Complete GMAT Vocabulary Words

Below are the complete list of GMAT Vocabulary Words identified by VocabularyShop and grouped together in the Select function.  When choosing GMAT word group in the Select function, these GMAT vocabulary words will be displayed in the Source List for you to choose for your study.

You can download this list of GMAT vocabulary words at the bottom of this page and use it to plan your study and set up your priority and strategy.  For example, you can put all words you already knew into the Known List, leaving only the new words you need to learn in the Source List.  You can then figure out how much work is needed to reach your goal and make your plan accordingly.  There are words more important than the others for the GMAT test, and there are words much easier or more difficult for you as well.  Your plan should be based on your situation and the information from the official GMAT website to enable you to reach your goal with maximum speed and efficiency.

In the GMAT vocabulary words listed below, only the primary or the most popular definition is provided for each word.  You will see the complete dictionary definition and plenty of useful information of each word when you access the Dictionary Dialog in VocabularyShop.


abaft  – adv. at or near or toward the stern of a ship or tail of an airplane: ships with square sails sail fairly efficiently with the wind abaft

abase [əˈbeis] – v. cause to feel shame; hurt the pride of

abash [əˈbæʃ] – v. cause to be embarrassed; cause to feel self-conscious

abatement [əˈbeitmənt] – n. an interruption in the intensity or amount of something

abbreviate [əˈbri:vieit] – v. reduce in scope while retaining essential elements

abdicate [ˈæbdikeit] – v. give up, such as power, as of monarchs and emperors, or duties and obligations: The King abdicated when he married a divorcee

abdication [.æbdiˈkeiʃən] – n. a formal resignation and renunciation of powers

abdomen [ˈæbdəmen] – n. the region of the body of a vertebrate between the thorax and the pelvis

abdominal [æbˈdɔminl] – n. the muscles of the abdomen

abeam [əˈbi:m] – adv. at right angles to the length of a ship or airplane

abecedarian [.eibi(:)si(:)ˈdɛəriən] – n. a novice learning the rudiments of some subject

aberrant [æˈberənt] – n. one whose behavior departs substantially from the norm of a group

aberration [æbəˈreiʃən] – n. a state or condition markedly different from the norm

abeyance [əˈbeiəns] – n. temporary cessation or suspension

abhor [əbˈhɔ:] – v. find repugnant: She abhors cats

abhorrence [əbˈhɔrəns] – n. hate coupled with disgust

abide [əˈbaid] – v. dwell

abject [ˈæbdʒekt] – adj. of the most contemptible kind: abject cowardice

abjure [əbˈdʒuə] – v. formally reject or disavow a formerly held belief, usually under pressure: She abjured her beliefs

abnegation [.æbniˈgeiʃən] – n. the denial and rejection of a doctrine or belief: abnegation of the Holy Trinity

abominate [əˈbɔmineit] – v. find repugnant

abortive [əˈbɔ:tiv] – adj. failing to accomplish an intended result: an abortive revolt

abound [əˈbaund] – v. be abundant or plentiful; exist in large quantities

abridge [əˈbridʒ] – v. reduce in scope while retaining essential elements

abrogate [ˈæbrəgeit] – v. revoke formally

abrupt [əˈbrʌpt] – adj. marked by sudden changes in subject and sharp transitions: abrupt prose

abscond [əbˈskɔnd] – v. run away; usually includes taking something or somebody along: the accountant absconded with the cash from the safe

absolve [əbˈzɔlv] – v. grant remission of a sin to: The priest absolved him and told him to say ten Hail Mary’s

abstemious [əbˈsti:miəs] – adj. sparing in consumption of especially food and drink: the pleasures of the table, never of much consequence to one naturally abstemious

abstinence [ˈæbstinəns] – n. the trait of abstaining (especially from alcohol)

abstruse [əbˈstru:s] – adj. difficult to penetrate; incomprehensible to one of ordinary understanding or knowledge: the professor’s lectures were so abstruse that students tended to avoid them

abundance [əˈbʌndəns] – n. the property of a more than adequate quantity or supply: an age of abundance

abysmal [əˈbizməl] – adj. very great; limitless: abysmal misery

accede [ækˈsi:d] – v. yield to another’s wish or opinion

accession [əkˈseʃən] – n. a process of increasing by addition (as to a collection or group): the art collection grew through accession

acclaim [əˈkleim] – v. praise vociferously

accolade [ˈækəleid] – n. a tangible symbol signifying approval or distinction

accomplice [əˈkʌmplis] – n. a person who joins with another in carrying out some plan (especially an unethical or illegal plan)

accomplishment [əˈkɔmpliʃmənt] – n. an ability that has been acquired by training

accretion [əˈkri:ʃən] – n. an increase by natural growth or addition

accrue [əˈkru:] – v. grow by addition: The interest accrues

acerbic  – adj. sour or bitter in taste

acerbity [əˈsə:biti] – n. a sharp bitterness

acoustics [əˈku:stiks] – n. the study of the physical properties of sound

acquaint [əˈkweint] – v. cause to come to know personally: permit me to acquaint you with my son

acquiesce [.ækwiˈes] – v. to agree or express agreement

acquiescent [.ækwiˈesənt] – adj. willing to carry out the orders or wishes of another without protest: too acquiescent to challenge authority

acquittal [əˈkwitl] – n. a judgment of not guilty

acrid [ˈækrid] – adj. strong and sharp: the acrid smell of burning rubber

acrimonious [ækriˈməuniəs] – adj. marked by strong resentment or cynicism: an acrimonious dispute

acrimony [ˈækriməni] – n. a rough and bitter manner

acrobat [ˈækrəbæt] – n. an athlete who performs acts requiring skill and agility and coordination

actuarial [.æktjuˈɛəriəl] – adj. of or relating to the work of an actuary

acumen [əˈkjumən, əˈkju:mən] – n. a tapering point

adage [ˈædidʒ] – n. a condensed but memorable saying embodying some important fact of experience that is taken as true by many people

adamant [ˈædəmənt] – n. very hard native crystalline carbon valued as a gem

addict [əˈdikt] – v. to cause (someone or oneself) to become dependent (on something, especially a narcotic drug)

addle [ˈædl] – v. mix up or confuse

addled [ˈæd(ə)ld] – adj. (of eggs) no longer edible: an addled egg

adept [ˈædept] – n. someone who is dazzlingly skilled in any field

adipose [ˈædipəus] – adj. composed of animal fat: adipose tissue constitutes the fat of meat

adjoin [əˈdʒɔin] – v. be in direct physical contact with; make contact

adjure [əˈdʒuə] – v. ask for or request earnestly

administrate [ədˈministreit] – v. work in an administrative capacity; supervise or be in charge of

adolescent [.ædəˈlesnt] – adj. being of the age 13 through 19

adroit [əˈdrɔit] – adj. quick or skillful or adept in action or thought: an exceptionally adroit pianist

adulation [.ædʒuˈleiʃən] – n. servile flattery; exaggerated and hypocritical praise

adulterate [əˈdʌltəreit] – adj. mixed with impurities

adulteration [ə.dʌltəˈreiʃn] – n. the act of adulterating (especially the illicit substitution of one substance for another)

adumbrate [ˈædʌmbreit] – v. describe roughly or briefly or give the main points or summary of

adversary [ˈædvəsəri] – n. someone who offers opposition

adversity [ədˈvə:siti] – n. a state of misfortune or affliction: debt-ridden farmers struggling with adversity

aerial [ˈɛəriəl] – n. a pass to a receiver downfield from the passer

aerospace [ˈɛərə.speis] – n. the atmosphere and outer space considered as a whole

affable [ˈæfəbəl] – adj. diffusing warmth and friendliness: an affable smile

affected [əˈfektid] – adj. acted upon; influenced

affidavit [.æfiˈdeivit] – n. written declaration made under oath; a written statement sworn to be true before someone legally authorized to administer an oath

affiliate [əˈfilieit] – v. keep company with; hang out with: She affiliates with her colleagues

affiliation [ə.filiˈeiʃən] – n. a social or business relationship: a valuable financial affiliation

affirm [əˈfə:m] – v. establish or strengthen as with new evidence or facts

affix [əˈfiks,ˈæfiks] – v. attach to: affix the seal here

afflatus [əˈfleitəs] – n. a strong creative impulse; divine inspiration: divine afflatus

affluent [ˈæfluənt] – n. a branch that flows into the main stream

affront [əˈfrʌnt] – n. a deliberately offensive act or something producing the effect of deliberate disrespect

aftermath [ˈɑ:ftəmæθ] – n. the consequences of an event (especially a catastrophic event): the aftermath of war

aged [ˈeidʒid,eidʒd] – adj. at an advanced stage of erosion (pronounced as one syllable): aged rocks

agglomeration [ə.glɔməˈreiʃən] – n. a jumbled collection or mass

aggrandize [əˈgrændaiz] – v. add details to

aggravate [ˈægrəveit] – v. make worse: This drug aggravates the pain

aghast [əˈgɑ:st] – adj. struck with fear, dread, or consternation

agitate [ˈædʒiteit] – v. try to stir up public opinion

agnostic [ægˈnɔstik] – n. someone who is doubtful or noncommittal about something

agrarian [əˈgrɛəriən] – adj. relating to rural matters: an agrarian (or agricultural) society

airliner [ˈɛə.lainə] – n. a commercial airplane that carries passengers

aisle [ail] – n. a long narrow passage (as in a cave or woods)

alacrity [əˈlækriti] – n. liveliness and eagerness: he accepted with alacrity

alchemist  – n. one who was versed in the practice of alchemy and who sought an elixir of life and a panacea and an alkahest and the philosopher’s stone

alchemy [ˈælkəmi] – n. the way two individuals relate to each other: a mysterious alchemy brought them together

alias [ˈeiliəs] – n. a name that has been assumed temporarily

alienate [ˈeiljəneit] – v. arouse hostility or indifference in where there had formerly been love, affection, or friendliness: She alienated her friends when she became fanatically religious

alienation [.eiljəˈneiʃən] – n. separation resulting from hostility

alienator [ˈeiljəneitə] – n. an unpleasant person who causes friendly people to become indifferent or unfriendly or hostile

alienee  – n. someone to whom the title of property is transferred

alignment [əˈlainmənt] – n. an organization of people (or countries) involved in a pact or treaty

alimony [ˈæliməni] – n. court-ordered support paid by one spouse to another after they are separated

allegiance [əˈli:dʒəns] – n. the act of binding yourself (intellectually or emotionally) to a course of action

allegory [ˈæligəri] – n. a short moral story (often with animal characters)

alleviate [əˈli:vieit] – v. provide physical relief, as from pain

allotment [əˈlɔtmənt] – n. a share set aside for a specific purpose

allude [əˈlu:d] – v. make a more or less disguised reference to: He alluded to the problem but did not mention it

allure [əˈljuə, əˈlur] – n. the power to entice or attract through personal charm

allusion [əˈlu:ʒən] – n. passing reference or indirect mention

allusive [əˈlu:siv] – adj. characterized by indirect references: allusive speech is characterized by allusions

alluvial [əˈlu:viəl] – adj. of or relating to alluvium

alms [ɑ:mz] – n. money or goods contributed to the poor

aloof [əˈlu:f] – adj. remote in manner: stood apart with aloof dignity

altercation [.ɔ:ltəˈkeiʃən] – n. noisy quarrel

alternate [ɔ:lˈtə:nit,ˈɔ:ltə:neit] – v. go back and forth; swing back and forth between two states or conditions

altruism [ˈæltruizəm] – n. the quality of unselfish concern for the welfare of others

altruistic  – adj. showing unselfish concern for the welfare of others

aluminum [əˈlju:minəm] – n. a silvery ductile metallic element found primarily in bauxite

amalgam [əˈmælgəm] – n. a combination or blend of diverse things: his theory is an amalgam of earlier ideas

amalgamate [əˈmælgəmeit] – v. to bring or combine together or with something else

amass [əˈmæs] – v. collect or gather

ambivalent [æmˈbivələnt] – adj. uncertain or unable to decide about what course to follow: was ambivalent about having children

amble [ˈæmbl] – n. a leisurely walk (usually in some public place)

ameliorate [əˈmi:ljəreit] – v. to make better

amenable [əˈmi:nəbəl] – adj. disposed or willing to comply: someone amenable to persuasion

amiable [ˈeimjəbl] – adj. disposed to please: an amiable villain with a cocky sidelong grin

amiss  – adv. away from the correct or expected course: something went badly amiss in the preparations

amity [ˈæmiti] – n. a cordial disposition

amnesia [æmˈni:ziə] – n. partial or total loss of memory

amorphous [əˈmɔ:fəs] – adj. having no definite form or distinct shape: amorphous clouds of insects

amortization [ə.mɔ:tiˈzeiʃən] – n. the reduction of the value of an asset by prorating its cost over a period of years

amortize [əˈmɔ:taiz, æˈmərtaiz] – v. liquidate gradually

amphibian [æmˈfibiən] – n. a flat-bottomed motor vehicle that can travel on land or water

amplifier [ˈæmplifaiə] – n. electronic equipment that increases strength of signals passing through it

amputate [ˈæmpjuteit] – v. remove surgically: amputate limbs

amuck [əˈmʌk] – adv. wildly; without self-control: when the restaurant caught fire the patrons ran amuck, blocking the exit

anachronism [əˈnækrənizəm] – n. something located at a time when it could not have existed or occurred

analogous [əˈnæləgəs] – adj. similar or equivalent in some respects though otherwise dissimilar: brains and computers are often considered analogous

analogue [ˈænəlɔg] – n. something having the property of being analogous to something else

analytic [.ænəˈlitik] – adj. using or subjected to a methodology using algebra and calculus: analytic statics

anaphylaxis  – n. hypersensitivity reaction to the ingestion or injection of a substance (a protein or drug) resulting from prior contact with a substance

anarchist [ˈænəkist] – n. an advocate of anarchism

anarchy [ˈænəki] – n. a state of lawlessness and disorder (usually resulting from a failure of government)

anathema [əˈnæθimə] – n. a detested person: he is an anathema to me

anchorage  – n. the condition of being secured to a base: the plant needs a firm anchorage

ancillary [ænˈsiləri] – adj. furnishing added support: an ancillary pump

anecdote [ˈænik.dəut] – n. short account of an incident (especially a biographical one)

anemia [əˈni:miə] – n. a deficiency of red blood cells

anguish [ˈæŋgwiʃ] – n. extreme mental distress

animated [ˈænimeitid] – adj. having life or vigor or spirit: an animated and expressive face

animosity [æniˈmɔsiti] – n. a feeling of ill will arousing active hostility

anneal [əˈni:l] – v. bring to a desired consistency, texture, or hardness by a process of gradually heating and cooling

annihilate [əˈnaiəleit] – v. kill in large numbers

annuity [əˈnju:iti] – n. income from capital investment paid in a series of regular payments: his retirement fund was set up to be paid as an annuity

annul [əˈnʌl] – v. declare invalid: The contract was annulled

annular [ˈænjulə] – adj. shaped like a ring

anodyne [ˈænədain] – n. a medicine used to relieve pain

anoint  – v. choose by or as if by divine intervention: She was anointed the head of the Christian fundamentalist group

anomaly [əˈnɔməli] – n. deviation from the normal or common order or form or rule

antagonism [ænˈtægənizəm] – n. a state of deep-seated ill-will

antenna [ænˈtenə] – n. an electrical device that sends or receives radio or television signals

anthropoid [ˈænθrəpɔid] – n. person who resembles a nonhuman primate

antipathy [ænˈtipəθi] – n. a feeling of intense dislike

antithesis [ænˈtiθəsis] – n. exact opposite: his theory is the antithesis of mine

apathetic [.æpəˈθetik] – adj. showing little or no emotion or animation: a woman who became active rather than apathetic as she grew older

apathy [ˈæpəθi] – n. an absence of emotion or enthusiasm

aphasia [əˈfeiʒə] – n. inability to use or understand language (spoken or written) because of a brain lesion

aphelion [æˈfi:liən] – n. apoapsis in solar orbit; the point in the orbit of a planet or comet that is at the greatest distance from the sun

aphorism [ˈæfərizəm] – n. a short pithy instructive saying

aplomb [əˈplɔm] – n. great coolness and composure under strain

apocalyptic [ə.pɔkəˈliptik] – adj. prophetic of devastation or ultimate doom

apocryphal [əˈpɔkrifəl] – adj. being of questionable authenticity

apogee [ˈæpədʒi:] – n. a final climactic stage

apostate [əˈpɔsteit] – n. a disloyal person who betrays or deserts his cause or religion or political party or friend etc.

appal  – v. strike with disgust or revulsion

appease [əˈpi:z] – v. cause to be more favorably inclined; gain the good will of

appellation [.æpəˈleiʃən] – n. identifying word or words by which someone or something is called and classified or distinguished from others

apposite [ˈæpəzit] – adj. being of striking appropriateness and pertinence: the successful copywriter is a master of apposite and evocative verbal images

apprehensive [.æpriˈhensiv] – adj. quick to understand: a kind and apprehensive friend

apprenticeship [əˈprentisʃip] – n. the position of apprentice

approbatory  – adj. expressing or manifesting praise or approval

appropriation [ə.prəupriˈeiʃən] – n. money set aside (as by a legislature) for a specific purpose

appurtenance [əˈpə:tinəns] – n. equipment consisting of miscellaneous articles needed for a particular operation or sport etc.

apt [æpt] – adj. (usually followed by `to’) naturally disposed toward: he is apt to ignore matters he considers unimportant

aptitude [ˈæptitju:d] – n. inherent ability

aquatic [əˈkwætik] – adj. relating to or consisting of or being in water: an aquatic environment

aquiline [ˈækwilain] – adj. curved down like an eagle’s beak

arable [ˈærəbəl] – adj. (of farmland) capable of being farmed productively

arachnid [əˈræknid] – n. air-breathing arthropods characterized by simple eyes and four pairs of legs

arbiter [ˈɑ:bitə] – n. someone with the power to settle matters at will: she was the final arbiter on all matters of fashion

arbitration [.ɑ:biˈtreiʃən] – n. the act of deciding as an arbiter; giving authoritative judgment: they submitted their disagreement to arbitration

arboreal [ɑ:ˈbɔ:riəl] – adj. of or relating to or formed by trees

arcane [ɑ:ˈkein] – adj. requiring secret or mysterious knowledge: the arcane science of dowsing

archetype [ˈɑ:kitaip] – n. something that serves as a model or a basis for making copies

archipelago [.ɑ:kiˈpeləgəu] – n. a group of many islands in a large body of water

archives [ˈɑ:kaivz] – n. collection of records especially about an institution

ardent [ˈɑ:dənt] – adj. characterized by intense emotion: ardent love

ardor [ˈɑ:də] – n. a feeling of strong eagerness (usually in favor of a person or cause): they were imbued with a revolutionary ardor

ardour  – n. a feeling of strong eagerness (usually in favor of a person or cause)

aria [ˈɑ:riə] – n. an elaborate song for solo voice

arid [ˈærid] – adj. lacking sufficient water or rainfall: an arid climate

armistice [ˈɑ:mistis] – n. a state of peace agreed to between opponents so they can discuss peace terms

aromatic [.ærəˈmætik] – adj. (chemistry) of or relating to or containing one or more benzene rings: an aromatic organic compound

arrears [əˈriəz] – n. the state of being behind in payments: an account in arrears

arrogant [ˈærəgənt] – adj. having or showing feelings of unwarranted importance out of overbearing pride: an arrogant official

arrogate [ˈærəugeit] – v. demand as being one’s due or property; assert one’s right or title to

arson [ˈɑ:sən] – n. malicious burning to destroy property: the British term for arson is fire-raising

artery [ˈɑ:təri] – n. a major thoroughfare that bears important traffic

artifice [ˈɑ:tifis] – n. a deceptive maneuver (especially to avoid capture)

ascend [əˈsend] – v. travel up,: We ascended the mountain

ascetic [əˈsetik] – adj. practicing great self-denial: Be systematically ascetic…do…something for no other reason than that you would rather not do it

aseptic [eiˈseptik] – adj. free of or using methods to keep free of pathological microorganisms: aseptic surgical instruments

ashore [əˈʃɔ:] – adv. towards the shore from the water: we invited them ashore

asinine [ˈæsinain] – adj. devoid of intelligence

askance [əˈskæns] – adv. with suspicion or disapproval: he looked askance at the offer

asperity [æˈsperiti] – n. something hard to endure: the asperity of northern winters

aspersion [əˈspə:ʃən] – n. a disparaging remark: in the 19th century any reference to female sexuality was considered a vile aspersion

asphyxiate [æsˈfiksieit] – v. deprive of oxygen and prevent from breathing

aspirant [əˈspaiərənt] – n. an ambitious and aspiring young person: a lofty aspirant

aspire [əsˈpaiə] – v. have an ambitious plan or a lofty goal

assay [əˈsei] – n. an appraisal of the state of affairs: they made an assay of the contents

assessor [əˈsesə] – n. an official who evaluates property for the purpose of taxing it

assiduity [.æsiˈdju:iti] – n. great and constant diligence and attention

assimilate [əˈsimileit] – v. take up mentally

astringent [əˈstrindʒənt] – adj. sour or bitter in taste

astute [əˈstju:t] – adj. marked by practical hardheaded intelligence: an astute tenant always reads the small print in a lease

asunder [əˈsʌndə] – adj. widely separated especially in space: as wide asunder as pole from pole

asymmetry [æˈsimətri] – n. (mathematics) a lack of symmetry

atrocity [əˈtrɔsiti] – n. the quality of being shockingly cruel and inhumane

atrophy [ˈætrəfi] – n. a decrease in size of an organ caused by disease or disuse

attenuate [əˈtenjueit] – v. weaken the consistency of (a chemical substance)

attest [əˈtest] – v. authenticate, affirm to be true, genuine, or correct, as in an official capacity: I attest this signature

atypical [eiˈtipikəl] – adj. not representative of a group, class, or type: a group that is atypical of the target audience

audacious [ɔ:ˈdeiʃəs] – adj. invulnerable to fear or intimidation: audacious explorers

auditorium [.ɔ:diˈtɔ:riəm] – n. the area of a theater or concert hall where the audience sits

augment [ɔ:gˈment] – v. enlarge or increase: The recent speech of the president augmented tensions in the Near East

augury [ˈɔ:gjuri] – n. an event that is experienced as indicating important things to come: he hoped it was an augury

aurora [ɔ:ˈrɔ:rə] – n. the first light of day

auspicious [ɔ:ˈspiʃəs] – adj. auguring favorable circumstances and good luck: an auspicious beginning for the campaign

austere [ɔˈstiə] – adj. severely simple

austerity [ɔˈsteriti] – n. the trait of great self-denial (especially refraining from worldly pleasures)

autarchy [ˈɔ:tɑ:ki] – n. economic independence as a national policy

authentic [ɔ:ˈθentik] – adj. conforming to fact and therefore worthy of belief: an authentic account by an eyewitness

authenticate [ɔ:ˈθentikeit] – v. establish the authenticity of something

authoritarian [ɔ:.θɔriˈteəriən] – adj. characteristic of an absolute ruler or absolute rule; having absolute sovereignty: an authoritarian regime

authoritative [ɔ:ˈθɔrətətiv] – adj. of recognized authority or excellence

autocracy [ɔ:ˈtɔkrəsi] – n. a political system governed by a single individual

autocrat [ˈɔ:təkræt] – n. a cruel and oppressive dictator

avail [əˈveil] – v. use to one’s advantage: He availed himself of the available resources

avalanche [ˈævəlɑ:nʃ] – n. a slide of large masses of snow and ice and mud down a mountain

avant-garde [.ævɔ:ŋ ˈgɑ:d] – adj. radically new or original: an avant-garde theater piece

avarice [ˈævəris] – n. reprehensible acquisitiveness; insatiable desire for wealth (personified as one of the deadly sins)

aver [əˈvə:] – v. report or maintain

averse [əˈvə:s] – adj. (usually followed by `to’) strongly opposed: averse to taking risks

avert [əˈvə:t] – v. prevent the occurrence of; prevent from happening: avert a strike

avid [ˈævid] – adj. (often followed by `for’) ardently or excessively desirous: avid for adventure

avoidable [əˈvɔidəbl] – adj. capable of being avoided or warded off

avuncular [əˈvʌŋkjulə] – adj. resembling a uncle in kindness or indulgence

awe [ɔ:] – n. an overwhelming feeling of wonder or admiration: he stared over the edge with a feeling of awe

awry [əˈrai] – adj. turned or twisted toward one side: a…youth with a gorgeous red necktie all awry

azimuth [ˈæziməθ] – n. the azimuth of a celestial body is the angle between the vertical plane containing it and the plane of the meridian

azure [ˈæʒə, ˈæʒjuə] – n. a light shade of blue

bacterium [bækˈtiəriəm] – n. (microbiology) single-celled or noncellular spherical or spiral or rod-shaped organisms lacking chlorophyll that reproduce by fission; important as pathogens and for biochemical properties; taxonomy is difficult; often considered to be plants

baleful [ˈbeilfəl] – adj. deadly or sinister: the Florida eagles have a fierce baleful look

balmy [ˈbɑ:mi] – adj. informal or slang terms for mentally irregular: it used to drive my husband balmy

banal [bəˈnɑ:l] – adj. repeated too often; overfamiliar through overuse

bandage [ˈbændidʒ] – v. wrap around with something so as to cover or enclose

baneful [ˈbeinfəl] – adj. exceedingly harmful

barbecue [ˈbɑ:bikju:] – n. a cookout in which food is cooked over an open fire; especially a whole animal carcass roasted on a spit

baroque [bəˈrɔk, bəˈrəuk] – n. elaborate and extensive ornamentation in decorative art and architecture that flourished in Europe in the 17th century

barter [ˈbɑ:tə] – n. an equal exchange: we had no money so we had to live by barter

bastion  – n. a group that defends a principle: a bastion against corruption

batten [ˈbætn] – n. stuffing made of rolls or sheets of cotton wool or synthetic fiber

bauble [ˈbɔ:bəl] – n. a mock scepter carried by a court jester

beacon [ˈbi:kən] – n. a fire (usually on a hill or tower) that can be seen from a distance

bearer [ˈbɛərə] – n. someone whose employment involves carrying something

bearish [ˈbɛəriʃ] – adj. expecting prices to fall

beatific [.biəˈtifik] – adj. experiencing or bestowing celestial joy: beatific peace

bedeck [biˈdek] – v. decorate

bedraggle [biˈdrægl] – v. make wet and dirty, as from rain

beget [biˈget] – v. make children

beguile [biˈgail] – v. influence by slyness

beholden [biˈhəuldn] – adj. under a moral obligation to someone

behoove [biˈhəuv] – v. be appropriate or necessary: It behooves us to reflect on this matter

beleaguer [biˈli:gə] – v. annoy persistently

belittle [biˈlitl] – v. cause to seem less serious; play down: Don’t belittle his influence

bellicose [ˈbelikəus] – adj. having or showing a ready disposition to fight: bellicose young officers

bemuse  – v. cause to be confused emotionally

benefactor [ˈbeni.fæktə] – n. a person who helps people or institutions (especially with financial help)

beneficent [biˈnefisnt] – adj. doing or producing good: the most beneficent regime in history

benevolent [biˈnevələnt] – adj. intending or showing kindness: a benevolent society

benign [biˈnain] – adj. not dangerous to health; not recurrent or progressive (especially of a tumor)

berate [biˈreit] – v. censure severely or angrily

bereft [biˈreft] – adj. unhappy in love; suffering from unrequited love

beret [ˈberei] – n. a cap with no brim or bill; made of soft cloth

berserk [bəˈsə:k] – adj. frenzied as if possessed by a demon: berserk with grief

beseech [biˈsi:tʃ] – v. ask for or request earnestly

besmirch [biˈsmə:tʃ] – v. charge falsely or with malicious intent; attack the good name and reputation of someone

bestial [ˈbestjəl] – adj. resembling a beast; showing lack of human sensibility: a bestial nature

betroth [biˈtrəuð] – v. give to in marriage

beverage [ˈbevəridʒ] – n. any liquid suitable for drinking: may I take your beverage order?

bevy [ˈbevi] – n. a large gathering of people of a particular type: he was surrounded by a bevy of beauties in bathing attire

beware [biˈwɛə] – v. be on one’s guard; be cautious or wary about; be alert to

bewilder [biˈwildə] – v. cause to be confused emotionally

bibliography [.bibliˈɔgrəfi] – n. a list of writings with time and place of publication (such as the writings of a single author or the works referred to in preparing a document etc.)

