraiəti] – n. the state of being sober and not intoxicated by alcohol

sociable [ˈsəuʃəbl] – adj. inclined to or conducive to companionship with others: a sociable occasion

socialism [ˈsəuʃəlizəm] – n. a political theory advocating state ownership of industry

socialist [ˈsəuʃəlist] – n. a political advocate of socialism

sociology [.səusiˈɔlədʒi] – n. the study and classification of human societies

Sol [sɔl] – n. (Roman mythology) ancient Roman god; personification of the sun; counterpart of Greek Helios

solace [ˈsɔləs] – n. comfort in disappointment or misery

solar [ˈsəulə] – adj. relating to or derived from the sun or utilizing the energies of the sun: solar eclipse

solder [ˈsɔldə, ˈsɔ(:)ldə] – n. an alloy (usually of lead and tin) used when melted to join two metal surfaces

solecism [ˈsɔlisizəm] – n. a socially awkward or tactless act

solicit [səˈlisit] – v. make amorous advances towards

solicitous [səˈlisitəs] – adj. full of anxiety and concern: solicitous parents

solicitousness  – n. a feeling of excessive concern

solicitude [səˈlisitju:d] – n. a feeling of excessive concern

soliloquy [səˈliləkwi] – n. speech you make to yourself

solstice [ˈsɔlstis] – n. either of the two times of the year when the sun is at its greatest distance from the celestial equator

soluble [ˈsɔljubl] – adj. (of a substance) capable of being dissolved in some solvent (usually water)

solvent [ˈsɔlvənt] – n. a statement that solves a problem or explains how to solve the problem

somber [ˈsɔmbə] – adj. lacking brightness or color; dull: children in somber brown clothes

somnambulist [sɔmˈnæmbjʊlist, səm-] – n. someone who walks about in their sleep

somniferous [sɔmˈnifərəs] – adj. sleep inducing

somnolence [ˈsɔmnələns] – n. a very sleepy state

somnolent [ˈsɔmnələnt] – adj. inclined to or marked by drowsiness: the sound had a somnolent effect

sonata [səˈnɑ:tə] – n. a musical composition of 3 or 4 movements of contrasting forms

sonnet [ˈsɔnit] – n. a verse form consisting of 14 lines with a fixed rhyme scheme

sonorous [ˈsɔnərəs] – adj. full and loud and deep: a herald chosen for his sonorous voice

soothsayer [ˈsu:θseiə] – n. someone who makes predictions of the future (usually on the basis of special knowledge)

sophism [ˈsɔfizəm] – n. a deliberately invalid argument displaying ingenuity in reasoning in the hope of deceiving someone

sophistic  – adj. plausible but misleading

sophistical [sə`fistikəl] – adj. plausible but misleading

sophisticate [səˈfistikeit] – v. make less natural or innocent: Their manners had sophisticated the young girls

sophistry [ˈsɔfistri] – n. a deliberately invalid argument displaying ingenuity in reasoning in the hope of deceiving someone

soporific [.sɔpəˈrifik] – adj. sleep inducing

soprano [səˈprɑ:nəu] – n. a female singer

sorcery [ˈsɔ:səri] – n. the belief in magical spells that harness occult forces or evil spirits to produce unnatural effects in the world

sordid [ˈsɔ:did] – adj. morally degraded: the sordid details of his orgies stank under his very nostrils

souvenir [ˈsu:vəniə] – n. something of sentimental value

sovereign [ˈsɔvrin] – adj. (of political bodies) not controlled by outside forces: a sovereign state

sparse [spɑ:s] – adj. not dense: trees were sparse

Spartan [ˈspɑ:tən] – n. a resident of Sparta

spasmodic [spæzˈmɔdik] – adj. occurring in spells and often abruptly: spasmodic rifle fire

spawn [spɔ:n] – v. call forth

specialize [ˈspeʃəlaiz] – v. become more focus on an area of activity or field of study: She specializes in Near Eastern history

specialty [ˈspeʃəlti] – n. a distinguishing trait

specie [ˈspi:ʃi] – n. coins collectively

specious [ˈspi:ʃəs] – adj. plausible but false: a specious claim

speckled  – adj. having a pattern of dots

spectator [spekˈteitə] – n. a close observer; someone who looks at something (such as an exhibition of some kind): the spectators applauded the performance

specter [ˈspektə] – n. a mental representation of some haunting experience: it aroused specters from his past

spectrum [ˈspektrəm] – n. an ordered array of the components of an emission or wave

speculate [ˈspekjuleit] – v. to believe especially on uncertain or tentative grounds

speculative  – adj. not financially safe or secure: speculative business enterprises

speculator [ˈspekjuleitə] – n. someone who makes conjectures without knowing the facts

sphericity [sfeˈrisiti] – n. the roundness of a 3-dimensional object

spheroid [ˈsfirɔid] – n. a shape that is generated by rotating an ellipse around one of its axes: it looked like a sphere but on closer examination I saw it was really a spheroid

spherometer [sfiəˈrɔmitə] – n. a measuring instrument for measuring the curvature of a surface

spinous [ˈspainəs] – adj. shaped like a spine or thorn

spinster [ˈspinstə] – n. an elderly unmarried woman

spontaneous [spɔnˈteiniəs] – adj. happening or arising without apparent external cause: spontaneous laughter

sporadic [spəˈrædik] – adj. recurring in scattered and irregular or unpredictable instances: a city subjected to sporadic bombing raids

sprightly [ˈspraitli] – adj. full of spirit and vitality: a sprightly young girl

spurious [ˈspjuəriəs] – adj. plausible but false: spurious inferences

squabble [ˈskwɔbl] – n. a quarrel about petty points

squalid [ˈskwɔlid] – adj. morally degraded: the squalid atmosphere of intrigue and betrayal

squander [ˈskwɔndə] – v. spend thoughtlessly; throw away: You squandered the opportunity to get and advanced degree

squatter [ˈskwɔtə] – n. someone who settles lawfully on government land with the intent to acquire title to it

squelch [skweltʃ] – v. suppress or crush completely: squelch any sign of dissent

stagnant [ˈstægnənt] – adj. not circulating or flowing: stagnant water

stagnate [stægˈneit] – v. stand still: Industry will stagnate if we do not stimulate our economy

stagnation [stægˈneiʃən] – n. a state of inactivity (in business or art etc): economic growth of less than 1% per year is considered to be economic stagnation

stagy [ˈsteidʒi] – adj. having characteristics of the stage especially an artificial and mannered quality: stagy heroics

staid [steid] – adj. characterized by dignity and propriety

stalactite  – n. a cylinder of calcium carbonate hanging from the roof of a limestone cave

stalagmite  – n. a cylinder of calcium carbonate projecting upward from the floor of a limestone cave

stallion [ˈstæljən] – n. uncastrated adult male horse

stanch [stɔ:ntʃ, stɑ:ntʃ] – v. stop the flow of a liquid

stanchion [ˈstɑ:nʃən] – n. any vertical post or rod used as a support

stanza [ˈstænzə] – n. a fixed number of lines of verse forming a unit of a poem

statecraft  – n. wisdom in the management of public affairs

static [ˈstætik] – adj. not in physical motion

statics [ˈstætiks] – n. the branch of mechanics concerned with forces in equilibrium

stationary [ˈsteiʃənəri] – adj. standing still: the car remained stationary with the engine running

statistician [stætisˈtiʃən] – n. a mathematician who specializes in statistics

statuesque [,stætjuˈesk] – adj. suggestive of a statue

statuette [.stætʃuˈet] – n. a small carved or molded figure

stature [ˈstætʃə] – n. high level of respect gained by impressive development or achievement: a man of great stature

statute [ˈstætju:t] – n. an act passed by a legislative body

staunch  – v. stop the flow of a liquid: staunch the blood flow

steadfastness  – n. loyalty in the face of trouble and difficulty

stealth [stelθ] – n. avoiding detection by moving carefully

stellar [ˈstelə] – adj. indicating the most important performer or role: a stellar role

steppe [step] – n. extensive plain without trees (associated with eastern Russia and Siberia)

stereotype [ˈsteriətaip] – n. a conventional or formulaic conception or image: regional stereotypes have been part of America since its founding

sterling [ˈstə:liŋ] – adj. highest in quality

stevedore [ˈsti:vidɔ:] – n. a laborer who loads and unloads vessels in a port

stifle [ˈstaifl] – v. conceal or hide

stifling  – n. forceful prevention; putting down by power or authority: the stifling of all dissent

stigma [ˈstigmə] – n. a symbol of disgrace or infamy

stiletto [stiˈletəu] – n. a small dagger with a tapered blade

stimulant [ˈstimjulənt] – n. a drug that temporarily quickens some vital process

stimulate [ˈstimjuleit] – v. cause to do; cause to act in a specified manner

stimulus [ˈstimjuləs] – n. any stimulating information or event; acts to arouse action

stingy [ˈstindʒi] – adj. unwilling to spend: she practices economy without being stingy

stipend [ˈstaipend] – n. a sum of money allotted on a regular basis; usually for some specific purpose

stoic [ˈstəuik] – n. a member of the ancient Greek school of philosophy founded by Zeno