bibulous [ˈbibjuləs] – adj. given to or marked by the consumption of alcohol: a bibulous fellow

bidder [ˈbidə] – n. someone who makes an offer

biennial [baiˈeniəl] – adj. having a life cycle lasting two seasons: a biennial life cycle

bifurcate [ˈbaifəkeit] – v. split or divide into two

bilateral [baiˈlætərəl] – adj. having identical parts on each side of an axis

bilious [ˈbiliəs] – adj. relating to or containing bile

binder [ˈbaində] – n. something used to bind separate particles together or facilitate adhesion to a surface

biota [baiˈəutə] – n. all the plant and animal life of a particular region

blackmail [ˈblækmeil] – v. exert pressure on someone through threats

blaspheme [blæsˈfi:m] – v. utter obscenities or profanities

blasphemous [ˈblæsfiməs] – adj. grossly irreverent toward what is held to be sacred: blasphemous rites of a witches’ Sabbath

blatant [ˈbleitənt] – adj. without any attempt at concealment; completely obvious: blatant disregard of the law

blithe [ˈblaið] – adj. lacking or showing a lack of due concern: spoke with blithe ignorance of the true situation

blueprint [ˈblu:ˈprint] – n. something intended as a guide for making something else: a blueprint for a house

blunder [ˈblʌndə] – v. commit a faux pas or a fault or make a serious mistake: I blundered during the job interview

blunt [blʌnt] – v. make less intense: blunted emotions

blur [blə:] – v. become glassy; lose clear vision

blurt [blə:t] – v. utter impulsively: He blurted out the secret

blush [blʌʃ] – n. a rosy color (especially in the cheeks) taken as a sign of good health

bode [bəud] – v. indicate by signs: These signs bode bad news

bogus [ˈbəugəs] – adj. fraudulent; having a misleading appearance

boisterous [ˈbɔistərəs] – adj. noisy and lacking in restraint or discipline: a boisterous crowd

bombast [ˈbɔmbæst] – n. pompous or pretentious talk or writing

bombastic [bɔmˈbæstik] – adj. ostentatiously lofty in style

bookstore [ˈbukstɔ:] – n. a shop where books are sold

boor [buə] – n. a crude uncouth ill-bred person lacking culture or refinement

boorish [ˈbuəriʃ] – adj. ill-mannered and coarse and contemptible in behavior or appearance: was boorish and insensitive

bottleneck [ˈbɔtl.nek] – n. a narrowing that reduces the flow through a channel

bovine [ˈbəuvain] – adj. of or relating to or belonging to the genus Bos (cattle)

bowling [ˈbəuliŋ] – n. a game in which balls are rolled at an object or group of objects with the aim of knocking them over or moving them

boycott [ˈbɔikɔt] – n. a group’s refusal to have commercial dealings with some organization in protest against its policies

brace [breis] – n. a support that steadies or strengthens something else: he wore a brace on his knee

brainstorm [ˈbrein.stɔ:m] – n. the clear (and often sudden) understanding of a complex situation

bravado [brəˈvɑ:dəu] – n. a swaggering show of courage

brevity [ˈbreviti] – n. the use of brief expressions

bribe [braib] – n. payment made to a person in a position of trust to corrupt his judgment

briefcase [ˈbri:fkeis] – n. a case with a handle; for carrying papers or files or books

brindled [ˈbrindəld] – adj. having a grey or brown streak or a pattern or a patchy coloring; used especially of the patterned fur of cats

broach [brəutʃ] – n. a decorative pin worn by women

broke [brəuk] – adj. lacking funds

brokerage [ˈbrəukəridʒ] – n. the business of a broker; charges a fee to arrange a contract between two parties

browse [brauz] – v. shop around; not necessarily buying

brunette [bru:ˈnet] – n. a person with dark (brown) hair

brusque [bru:sk, brusk] – adj. marked by rude or peremptory shortness: try to cultivate a less brusque manner

brutal [ˈbru:tl] – adj. (of persons or their actions) able or disposed to inflict pain or suffering: brutal beatings

brutality [bru:ˈtæləti] – n. the trait of extreme cruelty

bucolic [bju:ˈkɔlik] – n. a country person

budge [bʌdʒ] – v. move very slightly

buffer [ˈbʌfə] – n. (chemistry) an ionic compound that resists changes in its pH

buffet [ˈbʌfit] – n. a piece of furniture that stands at the side of a dining room; has shelves and drawers

bug [bʌg] – n. general term for any insect or similar creeping or crawling invertebrate

bullish [ˈbuliʃ] – adj. expecting a rise in prices

bully [ˈbuli] – n. a cruel and brutal fellow

bumble [ˈbʌmbəl] – v. make a mess of, destroy or ruin

bumptious [ˈbʌmpʃəs] – adj. offensively self-assertive

bungler  – n. someone who makes mistakes because of incompetence

burdensome [ˈbə:dnsəm] – adj. not easily borne; wearing: the burdensome task of preparing the income tax return

burgeon [ˈbə:dʒən] – v. grow and flourish: The burgeoning administration

burglar [ˈbə:glə] – n. a thief who enters a building with intent to steal

burlesque [bə:ˈlesk] – n. a theatrical entertainment of broad and earthy humor; consists of comic skits and short turns (and sometimes striptease)

burly  – adj. muscular and heavily built: had a tall burly frame

burnish [ˈbə:niʃ] – n. the property of being smooth and shiny

buxom [ˈbʌksəm] – adj. (of a woman’s body) having a large bosom and pleasing curves

bylaw  – n. a rule adopted by an organization in order to regulate its own affairs and the behavior of its members

bypass [ˈbaipɑ:s] – n. a highway that encircles an urban area so that traffic does not have to pass through the center

byproduct [ˈbai.prɔdʌkt] – n. a secondary and sometimes unexpected consequence

byzantine  – adj. of or relating to the Eastern Orthodox Church or the rites performed in it

cabal [kəˈbæl] – n. a clique (often secret) that seeks power usually through intrigue

cache [kæʃ] – n. a hidden storage space (for money or provisions or weapons)

cacophonous  – adj. having an unpleasant sound: as cacophonous as a henyard

cacophony [kəˈkɔfəni] – n. a loud harsh or strident noise

cadaver [kəˈdeivə] – n. the dead body of a human being: the cadaver was intended for dissection

cadre [ˈkɑ:də] – n. a small unit serving as part of or as the nucleus of a larger political movement

cajole [kəˈdʒəul] – v. influence or urge by gentle urging, caressing, or flattering

calamity [kəˈlæmiti] – n. an event resulting in great loss and misfortune: the whole city was affected by the irremediable calamity

calculating [ˈkælkjuleitiŋ] – adj. used of persons: the most calculating and selfish men in the community

caliber [ˈkælibə] – n. a degree or grade of excellence or worth: an executive of low caliber

callous [ˈkæləs] – adj. emotionally hardened: a callous indifference to suffering

callow [ˈkæləu] – adj. young and inexperienced

calumniate [kəˈlʌmni-eit] – v. charge falsely or with malicious intent; attack the good name and reputation of someone

calumny [ˈkæləmni] – n. a false accusation of an offense or a malicious misrepresentation of someone’s words or actions

camouflage [ˈkæmuflɑ:ʒ] – n. an outward semblance that misrepresents the true nature of something

canard [kæˈnɑ:d] – n. a deliberately misleading fabrication

candid [ˈkændid] – adj. characterized by directness in manner or speech; without subtlety or evasion: I gave them my candid opinion

canine [ˈkeinain] – n. one of the four pointed conical teeth (two in each jaw) located between the incisors and the premolars

canny [ˈkæni] – adj. showing self-interest and shrewdness in dealing with others

canon [ˈkænən] – n. a priest who is a member of a cathedral chapter

cant [kænt] – n. stock phrases that have become nonsense through endless repetition

cantankerous [kænˈtæŋkərəs] – adj. stubbornly obstructive and unwilling to cooperate

cantata [kænˈtɑ:tə] – n. a musical composition for voices and orchestra based on a religious text

canvasser [ˈkænvəsə] – n. a petitioner who solicits contributions or trade or votes

cape [keip] – n. a strip of land projecting into a body of water

capitation [.kæpiˈteiʃən] – n. a tax levied on the basis of a fixed amount per person

caprice [kəˈpri:s] – n. a sudden desire

capricious [kəˈpriʃəs] – adj. changeable: a capricious summer breeze

captious [ˈkæpʃəs] – adj. tending to find and call attention to faults: a captious pedant

cardiac [ˈkɑ:diæk] – adj. of or relating to the heart: cardiac arrest

cardinal [ˈkɑ:dinəl] – n. the number of elements in a mathematical set; denotes a quantity but not the order

caries [ˈkeəriz] – n. soft decayed area in a tooth; progressive decay can lead to the death of a tooth

carmine [ˈkɑ:min] – n. a variable color averaging a vivid red

carnivore [ˈkɑ:nivɔ:] – n. a terrestrial or aquatic flesh-eating mammal: terrestrial carnivores have four or five clawed digits on each limb

carom [ˈkærəm] – n. a glancing rebound

carrion [ˈkæriən] – n. the dead and rotting body of an animal; unfit for human food

cascade [kæˈskeid] – n. a small waterfall or series of small waterfalls

cashier [kæˈʃiə] – n. an employee of a bank who receives and pays out money

castigate [ˈkæstigeit] – v. censure severely

cataclysm [ˈkætəklizəm] – n. a sudden violent change in the earth’s surface

catalyst [ˈkætəlist] – n. (chemistry) a substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected

categorize [ˈkætigəraiz] – v. place into or assign to a category: Children learn early on to categorize

catharsis [kæˈθɑ:sis] – n. (psychoanalysis) purging of emotional tensions

catholic  – adj. of or relating to or supporting Catholicism

caustic [ˈkɔ:stik] – adj. harsh or corrosive in tone: caustic jokes about political assassination, talk-show hosts and medical ethics

cauterize [ˈkɔ:təraiz] – v. burn, sear, or freeze (tissue) using a hot iron or electric current or a caustic agent: The surgeon cauterized the wart

cavalier [.kævəˈliə] – n. a gallant or courtly gentleman

cavil [ˈkævəl] – n. an evasion of the point of an argument by raising irrelevant distinctions or objections

cede [si:d] – v. give over; surrender or relinquish to the physical control of another

celestial [siˈlestiəl] – adj. of or relating to the sky: celestial map

celibate [ˈselibit] – n. an unmarried person who has taken a religious vow of chastity

cellular [ˈseljulə] – adj. relating to cells: cellular walls

censor [ˈsensə] – n. someone who censures or condemns

censure [ˈsenʃə] – n. harsh criticism or disapproval

centimeter [ˈsenti.mi:tə] – n. a metric unit of length equal to one hundredth of a meter

cerebral [ˈseribrəl] – adj. involving intelligence rather than emotions or instinct: a cerebral approach to the problem

ceremonious [seriˈməunjəs] – adj. rigidly formal or bound by convention: their ceremonious greetings did not seem heartfelt

certify [ˈsə:tifai] – v. provide evidence for; stand as proof of; show by one’s behavior, attitude, or external attributes

cerulean [siˈru:liən] – n. a light shade of blue

cessation [seˈseiʃ(ə)n] – n. a stopping: a cessation of the thunder

chafe [tʃeif] – v. become or make sore by or as if by rubbing

chaff [tʃɑ:f, tʃæf] – n. material consisting of seed coverings and small pieces of stem or leaves that have been separated from the seeds

chagrin [ˈʃægrin] – n. strong feelings of embarrassment

chandler [ˈtʃɑ:ndlə] – n. United States writer of detective thrillers featuring the character of Philip Marlowe (1888-1959)

chaotic [keiˈɔtik] – adj. lacking a visible order or organization

charisma [kəˈrizmə] – n. a personal attractiveness or interestingness that enables you to influence others

charlatan [ˈʃɑ:lətn] – n. a flamboyant deceiver; one who attracts customers with tricks or jokes

chary [ˈtʃeəri] – adj. characterized by great caution and wariness: chary of the risks involved

chasm [ˈkæzəm] – n. a deep opening in the earth’s surface

chaste [tʃeist] – adj. morally pure (especially not having experienced sexual intercourse): a holy woman innocent and chaste

chastise [tʃæsˈtaiz] – v. censure severely: She chastised him for his insensitive remarks

chauvinism [ˈʃəuvinizəm] – n. fanatical patriotism

chauvinist [ˈʃəuvinist] – n. a person with a prejudiced belief in the superiority of his or her own kind

checkered [ˈtʃekəd] – adj. patterned with alternating squares of color

chef [ʃef] – n. a professional cook

chemotherapy [.keməuˈθerəpi] – n. the use of chemical agents to treat or control disease (or mental illness)

cherish [ˈtʃeriʃ] – v. be fond of; be attached to

chicanery [ʃiˈkeinəri] – n. the use of tricks to deceive someone (usually to extract money from them)

chide [tʃaid] – v. censure severely or angrily

chilly [ˈtʃili] – adj. not characterized by emotion: a female form in marble–a chilly but ideal medium for depicting abstract virtues

chimera [kaiˈmiərə] – n. a grotesque product of the imagination

choleric [ˈkɔlərik] – adj. easily moved to anger: men of the choleric type take to kicking and smashing

chore [tʃɔ:] – n. a specific piece of work required to be done as a duty or for a specific fee: the farmer’s morning chores

chortle [ˈtʃɔ:tl] – n. a soft partly suppressed laugh

chromatic [krəuˈmætik] – adj. able to refract light without spectral color separation: chromatic lens

churlish [ˈtʃə:liʃ] – adj. rude and boorish

circuitous [sə:ˈkju:itəs] – adj. marked by obliqueness or indirection in speech or conduct: the explanation was circuitous and puzzling

circumlocution [.sə:kəmləˈkju:ʃən] – n. a style that involves indirect ways of expressing things

circumlocutory  – adj. roundabout and unnecessarily wordy: had a preference for circumlocutious (or circumlocutory) rather than forthright expression

circumspect [ˈsə:kəmspekt] – adj. heedful of potential consequences: circumspect actions

citadel [ˈsitədəl] – n. a stronghold into which people could go for shelter during a battle

clairvoyant [klɛəˈvɔiənt] – adj. perceiving things beyond the natural range of the senses

clandestine [klænˈdestin] – adj. conducted with or marked by hidden aims or methods: clandestine intelligence operations

cleave [kli:v] – v. separate or cut with a tool, such as a sharp instrument: cleave the bone

clemency [ˈklemənsi] – n. good weather with comfortable temperatures

climax [ˈklaimæks] – n. the highest point of anything conceived of as growing or developing or unfolding: the climax of the artist’s career

clip [klip] – n. a metal frame or container holding cartridges; can be inserted into an automatic gun

clockwise [ˈklɔkwaiz] – adj. in the same direction as the rotating hands of a clock

clone [kləun] – n. a person who is almost identical to another

closedown [ˈkləuzdaun] – n. termination of operations

closet [ˈklɔzit] – n. a small room (or recess) or cabinet used for storage space

cloture  – n. a rule for limiting or ending debate in a deliberative body

coagulate [kəuˈægjuleit] – v. change from a liquid to a thickened or solid state: coagulated blood

coalesce [.kəuəˈles] – v. mix together different elements

cocaine [kəuˈkein] – n. a narcotic (alkaloid) extracted from coca leaves; used as a surface anesthetic or taken for pleasure; can become powerfully addictive

coda  – n. the closing section of a musical composition

coddle [ˈkɔdl] – v. treat with excessive indulgence: Let’s not mollycoddle our students!

codicil [ˈkəudisil] – n. a supplement to a will; a testamentary instrument intended to alter an already executed will

codify [ˈkɔdifai, ˈkəu-] – v. organize into a code or system, such as a body of law

coercion [kəuˈə:ʃən] – n. the act of compelling by force of authority

coeval [kəuˈi:vəl] – n. a person of nearly the same age as another

coffer [ˈkɔfə] – n. an ornamental sunken panel in a ceiling or dome

cogent [ˈkəudʒənt] – adj. powerfully persuasive: a cogent argument

cogitate [ˈkɔdʒiteit] – v. consider carefully and deeply; reflect upon; turn over in one’s mind

cognate [ˈkɔgneit] – adj. related in nature

cognizant [ˈkɔnizənt] – adj. (sometimes followed by `of’) having or showing knowledge or understanding or realization or perception

cohesion [kəuˈhi:ʒən] – n. (botany) the process in some plants of parts growing together that are usually separate (such as petals)

cohesive [kəuˈhi:siv] – adj. cohering or tending to cohere; well integrated: a cohesive organization

cohort [ˈkəuhɔ:t] – n. a company of companions or supporters

coke [kəuk] – n. Coca Cola is a trademarked cola

collaborate [kəˈlæbə.reit] – v. work together on a common enterprise of project

collateral [kəˈlætərəl] – adj. descended from a common ancestor but through different lines: cousins are collateral relatives

collide [kəˈlaid] – v. be incompatible; be or come into conflict

colloquial [kəˈləukwiəl] – adj. characteristic of informal spoken language or conversation: wrote her letters in a colloquial style

colloquy [ˈkɔləkwi] – n. a conversation especially a formal one

collusion [kəˈlu:ʒən] – n. secret agreement

colossal [kəˈlɔsəl] – adj. so great in size or force or extent as to elicit awe: colossal crumbling ruins of an ancient temple

comatose [ˈkəumətəus] – adj. in a state of deep and usually prolonged unconsciousness; unable to respond to external stimuli: a comatose patient

combustible [kəmˈbʌstəbəl] – n. a substance that can be burned to provide heat or power

comeliness  – n. the quality of being good looking and attractive

comely [ˈkʌmli] – adj. according with custom or propriety: comely behavior

comic [ˈkɔmik] – adj. arousing or provoking laughter: a comic hat

commemorate [kəˈmeməreit] – v. mark by some ceremony or observation

commend [kəˈmend] – v. express approval of

commiserate [kəˈmizəreit] – v. to feel or express sympathy or compassion

commodious [kəˈməudiəs] – adj. large and roomy (`convenient’ is archaic in this sense): a commodious harbor

commonplace [ˈkɔmənpleis] – adj. completely ordinary and unremarkable: air travel has now become commonplace

communal [ˈkɔmjunl] – adj. for or by a group rather than individuals: dipping each his bread into a communal dish of stew

commutator  – n. switch for reversing the direction of an electric current

commute [kəˈmju:t] – v. exchange positions without a change in value: These operators commute with each other

compassion [kəmˈpæʃən] – n. a deep awareness of and sympathy for another’s suffering

compendious [kəmˈpendiəs] – adj. briefly giving the gist of something: a short and compendious book

complacent [kəmˈpleisənt] – adj. contented to a fault with oneself or one’s actions: he had become complacent after years of success

complaisance [kəmˈpleizəns] – n. a disposition or tendency to yield to the will of others

complaisant [kəmˈpleizənt] – adj. showing a cheerful willingness to do favors for others: to close one’s eyes like a complaisant husband whose wife has taken a lover

compliant [kəmˈplaiənt] – adj. disposed or willing to comply: children compliant with the parental will

compliment [ˈkɔmplimənt] – v. say something to someone that expresses praise: He complimented her on her last physics paper

comport [kəmˈpɔ:t] – v. behave well or properly

composite [ˈkɔmpəzit] – n. a conceptual whole made up of complicated and related parts

comprehend [.kɔmpriˈhend] – v. get the meaning of something: Do you comprehend the meaning of this letter?

compunction [kəmˈpʌŋkʃən] – n. a feeling of deep regret (usually for some misdeed)

concatenate [kɔnˈkætineit] – v. combine two strings to form a single one

conceit [kənˈsi:t] – n. feelings of excessive pride

conciliation [kən.siliˈeiʃən] – n. any of various forms of mediation whereby disputes may be settled short of arbitration

conciliatory [kənˈsiliətəri] – adj. making or willing to make concessions

concise [kənˈsais] – adj. expressing much in few words: a concise explanation

conclave [ˈkɔŋkleiv] – n. a confidential or secret meeting

concoct [kənˈkɔkt] – v. prepare or cook by mixing ingredients: concoct a strange mixture

concomitant [kənˈkɔmitənt] – n. an event or situation that happens at the same time as or in connection with another

concur [kənˈkə:] – v. be in accord; be in agreement

condescend [.kɔndiˈsend] – v. do something that one considers to be below one’s dignity

condign [kənˈdain] – adj. fitting or appropriate and deserved; used especially of punishment: condign censure

condone [kənˈdəun] – v. excuse, overlook, or make allowances for; be lenient with: She condoned her husband’s occasional infidelities

confide [kənˈfaid] – v. confer a trust upon

conflagration [.kɔnfləˈgreiʃən] – n. a very intense and uncontrolled fire

confluence [ˈkɔnfluəns] – n. a place where things merge or flow together (especially rivers): Pittsburgh is located at the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers

conformity [kənˈfɔ:miti] – n. correspondence in form or appearance

confound  – v. mistake one thing for another

conglomerate [kənˈglɔmərit] – n. a composite rock made up of particles of varying size

conglomeration [kən.glɔməˈreiʃən] – n. a rounded spherical form

congruence [ˈkɔŋgrʊəns] – n. the quality of agreeing; being suitable and appropriate

conjoin [kənˈdʒɔin] – v. make contact or come together

conjugal [ˈkɔndʒugəl] – adj. of or relating to marriage or to the relationship between a wife and husband: conjugal visits

conjure [ˈkʌndʒə] – v. summon into action or bring into existence, often as if by magic: he conjured wild birds in the air

connivance [kəˈnaivəns] – n. agreement on a secret plot

connoisseur [.kɔniˈsə:] – n. an expert able to appreciate a field; especially in the fine arts

connotative [ˈkɔnəuteitiv, kəˈnəutətiv] – adj. having the power of implying or suggesting something in addition to what is explicit

connubial [kəˈnju:bjəl] – adj. of or relating to marriage or to the relationship between a wife and husband: connubial bliss

conscientious [.kɔnʃiˈenʃəs] – adj. characterized by extreme care and great effort: conscientious application to the work at hand

consecrate [ˈkɔnsikreit] – v. appoint to a clerical posts

consecutive [kənˈsekjutiv] – adj. one after the other

consequential [.kɔnsiˈkwenʃəl] – adj. having important issues or results: the year’s only really consequential legislation

consignment [kənˈsainmənt] – n. goods carried by a large vehicle

console [ˈkɔnsəul,kənˈsəul] – n. a small table fixed to a wall or designed to stand against a wall

consolidation [kən.sɔliˈdeiʃən] – n. combining into a solid mass

consort [ˈkɔnsɔ:t] – v. keep company with; hang out with

conspicuous [kənˈspikjuəs] – adj. obvious to the eye or mind: a tower conspicuous at a great distance

consternation [.kɔnstə(:)ˈneiʃən] – n. fear resulting from the awareness of danger

construe [kənˈstru:] – v. make sense of; assign a meaning to

consumerism [kənˈsju:mərizəm] – n. a movement advocating greater protection of the interests of consumers

consummate [kɔnˈsʌmit] – adj. having or revealing supreme mastery or skill: a consummate artist

consummation [.kɔnsʌˈmeiʃən] – n. the completion of marriage by sexual intercourse

contaminate [kənˈtæmineit] – v. make impure

contentious [kənˈtenʃəs] – adj. inclined or showing an inclination to dispute or disagree, even to engage in law suits: a style described as abrasive and contentious

contiguous [kənˈtigjuəs] – adj. very close or connected in space or time: contiguous events

continence [ˈkɔntinəns] – n. the exercise of self constraint in sexual matters

contingent [kənˈtindʒənt] – adj. possible but not certain to occur: they had to plan for contingent expenses

contradict [.kɔntrəˈdikt] – v. deny the truth of

contravene [.kɔntrəˈvi:n] – v. go against, as of rules and laws

contributor [kənˈtribjutə] – n. a writer whose work is published in a newspaper or magazine or as part of a book

contrite [ˈkɔntrait] – adj. feeling or expressing pain or sorrow for sins or offenses

contrive [kənˈtraiv] – v. make or work out a plan for; devise: They contrived to murder their boss

contumacious [.kɔntjuˈmeiʃəs] – adj. wilfully obstinate; stubbornly disobedient

contumely [ˈkɔntju:mli] – n. a rude expression intended to offend or hurt

contusion [kənˈtju:ʒən] – n. an injury that doesn’t break the skin but results in some discoloration

conundrum [kəˈnʌndrəm] – n. a difficult problem

converge [kənˈvə:dʒ] – v. be adjacent or come together: The lines converge at this point

conversant [kənˈvə:sənt] – adj. (usually followed by `with’) well informed about or knowing thoroughly: conversant with business trends

convertible [kənˈvə:təbl] – n. a car that has top that can be folded or removed

conveyance [kənˈveiəns] – n. document effecting a property transfer

convivial [kənˈviviəl] – adj. occupied with or fond of the pleasures of good company: a convivial atmosphere at the reunion

conviviality  – n. a jovial nature

convoke [kənˈvəuk] – v. call together

cooker [ˈkukə] – n. a utensil for cooking

cooperative [kəuˈɔpərətiv] – adj. involving the joint activity of two or more: a cooperative effort

coordination [kəu.ɔ:diˈneiʃən] – n. the skillful and effective interaction of movements

copious [ˈkəupiəs] – adj. large in number or quantity (especially of discourse): she took copious notes

corollary [ˈkɑ:ələri] – n. a practical consequence that follows naturally: blind jealousy is a frequent corollary of passionate love

corpulence [ˈkɔ:pjʊləns] – n. the property of excessive fatness

correlate [ˈkɔ:rə.leit] – v. to bear a reciprocal or mutual relation: Do these facts correlate?