Stoicism  – n. (philosophy) the philosophical system of the Stoics following the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Zeno

stoke [stəuk] – v. stir up or tend; of a fire

stolid [ˈstɔlid] – adj. having or revealing little emotion or sensibility; not easily aroused or excited: a silent stolid creature who took it all as a matter of course

strait [streit] – n. a narrow channel of the sea joining two larger bodies of water

stratagem [ˈstrætədʒəm] – n. a maneuver in a game or conversation

stratum [ˈstrɑ:təm] – n. people having the same social, economic, or educational status

streamlet [ˈstri:mlit] – n. a small stream

strenuous [ˈstrenjuəs] – adj. characterized by or performed with much energy or force: strenuous exercise

strident [ˈstraidənt] – adj. conspicuously and offensively loud; given to vehement outcry: strident demands

strife [straif] – n. lack of agreement or harmony

stringency [ˈstrindʒənsi] – n. a state occasioned by scarcity of money and a shortage of credit

stringent [ˈstrindʒənt] – adj. demanding strict attention to rules and procedures: stringent safety measures

stripling [ˈstripliŋ] – n. a juvenile between the onset of puberty and maturity

strut [strʌt] – n. a proud stiff pompous gait

studious [ˈstju:djəs] – adj. marked by care and effort: made a studious attempt to fix the television set

stultify [ˈstʌltifai] – v. prove to be of unsound mind or demonstrate someone’s incompetence: nobody is legally allowed to stultify himself

stupefy [ˈstju:pifai] – v. be a mystery or bewildering to

stupendous [stju:ˈpendəs] – adj. so great in size or force or extent as to elicit awe: a stupendous field of grass

stupor [ˈstju:pə] – n. the feeling of distress and disbelief that you have when something bad happens accidentally

suasion [ˈsweiʒən] – n. the act of persuading (or attempting to persuade); communication intended to induce belief or action

suave [swɑ:v] – adj. having a sophisticated charm

subacid  – adj. slightly sour to the taste

subaquatic  – adj. growing or remaining under water

subconscious [sʌbˈkɔnʃəs] – n. psychic activity just below the level of awareness

subjacent [sʌbˈdʒeisənt] – adj. lying nearby but lower: hills and subjacent valleys

subjection [səbˈdʒekʃən] – n. forced submission to control by others

subjugate [ˈsʌbdʒugeit] – v. put down by force or intimidation: The rich landowners subjugated the peasants working the land

sublime [səˈblaim] – adj. inspiring awe: the sublime beauty of the night

subliminal [sʌbˈliminəl] – adj. below the threshold of conscious perception

sublingual [sʌbˈliŋgwəl] – adj. beneath the tongue

submarine [ˈsʌbməri:n] – v. move forward or under in a sliding motion: The child was injured when he submarined under the safety belt of the car

submerge [səbˈmə:dʒ] – v. sink below the surface; go under or as if under water

submergence [səbˈmə:dʒəns] – n. sinking until covered completely with water

submerse  – v. sink below the surface; go under or as if under water

submersible [sʌbˈmə:səbl] – n. an apparatus intended for use under water

submersion [sʌbˈmə:ʃən] – n. sinking until covered completely with water

submission [səbˈmiʃən] – n. the act of submitting; usually surrendering power to another

submissive [səbˈmisiv] – adj. inclined or willing to submit to orders or wishes of others or showing such inclination: submissive servants

subordinate [səˈbɔ:dineit] – adj. lower in rank or importance

subpoena [səˈpi:nə, səb-] – n. a writ issued by court authority to compel the attendance of a witness at a judicial proceeding; disobedience may be punishable as a contempt of court

subservience [səbˈsə:vjəns] – n. the condition of being something that is useful in reaching an end or carrying out a plan: all his actions were in subservience to the general plan

subservient [səbˈsə:viənt] – adj. compliant and obedient to authority: editors and journalists who express opinions in print that are opposed to the interests of the rich are dismissed and replaced by subservient ones

subside [səbˈsaid] – v. wear off or die down: The pain subsided

subsist [səbˈsist] – v. support oneself: Many people in the world have to subsist on $1 a day

subsistence [sʌbˈsistəns] – n. a means of surviving: farming is a hard means of subsistence

substantiate [sʌbsˈtænʃieit] – v. establish or strengthen as with new evidence or facts

substantive [ˈsʌbstəntiv] – adj. having a firm basis in reality and being therefore important, meaningful, or considerable

subtend [səbˈtend] – v. be opposite to; of angles and sides, in geometry

subterfuge [ˈsʌbtəfju:dʒ] – n. something intended to misrepresent the true nature of an activity: he wasn’t sick–it was just a subterfuge

subterranean [sʌbtəˈreiniən] – adj. being or operating under the surface of the earth: subterranean passages

subtle [ˈsʌtl] – adj. difficult to detect or grasp by the mind or analyze: his whole attitude had undergone a subtle change

subtrahend [ˈsʌbtrəhend] – n. the number to be subtracted from the minuend

subversion [səbˈvə:ʃən] – n. destroying someone’s (or some group’s) honesty or loyalty; undermining moral integrity: the big city’s subversion of rural innocence

subversive [sʌbˈvə:siv] – n. a radical supporter of political or social revolution

subvert [səbˈvə:t] – v. cause the downfall of; of rulers: subvert the ruling class

successor [səkˈsesə] – n. a person who follows next in order: he was President Lincoln’s successor

succinct [səkˈsiŋkt] – adj. briefly giving the gist of something: succinct comparisons

succulent [ˈsʌkjulənt] – n. a plant adapted to arid conditions and characterized by fleshy water-storing tissues that act as water reservoirs

succumb [səˈkʌm] – v. consent reluctantly

sufferance [ˈsʌfərəns] – n. patient endurance especially of pain or distress

sufficiency [səˈfiʃənsi] – n. an adequate quantity; a quantity that is large enough to achieve a purpose: there is more than a sufficiency of lawyers in this country

suffrage [ˈsʌfridʒ] – n. a legal right guaranteed by the 15th amendment to the US Constitution; guaranteed to women by the 19th amendment

suffragist  – n. an advocate of the extension of voting rights (especially to women)

suffuse [səˈfju:z] – v. cause to spread or flush or flood through, over, or across: The sky was suffused with a warm pink color

suggestible [səˈdʒestəbəl] – adj. susceptible or responsive to suggestion: suggestible young minds

suggestive [səˈdʒestiv] – adj. (usually followed by `of’) pointing out or revealing clearly

sumptuous [ˈsʌmptʃuəs] – adj. rich and superior in quality

sundry [ˈsʌndri] – adj. consisting of a haphazard assortment of different kinds: sundry sciences commonly known as social

superabundance [,sju:pərəˈbʌndəns] – n. a quantity that is more than what is appropriate

superabundant  – adj. most excessively abundant

superannuate [ˈsu:pəˈrænjueit] – v. retire and pension (someone) because of age or physical inability

superb [sjuˈpə:b] – adj. of surpassing excellence: a superb actor

supercilious [.su:pəˈsiliəs, .sju:-] – adj. having or showing arrogant superiority to and disdain of those one views as unworthy: his mother eyed my clothes with a supercilious air