corroborate [kəˈrɔbəreit] – v. establish or strengthen as with new evidence or facts

corrode [kəˈrəud] – v. cause to deteriorate due to the action of water, air, or an acid: The acid corroded the metal

corrosive [kəˈrəusiv] – adj. of a substance, especially a strong acid; capable of destroying or eating away by chemical action

corrupt [kəˈrʌpt] – v. make illegal payments to in exchange for favors or influence

coruscate [ˈkɔrəskeit] – v. reflect brightly

cosmic [ˈkɔzmik] – adj. inconceivably extended in space or time

cosy  – n. a padded cloth covering to keep a teapot warm

coterie [ˈkəutəri] – n. an exclusive circle of people with a common purpose

coterminous [kəuˈtə:minəs] – adj. being of equal extent or scope or duration

counteract [.kauntəˈrækt] – v. act in opposition to

counterfeit [ˈkauntəfit] – n. a copy that is represented as the original

counterfoil [ˈkauntə.fɔil] – n. the part of a check that is retained as a record

coupon [ˈku:pɔn] – n. a negotiable certificate that can be detached and redeemed as needed

covetous [ˈkʌvitəs] – adj. showing extreme cupidity; painfully desirous of another’s advantages: he was never covetous before he met her

cower [ˈkauə] – v. crouch or curl up

coy [kɔi] – adj. affectedly modest or shy especially in a playful or provocative way

crab [kræb] – n. a quarrelsome grouch

crabbed [ˈkræbid] – adj. annoyed and irritable

cradle [ˈkreidl] – v. hold gently and carefully: He cradles the child in his arms

crass [kræs] – adj. (of persons) so unrefined as to be lacking in discrimination and sensibility

craven [ˈkreivən] – n. an abject coward

credential [kriˈdenʃəl] – n. a document attesting to the truth of certain stated facts

credulous [ˈkredjuləs] – adj. disposed to believe on little evidence: the gimmick would convince none but the most credulous

crestfallen [ˈkrest.fɔ:lən] – adj. brought low in spirit

crevice [ˈkrevis] – n. a long narrow depression in a surface

crusade [kru:ˈseid] – n. a series of actions advancing a principle or tending toward a particular end

crux [krʌks] – n. a small conspicuous constellation in the southern hemisphere in the Milky Way near Centaurus

cryptic [ˈkriptik] – adj. of an obscure nature: the new insurance policy is written without cryptic or mysterious terms

cuisine [kwiˈzi:n] – n. the practice or manner of preparing food or the food so prepared

culpable [ˈkʌlpəbəl] – adj. deserving blame or censure as being wrong or evil or injurious: culpable negligence

cuneiform [ˈkju:nifɔ:m] – adj. shaped like a wedge

cupidity [kjuˈpiditi] – n. extreme greed for material wealth

curb [kə:b] – n. a horse’s bit with an attached chain or strap to check the horse

curmudgeon [kə:ˈmʌdʒən] – n. a crusty irascible cantankerous old person full of stubborn ideas

cursory [ˈkə:səri] – adj. hasty and without attention to detail; not thorough: a casual (or cursory) inspection failed to reveal the house’s structural flaws

curtail [kə:ˈteil] – v. place restrictions on: curtail drinking in school

customary [ˈkʌstəməri] – adj. commonly used or practiced; usual: took his customary morning walk

cutback [ˈkʌtbæk] – n. a reduction in quantity or rate

cyberspace [ˈsaibəspeis] – n. a computer network consisting of a worldwide network of computer networks that use the TCP/IP network protocols to facilitate data transmission and exchange

cynic [ˈsinik] – n. someone who is critical of the motives of others

cynosure [ˈsinəzjuə] – n. something that provides guidance (as Polaris guides mariners): let faith be your cynosure to walk by

czarist [ˈzɑ:rist] – adj. of or relating to or characteristic of a czar

dad [dæd] – n. an informal term for a father; probably derived from baby talk

dais [ˈdeiis] – n. a platform raised above the surrounding level to give prominence to the person on it

dally [ˈdæli] – v. behave carelessly or indifferently

dank [dæŋk] – adj. unpleasantly cool and humid: a dank cellar

daunt [dɔ:nt] – v. cause to lose courage

dauntless [ˈdɔ:ntlis] – adj. invulnerable to fear or intimidation

daytime [ˈdeitaim] – n. the time after sunrise and before sunset while it is light outside: it is easier to make the repairs in the daytime

dean [di:n] – n. an administrator in charge of a division of a university or college

dearth [də:θ] – n. an acute insufficiency

debacle [deiˈbɑ:kəl] – n. a sudden and violent collapse

debase [diˈbeis] – v. corrupt morally or by intemperance or sensuality

debauch [diˈbɔ:tʃ] – n. a wild gathering involving excessive drinking and promiscuity

debauchery [diˈbɔ:tʃəri] – n. a wild gathering involving excessive drinking and promiscuity

debenture [diˈbentʃə] – n. a certificate or voucher acknowledging a debt

debilitate [diˈbiliteit] – v. make weak

debit [ˈdebit] – n. an accounting entry acknowledging sums that are owing

debonair [.debəˈneə] – adj. having a sophisticated charm: a debonair gentleman

decadence [ˈdekədəns] – n. the state of being degenerate in mental or moral qualities

decentralization [di:sentrəlaiˈzeiʃən] – n. the social process in which population and industry moves from urban centers to outlying districts

deciduous [diˈsidjuəs] – adj. (of plants and shrubs) shedding foliage at the end of the growing season

decipher [diˈsaifə] – v. convert code into ordinary language

decisiveness  – n. the trait of resoluteness as evidenced by firmness of character or purpose: a man of unusual decisiveness

decorous [ˈdekərəs] – adj. characterized by propriety and dignity and good taste in manners and conduct: the tete-a-tete was decorous in the extreme

decrepit [diˈkrepit] – adj. worn and broken down by hard use: a decrepit bus…its seats held together with friction tape

decry [diˈkrai] – v. express strong disapproval of

deduct [diˈdʌkt] – v. make a subtraction

deduction [diˈdʌkʃən] – n. an amount or percentage deducted

defamation [difəˈmeiʃən] – n. a false accusation of an offense or a malicious misrepresentation of someone’s words or actions

defection [diˈfekʃən] – n. withdrawing support or help despite allegiance or responsibility

deference [ˈdefərəns] – n. a courteous expression (by word or deed) of esteem or regard: his deference to her wishes was very flattering

deferential [.difəˈrenʃəl] – adj. showing deference

defunct [diˈfʌŋkt] – adj. no longer in force or use; inactive: a defunct law

degenerate [diˈdʒenəreit] – n. a person whose behavior deviates from what is acceptable especially in sexual behavior

degrade [diˈgreid] – v. reduce the level of land, as by erosion

deign [dein] – v. do something that one considers to be below one’s dignity

deleterious [.deliˈtiəriəs] – adj. harmful to living things: deleterious chemical additives

delineate [diˈlinieit] – v. show the form or outline of

delinquent [diˈliŋkwənt] – adj. guilty of a misdeed: delinquent minors

deliquesce [deliˈkwes] – v. melt away in the process of decay: The fungi eventually deliquesced

delirious [diˈliriəs] – adj. marked by uncontrolled excitement or emotion: a crowd of delirious baseball fans

deluge [ˈdelju:dʒ] – n. an overwhelming number or amount

delusion [diˈlu:ʒən] – n. (psychology) an erroneous belief that is held in the face of evidence to the contrary

delusive [diˈlju:siv] – adj. inappropriate to reality or facts: delusive faith in a wonder drug

delve [delv] – v. turn up, loosen, or remove earth

demise [diˈmaiz] – n. the time when something ends

demur [diˈmə:] – v. take exception to: he demurred at my suggestion to work on Saturday

denigrate [ˈdenigreit] – v. cause to seem less serious; play down

denizen [ˈdenizən] – n. a person who inhabits a particular place

denture [ˈdentʃə] – n. a dental appliance that artificially replaces missing teeth

deplete [diˈpli:t] – v. use up (resources or materials)

deposition [.depəˈziʃən, di:-] – n. (law) a pretrial interrogation of a witness; usually conducted in a lawyer’s office

depravity [diˈpræviti] – n. moral perversion; impairment of virtue and moral principles: its brothels, its opium parlors, its depravity

deprecate [ˈdeprikeit] – v. express strong disapproval of; deplore

depreciate [diˈpri:ʃieit] – v. belittle

depreciation [di.pri:ʃiˈeiʃən] – n. a decrease in price or value: depreciation of the dollar against the yen

depredation [depriˈdeiʃ(ə)n] – n. an act of plundering and pillaging and marauding

deride [diˈraid] – v. treat or speak of with contempt: He derided his student’s attempt to solve the biggest problem in mathematics

derision [diˈriʒən] – n. contemptuous laughter

derisive [diˈraisiv] – adj. abusing vocally; expressing contempt or ridicule: derisive laughter

derogatory [diˈrɔgətəri] – adj. expressive of low opinion: derogatory comments

descant [ˈdeskænt] – v. sing by changing register; sing by yodeling

desecrate [ˈdesikreit] – v. violate the sacred character of a place or language: desecrate a cemetery

desiccate [ˈdesikeit] – v. preserve by removing all water and liquids from

desist [diˈsist, diˈzist] – v. choose not to consume

desolate [ˈdesəleit,ˈdesəlit] – v. leave someone who needs or counts on you; leave in the lurch

despicable [diˈspikəbəl] – adj. morally reprehensible: would do something as despicable as murder

despoil [disˈpɔil] – v. steal goods; take as spoils

despotism [ˈdespətizəm] – n. dominance through threat of punishment and violence

destitute [ˈdestitju:t] – adj. poor enough to need help from others

desultory [ˈdesəltəri] – adj. marked by lack of definite plan or regularity or purpose; jumping from one thing to another: desultory thoughts

detach [diˈtætʃ] – v. separate (a small unit) from a larger, especially for a special assignment: detach a regiment

detergent [diˈtə:dʒənt] – n. a surface-active chemical widely used in industry and laundering

determinate [diˈtə:minit] – adj. not continuing to grow indefinitely at the apex: determinate growth

deterrent [diˈterənt] – n. something immaterial that interferes with or delays action or progress

detraction [diˈtrækʃən] – n. a petty disparagement

devalue [ˈdi:ˈvælju:] – v. remove the value from; deprive of its value

devastate [ˈdevəsteit] – v. cause extensive destruction or ruin utterly

deviate [ˈdi:vieit] – v. turn aside; turn away from

devious [ˈdi:viəs] – adj. indirect in departing from the accepted or proper way; misleading: used devious means to achieve success

devoid [diˈvɔid] – adj. completely wanting or lacking: the sentence was devoid of meaning

dexterous [ˈdekstərəs] – adj. skillful in physical movements; especially of the hands: dexterous of hand and inventive of mind

diabolical [.daiəˈbɔlikəl] – adj. showing the cunning or ingenuity or wickedness typical of a devil: the diabolical expression on his face

diadem [ˈdaiədem] – n. an ornamental jeweled headdress signifying sovereignty

dialectic [.daiəˈlektik] – n. any formal system of reasoning that arrives at the truth by the exchange of logical arguments

dialectics [.daiəˈlektiks] – n. a rationale for dialectical materialism based on change through the conflict of opposing forces

diaphanous [daiˈæfənəs] – adj. so thin as to transmit light: a hat with a diaphanous veil

diatonic [daiəˈtɔnik] – adj. based on the standard major or minor scales consisting of 5 tones and 2 semitones without modulation by accidentals

diatribe [ˈdaiətraib] – n. thunderous verbal attack

dichotomy [daiˈkɔtəmi] – n. being twofold; a classification into two opposed parts or subclasses: the dichotomy between eastern and western culture

dictum [ˈdiktəm] – n. an authoritative declaration

didactic [diˈdæktik] – adj. instructive (especially excessively)

diffidence [ˈdifədəns] – n. lack of self-confidence

diffident [ˈdifidənt] – adj. showing modest reserve: she was diffident when offering a comment on the professor’s lecture

diffuse [diˈfju:s,diˈfju:z] – v. move outward

digress [daiˈgres] – v. wander from a direct or straight course

digressive [daiˈgresiv] – adj. of superficial relevance if any: a digressive allusion to the day of the week

dilatory [ˈdilətəri] – adj. wasting time

dilettante [.diliˈtænti] – n. an amateur who engages in an activity without serious intentions and who pretends to have knowledge

diligence [ˈdilidʒəns] – n. conscientiousness in paying proper attention to a task; giving the degree of care required in a given situation

dilute [daiˈlju:t] – v. lessen the strength or flavor of a solution or mixture

diminutive [diˈminjutiv] – n. a word that is formed with a suffix (such as -let or -kin) to indicate smallness

din [din] – n. a loud harsh or strident noise

dint [dint] – n. interchangeable with `means’ in the expression `by means of’

diploma [diˈpləumə] – n. a document certifying the successful completion of a course of study

directorate [diˈrektərit] – n. a group of persons chosen to govern the affairs of a corporation or other large institution

dirge [də:dʒ] – n. a song or hymn of mourning composed or performed as a memorial to a dead person

disapprobation  – n. an expression of strong disapproval; pronouncing as wrong or morally culpable

disapprove [.disəˈpru:v] – v. consider bad or wrong

disarray [.disəˈrei] – n. a mental state characterized by a lack of clear and orderly thought and behavior

disastrously [diˈzɑ:strəsli] – adv. in a disastrous manner: the real value of the trust capital may be disastrously less than when the trust began

disavow [disəˈvau] – v. refuse to acknowledge; disclaim knowledge of; responsibility for, or association with: Her husband disavowed her after 30 years of marriage and six children

disbursement [disˈbɜ:smənt] – n. amounts paid for goods and services that may be currently tax deductible (as opposed to capital expenditures)

discerning [diˈsɜ:niŋ] – adj. having or revealing keen insight and good judgment: a discerning critic

discomfit [disˈkʌmfit] – v. cause to lose one’s composure

disconsolate [disˈkɔnsəlit] – adj. sad beyond comforting; incapable of being consoled

discord [ˈdiskɔ:d] – n. lack of agreement or harmony

discreet [diˈskri:t] – adj. marked by prudence or modesty and wise self-restraint: his trusted discreet aide

discrepancy [disˈkrepənsi] – n. a difference between conflicting facts or claims or opinions

discrete [diˈskri:t] – adj. constituting a separate entity or part: a government with three discrete divisions

discriminate [diˈskrimineit] – v. recognize or perceive the difference

discursive [diˈskə:siv] – adj. proceeding to a conclusion by reason or argument rather than intuition

disdain [disˈdein] – n. lack of respect accompanied by a feeling of intense dislike

disentangle  – v. release from entanglement of difficulty

disinflation [.disinˈfleiʃən] – n. a reduction of prices intended to improve the balance of payments

disingenuous [.disinˈdʒenjuəs] – adj. not straightforward or candid; giving a false appearance of frankness: an ambitious, disingenuous, philistine, and hypocritical operator, who…exemplified…the most disagreeable traits of his time

dismay [disˈmei] – n. the feeling of despair in the face of obstacles

disparage [diˈspæridʒ] – v. express a negative opinion of: She disparaged her student’s efforts

disparate [ˈdispərit] – adj. fundamentally different or distinct in quality or kind: such disparate attractions as grand opera and game fishing

disparity [disˈpæriti] – n. inequality or difference in some respect

dispassionate [disˈpæʃənit] – adj. unaffected by strong emotion or prejudice: a journalist should be a dispassionate reporter of fact

dispatch [diˈspætʃ] – v. send away towards a designated goal

displace [disˈpleis] – v. cause to move, usually with force or pressure: the refugees were displaced by the war

disport [diˈspɔ:t] – v. occupy in an agreeable, entertaining or pleasant fashion

disputatious [.dispjuˈteiʃəs] – adj. inclined or showing an inclination to dispute or disagree, even to engage in law suits: a disputatious lawyer

disregard [.disriˈgɑ:d] – v. refuse to acknowledge

disseminate [diˈsemineit] – v. cause to become widely known

dissent [diˈsent] – n. (law) the difference of one judge’s opinion from that of the majority: he expressed his dissent in a contrary opinion

dissimulate [diˈsimjuleit] – v. hide (feelings) from other people

dissipate [ˈdisipeit] – v. to cause to separate and go in different directions

dissolute [ˈdisəlu:t] – adj. unrestrained by convention or morality

dissolution [.disəˈlu:ʃən] – n. separation into component parts

dissonance [ˈdisənəns] – n. a conflict of people’s opinions or actions or characters

dissonant [ˈdisənənt] – adj. lacking in harmony

dissuade [diˈsweid] – v. turn away from by persuasion: Negative campaigning will only dissuade people

distention [dis`tenʃən] – n. the state of being stretched beyond normal dimensions

distill [disˈtil] – v. undergo condensation; change from a gaseous to a liquid state and fall in drops: The acid distills at a specific temperature

distrain [disˈtrein] – v. confiscate by distress

distrait [disˈtrei] – adj. having the attention diverted especially because of anxiety

dither [ˈdiðə] – v. act nervously; be undecided; be uncertain

diverge [daiˈvə:dʒ] – v. move or draw apart: The two paths diverge here

divergence [daiˈvɜ:dʒəns,di-] – n. the act of moving away in different direction from a common point: an angle is formed by the divergence of two straight lines

diversification [daivə:sifiˈkeiʃən] – n. the act of introducing variety (especially in investments or in the variety of goods and services offered): my broker recommended a greater diversification of my investments

diversion [daiˈvə:ʒən] – n. a turning aside (of your course or attention or concern): a diversion from the main highway

divestiture [daiˈvestitʃə] – n. the sale by a company of a product line or a subsidiary or a division

divination [diviˈneiʃən] – n. successful conjecture by unusual insight or good luck

dizzy [ˈdizi] – adj. having or causing a whirling sensation; liable to falling: had a dizzy spell

docile [ˈdəusail] – adj. willing to be taught or led or supervised or directed: the docile masses of an enslaved nation

docking [ˈdɔkiŋ] – n. the act of securing an arriving vessel with ropes

doctrinaire [.dɔktriˈneə] – n. a stubborn person of arbitrary or arrogant opinions

doggerel [ˈdɔgərəl] – n. a comic verse of irregular measure: he had heard some silly doggerel that kept running through his mind

dogma [ˈdɔgmə] – n. a religious doctrine that is proclaimed as true without proof

dogmatic [dɔgˈmætik] – adj. characterized by assertion of unproved or unprovable principles

dole [dəul] – n. a share of money or food or clothing that has been charitably given

dolt [dəult] – n. a person who is not very bright

doom [du:m] – v. decree or designate beforehand

dormant [ˈdɔ:mənt] – adj. in a condition of biological rest or suspended animation: dormant buds

dorsal [ˈdɔ:s(ə)l] – adj. belonging to or on or near the back or upper surface of an animal or organ or part: the dorsal fin is the vertical fin on the back of a fish and certain marine mammals

doting [ˈdəutiŋ] – adj. extravagantly or foolishly loving and indulgent: deceiving her preoccupied and doting husband with a young captain

dour [duə] – adj. stubbornly unyielding: dour determination

dowdy [ˈdaudi] – n. deep-dish apple dessert covered with a rich crust

doze [dəuz] – n. a light fitful sleep

drastic [ˈdræstik] – adj. forceful and extreme and rigorous: drastic measures

drawback [ˈdrɔ:bæk] – n. the quality of being a hindrance: he pointed out all the drawbacks to my plan

dregs [dregz] – n. sediment that has settled at the bottom of a liquid

droll [drəul] – adj. comical in an odd or whimsical manner: a droll little man with a quiet tongue-in-cheek kind of humor

drudgery [ˈdrʌdʒəri] – n. hard monotonous routine work

dubious [ˈdju:biəs] – adj. fraught with uncertainty or doubt: dubious about agreeing to go

dulcet [ˈdʌlsit] – adj. extremely pleasant in a gentle way: the most dulcet swimming on the most beautiful and remote beaches

duplicate [ˈdju:plikit] – v. make or do or perform again

duplicity [dju:ˈplisiti] – n. a fraudulent or duplicitous representation

duress [djuəˈres] – n. compulsory force or threat: confessed under duress

dwell [dwel] – v. think moodily or anxiously about something

dynasty [ˈdainəsti] – n. a sequence of powerful leaders in the same family

earnings [ˈə:niŋz] – n. the excess of revenues over outlays in a given period of time (including depreciation and other non-cash expenses)

earthy  – adj. conspicuously and tastelessly indecent: an earthy sense of humor

ebb [eb] – v. flow back or recede: the tides ebbed at noon

ebullience [iˈbʌliəns] – n. overflowing with eager enjoyment or approval

ebullient [iˈbʌliənt] – adj. joyously unrestrained

eccentric [ikˈsentrik] – n. a person with an unusual or odd personality

ecclesiastic [i.kli:ziˈæstik] – n. a clergyman or other person in religious orders

eclectic [iˈklektik] – adj. selecting what seems best of various styles or ideas

eclipse [iˈklips] – v. be greater in significance than

ecology [i:ˈkɔlədʒi] – n. the environment as it relates to living organisms: it changed the ecology of the island

ecstasy [ˈekstəsi] – n. a state of being carried away by overwhelming emotion

edible [ˈedibl] – n. any substance that can be used as food

edifice [ˈedifis] – n. a structure that has a roof and walls and stands more or less permanently in one place: it was an imposing edifice

edify [ˈedifai] – v. make understand

educator [ˈedʒukeitə] – n. someone who educates young people

educe [iˈdju:s] – v. develop or evolve from a latent or potential state

eerie [ˈiəri] – adj. suggestive of the supernatural; mysterious: an eerie feeling of deja vu

efface [iˈfeis] – v. remove completely from recognition or memory: efface the memory of the time in the camps

effeminate [iˈfeminit] – adj. having unsuitable feminine qualities

effervescence  – n. the process of bubbling as gas escapes

effete [iˈfi:t] – adj. marked by excessive self-indulgence and moral decay: a group of effete self-professed intellectuals

effigy [ˈefidʒi] – n. a representation of a person (especially in the form of sculpture): the coin bears an effigy of Lincoln

effluvium [eˈflu:viəm] – n. a foul-smelling outflow or vapor (especially a gaseous waste)

effrontery [eˈfrʌntəri] – n. audacious (even arrogant) behavior that you have no right to

effulgent [iˈfʌldʒənt] – adj. radiating or as if radiating light: the effulgent daffodils

effusive [iˈfju:siv] – adj. uttered with unrestrained enthusiasm

egocentric [.i:gəuˈsentrik] – n. a self-centered person with little regard for others

egregious [iˈgri:dʒəs] – adj. conspicuously and outrageously bad or reprehensible: an egregious lie

egress [ˈi:gres] – n. (astronomy) the reappearance of a celestial body after an eclipse

ejaculation [i.dʒækjʊˈleiʃən] – n. an abrupt emphatic exclamation expressing emotion

eject [iˈdʒekt] – v. put out or expel from a place

elaboration [i.læbəˈreiʃən] – n. addition of extra material or illustration or clarifying detail: an elaboration of the sketch followed

elapse [iˈlæps] – v. pass by: three years elapsed

elation [iˈleiʃən] – n. an exhilarating psychological state of pride and optimism; an absence of depression

electrician [ilekˈtriʃən] – n. a person who installs or repairs electrical or telephone lines

electrify [iˈlektrifai] – v. excite suddenly and intensely

elegiac [.eliˈdʒaiək] – adj. expressing sorrow often for something past: an elegiac lament for youthful ideals

elegy [ˈelidʒi] – n. a mournful poem; a lament for the dead

elevation [.eliˈveiʃən] – n. the event of something being raised upward: an elevation of the temperature in the afternoon

ellipsis [iˈlipsis] – n. omission or suppression of parts of words or sentences

eloquence [ˈeləkwəns] – n. powerful and effective language: his eloquence attracted a large congregation

eloquent [ˈeləkwənt] – adj. expressing yourself readily, clearly, effectively

elucidate [iˈlu:sideit] – v. make clear and (more) comprehensible

elusive [iˈlju:siv] – adj. difficult to describe: a haunting elusive odor

emaciated [iˈmeiʃieitid] – adj. very thin especially from disease or hunger or cold: emaciated bony hands

emanate [ˈeməneit] – v. proceed or issue forth, as from a source: Water emanates from this hole in the ground

emancipate [iˈmænsipeit] – v. give equal rights to; of women and minorities

embarkation  – n. the act of passengers and crew getting aboard a ship or aircraft

embed [imˈbed] – v. fix or set securely or deeply

embellish [imˈbeliʃ] – v. add details to

embezzle [imˈbezl] – v. appropriate (as property entrusted to one’s care) fraudulently to one’s own use: The accountant embezzled thousands of dollars while working for the wealthy family

embezzlement [imˈbezlmənt] – n. the fraudulent appropriation of funds or property entrusted to your care but actually owned by someone else

embroil [imˈbrɔil] – v. force into some kind of situation, condition, or course of action

emetic [iˈmetik] – n. a medicine that induces nausea and vomiting

eminence [ˈeminəns] – n. high status importance owing to marked superiority: a scholar of great eminence

eminent [ˈeminənt] – adj. standing above others in quality or position: eminent members of the community

emollient [iˈmɔliənt] – adj. having a softening or soothing effect especially to the skin

emolument [iˈmɔljumənt] – n. compensation received by virtue of holding an office or having employment (usually in the form of wages or fees): a clause in the U.S. constitution prevents sitting legislators from receiving emoluments from their own votes

emulate [ˈemjuleit] – v. strive to equal or match, especially by imitating

enclosure [inˈkləuʒə] – n. the act of enclosing something inside something else

encomiastic [en.kəʊmiˈæstik] – adj. formally expressing praise

encomium [inˈkəumiəm] – n. a formal expression of praise

encroach [inˈkrəutʃ] – v. advance beyond the usual limit

encumber [inˈkʌmbə] – v. hold back

encyclopedia [en.saikləuˈpi:diə] – n. a reference work (often in several volumes) containing articles on various topics (often arranged in alphabetical order) dealing with the entire range of human knowledge or with some particular specialty

endanger [inˈdeindʒə] – v. pose a threat to; present a danger to: The pollution is endangering the crops

endeavor [inˈdevə] – n. a purposeful or industrious undertaking (especially one that requires effort or boldness)

endemic [enˈdemik,in-] – adj. native to or confined to a certain region: the islands have a number of interesting endemic species

endorsement [inˈdɔ:smənt] – n. a promotional statement (as found on the dust jackets of books)

endorser [inˈdɔ:sə] – n. someone who expresses strong approval

endow [inˈdau] – v. give qualities or abilities to

endurance [inˈdjuərəns] – n. the power to withstand hardship or stress: the marathon tests a runner’s endurance

energetic [.enəˈdʒetik] – adj. working hard to promote an enterprise

enervate [ˈenəveit] – v. weaken mentally or morally

enfeeble [inˈfi:bl] – v. make weak

enfranchised  – adj. endowed with the rights of citizenship especially the right to vote

engender [inˈdʒendə] – v. call forth

engulf [inˈgʌlf] – v. devote (oneself) fully to

enigma [iˈnigmə] – n. something that baffles understanding and cannot be explained

enigmatic [.enigˈmætik] – adj. not clear to the understanding: I didn’t grasp the meaning of that enigmatic comment until much later

enjoin [inˈdʒɔin] – v. issue an injunction

enlighten [inˈlaitn] – v. make understand: Can you enlighten me–I don’t understand this proposal

ennui [ɔnˈwi:] – n. the feeling of being bored by something tedious

entrepreneur [.ɔntrəprəˈnə:] – n. someone who organizes a business venture and assumes the risk for it

eon [ˈi:ən] – n. an immeasurably long period of time: oh, that happened eons ago

ephemeral [iˈfemərəl] – n. anything short-lived, as an insect that lives only for a day in its winged form

epicure [ˈepikjuə] – n. a person devoted to refined sensuous enjoyment (especially good food and drink)

epidemic [.epiˈdemik] – n. a widespread outbreak of an infectious disease; many people are infected at the same time

epigram [ˈepigræm] – n. a witty saying

epilogue [ˈepilɔg] – n. a short speech (often in verse) addressed directly to the audience by an actor at the end of a play

epiphany [iˈpifəni] – n. a divine manifestation

epitaph [ˈepitɑ:f] – n. an inscription on a tombstone or monument in memory of the person buried there

epitome [iˈpitəmi] – n. a standard or typical example

epoch [ˈi:pɔk] – n. a period marked by distinctive character or reckoned from a fixed point or event

equable [ˈekwəbəl] – adj. not varying: an equable climate

equanimity [.i:kwəˈnimiti] – n. steadiness of mind under stress: he accepted their problems with composure and she with equanimity

equinox [ˈi:kwinɔks] – n. (astronomy) either of the two celestial points at which the celestial equator intersects the ecliptic

equitable [ˈekwitəbəl] – adj. fair to all parties as dictated by reason and conscience: equitable treatment of all citizens

equivocal [iˈkwivəkəl] – adj. open to two or more interpretations; or of uncertain nature or significance; or (often) intended to mislead: an equivocal statement

equivocate [iˈkwivəkeit] – v. be deliberately ambiguous or unclear in order to mislead or withhold information

eradicate [iˈrædikeit] – v. kill in large numbers

eradication [i.rædiˈkeiʃən] – n. the complete destruction of every trace of something

erase [iˈreiz] – v. remove from memory or existence: The Turks erased the Armenians in 1915

errant [ˈerənt] – adj. straying from the right course or from accepted standards: errant youngsters

erratic [iˈrætik] – adj. liable to sudden unpredictable change: erratic behavior

erroneous [iˈrəuniəs] – adj. containing or characterized by error: erroneous conclusions

erudite [ˈerudait] – adj. having or showing profound knowledge: an erudite professor

erupt [iˈrʌpt] – v. start abruptly

eschew [isˈtʃu:] – v. avoid and stay away from deliberately; stay clear of

escort [ˈeskɔ:t] – n. the act of accompanying someone or something in order to protect them

esoteric [.esəˈterik] – adj. confined to and understandable by only an enlightened inner circle: a compilation of esoteric philosophical theories

esteem [isˈti:m] – n. a feeling of delighted approval and liking

estimable [ˈestiməbəl] – adj. deserving of respect or high regard

estranged [iˈstreindʒd] – adj. caused to be unloved

ethereal [iˈθiəriəl] – adj. characterized by lightness and insubstantiality; as impalpable or intangible as air: physical rather than ethereal forms

etymology [.etiˈmɔlədʒi] – n. a history of a word

eulogistic [.ju:ləˈdʒistik] – adj. formally expressing praise

eulogy [ˈju:lədʒi] – n. a formal expression of praise for someone who has died recently

euphemism [ˈju:fimizəm] – n. an inoffensive or indirect expression that is substituted for one that is considered offensive or too harsh

euphonious [ju:ˈfəuniəs] – adj. having a pleasant sound: a euphonious trill of silver laughter

euphony [ˈju:fəni] – n. any agreeable (pleasing and harmonious) sounds

evacuate [iˈvækjueit] – v. move out of an unsafe location into safety: After the earthquake, residents were evacuated

evade [iˈveid] – v. avoid or try to avoid fulfilling, answering, or performing (duties, questions, or issues): They tend to evade their responsibilities

evanescent [.evəˈnesənt] – adj. tending to vanish like vapor: evanescent beauty

evasion [iˈveiʒən] – n. a statement that is not literally false but that cleverly avoids an unpleasant truth

evasive [iˈveisiv] – adj. deliberately vague or ambiguous: his answers were brief, constrained and evasive

eviscerate [iˈvisəreit] – v. surgically remove a part of a structure or an organ

exaction [igˈzækʃən] – n. act of demanding or levying by force or authority: exaction of tribute

exasperate [igˈzɑ:spəreit] – v. make furious

excerpt [ˈeksə:pt,ekˈsə:pt] – n. a passage selected from a larger work: he presented excerpts from William James’ philosophical writings

excise [ekˈsaiz] – v. remove by erasing or crossing out or as if by drawing a line

excruciating [ikˈskru:ʃieitiŋ] – adj. extremely painful

exculpate [ˈekskʌlpeit] – v. pronounce not guilty of criminal charges

execrable [ˈeksikrəbəl] – adj. of very poor quality or condition

executor [igˈzekjutə] – n. a person appointed by a testator to carry out the terms of the will

exegesis [.eksiˈdʒi:sis] – n. an explanation or critical interpretation (especially of the Bible)