superficial [.su:pəˈfiʃəl] – adj. concerned with or comprehending only what is apparent or obvious; not deep or penetrating emotionally or intellectually: superficial similarities

superfluity [ˈsju:pəˈflu(:)iti, ˈsu:-] – n. extreme excess

superfluous [su:ˈpə:fluəs, sju:-] – adj. serving no useful purpose; having no excuse for being

superintend [.su:pərinˈtend, .sju:-] – v. watch and direct

superintendence [sju:pərinˈtendəns] – n. management by overseeing the performance or operation of a person or group

superintendent [.sju:pərinˈtendənt] – n. a person who directs and manages an organization

superlative [su:ˈpə:lətiv, sju:-] – n. an exaggerated expression (usually of praise): the critics lavished superlatives on it

supernatural [.sju:pəˈnætʃərəl] – adj. not existing in nature or subject to explanation according to natural laws; not physical or material: supernatural forces and occurrences and beings

supernumerary [ˈsu:pəˈnju:mərəri] – n. a person serving no apparent function

supersede [.sju:pəˈsi:d] – v. take the place or move into the position of

supine [ˈsu:pain, ˈsju:-] – adj. lying face upward

supplant [səˈplɑ:nt] – v. take the place or move into the position of: the computer has supplanted the slide rule

supple [ˈsʌpl] – adj. moving and bending with ease

supplementary [.sʌpliˈmentəri] – adj. functioning in a supporting capacity

supplicant [ˈsʌplikənt] – n. someone who prays to God

supplicate [ˈsʌplikeit] – v. ask humbly (for something): He supplicated the King for clemency

supposition [.sʌpəˈziʃən] – n. a message expressing an opinion based on incomplete evidence

suppress [səˈpres] – v. to put down by force or authority: suppress a nascent uprising

suppression [səˈpreʃən] – n. the failure to develop some part or organ

surcharge [ˈsə:tʃɑ:dʒ] – v. charge an extra fee, as for a special service

surety [ˈʃuəti] – n. something clearly established

surfeit [ˈsə:fit] – n. the state of being more than full

surly [ˈsə:li] – adj. inclined to anger or bad feelings with overtones of menace: a surly waiter

surmise [ˈsə:maiz] – v. infer from incomplete evidence

surmount [səˈmaunt] – v. get on top of; deal with successfully

surpass [səˈpɑ:s] – v. distinguish oneself

surreptitious [.sʌrəpˈtiʃəs] – adj. marked by quiet and caution and secrecy; taking pains to avoid being observed: a surreptitious glance at his watch

surreptitiously  – adv. in a surreptitious manner: he was watching her surreptitiously as she waited in the hotel lobby

surrogate [ˈsʌrəgeit] – n. someone who takes the place of another person

surveyor [sə:ˈveiə] – n. an engineer who determines the boundaries and elevations of land or structures

susceptibility [səseptəˈbiliti] – n. the state of being susceptible; easily affected

susceptible [səˈseptəbl] – adj. (often followed by `of’ or `to’) yielding readily to or capable of: susceptible to colds

suspense [səsˈpens] – n. apprehension about what is going to happen

suspension [səˈspenʃən] – n. a time interval during which there is a temporary cessation of something

suspicious [səsˈpiʃəs] – adj. openly distrustful and unwilling to confide

sustenance [ˈsʌstənəns] – n. a source of materials to nourish the body

svelte [svelt] – adj. showing a high degree of refinement and the assurance that comes from wide social experience

swarthy [ˈswɔ:ði] – adj. naturally having skin of a dark color: a smile on his swarthy face

sycophant [ˈsikəfənt] – n. a person who tries to please someone in order to gain a personal advantage

syllabic [siˈlæbik] – adj. consisting of or using a syllabary: eskimos of the eastern Arctic have a system of syllabic writing

syllabication [ˈsilæbiˈkeiʃən] – n. forming or dividing words into syllables

syllable [ˈsiləbl] – n. a unit of spoken language larger than a phoneme: the word `pocket’ has two syllables

syllabus [ˈsiləbəs] – n. an integrated course of academic studies

sylph [silf] – n. a slender graceful young woman

symbiotic [.simbaiˈɔtik] – adj. used of organisms (especially of different species) living together but not necessarily in a relation beneficial to each

symmetrical [siˈmetrikəl] – adj. having similarity in size, shape, and relative position of corresponding parts

symmetry [ˈsimitri] – n. balance among the parts of something

sympathetic [.simpəˈθetik] – adj. expressing or feeling or resulting from sympathy or compassion or friendly fellow feelings; disposed toward: sympathetic to the students’ cause

sympathize [ˈsimpəθaiz] – v. share the feelings of; understand the sentiments of

symphonic [simˈfɔnik] – adj. harmonious in sound: the symphonic hum of a million insects

symphonious [simˈfəuniəs] – adj. harmonious in sound

symphony [ˈsimfəni] – n. a large orchestra; can perform symphonies: we heard the Vienna symphony

synchronism [ˈsiŋkrənizəm] – n. the relation that exists when things occur at the same time

synchronize [ˈsiŋkrənaiz] – v. happen at the same time

syncopated  – adj. stressing a normally weak beat

syndicate [ˈsindikit] – n. a loose affiliation of gangsters in charge of organized criminal activities

syneresis [siˈniərəsis] – n. the contraction of two vowels into a diphthong

synod [ˈsinəd] – n. a council convened to discuss ecclesiastical business

synonym [ˈsinənim] – n. two words that can be interchanged in a context are said to be synonymous relative to that context

synopsis [siˈnɔpsis] – n. a sketchy summary of the main points of an argument or theory

systematic [.sistiˈmætik] – adj. characterized by order and planning: the investigation was very systematic

tableau [ˈtæbləu] – n. a group of people attractively arranged (as if in a painting)

tacit [ˈtæsit] – adj. implied by or inferred from actions or statements: a tacit agreement

taciturn [ˈtæsitə:n] – adj. habitually reserved and uncommunicative

tack [tæk] – n. the heading or position of a vessel relative to the trim of its sails

tact [tækt] – n. consideration in dealing with others and avoiding giving offense

tactician [tækˈtiʃən] – n. a person who is skilled at planning tactics

tactics [ˈtæktiks] – n. the branch of military science dealing with detailed maneuvers to achieve objectives set by strategy

tactile [ˈtæktail] – adj. of or relating to or proceeding from the sense of touch: a tactile reflex

talisman [ˈtælizmən] – n. a trinket or piece of jewelry usually hung about the neck and thought to be a magical protection against evil or disease

tangency [ˈtændʒənsi] – n. (electronics) a junction where things (as two electrical conductors) touch or are in physical contact

tangent [ˈtændʒənt] – n. a straight line or plane that touches a curve or curved surface at a point but does not intersect it at that point

tangential [tænˈdʒenʃəl] – adj. of superficial relevance if any: a tangential remark

tangible [ˈtændʒəbəl] – adj. perceptible by the senses especially the sense of touch: skin with a tangible roughness

tannery [ˈtænəri] – n. workplace where skins and hides are tanned

tantalize [ˈtæntl-aiz] – v. harass with persistent criticism or carping

tantamount [ˈtæntəmaunt] – adj. being essentially equal to something: his statement was tantamount to an admission of guilt

tapestry [ˈtæpistri] – n. a heavy textile with a woven design; used for curtains and upholstery

tardy [ˈtɑ:di] – adj. after the expected or usual time; delayed: tardy children are sent to the principal

tarnish [ˈtɑ:niʃ] – n. discoloration of metal surface caused by oxidation

taut [tɔ:t] – adj. pulled or drawn tight: taut sails

tawdry [ˈtɔ:dri] – adj. tastelessly showy: tawdry ornaments

taxidermy [ˈtæksidə:mi] – n. the art of mounting the skins of animals so that they have lifelike appearance

technicality [tekniˈkæliti] – n. a detail that is considered insignificant

tedious [ˈti:diəs] – adj. so lacking in interest as to cause mental weariness: tedious days on the train

tedium [ˈti:diəm] – n. dullness owing to length or slowness

teem [ti:m] – v. move in large numbers

telepathy [tiˈlepəθi] – n. apparent communication from one mind to another without using sensory perceptions

telephony [tiˈlefəni] – n. transmitting speech at a distance

telescope [ˈteliskəup] – v. crush together or collapse: In the accident, the cars telescoped

telltale [ˈtelteil] – n. someone who gossips indiscreetly

temerity [tiˈmeriti] – n. fearless daring

temperamental [.tempərəˈmentl] – adj. subject to sharply varying moods: a temperamental opera singer

temperance [ˈtempərəns] – n. the trait of avoiding excesses

temperate [ˈtempərit] – adj. (of weather or climate) free from extremes; mild; or characteristic of such weather or climate: a temperate region

temporal [ˈtempərəl] – adj. not eternal: temporal matters of but fleeting moment

temporize [ˈtempəraiz] – v. draw out a discussion or process in order to gain time: The speaker temporized in order to delay the vote

tempt [tempt] – v. dispose or incline or entice to: We were tempted by the delicious-looking food

tempter [`temptə] – n. a person who tempts others: Satan is the great tempter of mankind

tenable [ˈtenəbəl] – adj. based on sound reasoning or evidence

tenacious [tiˈneiʃəs] – adj. good at remembering: tenacious memory

tenacity [tiˈnæsiti] – n. persistent determination

tenet [ˈtenit] – n. a religious doctrine that is proclaimed as true without proof

tenor [ˈtenə] – n. the adult male singing voice above baritone

tense [tens] – v. increase the tension on: alternately relax and tense your calf muscle

tentative [ˈtentətiv] – adj. under terms not final or fully worked out or agreed upon: just a tentative schedule

tenuous [ˈtenjuəs] – adj. having thin consistency: a tenuous fluid

tenure [ˈtenjuə] – n. the term during which some position is held

tercentenary [tə:senˈti:nəri] – n. the 300th anniversary (or the celebration of it)

termagant [ˈtə:məgənt] – n. a scolding nagging bad-tempered woman

terminal [ˈtə:minl] – adj. of or relating to or situated at the ends of a delivery route: freight pickup is a terminal service

terminate [ˈtə:mineit] – v. bring to an end or halt: The attack on Poland terminated the relatively peaceful period after WW I

termination [.tə:miˈneiʃən] – n. a coming to an end of a contract period

terminus [ˈtə:minəs] – n. a place where something ends or is complete

terrestrial [tiˈrestriəl] – adj. of or relating to or inhabiting the land as opposed to the sea or air

terrify [ˈterifai] – v. fill with terror; frighten greatly

territorial [.teriˈtɔ:riəl] – adj. of or relating to a territory: the territorial government of the Virgin Islands

terse [tə:s] – adj. brief and to the point; effectively cut short: short and terse and easy to understand

testament [ˈtestəment] – n. a profession of belief: he stated his political testament

testator [tesˈteitə] – n. a person who makes a will

testimonial [.testiˈməuniəl] – n. something that serves as evidence

theism [ˈθi:izəm] – n. the doctrine or belief in the existence of a God or gods

theocracy [θiˈɔkrəsi] – n. a political unit governed by a deity (or by officials thought to be divinely guided)

theologian [θi:əˈlɔdʒən] – n. someone who is learned in theology or who speculates about theology

theological [θiəˈlɔdʒikəl] – adj. of or relating to or concerning theology: theological seminar

theology [θiˈɔlədʒi] – n. the rational and systematic study of religion and its influences and of the nature of religious truth

theorist [ˈθi:ərist] – n. someone who theorizes (especially in science or art)

theorize [ˈθiəraiz] – v. to believe especially on uncertain or tentative grounds

therapeutic [.θerəˈpju:tik] – adj. tending to cure or restore to health: a therapeutic agent

thereabout [ˈðɛərəbaut] – adv. near that time or date: come at noon or thereabouts

thereabouts  – adv. near that time or date: come at noon or thereabouts

therefor  – adv. (in formal usage, especially legal usage) for that or for it: ordering goods and enclosing payment therefor

thermal [ˈθə:məl,ˈθə:ml] – adj. relating to or associated with heat: thermal movements of molecules

thermoelectric [,θə:məuiˈlektrik] – adj. involving or resulting from thermoelectricity

thermoelectricity [ˈθə:məui,lekˈtrisiti] – n. electricity produced by heat (as in a thermocouple)

thesis [ˈθi:sis] – n. an unproved statement put forward as a premise in an argument

thoroughbred [ˈθʌrəbred] – n. a well-bred person

thoroughfare [ˈθʌrəfɛə] – n. a public road from one place to another

thrall [θrɔ:l] – n. the state of being under the control of another person

thrive [θraiv] – v. grow vigorously

throng [θrɔŋ] – n. a large gathering of people

thwart [θwɔ:t] – n. a crosspiece spreading the gunnels of a boat; used as a seat in a rowboat

tilth [tilθ] – n. the state of aggregation of soil and its condition for supporting plant growth

timbre [ˈtæmbə, ˈtim-] – n. (music) the distinctive property of a complex sound (a voice or noise or musical sound): the timbre of her soprano was rich and lovely

timorous [ˈtimərəs] – adj. timid by nature or revealing timidity: timorous little mouse

tincture [ˈtiŋktʃə] – n. a substances that colors metals

tinge [tindʒ] – n. a slight but appreciable amount

tipsy [ˈtipsi] – adj. slightly intoxicated

tirade [taiˈreid] – n. a speech of violent denunciation

tireless [ˈtaiəlis] – adj. showing sustained enthusiastic action with unflagging vitality: a tireless worker

tiresome [ˈtaiəsəm] – adj. so lacking in interest as to cause mental weariness: the tiresome chirping of a cricket

titter  – n. a nervous restrained laugh

toady [ˈtəudi] – n. a person who tries to please someone in order to gain a personal advantage

toilsome [ˈtɔilsəm] – adj. characterized by effort to the point of exhaustion; especially physical effort

tolerable [ˈtɔlərəbl] – adj. capable of being borne or endured: the climate is at least tolerable

tolerance [ˈtɔlərəns] – n. a disposition to allow freedom of choice and behavior

tolerant [ˈtɔlərənt] – adj. showing respect for the rights or opinions or practices of others

tolerate [ˈtɔləreit] – v. put up with something or somebody unpleasant: he learned to tolerate the heat

toleration [tɔləˈreiʃən] – n. official recognition of the right of individuals to hold dissenting opinions (especially in religion)

tome [təum] – n. a (usually) large and scholarly book

topography [təˈpɔgrəfi] – n. the configuration of a surface and the relations among its man-made and natural features

torpid [ˈtɔ:pid] – adj. slow and apathetic: a mind grown torpid in old age

torpor [ˈtɔ:pə] – n. inactivity resulting from lethargy and lack of vigor or energy

torrid [ˈtɔrid] – adj. characterized by intense emotion: a torrid love affair

tortious  – adj. of or pertaining to the nature of a tort: tortious acts

tortuous [ˈtɔ:tjuəs] – adj. highly complex or intricate and occasionally devious: tortuous legal procedures

torturous [`tɔ:tʃərəs] – adj. extremely painful

totter [ˈtɔtə] – v. move without being stable, as if threatening to fall: The drunk man tottered over to our table

tractable [ˈtræktəbəl] – adj. easily managed (controlled or taught or molded): tractable young minds

trait [treit] – n. a distinguishing feature of your personal nature

trajectory [trəˈdʒektəri] – n. the path followed by an object moving through space

trammel [ˈtræməl] – n. a fishing net with three layers; the outer two are coarse mesh and the loose inner layer is fine mesh

tranquil [ˈtræŋkwil] – adj. (of a body of water) free from disturbance by heavy waves: a lake of tranquil blue water reflecting a tranquil blue sky

tranquility [træŋˈkwiliti] – n. a disposition free from stress or emotion

tranquilize [ˈtræŋkwilaiz] – v. make calm or still

tranquillity  – n. an untroubled state; free from disturbances

transact [trænsˈækt] – v. conduct business: transact with foreign governments

transalpine [ˈtrænzˈælpain] – n. one living on or coming from the other side of the Alps from Italy

transatlantic [trænsətˈlæntik] – adj. crossing the Atlantic Ocean: transatlantic flight

transcend [trænˈsend] – v. be greater in scope or size than some standard

transcendent [trænˈsendənt] – adj. exceeding or surpassing usual limits especially in excellence

transcontinental [ˈtrænzkɔntiˈnentəl] – adj. spanning or crossing or on the farther side of a continent: transcontinental railway

transcribe [trænˈskraib] – v. write out from speech, notes, etc.