exemplary [igˈzempləri] – adj. worthy of imitation: exemplary behavior

exemplify [igˈzemplifai] – v. be characteristic of

exempt [igˈzempt] – adj. (of goods or funds) not subject to taxation: income exempt from taxation

exhaustive [igˈzɔ:stiv] – adj. performed comprehensively and completely: an exhaustive study

exhort [igˈzɔ:t] – v. spur on or encourage especially by cheers and shouts

exhume [igˈzju:m,eksˈhju:m] – v. dig up for reburial or for medical investigation; of dead bodies

exigency [ˈeksidʒənsi] – n. a pressing or urgent situation: the health-care exigency

exigent [ˈeksidʒənt] – adj. demanding attention: regarded literary questions as exigent and momentous

exiguous [igˈziguəs] – adj. extremely scanty: an exiguous budget

exodus [ˈeksədəs] – n. a journey by a large group to escape from a hostile environment

exonerate [igˈzɔnəreit] – v. pronounce not guilty of criminal charges

exorbitant [igˈzɔ:bitənt] – adj. greatly exceeding bounds of reason or moderation: exorbitant rent

expatiate [ikˈspeiʃieit] – v. add details, as to an account or idea; clarify the meaning of and discourse in a learned way, usually in writing

expectancy [ikˈspektənsi] – n. something expected (as on the basis of a norm): an indicator of expectancy in development

expedient [iksˈpi:diənt] – adj. serving to promote your interest: was merciful only when mercy was expedient

expedite [ˈekspidait] – v. speed up the progress of; facilitate: This should expedite the process

expeditiously [.ekspiˈdiʃəsli] – adv. with efficiency; in an efficient manner

expiate [ˈekspieit] – v. make amends for: expiate one’s sins

expiration [.ekspaiəˈreiʃən] – n. a coming to an end of a contract period

expire [iksˈpaiə] – v. lose validity: My passports expired last month

exposition [.ekspəˈziʃən] – n. a systematic interpretation or explanation (usually written) of a specific topic

expunge [ikˈspʌndʒ] – v. remove by erasing or crossing out or as if by drawing a line

exquisite [ˈekskwizit] – adj. intense or sharp: suffered exquisite pain

extant [ikˈstænt] – adj. still in existence; not extinct or destroyed or lost: extant manuscripts

extemporaneous [ik.stempəˈreiniəs] – adj. with little or no preparation or forethought: an extemporaneous piano recital

extemporize [ikˈstempəraiz] – v. manage in a makeshift way; do with whatever is at hand

extenuate [ikˈstenjueit] – v. lessen or to try to lessen the seriousness or extent of: The circumstances extenuate the crime

extinguish [iksˈtiŋgwiʃ] – v. put an end to; kill

extol [iksˈtɔl] – v. praise, glorify, or honor: extol the virtues of one’s children

extraneous [ikˈstreiniəs] – adj. not pertinent to the matter under consideration: an issue extraneous to the debate

extravagant [iksˈtrævəgənt] – adj. unrestrained, especially with regard to feelings: extravagant praise

extricable  – adj. capable of being extricated

extricate [ˈekstrikeit] – v. release from entanglement of difficulty: I cannot extricate myself from this task

exultation [egzʌlˈteiʃən] – n. a feeling of extreme joy

fabricate [ˈfæbrikeit] – v. put together out of artificial or natural components or parts: the company fabricates plastic chairs

fabulous [ˈfæbjuləs] – adj. extremely pleasing: a fabulous vacation

facetious [fəˈsi:ʃəs] – adj. cleverly amusing in tone: facetious remarks

facsimile [fækˈsimili] – n. an exact copy or reproduction

factious [ˈfækʃəs] – adj. dissenting (especially dissenting with the majority opinion)

factitious [fækˈtiʃəs] – adj. not produced by natural forces: brokers created a factitious demand for stocks

fake [feik] – n. something that is a counterfeit; not what it seems to be

fallacious [fəˈleiʃəs] – adj. intended to deceive: fallacious testimony

fallible [ˈfæləbəl] – adj. likely to fail or make errors: everyone is fallible to some degree

fanatic [fəˈnætik] – n. a person motivated by irrational enthusiasm (as for a cause): A fanatic is one who can’t change his mind and won’t change the subject

fastidious [fæˈstidiəs] – adj. giving careful attention to detail; hard to please; excessively concerned with cleanliness: a fastidious and incisive intellect

fathom [ˈfæðəm] – n. a linear unit of measurement (equal to 6 feet) for water depth

fatuous [ˈfætʃuəs] – adj. devoid of intelligence

fauna [ˈfɔ:nə] – n. all the animal life in a particular region or period: the fauna of China

fawn [fɔ:n] – v. show submission or fear

fealty [ˈfi:əlti] – n. the loyalty that citizens owe to their country (or subjects to their sovereign)

feasibility [.fi:zəˈbiliti] – n. the quality of being doable

feat [fi:t] – n. a notable achievement: he performed a great feat

febrile [ˈfi:brail] – adj. of or relating to or characterized by fever: a febrile reaction caused by an allergen

fecund [ˈfekənd, ˈfi:kənd] – adj. capable of producing offspring or vegetation

fecundity [fiˈkʌndəti] – n. the intellectual productivity of a creative imagination

feign [fein] – v. make believe with the intent to deceive: He feigned that he was ill

feint [feint] – n. any distracting or deceptive maneuver (as a mock attack)

felicitous [fiˈlisitəs] – adj. exhibiting an agreeably appropriate manner or style: a felicitous speaker

feline [ˈfi:lain] – n. any of various lithe-bodied roundheaded fissiped mammals, many with retractile claws

fell [fel] – n. the dressed skin of an animal (especially a large animal)

fellowship [ˈfeləuʃip] – n. an association of people who share common beliefs or activities: the church welcomed new members into its fellowship

felony [ˈfeləni] – n. a serious crime (such as murder or arson)

ferment [fəˈment] – v. be in an agitated or excited state: The Middle East is fermenting

ferocity [fəˈrɔsiti] – n. the property of being wild or turbulent

ferret [ˈferit] – v. hound or harry relentlessly

fervent [ˈfə:vənt] – adj. characterized by intense emotion: a fervent desire to change society

fervid [ˈfə:vid] – adj. characterized by intense emotion

fervor [ˈfə:və] – n. feelings of great warmth and intensity

fester [ˈfestə] – n. a sore that has become inflamed and formed pus

fetid [ˈfi:tid] – adj. offensively malodorous

fetish [ˈfetiʃ] – n. a charm superstitiously believed to embody magical powers

fetter [ˈfetə] – n. a shackle for the ankles or feet

feudal [ˈfju:dl] – adj. of or relating to or characteristic of feudalism

fickle [ˈfikəl] – adj. marked by erratic changeableness in affections or attachments: fickle friends

fidelity [fiˈdeliti] – n. accuracy with which an electronic system reproduces the sound or image of its input signal

fiduciary [fiˈdju:ʃəri] – n. a person who holds assets in trust for a beneficiary: it is illegal for a fiduciary to misappropriate money for personal gain

fiendish [ˈfi:ndiʃ] – adj. extremely evil or cruel; expressive of cruelty or befitting hell: a fiendish despot

figment [ˈfigmənt] – n. a contrived or fantastic idea: a figment of the imagination

filial [ˈfiliəl] – adj. designating the generation or the sequence of generations following the parental generation

financier [faiˈnænsiə] – n. a person skilled in large scale financial transactions

financing [faiˈnænsiŋ] – n. the act of financing

finesse [fiˈnes] – n. subtly skillful handling of a situation

finicky [ˈfiniki] – adj. exacting especially about details: a finicky eater

finite [ˈfainait] – adj. bounded or limited in magnitude or spatial or temporal extent

fireplace [ˈfaiəpleis] – n. an open recess in a wall at the base of a chimney where a fire can be built: the fireplace was so large you could walk inside it

fissure [ˈfiʃə] – n. a long narrow depression in a surface

flaccid [ˈflæksid] – adj. drooping without elasticity; wanting in stiffness: a flaccid penis

flagellate [ˈflædʒileit] – v. whip: The religious fanatics flagellated themselves

flagging [ˈflægiŋ] – n. a walk of flagstones: the flagging in the garden was quite imaginative

flagrant [ˈfleigrənt] – adj. conspicuously and outrageously bad or reprehensible: flagrant violation of human rights

flamboyant [flæmˈbɔiənt] – adj. marked by ostentation but often tasteless

flap [flæp] – v. move in a wavy pattern or with a rising and falling motion

flatter [ˈflætə] – v. praise somewhat dishonestly

flaunt [flɔ:nt] – n. the act of displaying something ostentatiously: his behavior was an outrageous flaunt

flaw [flɔ:] – n. an imperfection in an object or machine: a flaw caused the crystal to shatter

fledgling [ˈfledʒliŋ] – n. any new participant in some activity

flinch [flintʃ] – n. a reflex response to sudden pain

flippant [ˈflipənt] – adj. showing inappropriate levity

floorwalker [ˈflɔ:.wɔ:kə] – n. an employee of a retail store who supervises sales personnel and helps with customer problems: a floorwalker is called a shopwalker in Britain

flora [ˈflɔ:rə] – n. all the plant life in a particular region or period: the flora of southern California

florid [ˈflɔrid] – adj. elaborately or excessively ornamented: the senator’s florid speech

flout [flaut] – v. treat with contemptuous disregard: flout the rules

fluctuate [ˈflʌktjueit] – v. move or sway in a rising and falling or wavelike pattern

fluency [ˈfluənsi] – n. powerful and effective language: fluency in spoken and written English is essential

fluke [flu:k] – n. a stroke of luck

flux [flʌks] – n. a flow or discharge

foam [fəum] – n. a lightweight material in cellular form; made by introducing gas bubbles during manufacture

foist [fɔist] – v. to force onto another: He foisted his work on me

foment [fəuˈment] – v. try to stir up public opinion

foolhardy [ˈfu:lhɑ:di] – adj. marked by defiant disregard for danger or consequences: foolhardy enough to try to seize the gun from the hijacker

foray [ˈfɔrei] – n. a sudden short attack

forbearance [fɔ:ˈbeərəns] – n. good-natured tolerance of delay or incompetence

fore [fɔ:] – n. front part of a vessel or aircraft

foreboding [fɔ:ˈbəudiŋ] – n. a feeling of evil to come: a steadily escalating sense of foreboding

forensic [fəˈrensik] – adj. of, relating to, or used in public debate or argument

foresee [fɔ:ˈsi:] – v. picture to oneself; imagine possible

forfeit [ˈfɔ:fit] – n. something that is lost or surrendered as a penalty

fortitude [ˈfɔ:titju:d] – n. strength of mind that enables one to endure adversity with courage

fortuitous [fɔ:ˈtju(:)itəs] – adj. having no cause or apparent cause: fortuitous encounters–strange accidents of fortune

foul [faul] – adj. highly offensive; arousing aversion or disgust

fractious [ˈfrækʃəs] – adj. stubbornly resistant to authority or control: a fractious animal that would not submit to the harness

fracture [ˈfræktʃə] – v. violate or abuse: This writer really fractures the language

fragrant [ˈfreigrənt] – adj. pleasant-smelling

fraught [frɔ:t] – adj. marked by distress: a fraught mother-daughter relationship

frenetic [friˈnetik] – adj. excessively agitated; distraught with fear or other violent emotion: frenetic screams followed the accident

fret [fret] – v. worry unnecessarily or excessively

fright [frait] – v. cause fear in: The stranger who hangs around the building frightens me

frivolity [friˈvɔliti] – n. something of little value or significance

frolicsome [ˈfrɔliksəm] – adj. given to merry frolicking: frolicsome students celebrated their graduation with parties and practical jokes

froward  – adj. habitually disposed to disobedience and opposition

frugal [ˈfru:gəl] – adj. avoiding waste: a frugal farmer

frugality [fru(:)ˈgæliti] – n. prudence in avoiding waste

fulminate [ˈfulmineit] – v. criticize severely: He fulminated against the Republicans’ plan to cut Medicare

fulsome [ˈfulsəm] – adj. unpleasantly and excessively suave or ingratiating in manner or speech: gave him a fulsome introduction

fume [fju:m] – v. emit a cloud of fine particles

furthest [ˈfə:ðist] – adj. (comparatives of `far’) most remote in space or time or order: explored the furthest reaches of space

furtive [ˈfə:tiv] – adj. marked by quiet and caution and secrecy; taking pains to avoid being observed: a furtive manner

fuse [fju:z] – v. mix together different elements

fustian [ˈfʌstiən] – n. pompous or pretentious talk or writing

futile [ˈfju:tail] – adj. producing no result or effect: a futile effort

gaffe [gæf] – n. a socially awkward or tactless act

gainsay [.geinˈsei] – v. take exception to

galvanize [ˈgælvənaiz] – v. to stimulate to action: galvanized into action

gamble [ˈgæmbl] – n. money that is risked for possible monetary gain

gambol [ˈgæmbəl] – n. gay or light-hearted recreational activity for diversion or amusement

gamut [ˈgæmət] – n. a complete extent or range:: a face that expressed a gamut of emotions

gaol  – v. lock up or confine, in or as in a jail

garble [ˈgɑ:bəl] – v. make false by mutilation or addition; as of a message or story

garbled [ˈgɑ:bld] – adj. lacking orderly continuity

garish [ˈgeəriʃ] – adj. tastelessly showy: garish colors

garner [ˈgɑ:nə] – v. acquire or deserve by one’s efforts or actions

garnish [ˈgɑ:niʃ] – n. something (such as parsley) added to a dish for flavor or decoration

garrulous [ˈgærələs] – adj. full of trivial conversation

gauche [gəuʃ] – adj. lacking social polish: too gauche to leave the room when the conversation became intimate

gauntlet [ˈgɔ:ntlit] – n. to offer or accept a challenge: threw down the gauntlet

gazetteer [.gæziˈtiə] – n. a geographical dictionary (as at the back of an atlas)

generalize [ˈdʒenərəlaiz] – v. speak or write in generalities

generic [dʒiˈnerik] – adj. relating to or common to or descriptive of all members of a genus: the generic name

generosity [.dʒenəˈrɔsiti] – n. the trait of being willing to give your money or time

genial [ˈdʒi:niəl] – adj. diffusing warmth and friendliness: a genial host

geniality [.dʒi:niˈæliti] – n. a disposition to be friendly and approachable (easy to talk to)

genre [ʒɑ:ŋr] – n. a kind of literary or artistic work

genuflect [ˈdʒenjuflekt] – v. bend the knees and bow in church or before a religious superior or image

germane [dʒə:ˈməin] – adj. relevant and appropriate: he asks questions that are germane and central to the issue

germinate [ˈdʒə:mineit] – v. work out

gerrymander [ˈdʒerimændə] – v. divide unfairly and to one’s advantage; of voting districts

gesticulate [dʒeˈstikjuleit] – v. show, express or direct through movement

ghastly [ˈgɑ:stli] – adj. shockingly repellent; inspiring horror: ghastly wounds

gibber [ˈdʒibə] – v. speak (about unimportant matters) rapidly and incessantly

gigantic [dʒaiˈgæntik] – adj. so exceedingly large or extensive as to suggest a giant or mammoth: a gigantic redwood

giggle [ˈgigl] – n. a foolish or nervous laugh

gimmick [ˈgimik] – n. a drawback or difficulty that is not readily evident

glamour [ˈglæmə] – n. alluring beauty or charm (often with sex-appeal)

glib [glib] – adj. marked by lack of intellectual depth: glib generalizations

gloaming [ˈgləumiŋ] – n. the time of day immediately following sunset

gloat [gləut] – v. dwell on with satisfaction

glossy [ˈglɔsi] – adj. reflecting light: the horse’s glossy coat

glut [glʌt] – v. overeat or eat immodestly; make a pig of oneself

glutton [ˈglʌtn] – n. a person who is devoted to eating and drinking to excess

gluttonous [ˈglʌtnəs] – adj. given to excess in consumption of especially food or drink: over-fed women and their gluttonous husbands

goad [gəud] – v. give heart or courage to

goodby  – n. a farewell remark

goodwill [ˈgudˈwil] – n. the friendly hope that something will succeed

gorgeous [ˈgɔ:dʒəs] – adj. dazzlingly beautiful: a gorgeous Victorian gown

gossamer [ˈgɔsəmə] – n. a gauze fabric with an extremely fine texture

gourmand [ˈguəmənd] – n. a person who is devoted to eating and drinking to excess

gourmet [ˈguəmei] – n. a person devoted to refined sensuous enjoyment (especially good food and drink)

gradient [ˈgreidiənt] – n. the property possessed by a line or surface that departs from the horizontal: a five-degree gradient

graft [grɑ:ft] – n. the practice of offering something (usually money) in order to gain an illicit advantage

grandiose [ˈgrændiəus] – adj. affectedly genteel

grant-in-aid  – n. a grant from a central government to a local government

granulate [ˈgrænjuleit] – v. form into grains

graphic [ˈgræfik] – adj. written or drawn or engraved: graphic symbols

gratification [.grætifiˈkeiʃən] – n. the act or an instance of satisfying

gratuitous [grəˈtju:itəs] – adj. without cause: a gratuitous insult

gravy [ˈgreivi] – n. a sauce made by adding stock, flour, or other ingredients to the juice and fat that drips from cooking meats

graze [greiz] – v. feed as in a meadow or pasture

grease [gri:s] – n. a thick fatty oil (especially one used to lubricate machinery)

Greece [gri:s] – n. a republic in southeastern Europe on the southern part of the Balkan peninsula; known for grapes and olives and olive oil

greenback [ˈgri:nbæk] – n. a piece of paper money (especially one issued by a central bank)

gregarious [griˈgeəriəs] – adj. (of animals) tending to form a group with others of the same species: gregarious bird species

grope [grəup] – v. feel about uncertainly or blindly: She groped for her glasses in the darkness of the bedroom

guffaw [gəˈfɔ:] – n. a burst of deep loud hearty laughter

guile [gail] – n. shrewdness as demonstrated by being skilled in deception

guise [gaiz] – n. an artful or simulated semblance: under the guise of friendship he betrayed them

gullible [ˈgʌləbəl] – adj. naive and easily deceived or tricked: at that early age she had been gullible and in love

haggard [ˈhægəd] – adj. showing the wearing effects of overwork or care or suffering: her face was drawn and haggard from sleeplessness

haggle [ˈhægl] – n. an instance of intense argument (as in bargaining)

halcyon [ˈhælsiən] – n. (Greek mythology) a woman who was turned into a kingfisher

hallucination [hə.lu:siˈneiʃən] – n. illusory perception; a common symptom of severe mental disorder

hamper [ˈhæmpə] – n. a restraint that confines or restricts freedom (especially something used to tie down or restrain a prisoner)

handbook [ˈhændbuk] – n. a concise reference book providing specific information about a subject or location

haphazard [ˈhæpˈhæzəd] – adj. dependent upon or characterized by chance: a haphazard plan of action

hapless [ˈhæpləs] – adj. deserving or inciting pity: a hapless victim

harangue [həˈræŋ] – n. a loud bombastic declamation expressed with strong emotion

harassment [ˈhærəsmənt] – n. a feeling of intense annoyance caused by being tormented: so great was his harassment that he wanted to destroy his tormentors

harbinger [ˈhɑ:bindʒə] – n. something that precedes and indicates the approach of something or someone

harmonious [hɑ:ˈməunjəs] – adj. musically pleasing

harrow [ˈhærəu] – n. a cultivator that pulverizes or smooths the soil

haughty [ˈhɔ:ti] – adj. having or showing arrogant superiority to and disdain of those one views as unworthy: haughty aristocrats

hauteur [əuˈtə:] – n. overbearing pride evidenced by a superior manner toward inferiors

havoc [ˈhævək] – n. violent and needless disturbance

heave [hi:v] – v. utter a sound, as with obvious effort: She heaved a deep sigh when she saw the list of things to do

hectic [ˈhektik] – adj. marked by intense agitation or emotion

hedonistic  – adj. devoted to pleasure: lives of unending hedonistic delight

heed [hi:d] – n. paying particular notice (as to children or helpless people): he spends without heed to the consequences

hefty [ˈhefti] – adj. (of a person) possessing physical strength and weight; rugged and powerful: a hefty athlete

heighten [ˈhaitn] – v. become more extreme: The tension heightened

heinous [ˈheinəs] – adj. extremely wicked, deeply criminal: heinous accusations

helper [ˈhelpə] – n. a person who contributes to the fulfillment of a need or furtherance of an effort or purpose

helping [ˈhelpiŋ] – n. an individual quantity of food or drink taken as part of a meal: the helpings were all small

heresy [ˈherisi] – n. any opinions or doctrines at variance with the official or orthodox position

heretic [ˈheritik] – n. a person who holds religious beliefs in conflict with the dogma of the Roman Catholic Church

heterogeneity [.hetərəudʒiˈni:iti] – n. the quality of being diverse and not comparable in kind

hiatus [haiˈeitəs] – n. an interruption in the intensity or amount of something

hieroglyphic [haiərəglifik] – n. a writing system using picture symbols; used in ancient Egypt

hike [haik] – n. a long walk usually for exercise or pleasure: she enjoys a hike in her spare time

hilarity [hiˈlæriti] – n. great merriment

hinge [hindʒ] – n. a joint that holds two parts together so that one can swing relative to the other

hirsute [ˈhə:sju:t] – adj. having or covered with hair

histrionic [.histriˈɔnik] – adj. characteristic of acting or a stage performance; often affected: histrionic gestures

hoarse [hɔ:s] – adj. deep and harsh sounding as if from shouting or illness or emotion: hoarse cries

hoary [ˈhɔ:ri] – adj. showing characteristics of age, especially having grey or white hair: nodded his hoary head

hoist [hɔist] – v. raise or haul up with or as if with mechanical help: hoist the bicycle onto the roof of the car

holocaust [ˈhɔləkɔ:st] – n. an act of mass destruction and loss of life (especially in war or by fire): a nuclear holocaust

homage [ˈhɔmidʒ] – n. respectful deference

homeostasis  – n. (physiology) metabolic equilibrium actively maintained by several complex biological mechanisms that operate via the autonomic nervous system to offset disrupting changes

homesick [ˈhəumsik] – adj. longing to return home

homily [ˈhɔmili] – n. a sermon on a moral or religious topic

homogeneous [.hɔməˈdʒi:niəs] – adj. all of the same or similar kind or nature: a close-knit homogeneous group

hone [həun] – v. make perfect or complete

hop [hɔp] – v. jump lightly

horrendous [hɔˈrendəs] – adj. causing fear or dread or terror: horrendous explosions shook the city

horrid [ˈhɔrid] – adj. exceedingly bad: when she was bad she was horrid

hortative [ˈhɔ:tətiv] – adj. giving strong encouragement

hose [həuz] – n. socks and stockings and tights collectively (the British include underwear)

hound [haund] – n. any of several breeds of dog used for hunting typically having large drooping ears

hubbub [ˈhʌbʌb] – n. loud confused noise from many sources

hubris [ˈhju:bris] – n. overbearing pride or presumption

huckster [ˈhʌkstə] – n. a seller of shoddy goods

huddle [ˈhʌdl] – n. (informal) a quick private conference

hum [hʌm] – v. sing with closed lips: She hummed a melody

humdrum [ˈhʌmdrʌm] – adj. not challenging; dull and lacking excitement

humidity [hju:ˈmiditi] – n. wetness in the atmosphere

humiliate [hju:ˈmilieit] – v. cause to feel shame; hurt the pride of: He humiliated his colleague by criticising him in front of the boss

humility [hju(:)ˈmiliti] – n. a disposition to be humble; a lack of false pride: not everyone regards humility as a virtue

hurl [hə:l] – v. throw forcefully

hurricane [ˈhʌrikən] – n. a severe tropical cyclone usually with heavy rains and winds moving a 73-136 knots (12 on the Beaufort scale)

hybrid [ˈhaibrid] – n. a word that is composed of parts from different languages (e.g., `monolingual’ has a Greek prefix and a Latin root)

hyperbole [haiˈpə:bəli] – n. extravagant exaggeration

hyperborean [.haipə:bɔ:ˈri:ən] – n. (Greek mythology) one of a people that the ancient Greeks believed lived in a warm and sunny land north of the source of the north wind

hypercritical [.haipəˈkritikəl] – adj. inclined to judge too severely: hypercritical of colloquial speech

hypermarket [ˈhaipə.mɑ:kit] – n. a huge supermarket (usually built on the outskirts of a town)

hypocrisy [hiˈpɔkrəsi] – n. an expression of agreement that is not supported by real conviction

hypocritical [hipəˈkritik] – adj. professing feelings or virtues one does not have: hypocritical praise

hypothecate [haiˈpɔθikeit] – v. pledge without delivery or title of possession

hypothetical [.haipəˈθetikəl] – adj. based primarily on surmise rather than adequate evidence: hypothetical situation

hysterical [hisˈterikəl] – adj. marked by excessive or uncontrollable emotion: hysterical laughter

i.e. [.aiˈi:] – adv. that is to say; in other words

iconoclast [aiˈkɔnəklæst] – n. a destroyer of images used in religious worship

icy [ˈaisi] – adj. devoid of warmth and cordiality; expressive of unfriendliness or disdain: icy stare

idiosyncrasy [.idiəˈsiŋkrəsi] – n. a behavioral attribute that is distinctive and peculiar to an individual

idiot [ˈidiət] – n. a person of subnormal intelligence

idol [ˈaidl] – n. a material effigy that is worshipped

idolater [aiˈdɔlətə] – n. a person who worships idols

idyll [ˈaidl] – n. a musical composition that evokes rural life

igneous [ˈigniəs] – adj. produced under conditions involving intense heat: igneous rock is rock formed by solidification from a molten state; especially from molten magma

ignite [igˈnait] – v. cause to start burning; subject to fire or great heat: Great heat can ignite almost any dry matter

ignoble [igˈnəubəl] – adj. completely lacking nobility in character or quality or purpose: something cowardly and ignoble in his attitude

ignominious [.ignəˈminiəs] – adj. (used of conduct or character) deserving or bringing disgrace or shame: an ignominious retreat

illiberal [iˈlibərəl] – adj. narrow-minded about cherished opinions

illicit [iˈlisit] – adj. contrary to accepted morality (especially sexual morality) or convention: an illicit association with his secretary

illiterate [iˈlitərit] – adj. not able to read or write

illuminating [iˈlu:mineitiŋ] – adj. tending to increase knowledge or dissipate ignorance: an illuminating lecture

illusive [iˈlu:siv] – adj. based on or having the nature of an illusion: illusive hopes of finding a better job

illusory [iˈlu:səri] – adj. based on or having the nature of an illusion: Secret activities offer presidents the alluring but often illusory promise that they can achieve foreign policy goals without the bothersome debate and open decision that are staples of democracy

imbecility [.imbiˈsiləti] – n. retardation more severe than a moron but not as severe as an idiot

imbroglio [imˈbrəuliəu] – n. an intricate and confusing interpersonal or political situation

imbue [imˈbju:] – v. spread or diffuse through

imitation [.imiˈteiʃən] – n. something copied or derived from an original

immaculate [iˈmækjulit] – adj. completely neat and clean: the apartment was immaculate

immanent [ˈimənənt] – adj. of a mental act performed entirely within the mind: a cognition is an immanent act of mind

immerse [iˈmə:s] – v. thrust or throw into

immersion [iˈmə:ʃən] – n. sinking until covered completely with water

immiscible [iˈmisib(ə)l] – adj. (chemistry, physics) incapable of mixing

immunity [iˈmju:niti] – n. the state of not being susceptible

immutable [iˈmju:təbəl] – adj. not subject or susceptible to change or variation in form or quality or nature: the view of that time was that all species were immutable, created by God

impair [imˈpɛə] – v. make worse or less effective: His vision was impaired

impale [imˈpel] – v. pierce with a sharp stake or point: impale a shrimp on a skewer

impart [imˈpɑ:t] – v. transmit (knowledge or skills): impart a new skill to the students

impartial [imˈpɑ:ʃəl] – adj. showing lack of favoritism: the cold neutrality of an impartial judge

impasse [imˈpæs] – n. a situation in which no progress can be made or no advancement is possible: reached an impasse on the negotiations

impassive [imˈpæsiv] – adj. having or revealing little emotion or sensibility; not easily aroused or excited: her impassive remoteness

impeccable [imˈpekəbəl] – adj. without fault or error: speaks impeccable French

impecunious [.impiˈkju:niəs] – adj. not having enough money to pay for necessities

impede [imˈpi:d] – v. be a hindrance or obstacle to

impenitent [imˈpenitənt] – adj. not penitent or remorseful

imperative [imˈperətiv] – n. a mood that expresses an intention to influence the listener’s behavior

imperious [imˈpiəriəs] – adj. having or showing arrogant superiority to and disdain of those one views as unworthy

impermeable [imˈpə:miəbəl] – adj. preventing especially liquids to pass or diffuse through: impermeable stone

imperturbable [.impəˈtə:bəbəl] – adj. not easily perturbed or excited or upset; marked by extreme calm and composure: hitherto imperturbable, he now showed signs of alarm

impervious [imˈpə:viəs] – adj. not admitting of passage or capable of being affected: a material impervious to water

impetuous [imˈpetjuəs] – adj. characterized by undue haste and lack of thought or deliberation: an impetuous display of spending and gambling

impetus [ˈimpitəs] – n. a force that moves something along

impiety [imˈpaiəti] – n. unrighteousness by virtue of lacking respect for a god

implacable [imˈplækəbəl] – adj. incapable of being placated: an implacable enemy

implicate [ˈimplikeit] – v. bring into intimate and incriminating connection: He is implicated in the scheme to defraud the government

impolitic [imˈpɔlitik] – adj. not politic: an impolitic approach to a sensitive issue

importune [.imˈpɔ:tju:n] – v. beg persistently and urgently: I importune you to help them

impost [ˈimpəust] – n. money collected under a tariff

imposture [imˈpɔstʃə] – n. pretending to be another person

impregnable [imˈgregnəbəl] – adj. immune to attack; incapable of being tampered with: an impregnable fortress

impresario [.impriˈsɑ:riəu] – n. a sponsor who books and stages public entertainments

impromptu [imˈprɔmptju:] – n. an extemporaneous speech or remark: a witty impromptu must not sound premeditated

improper [imˈprɔpə] – adj. not suitable or right or appropriate: slightly improper to dine alone with a married man

improvident [imˈprɔvidənt] – adj. not provident; not providing for the future

imprudent [imˈpru:dənt] – adj. not prudent or wise: very imprudent of her mother to encourage her in such silly romantic ideas

impudent [ˈimpjudənt] – adj. marked by casual disrespect: the student was kept in for impudent behavior

impugn [imˈpju:n] – v. attack as false or wrong

impurity [imˈpjuəriti] – n. worthless or dangerous material that should be removed

imputation [.impjuˈteiʃən] – n. a statement attributing something dishonest (especially a criminal offense): he denied the imputation

inaccessible [.inækˈsesəbl] – adj. capable of being reached only with great difficulty or not at all

inadvertent [.inədˈvə:tənt] – adj. happening by chance or unexpectedly or unintentionally: with an inadvertent gesture she swept the vase off the table

inalienable [inˈeiliənəb(ə)l] – adj. incapable of being repudiated or transferred to another

inane [iˈnein] – adj. devoid of intelligence

inanimate [inˈænimit] – adj. belonging to the class of nouns denoting nonliving things: the word `car’ is inanimate

inarticulate [inɑ:ˈtikjulit] – adj. without or deprived of the use of speech or words: inarticulate beasts

inaudible [inˈɔ:dəbl] – adj. impossible to hear; imperceptible by the ear: an inaudible conversation

incarcerate [inˈkɑ:səreit] – v. lock up or confine, in or as in a jail: the murderer was incarcerated for the rest of his life

incarnadine [inˈkɑ:nədain, -din] – v. make flesh-colored

incendiary [inˈsendiəri] – adj. involving deliberate burning of property: an incendiary fire

inception [inˈsepʃən] – n. an event that is a beginning; a first part or stage of subsequent events

incertitude [inˈsə:titju:d] – n. the state of being unsure of something

incessant [inˈsesnt] – adj. uninterrupted in time and indefinitely long continuing: night and day we live with the incessant noise of the city

inchoate [inˈkəuit] – adj. only partly in existence; imperfectly formed: a vague inchoate idea

incidental  – adj. not of prime or central importance

incinerate [inˈsinəreit] – v. become reduced to ashes: The paper incinerated quickly

incipient [inˈsipiənt] – adj. only partly in existence; imperfectly formed: incipient civil disorder

incisive [inˈsaisiv] – adj. having or demonstrating ability to recognize or draw fine distinctions: incisive comments

incite [inˈsait] – v. provoke or stir up: incite a riot

inclement [inˈklemənt] – adj. (of weather or climate) severe

inclusive [inˈklu:siv] – adj. including much or everything; and especially including stated limits: an inclusive art form

incognito [.inkɔgˈni:təu] – adj. with your identity concealed

incoherent [.inkəuˈhiərənt] – adj. without logical or meaningful connection: a turgid incoherent presentation

incommodious [.inkəˈməudiəs] – adj. uncomfortably or inconveniently small: incommodious hotel accommodations

incompatible [.inkəmˈpætəbl] – adj. not compatible: incompatible personalities

incompetence [inˈkɔmpitəns] – n. lack of physical or intellectual ability or qualifications

inconclusive [.inkənˈklu:siv] – adj. not conclusive; not putting an end to doubt or question: an inconclusive reply

incorporation [in.kɔ:pəˈreiʃən] – n. consolidating two or more things; union in (or into) one body

incorporeal [.inkɔ:ˈpɔ:riəl] – adj. without material form or substance: an incorporeal spirit

incorrigible [inˈkɔridʒəbəl] – adj. impervious to correction by punishment

incorruptible [.inkəˈrʌptəbl] – adj. incapable of being morally corrupted: incorruptible judges are the backbone of the society

incredulous [inˈkredjuləs] – adj. not disposed or willing to believe; unbelieving

increment [ˈinkrimənt] – n. a process of becoming larger or longer or more numerous or more important

incriminate [inˈkrimineit] – v. suggest that someone is guilty

inculcate [inˈkʌlkeit] – v. teach and impress by frequent repetitions or admonitions: inculcate values into the young generation

incumbent [inˈkʌmbənt] – adj. lying or leaning on something else: an incumbent geological formation

incursion [inˈkə:ʃən] – n. the act of entering some territory or domain (often in large numbers): the incursion of television into the American living room

indebted [inˈdetid] – adj. owing gratitude or recognition to another for help or favors etc

indecipherable  – adj. not easily deciphered: indecipherable handwriting

indefatigable [.indiˈfætigəbəl] – adj. showing sustained enthusiastic action with unflagging vitality: an indefatigable advocate of equal rights

indelible [inˈdeləbəl] – adj. cannot be removed or erased: an indelible stain

indemnify [inˈdemnifai] – v. secure against future loss, damage, or liability; give security for

indemnity [inˈdemniti] – n. protection against future loss

indent [ˈindent,inˈdent] – v. set in from the margin

indenture [inˈdentʃə] – n. a concave cut into a surface or edge (as in a coastline)

indicative [inˈdikətiv] – adj. relating to the mood of verbs that is used simple in declarative statements: indicative mood

indict [inˈdait] – v. accuse formally of a crime

indigence [ˈindidʒəns] – n. a state of extreme poverty or destitution: their indigence appalled him

indigent [ˈindidʒənt] – adj. poor enough to need help from others

indignation [.indigˈneiʃən] – n. a feeling of righteous anger

indiscriminate [.indisˈkriminit] – adj. failing to make or recognize distinctions

indisputable [.indiˈspju:təbəl] – adj. not open to question; obviously true: indisputable evidence of a witness

indolent [ˈindələnt] – adj. disinclined to work or exertion: an indolent hanger-on

indomitable [inˈdɔmitəbəl] – adj. impossible to subdue

indubitably  – adv. in a manner or to a degree that could not be doubted: it was immediately and indubitably apparent that I had interrupted a scene of lovers

inductive [inˈdʌktiv] – adj. of reasoning; proceeding from particular facts to a general conclusion: inductive reasoning

indulgence [inˈdʌldʒəns] – n. an inability to resist the gratification of whims and desires

indulgent [inˈdʌldʒənt] – adj. characterized by or given to yielding to the wishes of someone: indulgent grandparents

industrialist [inˈdʌstriəlist] – n. someone who manages or has significant financial interest in an industrial enterprise

industrious [inˈdʌstriəs] – adj. characterized by hard work and perseverance

inebriate [iˈni:brieit] – v. fill with sublime emotion: He was inebriated by his phenomenal success

ineffable [inˈefəbəl] – adj. defying expression or description: ineffable ecstasy

ineluctable [.iniˈlʌktəbəl] – adj. impossible to avoid or evade:: an ineluctable destiny

inept [iˈnept] – adj. not elegant or graceful in expression: if the rumor is true, can anything be more inept than to repeat it now?

inert [iˈnə:t] – adj. unable to move or resist motion

inexorable [inˈeksərəbəl] – adj. not to be placated or appeased or moved by entreaty: Russia’s final hour, it seemed, approached with inexorable certainty

inexpedient [.inikˈspi:diənt] – adj. not suitable or advisable: an inexpedient tactic

inextricable [inˈekstrikəbəl] – adj. not permitting extrication; incapable of being disentangled or untied: an inextricable knot

infallible [inˈfæləbəl] – adj. incapable of failure or error: an infallible antidote

infamous [ˈinfəməs] – adj. known widely and usually unfavorably: the infamous Benedict Arnold

infamy [ˈinfəmi] – n. a state of extreme dishonor: a date which will live in infamy

infectious [inˈfekʃəs] – adj. easily spread: fear is exceedingly infectious; children catch it from their elders

infinity [inˈfiniti] – n. time without end

infirmity [inˈfə:miti] – n. the state of being weak in health or body (especially from old age)

inflammatory [inˈflæmətəri] – adj. arousing to action or rebellion

inflate [inˈfleit] – v. exaggerate or make bigger: The charges were inflated

inflated [inˈfleitid] – adj. enlarged beyond truth or reasonableness

infrared [ˈinfrəˈred] – n. electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths longer than visible light but shorter than radio waves

ingenious [inˈdʒi:njəs] – adj. showing inventiveness and skill: an ingenious solution to the problem

ingenue [ˈænʒeinju:] – n. an actress who specializes in playing the role of an artless innocent young girl

ingenuous [inˈdʒenjuəs] – adj. characterized by an inability to mask your feelings; not devious: an ingenuous admission of responsibility

ingratiate [inˈgreiʃieit] – v. gain favor with somebody by deliberate efforts

ingratitude [inˈgrætitju:d] – n. a lack of gratitude

inhale [inˈheil] – v. draw deep into the lungs in by breathing: Clinton smoked marijuana but never inhaled

inimical [iˈnimikəl] – adj. not friendly: an inimical critic

iniquitous [iˈnikwitəs] – adj. characterized by iniquity; wicked because it is believed to be a sin: iniquitous deeds

injudicious [.indʒuˈdiʃəs] – adj. lacking or showing lack of judgment or discretion; unwise: an injudicious measure

inlet [ˈinlet] – n. an arm off of a larger body of water (often between rocky headlands)

innate [.iˈneit] – adj. not established by conditioning or learning

innocuous [iˈnɔkjuəs] – adj. not injurious to physical or mental health

innovate [ˈinəuveit] – v. bring something new to an environment

innuendo [.injuˈendəu] – n. an indirect (and usually malicious) implication

innumerable [iˈnju:mərəbl] – adj. too numerous to be counted: innumerable difficulties

inordinate [inˈɔrdinit, iˈnɔ:dinət] – adj. beyond normal limits: a book of inordinate length

inquisitive [inˈkwizitiv] – adj. showing curiosity: if someone saw a man climbing a light post they might get inquisitive

insane [inˈsein] – adj. afflicted with or characteristic of mental derangement: was declared insane

inscription [inˈskripʃən] – n. a short message (as in a book or musical work or on a photograph) dedicating it to someone or something

inscrutable [inˈskru:təbəl] – adj. of an obscure nature: the inscrutable workings of Providence

insidious [inˈsidiəs] – adj. beguiling but harmful: insidious pleasures

insinuate [inˈsinjueit] – v. introduce or insert (oneself) in a subtle manner: He insinuated himself into the conversation of the people at the nearby table

insipid [inˈsipid] – adj. lacking taste or flavor or tang: insipid hospital food

insolvency [inˈsɔlvənsi] – n. the lack of financial resources

insolvent [inˈsɔlvənt] – n. someone who has insufficient assets to cover their debts

insouciance [inˈsu:siəns] – n. the cheerful feeling you have when nothing is troubling you

instability [.instəˈbiliti] – n. an unstable order

installment [inˈstɔ:lmənt] – n. a payment of part of a debt; usually paid at regular intervals

instantaneous [.instənˈteiniəs] – adj. occurring with no delay: relief was instantaneous

instigate [ˈinstigeit] – v. provoke or stir up

instinctive [inˈstiŋktiv] – adj. unthinking; prompted by (or as if by) instinct: offering to help was as instinctive as breathing

insubordinate [.insəˈbɔ:dənit] – adj. not submissive to authority: a history of insubordinate behavior

insular [ˈinsjulə] – adj. relating to or characteristic of or situated on an island: insular territories

insularity [.insjuˈlæriti] – n. the state of being isolated or detached

insulate [ˈinsjuleit] – v. place or set apart

insulator [ˈinsju.leitə] – n. a material such as glass or porcelain with negligible electrical or thermal conductivity

insulin [ˈinsjulin] – n. hormone secreted by the isles of Langerhans in the pancreas; regulates storage of glycogen in the liver and accelerates oxidation of sugar in cells

insurgent [inˈsə:dʒənt] – n. a member of an irregular armed force that fights a stronger force by sabotage and harassment

intangible [inˈtændʒəbəl] – adj. (of especially business assets) not having physical substance or intrinsic productive value: intangible assets such as good will

intelligible [inˈtelidʒəbl] – adj. capable of being apprehended or understood

interact [.intəˈrækt] – v. act together or towards others or with others: He should interact more with his colleagues

intercede [.intəˈsi:d] – v. act between parties with a view to reconciling differences: He interceded in the family dispute

intercept [.intəˈsept] – v. seize on its way: The fighter plane was ordered to intercept an aircraft that had entered the country’s airspace

interdiction [.intə(:)ˈdikʃən] – n. authoritative prohibition

interlock [.intəˈlɔk] – v. coordinate in such a way that all parts work together effectively

intermediary [.intəˈmi:diəri] – n. a negotiator who acts as a link between parties

intermittent [.intəˈmitənt] – adj. stopping and starting at irregular intervals: intermittent rain showers

intern [inˈtə:n] – v. deprive of freedom: During WW II, Japanese were interned in camps in the West

internecine [.intəˈni:sain] – adj. (of conflict) within a group or organization: an internecine feud among proxy holders

intersection [.intəˈsekʃən] – n. a junction where one street or road crosses another

intersperse [.intəˈspə:s] – v. place at intervals in or among: intersperse exclamation marks in the text

intimidate [inˈtimideit] – v. make timid or fearful: Her boss intimidates her

intimidation [in.timəˈdeʃən] – n. the feeling of discouragement in the face of someone’s superior fame or wealth or status etc.

intoxicate [inˈtɔksikeit] – v. fill with high spirits; fill with optimism

intractable [inˈtræktəbəl] – adj. not tractable; difficult to manage or mold: an intractable disposition

intransigent [inˈtrænsidʒənt] – adj. impervious to pleas, persuasion, requests, reason: an intransigent conservative opposed to every liberal tendency

intrepid [inˈtrepid] – adj. invulnerable to fear or intimidation: intrepid pioneers

intricate [ˈintrikit] – adj. having many complexly arranged elements; elaborate: intricate lacework

intrigue [inˈtri:g] – n. a crafty and involved plot to achieve your (usually sinister) ends

intrinsic [inˈtrinsik] – adj. belonging to a thing by its very nature: form was treated as something intrinsic, as the very essence of the thing

intrude [inˈtru:d] – v. enter uninvited: They intruded on our dinner party

intuition [.intju:ˈiʃən] – n. instinctive knowing (without the use of rational processes)

inundate [ˈinəndeit] – v. fill quickly beyond capacity; as with a liquid: the basement was inundated after the storm

inundation [.inənˈdeiʃən] – n. the rising of a body of water and its overflowing onto normally dry land: plains fertilized by annual inundations

inure [iˈnjuə] – v. cause to accept or become hardened to; habituate: He was inured to the cold

inured  – adj. made tough by habitual exposure: a peasant, dark, lean-faced, wind-inured

invalid [ˈinvəli:d] – v. force to retire, remove from active duty, as of firemen

invariable [inˈvɛəriəbl] – n. a quantity that does not vary

invective [inˈvektiv] – n. abusive or venomous language used to express blame or censure or bitter deep-seated ill will

inventory [ˈinvəntri] – n. a detailed list of all the items in stock

inverse [ˈinˈvə:s] – adj. reversed (turned backward) in order or nature or effect

invert [inˈvə:t] – v. reverse the position, order, relation, or condition of: when forming a question, invert the subject and the verb

inveterate [inˈvetərit] – adj. habitual

invidious [inˈvidiəs] – adj. containing or implying a slight or showing prejudice: invidious comparisons

invincible [inˈvinsəbəl] – adj. incapable of being overcome or subdued: an invincible army

invoice [ˈinvɔis] – n. an itemized statement of money owed for goods shipped or services rendered

iota [aiˈəutə] – n. a tiny or scarcely detectable amount

IOU [ˈaiəuˈju:] – n. an informal debt instrument; representing `I owe you’

irascible [iˈræsəbəl] – adj. quickly aroused to anger

iridescent [.iriˈdesənt] – adj. varying in color when seen in different lights or from different angles: a dragonfly hovered, vibrating and iridescent

irksome [ˈə:ksəm] – adj. so lacking in interest as to cause mental weariness: what an irksome task the writing of long letters is

ironic [aiəˈrɔnik] – adj. humorously sarcastic or mocking: an ironic remark often conveys an intended meaning obliquely

irradiation [i.reidiˈeiʃən] – n. the condition of being exposed to radiation

irrational [iˈræʃənl] – adj. not consistent with or using reason: irrational fears

irreconcilable [i.rekənˈsailəbəl] – adj. impossible to reconcile: irreconcilable differences

irregularity [.iregjuˈlæriti] – n. behavior that breaches the rule or etiquette or custom or morality

irreparable [iˈrepərəbl] – adj. impossible to repair, rectify, or amend: irreparable harm

irreproachable [iriˈprəutʃəb(ə)l] – adj. free of guilt; not subject to blame: of irreproachable character

irrevocable [iˈrevəkəbəl] – adj. incapable of being retracted or revoked: firm and irrevocable is my doom

irrigate [ˈirigeit] – v. supply with water, as with channels or ditches or streams

irritate [ˈiriteit] – v. excite to an abnormal condition, or chafe or inflame: Aspirin irritates my stomach

isle [ail] – n. a small island

Italy [ˈitəli] – n. a republic in southern Europe on the Italian Peninsula; was the core of the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire between the 4th century BC and the 5th century AD

itinerary [aiˈtinərəri] – n. an established line of travel or access

jaded [ˈdʒeidid] – adj. exhausted: my father’s words had left me jaded and depressed

jargon [ˈdʒɑ:gən] – n. a characteristic language of a particular group (as among thieves)

jeep [dʒi:p] – n. a car suitable for traveling over rough terrain

jejune [dʒiˈdʒu:n] – adj. lacking in nutritive value: the jejune diets of the very poor

jeopardy [ˈdʒepədi] – n. a source of danger; a possibility of incurring loss or misfortune

jester  – n. a professional clown employed to entertain a king or nobleman in the Middle Ages

jettison [ˈdʒetisn, -tizn] – v. throw away, of something encumbering

jewelry [ˈdʒu:əlri] – n. an adornment (as a bracelet or ring or necklace) made of precious metals and set with gems (or imitation gems)

jobber [ˈdʒɔbə] – n. someone who buys large quantities of goods and resells to merchants rather than to the ultimate customers

jocund [ˈdʒɔkənd] – adj. full of or showing high-spirited merriment: a poet could not but be gay, in such a jocund company

jog [dʒɔg] – v. continue talking or writing in a desultory manner: This novel rambles on and jogs

jollity [ˈdʒɔliti] – n. feeling jolly and jovial and full of good humor

jovial [ˈdʒəviəl] – adj. full of or showing high-spirited merriment: a jovial old gentleman

jubilation [.dʒu:biˈleiʃən] – n. a feeling of extreme joy

judicious [dʒu(:)ˈdiʃəs] – adj. marked by the exercise of good judgment or common sense in practical matters: judicious use of one’s money

jug [dʒʌg] – n. a large bottle with a narrow mouth

jumble [ˈdʒʌmbl] – n. a confused multitude of things

juncture [ˈdʒʌŋktʃə] – n. an event that occurs at a critical time: at such junctures he always had an impulse to leave

junk [dʒʌŋk] – n. the remains of something that has been destroyed or broken up

jurisprudence [.dʒuərisˈpru:dəns] – n. the branch of philosophy concerned with the law and the principles that lead courts to make the decisions they do

juvenile [ˈdʒu:vinail] – adj. of or relating to or characteristic of or appropriate for children or young people: juvenile diabetes

juxtapose [.dʒʌkstəˈpəuz] – v. place side by side: The fauvists juxtaposed strong colors

ken [ken] – n. range of what one can know or understand: beyond my ken

kickback [ˈkikbæk] – n. a commercial bribe paid by a seller to a purchasing agent in order to induce the agent to enter into the transaction

kidnap [ˈkidnæp] – v. take away to an undisclosed location against their will and usually in order to extract a ransom: The industrialist’s son was kidnapped

kin [kin] – n. group of people related by blood or marriage

kind-hearted  – adj. having or proceeding from an innately kind disposition

kinetic [kiˈnetik] – adj. relating to the motion of material bodies and the forces associated therewith: kinetic energy

kinship  – n. a close connection marked by community of interests or similarity in nature or character: felt a deep kinship with the other students

kith [kiθ] – n. your friends and acquaintances: all his kith and kin

kleptomaniac [-ˈmeiniæk] – n. someone with an irrational urge to steal in the absence of an economic motive

knavery [ˈneivəri] – n. lack of honesty; acts of lying or cheating or stealing

knead [ni:d] – v. make uniform: knead dough

knocker [ˈnɑ:kə(r)] – n. (Yiddish) a big shot who knows it and acts that way; a boastful immoderate person

knotty [ˈnɔti] – adj. making great mental demands; hard to comprehend or solve or believe: I faced the knotty problem of what to have for breakfast

know-how [ˈnəuhau] – n. the (technical) knowledge and skill required to do something

kudos [ˈkju:dɔs] – n. an expression of approval and commendation

labor [ˈleibə] – n. productive work (especially physical work done for wages): his labor did not require a great deal of skill

labyrinth [ˈlæbərinθ] – n. complex system of paths or tunnels in which it is easy to get lost

lacerate [ˈlæsəreit] – v. cut or tear irregularly

lachrymose [ˈlækriməus] – adj. showing sorrow

lackadaisical [lækəˈdeizik(ə)l] – adj. lacking spirit or liveliness: a lackadaisical attempt

lacuna [ləˈkju:nə] – n. a blank gap or missing part

laggard [ˈlægəd] – n. someone who takes more time than necessary; someone who lags behind

lambaste [læmˈbeist] – v. beat with a cane

lambent [ˈlæmbənt] – adj. softly bright or radiant: lambent tongues of flame

lament [ləˈment] – n. a cry of sorrow and grief: their pitiful laments could be heard throughout the ward

landslide [ˈlændslaid] – n. an overwhelming electoral victory: Roosevelt defeated Hoover in a landslide

languid [ˈlæŋgwid] – adj. lacking spirit or liveliness: a languid mood

languish [ˈlæŋgwiʃ] – v. lose vigor, health, or flesh, as through grief

lapse [læps] – v. pass into a specified state or condition

laptop [ˈlæptɔp] – n. a portable computer small enough to use in your lap

larceny [ˈlɑ:səni] – n. the act of taking something from someone unlawfully

lariat [ˈlæriət] – n. a long noosed rope used to catch animals

larva [ˈlɑ:və] – n. the immature free-living form of most invertebrates and amphibians and fish which at hatching from the egg is fundamentally unlike its parent and must metamorphose

lascivious [ləˈsiviəs] – adj. driven by lust; preoccupied with or exhibiting lustful desires

lash [læʃ] – v. beat severely with a whip or rod

lassitude [ˈlæsitju:d] – n. a state of comatose torpor (as found in sleeping sickness)

latency [ˈleitənsi] – n. the time that elapses between a stimulus and the response to it

latent [ˈleitnt] – adj. potentially existing but not presently evident or realized: a latent fingerprint

lateral [ˈlætərəl] – adj. situated at or extending to the side: the lateral branches of a tree

latitude [ˈlætitju:d] – n. the angular distance between an imaginary line around a heavenly body parallel to its equator and the equator itself

laud [lɔ:d] – v. praise, glorify, or honor

lawful [ˈlɔ:fəl] – adj. according to custom or rule or natural law

lax [læks] – adj. lacking in rigor or strictness: such lax and slipshod ways are no longer acceptable

layman [ˈleimən] – n. someone who is not a clergyman or a professional person

layoff [ˈleiɔ:f] – n. the act of laying off an employee or a work force

leasehold [ˈli:shəuld] – n. land or property held under a lease

leaseholder [ˈli:s.həuldə] – n. a tenant who holds a lease

lecherous [ˈletʃərəs] – adj. given to excessive indulgence in sexual activity: a lecherous gleam in his eye

leer [liə] – n. a facial expression of contempt or scorn; the upper lip curls

leeward [ˈli:wəd] – n. the direction in which the wind is blowing

legitimacy [l iˈdʒitiməsi] – n. lawfulness by virtue of being authorized or in accordance with law

lesion [ˈli:ʒən] – n. any localized abnormal structural change in a bodily part

lethargic [leˈθɑ:dʒik] – adj. deficient in alertness or activity: bullfrogs became lethargic with the first cold nights

levee [ˈlevi] – n. a formal reception of visitors or guests (as at a royal court)

levity [ˈleviti] – n. feeling an inappropriate lack of seriousness

levy [ˈlevi] – n. the act of drafting into military service

lewd [lu:d] – adj. suggestive of or tending to moral looseness: lewd whisperings of a dirty old man

libel [ˈlaibəl] – n. a false and malicious publication printed for the purpose of defaming a living person

libelous [ˈlaibələs] – adj. (used of statements) harmful and often untrue; tending to discredit or malign

liberalism [ˈlibərəlizm] – n. a political orientation that favors social progress by reform and by changing laws rather than by revolution

libertine [ˈlibəti:n] – n. a dissolute person; usually a man who is morally unrestrained

licentious [laiˈsenʃəs] – adj. lacking moral discipline; especially sexually unrestrained: coarse and licentious men

lighter [ˈlaitə] – n. a substance used to ignite or kindle a fire

light-year [ˈlaitˈjir] – n. the distance that light travels in a vacuum in 1 year; 5.88 trillion miles or 9.46 trillion kilometers

ligneous [ˈligniəs] – adj. consisting of or containing lignin or xylem: ligneous (or woody) tissue

limber [ˈlimbə] – adj. (used of e.g. personality traits) readily adaptable: a limber imagination

limitless [ˈlimitlis] – adj. having no limits in range or scope: the limitless reaches of outer space

limp [limp] – v. proceed slowly or with difficulty: the boat limped into the harbor

limpid [ˈlimpid] – adj. clear and bright: limpid blue eyes

liquidate [ˈlikwideit] – v. get rid of (someone who may be a threat) by killing: The mafia liquidated the informer

lissom  – adj. moving and bending with ease

lithe [laið] – adj. moving and bending with ease

litigate [ˈlitigeit] – v. engage in legal proceedings

litter [ˈlitə] – n. the offspring at one birth of a multiparous mammal

littoral [ˈlitərəl] – n. the region of the shore of a lake or sea or ocean

liturgical [liˈtə:dʒikəl] – adj. of or relating to or in accord with liturgy

livid [ˈlivid] – adj. anemic looking from illness or emotion: a face livid with shock

loaner [ˈləunə] – n. someone who lends money or gives credit in business matters

loath [ləuθ] – adj. unwillingness to do something contrary to your custom: loath to admit a mistake

locker [ˈlɔkə] – n. a fastener that locks or closes

loco [ˈləukəu] – adj. informal or slang terms for mentally irregular

lofty [ˈlɔfti] – adj. of high moral or intellectual value; elevated in nature or style: a noble and lofty concept

loiter [ˈlɔitə] – v. be about: The high school students like to loiter in the Central Square

longitude [ˈlɔndʒitju:d] – n. the angular distance between a point on any meridian and the prime meridian at Greenwich

loom [lu:m] – v. come into view indistinctly, often threateningly: Another air plane loomed into the sky

loquacious [ləuˈkweiʃəs] – adj. full of trivial conversation

lore [lɔ:, lɔə] – n. knowledge gained through tradition or anecdote: early peoples passed on plant and animal lore through legend

lottery [ˈlɔtəri] – n. something that is regarded as a chance event: the election was just a lottery to them

lubricate [ˈlu:brikeit] – v. apply a lubricant to: lubricate my car

lucent [ˈlju:snt] – adj. softly bright or radiant: the lucent moon

lucid [ˈlu:sid] – adj. (of language) transparently clear; easily understandable: lucid directions

lucrative [ˈlu:krətiv] – adj. producing a sizeable profit

ludicrous [ˈlu:dikrəs] – adj. broadly or extravagantly humorous; resembling farce: ludicrous green hair

lugubrious [lu:ˈgu:briəs] – adj. excessively mournful

luminesce  – v. be or become luminescent; exhibit luminescence

luminous [ˈlju:minəs] – adj. softly bright or radiant: a sky luminous with stars

lunge  – n. the act of moving forward suddenly

lure [lu] – n. qualities that attract by seeming to promise some kind of reward

lurid [ˈljuərid] – adj. horrible in fierceness or savagery: lurid crimes

luscious [ˈlʌʃəs] – adj. having strong sexual appeal

lustful [ˈlʌstful] – adj. characterized by lust: her sensuous grace roused his lustful nature

lustrous [ˈlʌstrəs] – adj. made smooth and bright by or as if by rubbing; reflecting a sheen or glow: she brushed her hair until it fell in lustrous auburn waves

luxuriant [lʌgˈzjuəriənt] – adj. marked by complexity and richness of detail

luxurious [lʌgˈʒu:riəs] – adj. rich and superior in quality

lymph [limf] – n. a thin coagulable fluid (similar to plasma but) containing white blood cells (lymphocytes) and chyle; is conveyed to the blood stream by lymphatic vessels

macerate [ˈmæsəreit] – v. separate into constituents by soaking

Machiavellian [.mækiəˈveliən] – n. a follower of Machiavelli’s principles

macroeconomics [.mækrəu.i:kəˈnɔmiks] – n. the branch of economics that studies the overall working of a national economy

macroscopic [.mækrəˈskɔpik] – adj. visible to the naked eye; using the naked eye

maculate  – v. make dirty or spotty, as by exposure to air; also used metaphorically

magisterial [.mædʒiˈstiəriəl] – adj. offensively self-assured or given to exercising usually unwarranted power: managed the employees in an aloof magisterial way

magnanimity  – n. liberality in bestowing gifts; extremely liberal and generous of spirit

magnify [ˈmægnifai] – v. increase in size, volume or significance

maiden [ˈmeidn] – n. an unmarried girl (especially a virgin)

malediction [.mæləˈdikʃən] – n. the act of calling down a curse that invokes evil (and usually serves as an insult)

malefactor [ˈmælifæktə] – n. someone who has committed a crime or has been legally convicted of a crime

malevolent [məˈlevələnt] – adj. wishing or appearing to wish evil to others; arising from intense ill will or hatred: a gossipy malevolent old woman

malicious [məˈliʃəs] – adj. having the nature of or resulting from malice: malicious gossip

malign [məˈlain] – adj. evil or harmful in nature or influence: prompted by malign motives

malignant [məˈlignənt] – adj. dangerous to health; characterized by progressive and uncontrolled growth (especially of a tumor)

malinger [məˈliŋgə] – v. avoid responsibilities and duties, e.g., by pretending to be ill

malleable [ˈmæliəbəl] – adj. easily influenced

mandate [ˈmændeit] – n. a document giving an official instruction or command

maneuver [məˈnu:və] – n. a military training exercise

manoeuvre  – n. a plan for attaining a particular goal

mantle [ˈmæntl] – n. the cloak as a symbol of authority: place the mantle of authority on younger shoulders

manumission [ˈmænjumiʃən] – n. the formal act of freeing from slavery: he believed in the manumission of the slaves

mar [mɑ:] – n. the month following February and preceding April

marauder [məˈrɔ:də] – n. someone who attacks in search of booty

marital [ˈmæritl] – adj. of or relating to the state of marriage: marital status

markup [ˈmɑ:kʌp] – n. the amount added to the cost to determine the asking price

marrow [ˈmærəu] – n. the fatty network of connective tissue that fills the cavities of bones

marshal [ˈmɑ:ʃəl] – v. place in proper rank: marshal the troops

marsupial [mɑ:ˈsju:piəl] – n. mammals of which the females have a pouch (the marsupium) containing the teats where the young are fed and carried

martial [ˈmɑ:ʃəl] – adj. (of persons) befitting a warrior

martinet [.ma:tiˈnet] – n. someone who demands exact conformity to rules and forms