transcript [ˈtrænskript] – n. a reproduction of a written record (e.g. of a legal or school record)

transferable [trænsˈfɜ:rəb(ə)l] – adj. capable of being moved or conveyed from one place to another

transferee [,trænsfə:ˈri:] – n. (law) someone to whom a title or property is conveyed

transference [trænsˈfə:rəns] – n. transferring ownership

transferrer  – n. someone who transfers something

transfigure [trænsˈfigə] – v. change completely the nature or appearance of: The treatment and diet transfigured her into a beautiful young woman

transfuse [trænsˈfju:z] – v. impart gradually: transfuse love of music into the students

transfusion [trænsˈfju:ʒn] – n. the introduction of blood or blood plasma into a vein or artery

transgress [trænsˈgres] – v. act in disregard of laws, rules, contracts, or promises

transience [ˈtrænziəns] – n. an impermanence that suggests the inevitability of ending or dying

transient [ˈtrænʃənt,ˈtrænziənt] – n. one who stays for only a short time: transient laborers

transitory [ˈtrænzitəri] – adj. lasting a very short time: love is transitory but it is eternal

translate [trænsˈleit] – v. restate (words) from one language into another language: I have to translate when my in-laws from Austria visit the U.S.

translator [trænsˈleitə] – n. someone who mediates between speakers of different languages

translucence [trænsˈlu:sns] – n. the quality of allowing light to pass diffusely

translucent [trænzˈlusənt, træns-] – adj. allowing light to pass through diffusely: translucent amber

transmissible [trænzˈmisəbl] – adj. occurring among members of a family usually by heredity

transmission [trænsˈmiʃən] – n. communication by means of transmitted signals

transmit [trænzˈmit] – v. transfer to another

transmute [trænzˈmju:t] – v. change in outward structure or looks

transparent [trænsˈperənt] – adj. transmitting light; able to be seen through with clarity: transparent crystal

transpire [trænˈspaiə] – v. pass through the tissue or substance or its pores or interstices, as of gas

transplant [trænsˈplɑ:nt] – v. lift and reset in another soil or situation

transposition [,trænspəˈziʃən] – n. any abnormal position of the organs of the body

transverse [ˈtrænzvə:s] – adj. extending or lying across; in a crosswise direction; at right angles to the long axis: from the transverse hall the stairway ascends gracefully

travail [ˈtræveil] – n. concluding state of pregnancy; from the onset of contractions to the birth of a child

traverse [ˈtrævə(:)s] – n. a horizontal beam that extends across something

travesty [ˈtrævisti] – n. a comedy characterized by broad satire and improbable situations

treacherous [ˈtretʃərəs] – adj. dangerously unstable and unpredictable: treacherous winding roads

treachery [ˈtretʃəri] – n. betrayal of a trust

treacly  – adj. overly sweet

treasonable [ˈtri:znəbl] – adj. having the character of, or characteristic of, a traitor

treatise [ˈtri:tiz, -tis] – n. a formal exposition

treble [ˈtrebəl] – adj. having or denoting a high range: the boy still had a fine treble voice

tremendous [triˈmendəs] – adj. extraordinarily large in size or extent or amount or power or degree: tremendous sweeping plains

tremor [ˈtremə] – n. an involuntary vibration (as if from illness or fear)

tremulous [ˈtremjuləs] – adj. (of the voice) quivering as from weakness or fear: spoke timidly in a tremulous voice

trenchant [ˈtrentʃənt] – adj. having keenness and forcefulness and penetration in thought, expression, or intellect: trenchant criticism

trepidation [.trepiˈdeiʃən] – n. a feeling of alarm or dread

trestle [ˈtresl] – n. a supporting tower used to support a bridge

triad [ˈtraiəd] – n. the cardinal number that is the sum of one and one and one

tribune [ˈtribju:n] – n. (ancient Rome) an official elected by the plebeians to protect their interests

trickery [ˈtrikəri] – n. verbal misrepresentation intended to take advantage of you in some way

tricolor [ˈtrikələ] – n. a flag having three colored stripes (especially the French flag)

tricycle [ˈtraisikl] – n. a vehicle with three wheels that is moved by foot pedals

trident [ˈtraidnt] – n. a spear with three prongs

triennial [traiˈenjəl] – n. the 300th anniversary (or the celebration of it)

trimness  – n. a state of arrangement or appearance

trinity [ˈtriniti] – n. the cardinal number that is the sum of one and one and one

trinket [ˈtriŋkit] – n. cheap showy jewelry or ornament on clothing

trio [ˈtri:əu] – n. the cardinal number that is the sum of one and one and one

triple [ˈtripl] – n. a base hit at which the batter stops safely at third base

triplicate [ˈtriplikit] – n. one of three copies; any of three things that correspond to one another exactly

triplicity [tripˈlisiti] – n. the property of being triple

tripod [ˈtraipɔd] – n. a three-legged rack used for support

trisect [traiˈsekt] – v. cut in three: trisect a line

trite [trait] – adj. repeated too often; overfamiliar through overuse: his remarks were trite and commonplace

triumvir [traiˈʌmvə] – n. one of a group of three sharing public administration or civil authority especially in ancient Rome

trivial [ˈtriviəl] – adj. (informal) small and of little importance

troublesome [ˈtrʌblsəm] – adj. difficult to deal with: a troublesome infection

truant [ˈtru:ənt] – n. one who is absent from school without permission

truculence [ˈtrʌkjuləns] – n. obstreperous and defiant aggressiveness

truculent [ˈtrʌkjulənt] – adj. defiantly aggressive: a truculent speech against the new government

truism [ˈtru:izəm] – n. an obvious truth

truncate [trʌŋˈkeit] – v. replace a corner by a plane

truthful [ˈtru:θful] – adj. conforming to truth: a truthful statement

tumult [ˈtju:mʌlt] – n. a state of commotion and noise and confusion

turbid [ˈtə:bid] – adj. (of liquids) clouded as with sediment

turbulence [ˈtɜ:bjʊləns] – n. unstable flow of a liquid or gas

turgid [ˈtə:dʒid] – adj. ostentatiously lofty in style

turmoil [ˈtə:mɔil] – n. a violent disturbance

turpitude [ˈtə:pitju:d] – n. a corrupt or depraved or degenerate act or practice: the various turpitudes of modern society

tutelage [ˈtju:tilidʒ] – n. teaching pupils individually (usually by a tutor hired privately)

tutelar [ˈtju:tlə] – adj. providing protective supervision; watching over or safeguarding: tutelary gods

tutorship [ˈtju:təʃip] – n. teaching pupils individually (usually by a tutor hired privately)

twinge [twindʒ] – v. cause a stinging pain

typify [ˈtipifai] – v. express indirectly by an image, form, or model; be a symbol

typographical [,taipəˈgræfikəl] – adj. relating to or occurring or used in typography: a typographical error

typography [taiˈpɔgrəfi] – n. the craft of composing type and printing from it

tyrannical [tiˈrænikəl] – adj. marked by unjust severity or arbitrary behavior: a tyrannical parent

tyranny [ˈtirəni] – n. dominance through threat of punishment and violence

tyro [ˈtaiərəu] – n. someone new to a field or activity

ubiquitous [juˈbikwitəs] – adj. being present everywhere at once

ulterior [ʌlˈtiəriə] – adj. lying beyond what is openly revealed or avowed (especially being kept in the background or deliberately concealed): looked too closely for an ulterior purpose in all knowledge

ultimatum [.ʌltiˈmeitəm] – n. a final peremptory demand

ultramontane [,ʌltrəˈmɔntrein] – adj. on or relating to or characteristic of the region or peoples beyond the Alps from Italy (or north of the Alps)

umbrage [ˈʌmbridʒ] – n. a feeling of anger caused by being offended

unaccountable [ˈʌnəˈkauntəbl] – adj. not to be accounted for or explained: perceptible only as unaccountable influences that hinder progress

unaffected [.ʌnəˈfektid] – adj. undergoing no change when acted upon: entirely unaffected by each other’s writings

unalloyed [.ʌnəˈlɔid] – adj. free from admixture: unalloyed metal

unanimity [ˈju:nəˈnimiti] – n. everyone being of one mind

unanimous [juˈnæniməs] – adj. in complete agreement: a unanimous decision

unavoidable [ˈʌnəˈvɔidəbl] – adj. impossible to avoid or evade:: an unavoidable accident

unbearable [ˈʌnˈbɛərəbl] – adj. incapable of being put up with

unbecoming [ʌnbiˈkʌmiŋ] – adj. not in keeping with accepted standards of what is right or proper in polite society: language unbecoming to a lady

unbelief [ʌnbiˈli:f] – n. a rejection of belief

unbiased [ˈʌnˈbaiəst] – adj. characterized by a lack of partiality

unbridled [ʌnˈbraidld] – adj. not restrained or controlled: unbridled rage

uncanny [ʌnˈkæni] – adj. suggesting the operation of supernatural influences: stumps…had uncanny shapes as of monstrous creatures

uncommon [ˈʌnˈkɔmən] – adj. not common or ordinarily encountered; unusually great in amount or remarkable in character or kind: uncommon birds

unconscionable [ʌnˈkɔnʃənəbəl] – adj. lacking a conscience: an unconscionable liar

unconscious [ʌnˈkɔnʃəs] – adj. not conscious; lacking awareness and the capacity for sensory perception as if asleep or dead: lay unconscious on the floor

unction [ˈʌŋkʃən] – n. excessive but superficial compliments given with affected charm

unctuous [ˈʌŋktʃuəs] – adj. unpleasantly and excessively suave or ingratiating in manner or speech: the unctuous Uriah Heep

undeceive [ˈʌndiˈsi:v] – v. free from deception or illusion

undercharge [.ʌndəˈtʃɑ:dʒ] – n. a price that is too low

underexpose  – v. expose to too little light: The film is underexposed, so the image is very dark

undergarment [ˈʌndə,gɑ:mənt] – n. a garment worn under other garments

underlie [.ʌndəˈlai] – v. be or form the base for

underling [ˈʌndəliŋ] – n. an assistant subject to the authority or control of another

undermine [.ʌndəˈmain] – v. destroy property or hinder normal operations

underrate [ʌndəˈreit] – v. make too low an estimate of

underscore [.ʌndəˈskɔ:] – v. give extra weight to (a communication)

undersell [ʌndəˈsel] – v. sell cheaper than one’s competition

undersized [ˈʌndəˈsaizd] – adj. smaller than normal for its kind

understate [ʌndəˈsteit] – v. represent as less significant or important

understatement  – n. a statement that is restrained in ironic contrast to what might have been said

undervalue [ʌndəˈvælju:] – v. assign too low a value to

underworld [ˈʌndəwə:ld] – n. the criminal class

underwrite [.ʌndəˈrait] – v. guarantee financial support of

undue [ˈʌnˈdju:] – adj. not yet payable: an undue loan

undulate [ˈʌndjuleit] – v. stir up (water) so as to form ripples

unequivocal [.ʌniˈkwivəkəl] – adj. admitting of no doubt or misunderstanding; having only one meaning or interpretation and leading to only one conclusion: unequivocal evidence

unfavorable [ˈʌnˈfeivərəbl] – adj. not encouraging or approving or pleasing: unfavorable conditions

unfrock  – v. divest of the frock; of church officials

ungainly [ʌnˈgeinli] – adj. lacking grace in movement or posture: a gawky lad with long ungainly legs

unguent [ˈʌŋgwənt] – n. semisolid preparation (usually containing a medicine) applied externally as a remedy or for soothing an irritation

unicellular [ˈju:niˈseljulə] – adj. having or consisting of a single cell

uniformity [.ju:niˈfɔ:miti] – n. a condition in which everything is regular and unvarying

unify [ˈju:nifai] – v. become one

unison [ˈju:nizn] – n. corresponding exactly: marching in unison

Unitarian [,ju:niˈtɛəriən] – adj. of or relating to or characterizing Unitarianism

unlawful [ˈʌnˈlɔ:ful] – adj. not conforming to legality, moral law, or social convention

unlimited [ʌnˈlimitid] – adj. having no limits in range or scope: to start with a theory of unlimited freedom is to end up with unlimited despotism

unnatural [ʌnˈnætʃərəl] – adj. not in accordance with or determined by nature; contrary to nature: an unnatural death

unnecessary [ʌnˈnesisəri] – adj. not necessary

unprecedented [ʌnˈpresidəntid] – adj. having no precedent; novel: an unprecedented expansion in population and industry

unqualified  – adj. not limited or restricted: an unqualified denial

unrelenting  – adj. not to be placated or appeased or moved by entreaty

unscathed [ʌnˈskeiðd] – adj. not injured

unsettle [ʌnˈsetl] – v. disturb the composure of

unsophisticated [ˈʌnsəˈfistikeitid] – adj. not wise in the ways of the world: either too unsophisticated or too honest to promise more than he could deliver

unspeakable [ʌnˈspi:kəbl] – adj. defying expression or description: unspeakable happiness

untimely [ʌnˈtaimli] – adj. badly timed: an untimely remark

untoward [.ʌntəˈwɔ:d] – adj. not in keeping with accepted standards of what is right or proper in polite society: moved to curb their untoward ribaldry

unutterable [ʌnˈʌtərəbl] – adj. too sacred to be uttered

unwarranted [ˈʌnˈwɔrəntid] – adj. incapable of being justified or explained

unwieldy [ʌnˈwi:ldi] – adj. difficult to use or handle or manage because of size or weight or shape: we set about towing the unwieldy structure into the shelter

unwise [ˈʌnˈwaiz] – adj. showing or resulting from lack of judgment or wisdom: an unwise investor is soon impoverished

unwitting [.ʌnˈwitiŋ] – adj. not done with purpose or intent: an unwitting mistake may be overlooked

unyielding  – adj. resistant to physical force or pressure: an unyielding head support

unyoke [ˈʌnˈjəuk] – v. remove the yoke from: unyoke the cow

upbraid [.ʌpˈbreid] – v. express criticism towards

upcast  – n. air passage consisting of a ventilation shaft through which air leaves a mine

upheaval [ʌpˈhi:vəl] – n. a state of violent disturbance and disorder (as in politics or social conditions generally)

upheave [ʌpˈhi:v] – v. lift forcefully from beneath

uppermost [ˈʌpəməust] – adv. in or into the most prominent position, as in the mind: say what comes uppermost

uproarious [ʌpˈrɔ:riəs] – adj. uncontrollably noisy

uproot [ʌpˈru:t] – v. move (people) forcibly from their homeland into a new and foreign environment: The war uprooted many people

upshot  – n. a phenomenon that follows and is caused by some previous phenomenon

upturn [ʌpˈtə:n] – n. an upward movement or trend as in business activity

urbane [ɜ:ˈbein] – adj. showing a high degree of refinement and the assurance that comes from wide social experience: maintained an urbane tone in his letters

urbanity [ə:ˈbæniti] – n. polished courtesy; elegance of manner

urchin [ˈə:tʃin] – n. poor and often mischievous city child

urgency [ˈə:dʒənsi] – n. pressing importance requiring speedy action: the urgency of his need

usage [ˈju:sidʒ] – n. the act of using

usurious [ju:ˈʒuriəs, ju:ˈzjuəriəs] – adj. greatly exceeding bounds of reason or moderation: usurious interest rate

usurp [ju:ˈzə:p] – v. seize and take control without authority and possibly with force; take as one’s right or possession: he usurped my rights

usury [ˈju:ʒəri] – n. an exorbitant or unlawful rate of interest

utilitarian [.ju:tiliˈtɛəriən] – adj. having a useful function: utilitarian steel tables