Marxism [ˈmɑ:ksizəm] – n. the economic and political theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will ultimately be superseded by communism

masculine [ˈmæskjulin] – adj. of grammatical gender

massacre [ˈmæsəkə] – n. the savage and excessive killing of many people

maudlin [ˈmɔ:dlin] – adj. effusively or insincerely emotional: maudlin expressions of sympathy

maverick [ˈmævərik] – n. someone who exhibits great independence in thought and action

meager [ˈmi:gə] – adj. deficient in amount or quality or extent: meager resources

meander [miˈændə] – n. a bend or curve, as in a stream or river

meaningless [ˈmi:niŋlis] – adj. having no meaning or direction or purpose: a meaningless endeavor

mechanize [ˈmekənaiz] – v. equip with armed and armored motor vehicles: mechanize armies

mediate [ˈmidieit] – v. act between parties with a view to reconciling differences: He mediated a settlement

mediator [ˈmi:dieitə] – n. a negotiator who acts as a link between parties

meditate [ˈmediteit] – v. reflect deeply on a subject

meditation [.mediˈteiʃən] – n. continuous and profound contemplation or musing on a subject or series of subjects of a deep or abstruse nature: the habit of meditation is the basis for all real knowledge

medley [ˈmedli] – n. a musical composition consisting of a series of songs or other musical pieces from various sources

melancholy [ˈmelənkəli] – n. a feeling of thoughtful sadness

mellifluous [miˈlifluəs] – adj. pleasing to the ear

melodious [miˈləudiəs] – adj. having a musical sound; especially a pleasing tune

melody [ˈmelədi] – n. a succession of notes forming a distinctive sequence

memo [ˈmeməu] – n. a written proposal or reminder

menace [ˈmenis] – v. pose a threat to; present a danger to

menagerie [miˈnædʒəri] – n. a collection of live animals for study or display

mendacious [menˈdeiʃəs] – adj. given to lying: a mendacious child

mentor [ˈmentə] – n. a wise and trusted guide and advisor

mercenary [ˈmə:sinəri] – adj. marked by materialism

merciful [ˈmə:sifəl] – adj. (used conventionally of royalty and high nobility) gracious: our merciful king

mercurial [mə:ˈkjuəriəl] – adj. liable to sudden unpredictable change: mercurial twists of temperament

meretricious [.meriˈtriʃəs] – adj. like or relating to a prostitute: meretricious relationships

meridian [məˈridiən] – n. the highest level or degree attainable; the highest stage of development

mesmerize [ˈmezməraiz] – v. attract strongly, as if with a magnet

metabolism [məˈtæbəlizəm] – n. the marked and rapid transformation of a larva into an adult that occurs in some animals

metamorphose [.metəˈmɔ:fəuz] – v. change completely the nature or appearance of: In Kafka’s story, a person metamorphoses into a bug

metamorphosis [.metəˈmɔ:fəsis] – n. the marked and rapid transformation of a larva into an adult that occurs in some animals

mete [mi:t] – n. a line that indicates a boundary

meticulous [miˈtikjʊləs] – adj. marked by precise accordance with details: meticulous research

metrical [ˈmetrikəl] – adj. based on the meter as a standard of measurement: metrical equivalents

mettle [ˈmetl] – n. the courage to carry on

miasma [miˈæzmə] – n. an unwholesome atmosphere: the novel spun a miasma of death and decay

microbe [ˈmaikrəub] – n. a minute life form (especially a disease-causing bacterium); the term is not in technical use

microeconomics [.maikrə.i:kəˈnɔmiks] – n. the branch of economics that studies the economy of consumers or households or individual firms

microprocessor [.maikrəuˈprəusesər] – n. integrated circuit semiconductor chip that performs the bulk of the processing and controls the parts of a system: a microprocessor functions as the central processing unit of a microcomputer

mien [mi:n] – n. dignified manner or conduct

migrate [ˈmaigreit] – v. move from one country or region to another and settle there: Many Germans migrated to South America in the mid-19th century

militant [ˈmilitənt] – adj. disposed to warfare or hard-line policies: militant nations

millennium [miˈleniəm] – n. a span of 1000 years

millionaire [.miljənˈɛə] – n. a person whose material wealth is valued at more than a million dollars

mimicry [ˈmimikri] – n. the act of mimicking; imitative behavior

minatory [ˈminətəri] – adj. threatening or foreshadowing evil or tragic developments

mingle [ˈmiŋgl] – v. to bring or combine together or with something else: resourcefully he mingled music and dance

miniature [ˈminiətʃə] – n. painting or drawing included in a book (especially in illuminated medieval manuscripts)

minimize [ˈminimaiz] – v. make small or insignificant: Let’s minimize the risk

mire [ˈmaiə] – v. entrap: Our people should not be mired in the past

misanthrope [ˈmisənθrəup] – n. someone who dislikes people in general

misanthropy [misˈænθrəpi] – n. hatred of mankind

miscegenation [.misidʒiˈneiʃən] – n. reproduction by parents of different races (especially by white and non-white persons)

miscreant [ˈmiskriənt] – n. a person without moral scruples

miser [ˈmaizə] – n. a stingy hoarder of money and possessions (often living miserably)

misfortune [misˈfɔ:tʃən] – n. unnecessary and unforeseen trouble resulting from an unfortunate event

mismanage [ˈmisˈmænidʒ] – v. manage badly or incompetently: The funds were mismanaged

misogamy [miˈsɔgəmi] – n. hatred of marriage

misogynist [miˈsɔdʒinist] – n. a misanthrope who dislikes women in particular

missionary [ˈmiʃənəri] – n. someone who attempts to convert others to a particular doctrine or program

misuse [misˈju:z] – v. apply to a wrong thing or person; apply badly or incorrectly

mite [mait] – n. a slight but appreciable amount

mitigate [ˈmitigeit] – v. lessen or to try to lessen the seriousness or extent of

mobilize [ˈməubilaiz] – v. make ready for action or use

mock [mɔk] – v. treat with contempt: The new constitution mocks all democratic principles

modernization [.mɔdənaiˈzeiʃən] – n. making modern in appearance or behavior: the modernization of Nigeria will be a long process

modernize [ˈmɔdən.aiz] – v. make repairs, renovations, revisions or adjustments to

modicum [ˈmɔdikəm] – n. a small or moderate or token amount: England still expects a modicum of eccentricity in its artists

modulate [ˈmɔdjuleit] – v. change the key of, in music: modulate the melody

mollify [ˈmɔlifai] – v. cause to be more favorably inclined; gain the good will of: She managed to mollify the angry customer

molten [ˈməultən] – adj. reduced to liquid form by heating: a mass of molten rock

momentous [məuˈmentəs] – adj. of very great significance: a momentous event

monolithic [.mɔnəˈliθik] – adj. imposing in size or bulk or solidity: the monolithic proportions of Stalinist architecture

monotonous [məˈnɔtənəs] – adj. tediously repetitious or lacking in variety: nothing is so monotonous as the sea

moot [[mu:t] – adj. of no legal significance (as having been previously decided)

morass [məˈræs] – n. a soft wet area of low-lying land that sinks underfoot

moratorium [.mɔrəˈtɔ:riəm] – n. a legally authorized postponement before some obligation must be discharged

morbid [ˈmɔ:bid] – adj. suggesting an unhealthy mental state: morbid interest in death

mordant [ˈmɔ:dənt] – adj. harshly ironic or sinister: fun ranging from slapstick clowning … to savage mordant wit

moribund [ˈmɔribʌnd] – adj. not growing or changing; without force or vitality

morose [məˈrəus] – adj. showing a brooding ill humor: a morose and unsociable manner

moss [mɔs] – n. tiny leafy-stemmed flowerless plants

motel [məuˈtel] – n. a motor hotel

motility  – n. ability to move spontaneously and independently

motley [ˈmɔtli] – n. a collection containing a variety of sorts of things

Mr  – n. a form of address for a man

Ms [miz] – n. a form of address for a woman

mufti [ˈmʌfti] – n. a jurist who interprets Muslim religious law

multinational [ˈmʌltiˈnæʃənl] – adj. involving or operating in several nations or nationalities: multinational corporations

multiplex  – n. communicates two or more signals over a common channel

multitude [ˈmʌltitju:d] – n. a large indefinite number: a multitude of TV antennas

mummer [ˈmʌmə] – n. an actor who communicates entirely by gesture and facial expression

mundane [mʌnˈdein] – adj. found in the ordinary course of events

munificent [mju:ˈnifisənt] – adj. very generous: a munificent gift

muscular [ˈmʌskjulə] – adj. of or relating to or consisting of muscle: muscular contraction

muse [mju:z] – n. in ancient Greek mythology any of 9 daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne; protector of an art or science

musty [ˈmʌsti] – adj. covered with or smelling of mold: a moldy (or musty) odor

mutinous [ˈmju:tinəs] – adj. consisting of or characterized by or inciting to mutiny: mutinous acts

myriad [ˈmiriəd] – n. a large indefinite number: he faced a myriad of details

naive [nɑˈi:v] – adj. marked by or showing unaffected simplicity and lack of guile or worldly experience: a teenager’s naive ignorance of life

napkin [ˈnæpkin] – n. a small piece of table linen that is used to wipe the mouth and to cover the lap in order to protect clothing

narcissistic  – adj. characteristic of those having an inflated idea of their own importance

narrate [næˈreit] – v. provide commentary for a film, for example

nascent [ˈnæsənt] – adj. being born or beginning: the nascent chicks

natation [neiˈteiʃən] – n. the act of someone who floats on the water

nationalize [ˈnæʃənəl.aiz] – v. put under state control or ownership: Mitterand nationalized the banks

naught [nɔ:t] – n. a quantity of no importance: it was all for naught

nautical [ˈnɔ:tikəl] – adj. relating to or involving ships or shipping or navigation or seamen: nautical charts

nebulous [ˈnebjuləs] – adj. lacking definite form or limits: nebulous distinction between pride and conceit

necromancy [ˈnekrəmænsi] – n. the belief in magical spells that harness occult forces or evil spirits to produce unnatural effects in the world

nefarious [niˈfeəriəs] – adj. extremely wicked: nefarious schemes

nefariousness  – n. the quality of being wicked

negligible [ˈneglidʒəbl] – adj. so small as to be meaningless; insignificant: the effect was negligible

nemesis [ˈnemisis] – n. (Greek mythology) the goddess of divine retribution and vengeance

neologism [ni:ˈɔlədʒizəm] – n. a newly invented word or phrase

neophyte [ˈniəfait] – n. a plant that is found in an area where it had not been recorded previously

nepotism [ˈnepətizəm] – n. favoritism shown to relatives or close friends by those in power (as by giving them jobs)

nescient [ˈnesiənt] – adj. holding that only material phenomena can be known and knowledge of spiritual matters or ultimate causes is impossible

nettle [ˈnetl] – v. cause annoyance in; disturb, especially by minor irritations

neurotic [njuˈrɔtik] – adj. affected with emotional disorder

nexus [ˈneksəs] – n. the means of connection between things linked in series

nick [nik] – v. cut slightly, with a razor: The barber’s knife nicked his cheek

nickel [ˈnikl] – n. a United States coin worth one twentieth of a dollar

nickname [ˈnikneim] – n. a familiar name for a person (often a shortened version of a person’s given name): Joe’s mother would not use his nickname and always called him Joseph

niggardly [ˈnigədli] – adj. petty or reluctant in giving or spending: a niggardly tip

noisome [ˈnɔisəm] – adj. causing or able to cause nausea

nonchalance [ˈnɔnʃələns] – n. the trait of remaining calm and seeming not to care; a casual lack of concern

noncommittal [.nɔnkəˈmitl] – adj. refusing to bind oneself to a particular course of action or view or the like: her boyfriend was noncommittal about their future together

nonsmoker [.nɔnˈsməukə] – n. a person who does not smoke tobacco

normalization [.nɔ:məlaiˈzeiʃən] – n. the imposition of standards or regulations

northwards [ˈnɔ:θwədz] – adv. in a northern direction

nostalgic [nɔˈstældʒik] – adj. unhappy about being away and longing for familiar things or persons

nostrum [ˈnɔstrəm] – n. hypothetical remedy for all ills or diseases; once sought by the alchemists

notary [ˈnəutəri] – n. someone legally empowered to witness signatures and certify a document’s validity and to take depositions

notation [nəuˈteiʃən] – n. a technical system of symbols used to represent special things

noted [ˈnəutid] – adj. widely known and esteemed

notwithstanding [ˈnɔtwiθˈstændiŋ] – adv. despite anything to the contrary (usually following a concession)

nourish [ˈnʌriʃ] – v. provide with nourishment: This kind of food is not nourishing for young children

novelty [ˈnɔvəlti] – n. originality by virtue of being new and surprising

noxious [ˈnɔkʃəs] – adj. injurious to physical or mental health: noxious chemical wastes

nugatory [ˈnju:gətəri] – adj. of no real value: a nugatory law

nullify [ˈnʌlifai] – v. declare invalid

numb [nʌm] – adj. lacking sensation: numb with cold

numerical [nju:ˈmerikəl] – adj. measured or expressed in numbers: numerical value

numinous [ˈnju:minəs] – adj. evincing the presence of a deity: a numinous wood

numismatist [nju:ˈmizmətist] – n. a collector and student of money (and coins in particular)

nurture [ˈnə:tʃə] – v. help develop, help grow: nurture his talents

nutrient [ˈnju:triənt] – n. any substance that can be metabolized by an animal to give energy and build tissue

nutrition [nju:ˈtriʃən] – n. a source of materials to nourish the body

oaf  – n. an awkward stupid person

oath [əuθ] – n. profane or obscene expression usually of surprise or anger

obdurate [ˈɔbdjurit] – adj. stubbornly persistent in wrongdoing

obedience [əˈbi:djəns] – n. the act of obeying; dutiful or submissive behavior with respect to another person

obedient [əˈbi:djənt] – adj. dutifully complying with the commands or instructions of those in authority: an obedient soldier

obeisance [əuˈbeisəns] – n. bending the head or body or knee as a sign of reverence or submission or shame or greeting

obese [əuˈbi:s] – adj. excessively fat

obesity [əuˈbisiti] – n. more than average fatness

obfuscate [ˈɔbfʌskeit] – v. make obscure or unclear

objurgate [ˈɔbdʒə:geit] – v. express strong disapproval of

obligatory [əˈbligə.təri] – adj. morally or legally constraining or binding: attendance is obligatory

obliterate [əˈblitəreit] – v. mark for deletion, rub off, or erase

obloquy [ˈɔbləkwi] – n. state of disgrace resulting from public abuse

obnoxious [əbˈnɔkʃəs] – adj. causing disapproval or protest

obsequious [əbˈsi:kwiəs] – adj. attempting to win favor from influential people by flattery

obsession [əbˈseʃən] – n. an irrational motive for performing trivial or repetitive actions, even against your will

obsidian [əbˈsidiən] – n. acid or granitic glass formed by the rapid cooling of lava without crystallization; usually dark, but transparent in thin pieces

obsolescent [.ɔbsəˈlesənt] – adj. becoming obsolete

obsolete [ˈɔbsə.li:t] – adj. no longer in use: obsolete words

obstreperous [əbˈstrepərəs] – adj. noisily and stubbornly defiant: obstreperous boys

obstruct [əbˈstrʌkt] – v. hinder or prevent the progress or accomplishment of

obstruction [əbˈstrʌkʃən] – n. any structure that makes progress difficult

obtrude [əbˈtru:d] – v. push to thrust outward

obtuse [əbˈtju:s] – adj. of an angle; between 90 and 180 degrees

obviate [ˈɔbvieit] – v. do away with

occult [ɔˈkʌlt] – v. cause an eclipse of (a celestial body) by intervention: Planets and stars often are occulted by other celestial bodies

odds [ɔdz] – n. the ratio by which one better’s wager is greater than that of another: he offered odds of two to one

odious [ˈəudiəs] – adj. unequivocally detestable: consequences odious to those you govern

odium [ˈəudiəm] – n. state of disgrace resulting from detestable behavior

offerer  – n. someone who presents something to another for acceptance or rejection

officious [əˈfiʃəs] – adj. intrusive in a meddling or offensive manner: bustling about self-importantly making an officious nuisance of himself

olfactory [ɔlˈfæktəri] – adj. of or relating to olfaction

oligarchy [ˈɔligɑ:ki] – n. a political system governed by a few people: one of his cardinal convictions was that Britain was not run as a democracy but as an oligarchy

ominous [ˈɔminəs] – adj. threatening or foreshadowing evil or tragic developments: ominous rumblings of discontent

omniscient [ɔmˈnisiənt] – adj. infinitely wise

opalescent [.əupəlˈesənt] – adj. having a play of lustrous rainbow colors: a milky opalescent (or opaline) luster

opaque [əuˈpeik] – adj. not transmitting or reflecting light or radiant energy; impenetrable to sight: opaque windows of the jail

operative [ˈɔpərətiv, ˈɔpəreitiv] – adj. being in force or having or exerting force: operative regulations

opprobrious [əˈprəubriəs] – adj. expressing offensive reproach

optimist [ˈɔptimist] – n. a person disposed to take a favorable view of things

optimize [ˈɔptimaiz] – v. modify to achieve maximum efficiency in storage capacity or time or cost: optimize a computer program

optimum [ˈɔptiməm] – n. most favorable conditions or greatest degree or amount possible under given circumstances

opulence [apjələns] – n. wealth as evidenced by sumptuous living

opulent [ˈɔpjulənt] – adj. rich and superior in quality

orchard [ˈɔ:tʃəd] – n. garden consisting of a small cultivated wood without undergrowth

ordain [ɔ:ˈdein] – v. appoint to a clerical posts: he was ordained in the Church

ornate [ɔ:ˈneit] – adj. marked by elaborate rhetoric and elaborated with decorative details: ornate rhetoric taught out of the rule of Plato

ornithologist [.ɔ:niˈθɔlədʒist] – n. a zoologist who studies birds

orotund [ˈɔrəutʌnd] – adj. ostentatiously lofty in style

oscillate [ˈɔsileit] – v. be undecided about something; waver between conflicting positions or courses of action: He oscillates between accepting the new position and retirement

ossify [ˈɔsifai] – v. become bony

ostensible [ɔˈstensibəl] – adj. appearing as such but not necessarily so: the ostensible truth of their theories

ostentatious [ɔstenˈteiʃəs] – adj. intended to attract notice and impress others: an ostentatious sable coat

ostracism [ˈɔstrəsizəm] – n. the act of excluding someone from society by general consent

ostracize [ˈɔstrəsaiz] – v. expel from a community or group

otiose [ˈəuʃiəus, ˈəutiəus] – adj. serving no useful purpose; having no excuse for being: otiose lines in a play

oust [aust] – v. remove from a position or office: The chairman was ousted after he misappropriated funds

outermost [ˈautəməust] – adj. situated at the farthest possible point from a center

outing [ˈautiŋ] – n. a journey taken for pleasure

outmode [autˈməud] – v. make unfashionable, outdated, or obsolete: Modern ways of cooking have outmoded the hearth

outrage [ˈautreidʒ] – n. a feeling of righteous anger

overcharge [.əuvəˈtʃɑ:dʒ] – v. rip off; ask an unreasonable price

overdraft [ˈəuvədræft] – n. a draft in excess of the credit balance

overdraw [ˈəuvəˈdrɔ:] – v. draw more money from than is available

overdue [ˈəuvəˈdju:] – adj. past due; not paid at the scheduled time: an overdue installment

overestimate [.əuvəˈesti.meit] – n. an appraisal that is too high

overflow [.əuvəˈfləu,ˈəuvəfləu] – n. a large flow

overhaul [ˈəuvə.hɔ:l] – n. periodic maintenance on a car or machine: it was time for an overhaul on the tractor

overhear [.əuvəˈhiə] – v. hear, usually without the knowledge of the speakers: We overheard the conversation at the next table

overlap [ˈəuvəˈlæp,ˈəuvəlæp] – n. a representation of common ground between theories or phenomena: there was no overlap between their proposals

overpass [.əuvˈpæs] – n. bridge formed by the upper level of a crossing of two highways at different levels

overproduction [.əuvəprəˈdʌkʃən] – n. too much production or more than expected

override [.əuvəˈraid] – v. rule against

overthrow [.əuvəˈθrəu] – n. the termination of a ruler or institution (especially by force)

overturn [.əuvəˈtə:n] – v. turn from an upright or normal position: The big vase overturned

overweening [.əuvəˈwiniŋ] – adj. unrestrained, especially with regard to feelings: overweening ambition

overwork [ˈəuvəˈwə:k] – v. use too much: This play has been overworked

oviduct [ˈəuvidʌkt] – n. either of a pair of tubes conducting the egg from the ovary to the uterus

oxide [ˈɔksaid] – n. any compound of oxygen with another element or a radical

packing [ˈpækiŋ] – n. any material used especially to protect something

pact [pækt] – n. a written agreement between two states or sovereigns

paddle [ˈpædl] – v. play in or as if in water, as of small children

paean [ˈpi:ən] – n. a formal expression of praise

pagan [ˈpeigən] – n. a person who does not acknowledge your god

painstaking [ˈpeinz.teikiŋ] – adj. characterized by extreme care and great effort: painstaking research

palatial [pəˈleiʃəl] – adj. suitable for or like a palace: palatial furnishings

palindrome  – n. a word or phrase that reads the same backward as forward

palliate [ˈpælieit] – v. lessen or to try to lessen the seriousness or extent of

pallid [ˈpælid] – adj. abnormally deficient in color as suggesting physical or emotional distress: the pallid face of the invalid

pallor  – n. unnatural lack of color in the skin (as from bruising or sickness or emotional distress)

palpable [ˈpælpəbəl] – adj. capable of being perceived; especially capable of being handled or touched or felt: a barely palpable dust

pamphlet [ˈpæmflit] – n. a small book usually having a paper cover

panegyric [.pæniˈdʒirik] – n. a formal expression of praise

panorama [.pænəˈrɑ:mə] – n. the visual percept of a region

paperback [ˈpeipəbæk] – n. a book with paper covers

parachute [ˈpærəʃu:t] – n. rescue equipment consisting of a device that fills with air and retards your fall

paradigm [ˈpærədaim] – n. systematic arrangement of all the inflected forms of a word

paradox [ˈpærədɔks] – n. (logic) a statement that contradicts itself: `I always lie’ is a paradox because if it is true it must be false

paralyze [ˈpærəlaiz] – v. make powerless and unable to function: The bureaucracy paralyzes the entire operation

parapet [ˈpærəpit, -pet] – n. a low wall along the edge of a roof or balcony

paraphernalia [.pærəfəˈneiliə] – n. equipment consisting of miscellaneous articles needed for a particular operation or sport etc.