utilitarianism  – n. doctrine that the useful is the good; especially as elaborated by Jeremy Bentham and James Mill; the aim was said to be the greatest happiness for the greatest number

utility [ju:ˈtiliti] – n. a company that performs a public service; subject to government regulation

utmost [ˈʌtməust] – adj. of the greatest possible degree or extent or intensity: utmost contempt

utopia [ju:ˈtəupjə, -piə] – n. a book written by Sir Thomas More (1516) describing the perfect society on an imaginary island

utopian [ju:ˈtəupjən] – adj. characterized by or aspiring to impracticable perfection: the dim utopian future

vacate [veiˈkeit] – v. leave (a job, post, or position) voluntarily: She vacated the position when she got pregnant

vaccinate [ˈvæksineit] – v. perform vaccinations or produce immunity in by inoculation: We vaccinate against scarlet fever

vacillate [ˈvæsileit] – v. be undecided about something; waver between conflicting positions or courses of action

vacuous [ˈvækjuəs] – adj. devoid of intelligence

vacuum [ˈvækjuəm] – n. the absence of matter

vagabond [ˈvægəbɔnd] – n. a wanderer who has no established residence or visible means of support

vagary [ˈveigəri] – n. an unexpected and inexplicable change in something (in a situation or a person’s behavior, etc.)

vagrant [ˈvægrənt] – n. a wanderer who has no established residence or visible means of support

vainglory [veinˈglɔ:ri] – n. outspoken conceit

vale [veil] – n. a long depression in the surface of the land that usually contains a river

valediction [.væliˈdikʃən] – n. a farewell oration (especially one delivered during graduation exercises by an outstanding member of a graduating class)

valedictorian [,vælidikˈtɔ:riən] – n. the student with the best grades who usually delivers the valedictory address at commencement

valedictory [.væliˈdiktəri] – adj. of or relating to an occasion or expression of farewell: a valedictory address

valid [ˈvælid] – adj. well grounded in logic or truth or having legal force: a valid inference

validate [ˈsimjuleit] – v. prove valid; show or confirm the validity of something

validated  – adj. declared or made legally valid: a validated claim

valor [ˈvælə] – n. the qualities of a hero or heroine; exceptional or heroic courage when facing danger (especially in battle): he received a medal for valor

valorous [ˈvælərəs] – adj. having or showing valor

vapid [ˈvæpid] – adj. lacking taste or flavor or tang: vapid beer

vaporizer [ˈveipəraizə] – n. a device that puts out a substance in the form of a vapor (especially for medicinal inhalation)

variance [ˈvɛəriəns] – n. an event that departs from expectations

variant [ˈvɛəriənt] – n. an event that departs from expectations

variegate [ˈvɛərigeit] – v. change the appearance of, especially by marking with different colors

variegated [ˈveərigeitid, ˈver-] – adj. having a variety of colors

vassal [ˈvæsəl] – n. a person holding a fief; a person who owes allegiance and service to a feudal lord

vaudeville [ˈvəudəvil] – n. a variety show with songs and comic acts etc.

vector  – n. a variable quantity that can be resolved into components

vegetal [ˈvedʒitl] – adj. (of reproduction) characterized by asexual processes

vegetarian [.vedʒiˈtɛəriən] – n. eater of fruits and grains and nuts; someone who eats no meat or fish or (often) any animal products

vegetate [ˈvedʒiteit] – v. lead a passive existence without using one’s body or mind

vegetation [.vedʒiˈteiʃən] – n. all the plant life in a particular region or period: Pleistocene vegetation

vegetative [ˈvedʒitətiv] – adj. of or relating to an activity that is passive and monotonous: a dull vegetative lifestyle

vehemence  – n. intensity or forcefulness of expression: the vehemence of his denial

vehement [ˈviəmənt] – adj. marked by extreme intensity of emotions or convictions; inclined to react violently; fervid: vehement dislike

vehemently  – adv. in a vehement manner: he vehemently denied the accusations against him

velocity [viˈlɔsiti] – n. distance travelled per unit time

velvety [ˈvelviti] – adj. smooth and soft to sight or hearing or touch or taste

venal [ˈvi:nl] – adj. capable of being corrupted: a venal police officer

venality [vi(:)ˈnæliti] – n. prostitution of talents or offices or services for reward

vendible [ˈvendəbl] – adj. fit to be offered for sale

vendition [ven`diʃən] – n. the act of selling goods for a living

veneer [viˈniə] – n. coating consisting of a thin layer of superior wood glued to a base of inferior wood

venerable [ˈvenərəbl] – adj. impressive by reason of age: a venerable sage with white hair and beard

venerate [ˈvenəreit] – v. regard with feelings of respect and reverence; consider hallowed or exalted or be in awe of: We venerate genius

venereal [viˈniəriəl] – adj. of or relating to the external sex organs: venereal disease

venial [ˈvi:niəl] – adj. warranting only temporal punishment: venial sin

venison [ˈvenisən] – n. meat from a deer used as food

venom [ˈvenəm] – n. toxin secreted by animals; secreted by certain snakes and poisonous insects (e.g., spiders and scorpions)

venous [ˈvi:nəs] – adj. of or contained in or performing the function of the veins: venous inflammation

vent [vent] – n. a hole for the escape of gas or air

veracious [vəˈreiʃəs] – adj. habitually speaking the truth: a veracious witness

veracity [vəˈræsəti] – n. unwillingness to tell lies

verbatim [və:ˈbeitim] – adj. in precisely the same words used by a writer or speaker: repeated their dialog verbatim

verbiage [ˈvə:biidʒ] – n. overabundance of words

verbose [və:ˈbəus] – adj. using or containing too many words: verbose and ineffective instructional methods

verbosity [vəˈbɑsəti] – n. an expressive style that uses excessive or empty words

verdant [ˈvə:dənt] – adj. characterized by abundance of verdure

verification [.verifiˈkeiʃən] – n. additional proof that something that was believed (some fact or hypothesis or theory) is correct

verify [ˈverifai] – v. confirm the truth of: Please verify that the doors are closed

verily [ˈverili] – adv. in truth; certainly: I verily think so

veritable  – adj. often used as intensifiers: he’s a veritable swine

verity [ˈveriti] – n. conformity to reality or actuality

vermin [ˈvə:min] – n. an irritating or obnoxious person

vernacular [vəˈnækjulə] – n. a characteristic language of a particular group (as among thieves)

vernal [ˈvə:nl] – adj. suggestive of youth; vigorous and fresh

versatile [ˈvə:sətail] – adj. having great diversity or variety: his vast and versatile erudition

versatility  – n. having a wide variety of skills

vertex [ˈvə:teks] – n. the point of intersection of lines or the point opposite the base of a figure

vertical [ˈvə:tikəl] – adj. at right angles to the plane of the horizon or a base line: a vertical camera angle

vertigo [ˈvə:tigəu] – n. a reeling sensation; a feeling that you are about to fall

vestige [ˈvestidʒ] – n. an indication that something has been present

vestigial  – adj. not fully developed in mature animals

vestment [ˈvestmənt] – n. gown (especially ceremonial garments) worn by the clergy

veto [ˈvi:təu] – n. a vote that blocks a decision

vex [veks] – v. cause annoyance in; disturb, especially by minor irritations

viable [ˈvaiəbəl] – adj. capable of being done with means at hand and circumstances as they are

vicarious [viˈkeəriəs] – adj. experienced at secondhand: read about mountain climbing and felt vicarious excitement

viceroy [ˈvaisrɔi] – n. governor of a country or province who rules as the representative of his or her king or sovereign

vicissitude [viˈsisitju:d] – n. a variation in circumstances or fortune at different times in your life or in the development of something: the project was subject to the usual vicissitudes of exploratory research

vie [vai] – v. compete for something; engage in a contest; measure oneself against others

vigilance [ˈvidʒələns] – n. the process of paying close and continuous attention: vigilance is especially susceptible to fatigue

vigilant [ˈvidʒilənt] – adj. carefully observant or attentive; on the lookout for possible danger: the vigilant eye of the town watch