pariah [pəˈraiə, ˈpæriə] – n. a person who is rejected (from society or home)

parity [ˈpæriti] – n. (obstetrics) the number of liveborn children a woman has delivered: the parity of the mother must be considered

parley [ˈpɑ:li] – n. a negotiation between enemies

parlous [ˈpɑ:ləs] – adj. fraught with danger: a parlous journey on stormy seas

parochial [pəˈrəukiəl] – adj. relating to or supported by or located in a parish: parochial schools

parody [ˈpærədi] – n. a composition that imitates or misrepresents somebody’s style, usually in a humorous way

parricide [ˈpærisaid] – n. someone who kills his or her parent

parry [ˈpæri] – n. (fencing) blocking a lunge or deflecting it with a circular motion of the sword

parse [pɑ:z] – v. analyze syntactically by assigning a constituent structure to (a sentence)

parsimonious [.pɑ:siˈməuniəs] – adj. excessively unwilling to spend: parsimonious thrift relieved by few generous impulses

parsimony  – n. extreme care in spending money; reluctance to spend money unnecessarily

partisan [.pɑ:tiˈzæn] – n. a fervent and even militant proponent of something

parturition [.pɑ:tjuˈriʃən] – n. the process of giving birth

parvenu [ˈpɑ:vənju:] – n. a person who has suddenly risen to a higher economic status but has not gained social acceptance of others in that class

passbook [ˈpɑ:sbuk] – n. a record of deposits and withdrawals and interest held by depositors at certain banks

passerby [ˈpɑ:səˈbai] – n. a person who passes by casually or by chance

pathetic [pəˈθetik] – adj. deserving or inciting pity: the shabby room struck her as extraordinarily pathetic

pathos [ˈpeiθɔs] – n. a quality that arouses emotions (especially pity or sorrow): the film captured all the pathos of their situation

patrician [pəˈtriʃən] – n. a person of refined upbringing and manners

patrimony [ˈpætriməni] – n. a church endowment

patriotic [.pætriˈɔtik] – adj. inspired by love for your country

paucity [ˈpɔ:siti] – n. an insufficient quantity or number

pavilion [pəˈviljən] – n. large and often sumptuous tent

payee [peiˈi:] – n. a person to whom money is paid

payer [ˈpeiə] – n. a person who pays money for something

payroll [ˈpeirəul] – n. a list of employees and their salaries: the company had a long payroll

peanut [ˈpi:nʌt] – n. a young child who is small for his age

peccadillo [.pekəˈdiləu] – n. a petty misdeed

peculate [ˈpekjuleit] – v. appropriate (as property entrusted to one’s care) fraudulently to one’s own use

pecuniary [piˈkju:niəri] – adj. relating to or involving money: he received thanks but no pecuniary compensation for his services

pedagogue [ˈpedəgɔg] – n. someone who educates young people

pedal [ˈpedl] – n. a sustained bass note

pedantic [piˈdæntik] – adj. marked by a narrow focus on or display of learning especially its trivial aspects

pedantry [ˈpedntri] – n. an ostentatious and inappropriate display of learning

peevish [ˈpi:viʃ] – adj. easily irritated or annoyed

peg [peg] – n. a wooden pin pushed or driven into a surface

pejorative [piˈdʒɔrətiv] – adj. expressing disapproval

pelage [ˈpeilidʒ] – n. growth of hair or wool or fur covering the body of an animal

pellucid [piˈlu:sid] – adj. transmitting light; able to be seen through with clarity: a pellucid brook

penchant [ˈpə:ŋʃə:ŋ] – n. a strong liking: the Irish have a penchant for blarney

pendulum [ˈpendjuləm] – n. an apparatus consisting of an object mounted so that it swings freely under the influence of gravity

penicillin [.peniˈsilin] – n. any of various antibiotics obtained from Penicillium molds (or produced synthetically) and used in the treatment of various infections and diseases

penitent [ˈpenitənt] – adj. feeling or expressing remorse for misdeeds

pensive [ˈpensiv] – adj. deeply or seriously thoughtful

penurious [piˈnjuəriəs] – adj. not having enough money to pay for necessities

perceptive [pəˈseptiv] – adj. having the ability to perceive or understand; keen in discernment: a perceptive eye

percussion [pəˈkʌʃən] – n. tapping a part of the body for diagnostic purposes

perdition [pəˈdiʃən] – n. (Christianity) the abode of Satan and the forces of evil; where sinners suffer eternal punishment: Hurl’d headlong…To bottomless perdition, there to dwell

peremptory [pəˈremptəri] – adj. offensively self-assured or given to exercising usually unwarranted power: a swaggering peremptory manner

perfection [pəˈfekʃən] – n. the state of being without a flaw or defect

perfidious [pəˈfidiəs] – adj. tending to betray; especially having a treacherous character as attributed to the Carthaginians by the Romans: the perfidious Judas

perfidy [ˈpə:fidi] – n. betrayal of a trust

perfunctory [pəˈfʌŋktəri] – adj. hasty and without attention to detail; not thorough: perfunctory courtesy

periodical [.piəriˈɔdikəl] – n. a publication that appears at fixed intervals

peripatetic [.peripəˈtetik] – n. a person who walks from place to place

peripheral [pəˈrifərəl] – adj. on or near an edge or constituting an outer boundary; the outer area: Russia’s peripheral provinces

perjure [ˈpə:dʒə] – v. knowingly tell an untruth in a legal court and render oneself guilty of perjury

perjury [ˈpə:dʒəri] – n. criminal offense of making false statements under oath

perk [pə:k] – n. an incidental benefit awarded for certain types of employment (especially if it is regarded as a right)

permeable [ˈpə:miəbl] – adj. allowing fluids or gases to pass or diffuse through: permeable membranes

permeate [ˈpə:mieit] – v. spread or diffuse through: An atmosphere of distrust has permeated this administration

pernicious [pəˈniʃəs] – adj. exceedingly harmful

perpetual [pəˈpetjuəl] – adj. continuing forever or indefinitely: hell’s perpetual fires

perplex [pəˈpleks] – v. be a mystery or bewildering to

perquisite [ˈpə:kwizit] – n. an incidental benefit awarded for certain types of employment (especially if it is regarded as a right)

persecute [ˈpə:sikju:t] – v. cause to suffer: Jews were persecuted in the former Soviet Union

persevere [.pə:siˈviə] – v. be persistent, refuse to stop

perspicacious [.pə:spiˈkeiʃəs] – adj. acutely insightful and wise: much too perspicacious to be taken in by such a spurious argument

persuasion [pəˈsweiʒən] – n. a personal belief or judgment that is not founded on proof or certainty: I am not of your persuasion

pertinent [ˈpə:tinənt] – adj. having precise or logical relevance to the matter at hand: a list of articles pertinent to the discussion

peruke [pəˈru:k] – n. a wig for men that was fashionable in the 17th and 18th centuries

peruse [pəˈru:z] – v. examine or consider with attention and in detail: Please peruse this report at your leisure

pervade [pəˈveid] – v. spread or diffuse through

pervasive [pəˈveisiv] – adj. spreading or spread throughout: the pervasive odor of garlic

pervert [pəˈvə:t, ˈpə:vət] – v. corrupt morally or by intemperance or sensuality

pessimism [ˈpesimizəm] – n. the feeling that things will turn out badly

pestle [ˈpesəl] – n. machine consisting of a heavy bar that moves vertically for pounding or crushing ores

pettish [ˈpetiʃ] – adj. easily irritated or annoyed

petulant [ˈpetʃulənt] – adj. easily irritated or annoyed

pharisaic [.færiˈsei-ik] – adj. excessively or hypocritically pious

pharmacy [ˈfɑ:məsi] – n. the art and science of preparing and dispensing drugs and medicines,

philanthropy [fiˈlænθrəpi] – n. voluntary promotion of human welfare

phlegmatic [flegˈmætik] – adj. showing little emotion: a phlegmatic…and certainly undemonstrative man

phobia [ˈfəubiə] – n. an anxiety disorder characterized by extreme and irrational fear of simple things or social situations: phobic disorder is a general term for all phobias

physiology [.fiziˈɔlədʒi] – n. the branch of the biological sciences dealing with the functioning of organisms

pickup [ˈpikʌp] – n. a light truck with an open body and low sides and a tailboard

piecework [ˈpi:swə:k] – n. work paid for according to the quantity produced

pied [paid] – adj. having sections or patches colored differently and usually brightly: pied daisies

pious [ˈpaiəs] – adj. having or showing or expressing reverence for a deity: pious readings

piquant [ˈpi:kənt] – adj. having an agreeably pungent taste

pique [pi:k] – n. tightly woven fabric with raised cords

pirate [ˈpaiərit] – n. someone who uses another person’s words or ideas as if they were his own

piston [ˈpistən] – n. United States neoclassical composer (1894-1976)

pithy [ˈpiθi] – adj. concise and full of meaning: welcomed her pithy comments

pittance [ˈpitəns] – n. an inadequate payment: they work all day for a mere pittance

placate [pləˈkeit] – v. cause to be more favorably inclined; gain the good will of

placid [ˈplæsid] – adj. (of a body of water) free from disturbance by heavy waves: a ribbon of sand between the angry sea and the placid bay

plague [pleig] – n. any epidemic disease with a high death rate

plaintive [ˈpleintiv] – adj. expressing sorrow

plangent [ˈplændʒənt] – adj. loud and resounding: plangent bells

plateau [ˈplætəu] – n. a relatively flat highland

platonic [pləˈtɔnik] – adj. of or relating to or characteristic of Plato or his philosophy

plenary [ˈpli:nəri] – adj. full in all respects: a plenary session of the legislature

pleonastic [.pli:əʊˈnæstik] – adj. repetition of same sense in different words: `a true fact’ and `a free gift’ are pleonastic expressions

plethora [ˈpleθərə] – n. extreme excess

plumb [plʌm] – v. measure the depth of something

plumber [ˈplʌmə] – n. a craftsman who installs and repairs pipes and fixtures and appliances

plump [plʌmp] – v. drop sharply

plunder [ˈplʌndə] – v. take illegally; of intellectual property: This writer plundered from famous authors

PM [em] – n. an examination and dissection of a dead body to determine cause of death or the changes produced by disease

poignant [ˈpɔinjənt] – adj. arousing affect: poignant grief cannot endure forever

poke [pəuk] – n. someone who takes more time than necessary; someone who lags behind

polar [ˈpəulə] – adj. having a pair of equal and opposite charges

polemic [pəˈlemik] – n. a writer who argues in opposition to others (especially in theology)

polemicist  – n. a writer who argues in opposition to others (especially in theology)

polemics [pəˈlemiks] – n. the branch of Christian theology devoted to the refutation of errors

pollutant [pəˈlu:tənt] – n. waste matter that contaminates the water or air or soil

pommel [ˈpʌml] – n. handgrip formed by the raised front part of a saddle

pompous [ˈpɔmpəs] – adj. puffed up with vanity: a pompous speech

ponder [ˈpɔndə] – v. reflect deeply on a subject

ponderous [ˈpɔndərəs] – adj. slow and laborious because of weight: ponderous prehistoric beasts

pontifical [pɔnˈtifikəl] – adj. proceeding from or ordered by or subject to a pope or the papacy regarded as the successor of the Apostles

porcelain [ˈpɔ:slin] – n. ceramic ware made of a more or less translucent ceramic

porous [ˈpɔ:rəs] – adj. able to absorb fluids: the partly porous walls of our digestive system

portend [pɔ:ˈtend] – v. indicate by signs

portentous [pɔ:ˈtentəs] – adj. of momentous or ominous significance: such a portentous…monster raised all my curiosity

postgraduate [pəustˈgrædjuit] – n. a student who continues studies after graduation

postulate [ˈpɔstjuleit] – v. maintain or assert

posture [ˈpɔstʃə] – n. the arrangement of the body and its limbs

potable [ˈpəutəbəl] – n. any liquid suitable for drinking

potent [ˈpəutənt] – adj. having great influence

poultry [ˈpəultri] – n. a domesticated gallinaceous bird thought to be descended from the red jungle fowl

pragmatic [prægˈmætik] – adj. concerned with practical matters: a matter-of-fact (or pragmatic) approach to the problem

prate [preit] – n. idle or foolish and irrelevant talk

prattle [ˈprætl] – n. idle or foolish and irrelevant talk

precarious [priˈkeəriəs] – adj. affording no ease or reassurance: a precarious truce

precept [ˈpri:sept] – n. rule of personal conduct

precipitate [priˈsipiteit] – v. bring about abruptly: The crisis precipitated by Russia’s revolution

preclude [priˈklu:d] – v. keep from happening or arising; make impossible: Your role in the projects precludes your involvement in the competitive project

precocious [priˈkəuʃəs] – adj. characterized by or characteristic of exceptionally early development or maturity (especially in mental aptitude): a precocious child

predatory [ˈpredətəri] – adj. characterized by plundering or pillaging or marauding: predatory warfare

predestine [priˈdestin] – v. decree or determine beforehand

preeminence [pri(:)ˈeminəns] – n. high status importance owing to marked superiority

preempt [pri:ˈempt] – v. acquire for oneself before others can do so

preemptive [pri:ˈemptiv] – adj. designed or having the power to deter or prevent an anticipated situation or occurrence: a preemptive business offer

prefatory [ˈprefətəri] – adj. serving as an introduction or preface

prehistoric [ˈpri:hisˈtɔrik] – adj. belonging to or existing in times before recorded history: prehistoric settlements

prejudicial [.predʒuˈdiʃəl] – adj. (sometimes followed by `to’) causing harm or injury: the reporter’s coverage resulted in prejudicial publicity for the defendant

preoccupied [priˈɔkjupaid] – adj. deeply absorbed in thought: a preoccupied frown

prepackaged [pri:ˈpækidʒd] – adj. prepared and wrapped beforehand and ready for sale: prepackaged foods

prepay [ˈpri:ˈpei] – v. pay for something before receiving it

preponderate [priˈpɔndəreit] – v. weigh more heavily

preposterous [priˈpɔstərəs] – adj. incongruous;inviting ridicule: a preposterous attempt to turn back the pages of history

presage [ˈpresidʒ] – n. a foreboding about what is about to happen

prescience [ˈpresiəns] – n. the power to foresee the future

prescriptive  – adj. pertaining to giving directives or rules: prescriptive grammar is concerned with norms of or rules for correct usage

preside [priˈzaid] – v. act as president: preside over companies and corporations

prestigious [preˈstidʒəs] – adj. having an illustrious reputation; respected: a prestigious author

pretension [pri:ˈtenʃən] – n. a false or unsupportable quality

pretext [ˈpri:tekst] – n. something serving to conceal plans; a fictitious reason that is concocted in order to conceal the real reason

prevalent [ˈprevələnt] – adj. most frequent or common

prevaricate [priˈværikeit] – v. be deliberately ambiguous or unclear in order to mislead or withhold information

prick [prik] – v. make a small hole into, as with a needle or a thorn: The nurse pricked my finger to get a small blood sample

primordial [praiˈmɔ:djəl] – adj. having existed from the beginning; in an earliest or original stage or state: primordial matter

pristine [ˈpristain] – adj. completely free from dirt or contamination: pristine mountain snow

privy [ˈprivi] – n. a room or building equipped with one or more toilets

probity [ˈprəubəti] – n. complete and confirmed integrity; having strong moral principles: in a world where financial probity may not be widespread

problematic [prɔbləˈmætik] – adj. open to doubt or debate: If you ever get married, which seems to be extremely problematic

proboscis [prəˈbɔsis] – n. the human nose (especially when it is large)

proclivity [prəˈkliviti] – n. a natural inclination: he has a proclivity for exaggeration

procrastinate [prəuˈkræstineit] – v. postpone doing what one should be doing: He did not want to write the letter and procrastinated for days

procure [prəˈkjuə] – v. get by special effort: He procured extra cigarettes even though they were rationed

prodigal [ˈprɔdigəl] – n. a recklessly extravagant consumer

prodigious [prəˈdidʒəs] – adj. so great in size or force or extent as to elicit awe: a prodigious storm

proficiency [prəˈfiʃənsi] – n. the quality of having great facility and competence

profundity [prəˈfʌnditi] – n. wisdom that is recondite and abstruse and profound

profusion [prəˈfju:ʒən] – n. the property of being extremely abundant: the profusion of detail

progeny [ˈprɔdʒini] – n. the immediate descendants of a person

prognosticate [prɔgˈnɔstikeit] – v. make a prediction about; tell in advance

proliferate [prəˈlifəreit] – v. grow rapidly: Pizza parlors proliferate in this area

prolific [prəˈlifik] – adj. intellectually productive: a prolific writer

prolix [ˈprəuliks] – adj. tediously prolonged or tending to speak or write at great length: editing a prolix manuscript

prolong [prəˈlɔŋ] – v. lengthen in time; cause to be or last longer: We prolonged our stay

promiscuous [prəˈmiskjuəs] – adj. not selective of a single class or person: Clinton was criticized for his promiscuous solicitation of campaign money

promisee  – n. a person to whom a promise is made

promiser  – n. a person who makes a promise

promontory [ˈprɔməntəri] – n. a natural elevation (especially a rocky one that juts out into the sea)

pronounced [ˈnaunst] – adj. strongly marked; easily noticeable: a pronounced flavor of cinnamon

propagate [ˈprɔpəgeit] – v. transmit from one generation to the next: propagate these characteristics

propensity [prəˈpensiti] – n. an inclination to do something

prophet [ˈprɔfit] – n. an authoritative person who divines the future

propinquity [prəˈpiŋkwiti] – n. the property of being close together

propitiate [prəˈpiʃieit] – v. make peace with

propitious [prəˈpiʃəs] – adj. presenting favorable circumstances; likely to result in or show signs of success: propitious omens

proprietary [prəˈpraiətəri] – n. an unincorporated business owned by a single person who is responsible for its liabilities and entitled to its profits

proprietorship [prəˈpraiətə.ʃip] – n. an unincorporated business owned by a single person who is responsible for its liabilities and entitled to its profits

prorogue [prəuˈrəug, prə-] – v. hold back to a later time

prosaic [prəuˈzeiik] – adj. not fanciful or imaginative: a prosaic and unimaginative essay

proscribe [prəuˈskraib] – v. command against

prose [prəuz] – n. ordinary writing as distinguished from verse

proselytize [ˈprɔsələlaiz] – v. convert to another faith or religion

prosper [ˈprɔspə] – v. make steady progress; be at the high point in one’s career or reach a high point in historical significance or importance

prototype [ˈprəutətaip] – n. a standard or typical example: he is the prototype of good breeding

protuberant [prəˈtju:bərənt] – adj. curving outward

provenance [ˈprɔvənəns] – n. where something originated or was nurtured in its early existence

proverb [ˈprɔvə:b] – n. a condensed but memorable saying embodying some important fact of experience that is taken as true by many people

proverbial  – adj. widely known and spoken of: her proverbial lateness

provident [ˈprɔvidənt] – adj. careful in regard to your own interests: wild squirrels are provident

proviso [prəˈvaizəu] – n. a stipulated condition

provocative [prəˈvɔkətiv] – adj. serving or tending to provoke, excite, or stimulate; stimulating discussion or exciting controversy: a provocative remark

prowess [ˈprauis] – n. a superior skill that you can learn by study and practice and observation

proxy [ˈprɔksi] – n. a person authorized to act for another

prudent [ˈpru:dənt] – adj. careful and sensible; marked by sound judgment: a prudent manager

prurient [ˈpruəriənt] – adj. characterized by lust: prurient literature

psephology [seˈfɔlədʒi] – n. the branch of sociology that studies election trends (as by opinion polls)

psychic [ˈsaikik] – adj. affecting or influenced by the human mind: psychic energy

psychopathology [saikəupəˈθɔlədʒi] – n. the branch of psychology concerned with abnormal behavior

puerile [ˈpjuərail] – adj. of or characteristic of a child: puerile breathing

pugnacious [pʌgˈneiʃəs] – adj. tough and callous by virtue of experience

puissant [ˈpju:isənt] – adj. powerful

pulmonary [ˈpʌlmənəri] – adj. relating to or affecting the lungs: pulmonary disease

punctilious [pʌŋkˈtiliəs] – adj. marked by precise accordance with details: punctilious in his attention to rules of etiquette

pungent [ˈpʌndʒənt] – adj. strong and sharp: the pungent taste of radishes

purblind [ˈpə:blaind] – adj. having greatly reduced vision

puritanical [.pjuəriˈtænikəl] – adj. of or relating to Puritans or Puritanism

purview [ˈpə:vju:] – n. the range of interest or activity that can be anticipated

pusillanimous [pju:siˈlæniməs] – adj. lacking in courage and manly strength and resolution; contemptibly fearful

putrid [ˈpju:trid] – adj. in an advanced state of decomposition and having a foul odor: horrible like raw and putrid flesh

pyramid [ˈpirəmid] – v. enlarge one’s holdings on an exchange on a continued rise by using paper profits as margin to buy additional amounts

pyromaniac [.paiɚrəʊ ˈmeiniæk, .pi-] – n. a person with a mania for setting things on fire

quaff [kwɑ:f, kwæf] – n. a hearty draft

quagmire [ˈkwæg.maiə] – n. a soft wet area of low-lying land that sinks underfoot

quaint [kweint] – adj. strange in an interesting or pleasing way: quaint dialect words

qualitative [ˈkwɔlitətiv] – adj. relating to or involving comparisons based on qualities

qualm [kwɑ:m] – n. uneasiness about the fitness of an action

quandary [ˈkwɔndəri] – n. a situation from which extrication is difficult especially an unpleasant or trying one

quantify [ˈkwɔntifai] – v. express as a number or measure or quantity: Can you quantify your results?

quarantine [ˈkwɔrən.ti:n] – n. enforced isolation of patients suffering from a contagious disease in order to prevent the spread of disease

quartz [kwɔ:ts] – n. colorless glass made of almost pure silica

quell [kwel] – v. suppress or crush completely

quench [kwentʃ] – v. satisfy (thirst): The cold water quenched his thirst

querulous [ˈkwɛrələs] – adj. habitually complaining

quiescence [kwaiˈesns] – n. a state of quiet (but possibly temporary) inaction

quiescent [kwaiˈesənt] – adj. not active or activated: the quiescent level of centimeter wave-length solar radiation

quintessence [kwinˈtesəns] – n. the purest and most concentrated essence of something

quirk [kwə:k] – n. a strange attitude or habit

quiver [ˈkwivə] – n. an almost pleasurable sensation of fright

quotidian [kwəuˈtidiən] – adj. found in the ordinary course of events: there’s nothing quite like a real…train conductor to add color to a quotidian commute

rabid [ˈræbid] – adj. marked by excessive enthusiasm for and intense devotion to a cause or idea: rabid isolationist

raconteur [.rækɑnˈtə] – n. a person skilled in telling anecdotes

radiant [ˈreidjənt] – adj. radiating or as if radiating light: a radiant sunrise

rainfall [ˈrein.fɔ:l] – n. water falling in drops from vapor condensed in the atmosphere

ramification [.ræmifəˈkeʃən] – n. the act of branching out or dividing into branches

rampant [ˈræmpənt] – adj. unrestrained and violent: rampant aggression

rampart [ˈræmpɑ:t] – n. an embankment built around a space for defensive purposes: they stormed the ramparts of the city

rancid [ˈrænsid] – adj. smelling of fermentation or staleness

rancor [ˈræŋkə] – n. a feeling of deep and bitter anger and ill-will

ransom [ˈrænsəm] – n. money demanded for the return of a captured person

rant [rænt] – n. a loud bombastic declamation expressed with strong emotion

rap [ræp] – n. a reproach for some lapse or misdeed: it was a bum rap

rapacious [rəˈpeiʃəs] – adj. living by preying on other animals especially by catching living prey: the rapacious wolf

rash [ræʃ] – n. any red eruption of the skin

ratify [ˈrætifai] – v. approve and express assent, responsibility, or obligation

ration [ˈræʃən] – n. the food allowance for one day (especially for service personnel): the rations should be nutritionally balanced

rationalize [ˈræʃənəlaiz] – v. defend, explain, clear away, or make excuses for by reasoning: rationalize the child’s seemingly crazy behavior

raucous [ˈrɔ:kəs] – adj. unpleasantly loud and harsh

raze [reiz] – v. tear down so as to make flat with the ground

reactionary [ri(:)ˈækʃənəri] – n. an extreme conservative; an opponent of progress or liberalism

realty [ˈriəlti] – n. property consisting of houses and land

rebarbative [riˈbɑrbətiv] – adj. serving or tending to repel: he became rebarbative and prickly and spiteful

rebate [ˈri:beit] – v. give a reduction in the price during a sale

rebuff [riˈbʌf] – n. a deliberate discourteous act (usually as an expression of anger or disapproval)

rebuke [riˈbju:k] – n. an act or expression of criticism and censure: he had to take the rebuke with a smile on his face

rebuttal [riˈbʌtl] – n. the speech act of refuting by offering a contrary contention or argument

recalcitrant [riˈkælsitrənt] – adj. stubbornly resistant to authority or control

recede [riˈsi:d] – v. pull back or move away or backward

receivable [riˈsi:vəbl] – adj. awaiting payment: accounts receivable

recidivism [riˈsidivizəm] – n. habitual relapse into crime

reciprocal [riˈsiprəkəl] – n. hybridization involving a pair of crosses that reverse the sexes associated with each genotype

reciprocate [riˈsiprəkeit] – v. act, feel, or give mutually or in return: We always invite the neighbors and they never reciprocate!

reclaim [riˈkleim] – v. claim back

recluse [riˈklu:s] – n. one who lives in solitude

reconciliation [.rekənsiliˈeiʃən] – n. the reestablishing of cordial relations

recondite [ˈrekəndait] – adj. difficult to penetrate; incomprehensible to one of ordinary understanding or knowledge: some recondite problem in historiography

recreant [ˈrekriənt] – n. an abject coward

rectify [ˈrektifai] – v. math: determine the length of: rectify a curve

recumbent [riˈkʌmbənt] – adj. lying down; in a position of comfort or rest

recur [riˈkə:] – v. happen or occur again: This is a recurring story

recusant [ˈrekjuzənt] – adj. (of Catholics) refusing to attend services of the Church of England

redemption [riˈdempʃən] – n. (theology) the act of delivering from sin or saving from evil

redolent [ˈredələnt] – adj. serving to bring to mind: cannot forbear to close on this redolent literary note

redress [riˈdres] – n. a sum of money paid in compensation for loss or injury

refractory [riˈfræktəri] – adj. not responding to treatment: a refractory case of acne

refrain [riˈfrein] – v. resist doing something: He refrained from hitting him back

refulgent [riˈfʌldʒənt] – adj. radiating or as if radiating light: a refulgent sunset

refund [ˈri:fʌnd] – n. money returned to a payer

refurbish [ri:ˈfə:biʃ] – v. make brighter and prettier: we refurbished the guest wing

regal [ˈri:gəl] – adj. belonging to or befitting a supreme ruler: regal attire

reimbursement [.ri:imˈbə:smənt] – n. compensation paid (to someone) for damages or losses or money already spent etc.: he received reimbursement for his travel expenses

reincarnate [.ri:inˈkɑ:neit] – v. be born anew in another body after death

reiterate [ri:ˈitəreit] – v. to say, state, or perform again

rejuvenate [riˈdʒu:vəneit] – v. cause (a stream or river) to erode, as by an uplift of the land

relay [riˈlei] – n. the act of passing something along from one person or group to another: the relay was successful

relegate [ˈreligeit] – v. refer to another person for decision or judgment: She likes to relegate difficult questions to her colleagues

relent [riˈlent] – v. give in, as to influence or pressure

relinquish [riˈliŋkwiʃ] – v. part with a possession or right: I am relinquishing my bedroom to the long-term house guest

relish [ˈreliʃ] – n. vigorous and enthusiastic enjoyment

remittance [riˈmitəns] – n. a payment of money sent to a person in another place

remonstrate [riˈmɔnstreit, ˈremənstreit] – v. argue in protest or opposition

remorse [riˈmɔ:s] – n. a feeling of deep regret (usually for some misdeed)

renascence  – n. a second or new birth

renascent [riˈnæsənt] – adj. rising again as to new life and vigor

rend [rend] – v. tear or be torn violently

rendezvous [ˈrɔndivu:] – n. a meeting planned at a certain time and place

renegade [ˈrenigeid] – n. someone who rebels and becomes an outlaw

renovate [ˈrenə.veit] – v. restore to a previous or better condition: They renovated the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel

rental [ˈrentl] – n. the act of paying for the use of something (as an apartment or house or car)

repartee [.repɑ:ˈti:] – n. adroitness and cleverness in reply

repast  – n. the food served and eaten at one time

repel [riˈpel] – v. cause to move back by force or influence: repel the enemy

repertoire [ˈrepətwɑ:] – n. the entire range of skills or aptitudes or devices used in a particular field or occupation

replenish [riˈpleniʃ] – v. fill something that had previously been emptied

replete [riˈpli:t] – adj. filled to satisfaction with food or drink

replica [ˈreplikə, riˈpli:kə] – n. copy that is not the original; something that has been copied

reprehend [.repriˈhend] – v. express strong disapproval of

repression [riˈpreʃən] – n. a state of forcible subjugation: the long repression of Christian sects

reprimand [ˈreprima:nd] – v. rebuke formally

reprobate [ˈreprəbeit] – v. reject (documents) as invalid

reproof [riˈpru:f] – n. an act or expression of criticism and censure

reptile [ˈreptail] – n. any cold-blooded vertebrate of the class Reptilia including tortoises, turtles, snakes, lizards, alligators, crocodiles, and extinct forms

repudiate [riˈpju:dieit] – v. cast off: The parents repudiated their son

repugnance [riˈpʌgnəns] – n. intense aversion

repugnant [riˈpʌgnənt] – adj. offensive to the mind: morally repugnant customs

requisition [.rekwiˈziʃən] – n. an official form on which a request in made: first you have to fill out the requisition

rescind [riˈsind] – v. cancel officially

resemblance [riˈzembləns] – n. similarity in appearance or external or superficial details

reside [riˈzaid] – v. make one’s home in a particular place or community: may parents reside in Florida

residual [riˈzidjuəl] – n. something left after other parts have been taken away

resilient [riˈziliənt] – adj. recovering readily from adversity, depression, or the like

resolute [ˈrezə.lu:t] – adj. firm in purpose or belief; characterized by firmness and determination: stood resolute against the enemy

resonant [ˈrezənənt] – adj. serving to bring to mind

respite [ˈrespait] – n. a (temporary) relief from harm or discomfort

resplendent [riˈsplendənt] – adj. having great beauty and splendor

restive [ˈrestiv] – adj. being in a tense state

resultant [riˈzʌltənt] – n. the final point in a process

resurgent [riˈsə:dʒənt] – adj. rising again as to new life and vigor: resurgent nationalism

resurrection [.rezəˈrekʃən] – n. (New Testament) the rising of Christ on the third day after the Crucifixion

resuscitate [riˈsʌsiteit] – v. cause to regain consciousness

reticent [ˈretisənt] – adj. temperamentally disinclined to talk

retract [riˈtrækt] – v. formally reject or disavow a formerly held belief, usually under pressure: He retracted his earlier statements about his religion

retrograde [ˈretrəgreid] – v. move backward in an orbit, of celestial bodies

retrospect [ˈretrəu.spekt] – n. contemplation of things past: in retrospect

reverberate [riˈvə:bəreit] – v. ring or echo with sound

reverence [ˈrevərəns] – n. a feeling of profound respect for someone or something: the Chinese reverence for the dead

reverent [ˈrevərənt] – adj. feeling or showing profound respect or veneration: maintained a reverent silence

reverie [ˈrevəri] – n. absentminded dreaming while awake

revile [riˈvail] – v. spread negative information about

revoke [riˈvəuk] – v. fail to follow suit when able and required to do so

revolve [riˈvɔlv] – v. turn on or around an axis or a center: The Earth revolves around the Sun

rhapsodize [ˈræpsədaiz] – v. say (something) with great enthusiasm

rhetorical  – adj. given to rhetoric, emphasizing style at the expense of thought: mere rhetorical frippery

ribald [ˈribəld] – adj. humorously vulgar: ribald language

rigor [ˈrigə] – n. something hard to endure

rigorous [ˈrigərəs] – adj. rigidly accurate; allowing no deviation from a standard: rigorous application of the law

rim [rim] – n. the shape of a raised edge of a more or less circular object

rivet [ˈrivit] – v. direct one’s attention on something

rivulet [ˈrivjulit] – n. a small stream

robust [rəuˈbʌst] – adj. sturdy and strong in form, constitution, or construction: a robust body