vignette [viˈnjet] – n. a brief literary description

vigor [ˈvigə] – n. forceful exertion

vilification  – n. slanderous defamation

vilify [ˈvilifai] – v. spread negative information about

vincible [ˈvinsibl] – adj. susceptible to being defeated

vindicate [ˈvindikeit] – v. show to be right by providing justification or proof: vindicate a claim

vindication [.vindiˈkeiʃən] – n. the justification for some act or belief

vindicatory [ˈvindikətəri] – adj. of or relating to or having the nature of retribution

vindictive [vinˈdikətiv] – adj. disposed to seek revenge or intended for revenge: more vindictive than jealous love

vinery [ˈvainəri] – n. a farm of grapevines where wine grapes are produced

viol [ˈvaiəl] – n. any of a family of bowed stringed instruments that preceded the violin family

viola [ˈvaiələ] – n. any of the numerous plants of the genus Viola

violation [.vaiəˈleiʃən] – n. a crime less serious than a felony

violator [ˈvaiəleitə] – n. someone who assaults others sexually

violoncello [vaiələnˈtʃeləu] – n. a large stringed instrument; seated player holds it upright while playing

virago [viˈrɑ:gəu] – n. a noisy or scolding or domineering woman

virile [ˈvirail, ˈvairəl] – adj. characterized by energy and vigor: a virile and ever stronger free society

virtu [ˈvə:tu] – n. love of or taste for fine objects of art

virtual [ˈvə:tjuəl] – adj. being actually such in almost every respect: the once elegant temple lay in virtual ruin

virtuoso [.və:tʃuˈəusəu] – n. someone who is dazzlingly skilled in any field

virulence [ˈvirjuleins] – n. extreme harmfulness (as the capacity of a microorganism to cause disease): the virulence of the plague

virulent [ˈvirulənt] – adj. extremely poisonous or injurious; producing venom: a virulent insect bite

visage [ˈvizidʒ] – n. the human face (`kisser’ and `smiler’ and `mug’ are informal terms for `face’ and `phiz’ is British)

visceral  – adj. obtained through intuition rather than from reasoning or observation

viscount [ˈvaikaunt] – n. (in various countries) a son or younger brother or a count

viscous [ˈviskəs] – adj. having a relatively high resistance to flow

vista [ˈvistə] – n. the visual percept of a region

visualize [ˈviʒuəlaiz] – v. imagine; conceive of; see in one’s mind

vitality [vaiˈtæliti] – n. an energetic style

vitalize [ˈvaitlaiz] – v. give life to: The eggs are vitalized

vitiate [ˈviʃieit] – v. corrupt morally or by intemperance or sensuality

vitriolic [.vitriˈɔlik] – adj. harsh or corrosive in tone: a vitriolic critique

vituperate [viˈtju:pəreit, vaiˈtu:-] – v. spread negative information about

vivacious [viˈveiʃəs] – adj. vigorous and animated: a charming and vivacious hostess

vivacity [vaiˈvæsəti] – n. characterized by high spirits and animation

vivify [ˈvivifai] – v. give new life or energy to

vivisection [viviˈsekʃən] – n. the act of operating on living animals (especially in scientific research)

vocable [ˈvəukəbl] – n. a word that is spoken aloud

vocation [vəuˈkeiʃən] – n. the particular occupation for which you are trained

vocative [ˈvɔkətiv] – n. the case (in some inflected languages) used when the referent of the noun is being addressed

vociferate [vəˈsifəreit, vəu-] – v. utter in a very loud voice: They vociferated their demands

vociferous [vəˈsifərəs, vəu-] – adj. conspicuously and offensively loud; given to vehement outcry: a vociferous mob

vogue [vəug] – n. the popular taste at a given time: leather is the latest vogue

volant  – adj. with wings extended in a flying position

volatile [ˈvɔlətail] – adj. evaporating readily at normal temperatures and pressures: volatile oils

volition [vəˈliʃən] – n. the capability of conscious choice and decision and intention: the exercise of their volition we construe as revolt

voluble [ˈvɔljubl] – adj. marked by a ready flow of speech: she is an extremely voluble young woman who engages in soliloquies not conversations

voluminous [vəˈlu:minəs, vəˈlju:-] – adj. marked by repeated turns and bends

voluptuous [vəˈlʌptʃuəs] – adj. having strong sexual appeal: a voluptuous woman

voracious [vəˈreiʃəs, vɔ-] – adj. excessively greedy and grasping: paying taxes to voracious governments

vortex [ˈvɔ:teks] – n. the shape of something rotating rapidly

votary [ˈvəutəri] – n. one bound by vows to a religion or life of worship or service

votive [ˈvəutiv] – adj. dedicated in fulfillment of a vow: votive prayers

vulgarity [vʌlˈgæriti] – n. the quality of lacking taste and refinement

waffle [ˈwɑfəl, ˈwɔ-] – v. pause or hold back in uncertainty or unwillingness

waif [weif] – n. a homeless child especially one forsaken or orphaned

waistcoat [ˈweiskəut] – n. a man’s sleeveless garment worn underneath a coat

waive [weiv] – v. do without or cease to hold or adhere to

wallow [ˈwɔləu, ˈwa:-] – v. devote oneself entirely to something; indulge in to an immoderate degree, usually with pleasure: wallow in your sorrows

wampum [ˈwɔmpəm] – n. informal terms for money

wane [wein] – v. grow smaller: Interest in the project waned

waning  – n. a gradual decrease in magnitude or extent: the waning of his enthusiasm was obvious

wanton [ˈwɔntən, ˈwɑ:n-] – v. waste time; spend one’s time idly or inefficiently

wantonness  – n. the trait of lacking restraint or control; reckless freedom from inhibition or worry

warlike [ˈwɔ:laik] – adj. disposed to warfare or hard-line policies: warlike policies

wary [ˈweəri, ˈweri] – adj. openly distrustful and unwilling to confide

watershed [ˈwɔ:təʃed] – n. a ridge of land that separates two adjacent river systems

wavelet [ˈweivlit] – n. a small wave on the surface of a liquid

wax [wæks] – v. go up or advance

waylay  – v. wait in hiding to attack

weak-kneed  – adj. lacking will power or resolution: the role of the dissenter is not for the weak-kneed

weal [wi:l] – n. a raised mark on the skin (as produced by the blow of a whip); characteristic of many allergic reactions

wean [wi:n] – v. gradually deprive (infants and young mammals) of mother’s milk: she weaned her baby when he was 3 months old and started him on powdered milk

wearisome [ˈwiərisəm] – adj. so lacking in interest as to cause mental weariness: other people’s dreams are dreadfully wearisome

wee [wi:] – adj. (used informally) very small: a wee tot

weighty  – adj. powerfully persuasive: a weighty argument

well-bred [welˈbred] – adj. of good upbringing

well-to-do [.weltəˈdu:] – adj. in fortunate circumstances financially; moderately rich: well-to-do members of the community

whelp  – n. young of any of various canines such as a dog or wolf

whereabouts [ˈ(h)wɛərəˈbauts] – n. the general location where something is: I questioned him about his whereabouts on the night of the crime

wherever [wɛərˈevə] – adv. where in the world

whet [wet] – v. make keen or more acute: whet my appetite

whimsical [ˈwimzikəl] – adj. determined by chance or impulse or whim rather than by necessity or reason: the victim of whimsical persecutions

whine [wain] – v. talk in a tearful manner

wholly [ˈhəulli] – adv. to a complete degree or to the full or entire extent (`whole’ is often used informally for `wholly’): he was wholly convinced

wield [wi:ld] – v. have and exercise: wield power and authority

wile [wail] – n. the use of tricks to deceive someone (usually to extract money from them)

willful [ˈwilfəl] – adj. done by design: willful disobedience

wily [ˈwaili] – adj. marked by skill in deception: a wily old attorney

wince [wins] – n. the facial expression of sudden pain

winnow [ˈwinəu] – v. separate the chaff from by using air currents: She stood there winnowing chaff all day in the field

winsome [ˈwinsəm] – adj. charming in a childlike or naive way

wintry [ˈwintri] – adj. devoid of warmth and cordiality; expressive of unfriendliness or disdain: wintry smile

wiry [ˈwaiəri] – adj. lean and sinewy