ROI  – n. (corporate finance) the amount, expressed as a percentage, that is earned on a company’s total capital calculated by dividing the total capital into earnings before interest, taxes, or dividends are paid

roseate [ˈrəuziət] – adj. of something having a dusty purplish pink color: the roseate glow of dawn

roster [ˈrɔstə] – n. a list of names

roundabout [ˈraundəbaut] – n. a large, rotating machine with seats for children to ride or amusement

roundsman [ˈraundzmən] – n. a workman employed to make rounds (to deliver goods or make inspections or so on)

rout [raut] – v. cause to flee: rout out the fighters from their caves

rowdy [ˈraudi] – n. a cruel and brutal fellow

rubicund [ˈru:bikənd] – adj. inclined to a healthy reddish color often associated with outdoor life: Santa’s rubicund cheeks

ruby [ˈru:bi] – n. a transparent deep red variety of corundum; used as a gemstone and in lasers

rudimentary [ru:diˈmentəri] – adj. being or involving basic facts or principles: these rudimentary truths

ruffian [ˈrʌfiən] – n. a cruel and brutal fellow

ruminate [ˈru:mineit] – v. chew the cuds: cows ruminate

rummage [ˈrʌmidʒ] – n. a jumble of things to be given away

rumor [ˈru:mə] – n. gossip (usually a mixture of truth and untruth) passed around by word of mouth

ruse [ru:z, ru:s] – n. a deceptive maneuver (especially to avoid capture)

Russia [ˈrʌʃə] – n. formerly the largest Soviet Socialist Republic in the USSR occupying eastern Europe and northern Asia

rustic [ˈrʌstik] – adj. characteristic of rural life: rustic awkwardness

sacrilegious [sækriˈlidʒəs] – adj. grossly irreverent toward what is held to be sacred: it is sacrilegious to enter with shoes on

sacrosanct [ˈsækrəusæŋkt] – adj. must be kept sacred

safeguard [ˈseifgɑ:d] – n. a precautionary measure warding off impending danger or damage or injury etc.: an insurance policy is a good safeguard

saga [ˈsɑ:gə] – n. a narrative telling the adventures of a hero or a family; originally (12th to 14th centuries) a story of the families that settled Iceland and their descendants but now any prose narrative that resembles such an account

sagacious [səˈgeiʃəs] – adj. acutely insightful and wise: observant and thoughtful, he was given to asking sagacious questions

salient [ˈseiljənt] – adj. having a quality that thrusts itself into attention: salient traits

saline [ˈseilain] – n. an isotonic solution of sodium chloride and distilled water

salty [ˈsɔ:lti] – adj. engagingly stimulating or provocative: salty language

salubrious [səˈlu:briəs] – adj. promoting health; healthful: the salubrious mountain air and water

salutatory [səˈlu:tətəri] – n. an opening or welcoming statement (especially one delivered at graduation exercises)

salvage [ˈsælvidʒ] – n. property or goods saved from damage or destruction

sampling [ˈsæmpliŋ] – n. items selected at random from a population and used to test hypotheses about the population

sanctimonious [.sæŋktiˈməuniəs] – adj. excessively or hypocritically pious: a sickening sanctimonious smile

sane [sein] – adj. mentally healthy; free from mental disorder: appears to be completely sane

sanguinary [ˈsæŋgwinəri] – adj. accompanied by bloodshed: this bitter and sanguinary war

sanguine [ˈsæŋgwin] – adj. confidently optimistic and cheerful

sanitary [ˈsænitəri, -teri] – adj. free from filth and pathogens: sanitary conditions for preparing food

sapid [ˈsæpid] – adj. full of flavor

sapient [ˈseipiənt] – adj. acutely insightful and wise: a source of valuable insights and sapient advice to educators

sarcasm [ˈsɑ:kæzəm] – n. witty language used to convey insults or scorn: he used sarcasm to upset his opponent

sarcastic [sɑ:ˈkæstik] – adj. expressing or expressive of ridicule that wounds

sardonic [sɑ:ˈdɔnik, sɑrˈdɑnik] – adj. disdainfully or ironically humorous; scornful and mocking: his rebellion is the bitter, sardonic laughter of all great satirists

sartorial [sɑ:ˈtɔ:riəl] – adj. of or relating to a tailor or to tailoring

satiety [səˈtaiəti] – n. the state of being satisfactorily full and unable to take on more

satire [ˈsætaiə] – n. witty language used to convey insults or scorn

saturate [ˈsætʃəreit] – v. infuse or fill completely

saturnalia [.sætəˈneiliə] – n. an orgiastic festival in ancient Rome in honor of Saturn

saturnine [ˈsætənain] – adj. bitter or scornful: the face was saturnine and swarthy, and the sensual lips…twisted with disdain

satyr [ˈsætə] – n. man with strong sexual desires

saunter [ˈsɔ:ntə] – n. a careless leisurely gait: he walked with a kind of saunter as if he hadn’t a care in the world

savant [ˈsævənt] – n. someone who has been admitted to membership in a scholarly field

savor [ˈseivə] – v. derive or receive pleasure from; get enjoyment from; take pleasure in

scabrous [ˈskeibrəs] – adj. rough to the touch; covered with scales or scurf

scamper [ˈskæmpə] – n. rushing about hastily in an undignified way

scanty  – n. short underpants for women or children (usually used in the plural)

scathing [ˈskeiðiŋ] – adj. marked by harshly abusive criticism: his scathing remarks about silly lady novelists

scavenger [ˈskævindʒə] – n. a chemical agent that is added to a chemical mixture to counteract the effects of impurities

scepter [ˈseptə] – n. a ceremonial or emblematic staff

schism [ˈsizəm, ˈskizəm] – n. division of a group into opposing factions: another schism like that and they will wind up in bankruptcy

scintilla [sinˈtilə] – n. a tiny or scarcely detectable amount

scion [ˈsaiən] – n. a descendent or heir: a scion of royal stock

scour [ˈskauə] – v. examine minutely: The police scoured the country for the fugitive

scourge [skə:dʒ] – n. a whip used to inflict punishment (often used for pedantic humor)

scrawl [skrɔ:l] – n. poor handwriting

screwdriver [ˈskru:.draivə] – n. a hand tool for driving screws; has a tip that fits into the head of a screw

scruple [ˈskru:pl] – n. a unit of apothecary weight equal to 20 grains

scrupulous [ˈskru:pjuləs] – adj. characterized by extreme care and great effort: scrupulous attention to details

scrutinize [ˈskru:tinaiz] – v. to look at critically or searchingly, or in minute detail: he scrutinized his likeness in the mirror

scurrilous [ˈskʌriləs] – adj. expressing offensive reproach

scuttle [ˈskʌtl] – n. container for coal; shaped to permit pouring the coal onto the fire

seasick [ˈsi:sik] – adj. experiencing motion sickness

seaside [ˈsi:.said] – n. the shore of a sea or ocean regarded as a resort

sectarian [sekˈteəriən] – adj. of or relating to or characteristic of a sect or sects: sectarian differences

sedate [siˈdeit] – adj. characterized by dignity and propriety

sedentary [ˈsedəntəri] – adj. requiring sitting or little activity: forced by illness to lead a sedentary life

sedition [siˈdiʃən] – n. an illegal action inciting resistance to lawful authority and tending to cause the disruption or overthrow of the government

sedulous [ˈsedjuləs] – adj. marked by care and persistent effort: sedulous pursuit of legal and moral principles

seethe [si:ð] – v. be noisy with activity

segregate [ˈsegrigeit] – v. divide from the main body or mass and collect: Many towns segregated into new counties

seizure [ˈsi:ʒə] – n. a sudden occurrence (or recurrence) of a disease: he suffered an epileptic seizure

seniority [.si:niˈɔriti] – n. higher rank than that of others especially by reason of longer service

sententious [senˈtenʃəs] – adj. abounding in or given to pompous or aphoristic moralizing: too often the significant episode deteriorates into sententious conversation

sentient [ˈsenʃənt] – adj. endowed with feeling and unstructured consciousness: the living knew themselves just sentient puppets on God’s stage

sentimental [.sentiˈmentl] – adj. effusively or insincerely emotional: sentimental soap operas

septic [ˈseptik] – adj. containing or resulting from disease-causing organisms: a septic sore throat

sequester [siˈkwestə] – v. requisition forcibly, as of enemy property: the estate was sequestered

sere [siə] – adj. (used especially of vegetation) having lost all moisture: the desert was edged with sere vegetation

serendipity [.serənˈdipiti] – n. good luck in making unexpected and fortunate discoveries

serial [ˈsiəriəl] – adj. in regular succession without gaps: serial concerts

seriousness [ˈsiəriəsnis] – n. an earnest and sincere feeling

serpentine [ˈsə:pəntain] – adj. resembling a serpent in form: a serpentine wall

serrated [seˈreitid] – adj. notched like a saw with teeth pointing toward the apex

servile [ˈsə:vail] – adj. submissive or fawning in attitude or behavior: spoke in a servile tone

setback [ˈsetbæk] – n. an unfortunate happening that hinders or impedes; something that is thwarting or frustrating

sham [ʃæm] – n. something that is a counterfeit; not what it seems to be

shameful [ˈʃeimfəl] – adj. giving offense to moral sensibilities and injurious to reputation: the wicked rascally shameful conduct of the bankrupt

shark [ʃɑ:k] – n. a person who is ruthless and greedy and dishonest

sheen [ʃi:n] – n. the visual property of something that shines with reflected light

shimmer [ˈʃimə] – v. shine with a weak or fitful light: Beech leaves shimmered in the moonlight

shipment [ˈʃipmənt] – n. goods carried by a large vehicle

shipping [ˈʃipiŋ] – n. the commercial enterprise of moving goods and materials

shipwreck [ˈʃiprek] – v. ruin utterly: You have shipwrecked my career

shoal [ʃəul] – n. a sandbank in a stretch of water that is visible at low tide

shoddy [ˈʃɔdi] – adj. of inferior workmanship and materials

shoemaker [ˈʃu:.meikə] – n. a person who makes or repairs shoes

shoestring [ˈʃu:striŋ] – n. a small amount of money: he managed it on a shoestring

shortcut [ˈʃɔ:tkʌt] – n. a route shorter than the usual one

shorten [ˈʃɔ:tn] – v. reduce in scope while retaining essential elements: The manuscript must be shortened

shove [ʃʌv] – v. come into rough contact with while moving

shrewd [ʃru:d] – adj. marked by practical hardheaded intelligence: he was too shrewd to go along with them on a road that could lead only to their overthrow

shutter [ˈʃʌtə] – n. a mechanical device on a camera that opens and closes to control the time of a photographic exposure

sidereal [saiˈdiəriəl] – adj. of or relating to the stars or constellations: sidereal bodies

signify [ˈsignifai] – v. denote or connote

silicon [ˈsilikən] – n. a tetravalent nonmetallic element; next to oxygen it is the most abundant element in the earth’s crust; occurs in clay and feldspar and granite and quartz and sand; used as a semiconductor in transistors

simile [ˈsimili] – n. a figure of speech that expresses a resemblance between things of different kinds (usually formed with `like’ or `as’)

similitude [siˈmilitju:d] – n. a duplicate copy

simulate [ˈsimjuleit] – v. reproduce someone’s behavior or looks

simultaneous [.saiməlˈteinjəs] – adj. occurring or operating at the same time

sincerity [sinˈseriti] – n. the quality of being open and truthful; not deceitful or hypocritical: his sincerity inspired belief

sinecure [ˈsainikjuə, ˈsin-] – n. a benefice to which no spiritual or pastoral duties are attached

sinister [ˈsinistə] – adj. threatening or foreshadowing evil or tragic developments: sinister storm clouds

sinuous [ˈsinjuəs] – adj. curved or curving in and out

situated [ˈsitjueitid] – adj. situated in a particular spot or position: nicely situated on a quiet riverbank

skeptic [ˈskeptik] – n. someone who habitually doubts accepted beliefs

skeptical [ˈskeptikəl] – adj. denying or questioning the tenets of especially a religion: a skeptical approach to the nature of miracles

skimp [skimp] – v. work hastily or carelessly; deal with inadequately and superficially

skip [skip] – v. bypass: He skipped a row in the text and so the sentence was incomprehensible

skirmish [ˈskə:miʃ] – n. a minor short-term fight

skittish [ˈskitiʃ] – adj. unpredictably excitable (especially of horses)

skulk [skʌlk] – v. lie in wait, lie in ambush, behave in a sneaky and secretive manner

skyrocket [ˈskai.rɔkit] – n. propels bright light high in the sky, or used to propel a lifesaving line or harpoon

slack [slæk] – v. avoid responsibilities and work, be idle

slake [sleik] – v. satisfy (thirst)

slander [ˈslɑ:ndə] – n. words falsely spoken that damage the reputation of another

slash [slæʃ] – v. cut with sweeping strokes; as with an ax or machete

slaughter [ˈslɔ:tə] – n. the killing of animals (as for food)

sleepless [ˈsli:plis] – adj. always watchful

sloth [sləuθ] – n. a disinclination to work or exert yourself

slothful [ˈsləʊθfʊl] – adj. disinclined to work or exertion: slothful employees

slough [slʌf, slau] – n. necrotic tissue; a mortified or gangrenous part or mass

slovenly [ˈslʌvənli] – adj. negligent of neatness especially in dress and person; habitually dirty and unkempt: slovenly appearance

slowdown [ˈsləudaun] – n. the act of slowing down or falling behind

sluggish [ˈslʌgiʃ] – adj. moving slowly: a sluggish stream

smoker [ˈsməukə] – n. a party for men only (or one considered suitable for men only)

snack [snæk] – n. a light informal meal

sneak [sni:k] – v. to go stealthily or furtively: ..stead of sneaking around spying on the neighbor’s house

sneeze [sni:z] – n. a symptom consisting of the involuntary expulsion of air from the nose

snip [snip] – v. cultivate, tend, and cut back the growth of

sobriety [səˈbraiəti] – n. the state of being sober and not intoxicated by alcohol

sociable [ˈsəuʃəbl] – adj. inclined to or conducive to companionship with others: a sociable occasion

sodden [ˈsɔdn] – adj. wet through and through; thoroughly wet: the speaker’s sodden collar

sojourn [ˈsɔdʒə:n] – n. a temporary stay (e.g., as a guest)

solace [ˈsɔləs] – n. comfort in disappointment or misery

solecism [ˈsɔlisizəm] – n. a socially awkward or tactless act

solemnity [səˈlemniti] – n. a trait of dignified seriousness

solicit [səˈlisit] – v. make amorous advances towards

solicitous [səˈlisitəs] – adj. full of anxiety and concern: solicitous parents

soliloquy [səˈliləkwi] – n. speech you make to yourself

solitary [ˈsɔlitəri] – adj. of plants and animals; not growing or living in groups or colonies: solitary bees

solubility  – n. the quantity of a particular substance that can dissolve in a particular solvent (yielding a saturated solution)

somber [ˈsɔmbə] – adj. lacking brightness or color; dull: children in somber brown clothes

somnolent [ˈsɔmnələnt] – adj. inclined to or marked by drowsiness: the sound had a somnolent effect

sonorous [ˈsɔnərəs] – adj. full and loud and deep: a herald chosen for his sonorous voice

sop [sɔp] – v. give a conciliatory gift or bribe to

sophomore [ˈsɔfəmɔ:] – n. a second-year undergraduate

soporific [.sɔpəˈrifik] – adj. sleep inducing

sordid [ˈsɔ:did] – adj. morally degraded: the sordid details of his orgies stank under his very nostrils

souvenir [ˈsu:vəniə] – n. something of sentimental value

sovereign [ˈsɔvrin] – adj. (of political bodies) not controlled by outside forces: a sovereign state

spacious [ˈspeiʃəs] – adj. very large in expanse or scope: a spacious view

Spain [spein] – n. a parliamentary monarchy in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula; a former colonial power

spasmodic [spæzˈmɔdik] – adj. occurring in spells and often abruptly: spasmodic rifle fire

spatula [ˈspætjulə] – n. a turner with a narrow flexible blade

specialty [ˈspeʃəlti] – n. a distinguishing trait

specious [ˈspi:ʃəs] – adj. plausible but false: a specious claim

spelunker [spiˈlʌŋkə(r)] – n. a person who explores caves

spendthrift [ˈspend.θrift] – n. someone who spends money prodigally

spicy [ˈspaisi] – adj. having an agreeably pungent taste

spiral [ˈspairəl] – n. a plane curve traced by a point circling about the center but at increasing distances from the center

splenetic [spliˈnetik] – adj. of or relating to the spleen

sporadic [spəˈrædik] – adj. recurring in scattered and irregular or unpredictable instances: a city subjected to sporadic bombing raids

sprout [spraut] – n. any new growth of a plant such as a new branch or a bud

spurious [ˈspjuəriəs] – adj. plausible but false: spurious inferences

spurn [spə:n] – v. reject with contempt: She spurned his advances

squalid [ˈskwɔlid] – adj. morally degraded: the squalid atmosphere of intrigue and betrayal

staccato [stəˈkɑ:təu] – adj. (music) marked by or composed of disconnected parts or sounds; cut short crisply: staccato applause

stagnant [ˈstægnənt] – adj. not circulating or flowing: stagnant water

stagnate [stægˈneit] – v. stand still: Industry will stagnate if we do not stimulate our economy

stagnation [stægˈneiʃən] – n. a state of inactivity (in business or art etc): economic growth of less than 1% per year is considered to be economic stagnation

staid [steid] – adj. characterized by dignity and propriety

stainless [ˈsteinlis] – n. steel containing chromium that makes it resistant to corrosion

stalk [stɔ:k] – n. material consisting of seed coverings and small pieces of stem or leaves that have been separated from the seeds

stamina [ˈstæminə] – n. enduring strength and energy

stanch [stɔ:ntʃ, stɑ:ntʃ] – v. stop the flow of a liquid

stanza [ˈstænzə] – n. a fixed number of lines of verse forming a unit of a poem

staple [ˈsteipl] – n. a natural fiber (raw cotton, wool, hemp, flax) that can be twisted to form yarn: staple fibers vary widely in length

stash [stæʃ] – n. a secret store of valuables or money

stationary [ˈsteiʃənəri] – adj. standing still: the car remained stationary with the engine running

stave [steiv] – n. (music) the system of five horizontal lines on which the musical notes are written

steadfast [ˈstedfɑ:st, -fæst] – adj. marked by firm determination or resolution; not shakable: steadfast resolve

stentorian [stenˈtɔ:riən] – adj. used of the voice

stereo [ˈsteriəu] – n. reproducer in which two microphones feed two or more loudspeakers to give a three-dimensional effect to the sound

stereotype [ˈsteriətaip] – n. a conventional or formulaic conception or image: regional stereotypes have been part of America since its founding

sterile [ˈsterail] – adj. incapable of reproducing

stertorous [ˈstə:tərəs] – adj. of breathing having a heavy snoring sound

stigma [ˈstigmə] – n. a symbol of disgrace or infamy

stigmatize [ˈstigmətaiz] – v. to accuse or condemn or openly or formally or brand as disgraceful: She was stigmatized by society because she had a child out of wedlock

stipend [ˈstaipend] – n. a sum of money allotted on a regular basis; usually for some specific purpose

stipulate [ˈstipjuleit] – v. specify as a condition or requirement in a contract or agreement; make an express demand or provision in an agreement: The will stipulates that she can live in the house for the rest of her life

stockbroker [ˈstɔk.brəukə] – n. an agent in the buying and selling of stocks and bonds

stockholder [ˈstɔk.həuldə] – n. someone who holds shares of stock in a corporation

stockholding [ˈstɔk.həuldiŋ] – n. a specific number of stocks or shares owned

stockjobber [ˈstɔk.dʒɔbə] – n. one who deals only with brokers or other jobbers

stockpile [ˈstɔkpail] – n. something kept back or saved for future use or a special purpose

stocktaking [ˈstɔk.teikiŋ] – n. reappraisal of a situation or position or outlook

stoic [ˈstəuik] – n. a member of the ancient Greek school of philosophy founded by Zeno

stoke [stəuk] – v. stir up or tend; of a fire

stolid [ˈstɔlid] – adj. having or revealing little emotion or sensibility; not easily aroused or excited: a silent stolid creature who took it all as a matter of course

stomachache [ˈstʌməkeik] – n. an ache localized in the stomach or abdominal region

stratagem [ˈstrætədʒəm] – n. a maneuver in a game or conversation

stratum [ˈstrɑ:təm] – n. people having the same social, economic, or educational status

streamline [ˈstri:mlain] – v. contour economically or efficiently

strenuous [ˈstrenjuəs] – adj. characterized by or performed with much energy or force: strenuous exercise

stricture [ˈstriktʃə] – n. abnormal narrowing of a bodily canal or passageway

stridency [ˈstraidənsi] – n. having the timbre of a loud high-pitched sound

strident [ˈstraidənt] – adj. conspicuously and offensively loud; given to vehement outcry: strident demands

strife [straif] – n. lack of agreement or harmony

stringent [ˈstrindʒənt] – adj. demanding strict attention to rules and procedures: stringent safety measures

stubborn [ˈstʌbən] – adj. tenaciously unwilling or marked by tenacious unwillingness to yield

stuffy [ˈstʌfi] – adj. lacking fresh air: hot and stuffy and the air was blue with smoke

stun [stʌn] – v. make senseless or dizzy by or as if by a blow: stun fish

stupor [ˈstju:pə] – n. the feeling of distress and disbelief that you have when something bad happens accidentally

sturdy [ˈstə:di] – adj. having rugged physical strength; inured to fatigue or hardships: sturdy young athletes

stymie [ˈstaimi] – n. a situation in golf where an opponent’s ball blocks the line between your ball and the hole

suave [swɑ:v] – adj. having a sophisticated charm

suavity [ˈswævəti] – n. the quality of being bland and gracious or ingratiating in manner

subcontract [ˈsʌbˈkɔntrækt] – v. arranged for contracted work to be done by others

subdivide [ˈsʌbdiˈvaid] – v. divide into smaller and smaller pieces: This apartment cannot be subdivided any further!

subjugate [ˈsʌbdʒugeit] – v. put down by force or intimidation: The rich landowners subjugated the peasants working the land

sublet [ˈsʌbˈlet] – n. a lease from one lessee to another

subliminal [sʌbˈliminəl] – adj. below the threshold of conscious perception

subordinate [səˈbɔ:dineit] – adj. lower in rank or importance

subscribe [səbˈskraib] – v. offer to buy, as of stocks and shares: The broker subscribed 500 shares

subsume [səbˈsju:m] – v. contain or include: This new system subsumes the old one

subtlety [ˈsʌtlti] – n. the quality of being difficult to detect or analyze: you had to admire the subtlety of the distinctions he drew

subversive [sʌbˈvə:siv] – n. a radical supporter of political or social revolution

succinct [səkˈsiŋkt] – adj. briefly giving the gist of something: succinct comparisons

succor [ˈsʌkə] – n. assistance in time of difficulty

succumb [səˈkʌm] – v. consent reluctantly

sudorific [su:dəˈrifik] – n. a medicine that causes or increases sweating

suffice [səˈfais] – v. be sufficient; be adequate, either in quality or quantity: A ‘B’ grade doesn’t suffice to get me into medical school

suffuse [səˈfju:z] – v. cause to spread or flush or flood through, over, or across: The sky was suffused with a warm pink color

sultry [ˈsʌltri] – adj. sexually exciting or gratifying: a sultry look

sumptuary [ˈsʌmptʃuəri] – adj. regulating or controlling expenditure or personal behavior: sumptuary laws discouraging construction of large houses on small plots

sumptuous [ˈsʌmptʃuəs] – adj. rich and superior in quality

sunbathe [ˈsʌnbeið] – v. expose one’s body to the sun

sunder [ˈsʌndə] – v. break apart or in two, using violence

sundry [ˈsʌndri] – adj. consisting of a haphazard assortment of different kinds: sundry sciences commonly known as social

sunglasses [ˈsʌnglɑ:siz] – n. spectacles that are darkened or polarized to protect the eyes from the glare of the sun

superannuated [.su:pərˈænjueitid, ˈsju:-] – adj. too old to be useful: He left the house…for the support of twelve superannuated wool carders

supercilious [.su:pəˈsiliəs, .sju:-] – adj. having or showing arrogant superiority to and disdain of those one views as unworthy: his mother eyed my clothes with a supercilious air

superfluous [su:ˈpə:fluəs, sju:-] – adj. serving no useful purpose; having no excuse for being

superintend [.su:pərinˈtend, .sju:-] – v. watch and direct

superiority [sju.piəriˈɔriti] – n. the quality of being at a competitive advantage

superlative [su:ˈpə:lətiv, sju:-] – n. an exaggerated expression (usually of praise): the critics lavished superlatives on it

supernal [su:ˈpə:nl, sju:-] – adj. being or coming from on high: interpret the plague as a visitation from heaven, a supernal punishment for the sins of men

supersonic [ˈsju:pəˈsɔnik] – adj. (of speed) greater than the speed of sound in a given medium (especially air): a supersonic bomber flies so fast that it must release its bombs while the target is still over the horizon

superstition [.sju:pəˈstiʃən] – n. an irrational belief arising from ignorance or fear

supine [ˈsu:pain, ˈsju:-] – adj. lying face upward

supplant [səˈplɑ:nt] – v. take the place or move into the position of: the computer has supplanted the slide rule

suppliant [ˈsʌpliənt] – n. one praying humbly for something: a suppliant for her favors

surcharge [ˈsə:tʃɑ:dʒ] – v. charge an extra fee, as for a special service

surfeit [ˈsə:fit] – n. the state of being more than full

surge [sə:dʒ] – v. rise and move, as in waves or billows: The army surged forward

surly [ˈsə:li] – adj. inclined to anger or bad feelings with overtones of menace: a surly waiter

surmise [ˈsə:maiz] – v. infer from incomplete evidence

surpass [səˈpɑ:s] – v. distinguish oneself

surreptitious [.sʌrəpˈtiʃəs] – adj. marked by quiet and caution and secrecy; taking pains to avoid being observed: a surreptitious glance at his watch

surveillance [sə:ˈveiləns] – n. close observation of a person or group (usually by the police)

susceptible [səˈseptəbl] – adj. (often followed by `of’ or `to’) yielding readily to or capable of: susceptible to colds

swathe [sweið] – n. an enveloping bandage

swimmer [ˈswimə] – n. a person who travels through the water by swimming: he is not a good swimmer

sycophant [ˈsikəfənt] – n. a person who tries to please someone in order to gain a personal advantage

syllogism [ˈsilədʒizəm] – n. deductive reasoning in which a conclusion is derived from two premises

symphony [ˈsimfəni] – n. a large orchestra; can perform symphonies: we heard the Vienna symphony

symposium [simˈpəuziəm] – n. a meeting or conference for the public discussion of some topic especially one in which the participants form an audience and make presentations

tacit [ˈtæsit] – adj. implied by or inferred from actions or statements: a tacit agreement

taciturn [ˈtæsitə:n] – adj. habitually reserved and uncommunicative

tactics [ˈtæktiks] – n. the branch of military science dealing with detailed maneuvers to achieve objectives set by strategy

tactile [ˈtæktail] – adj. of or relating to or proceeding from the sense of touch: a tactile reflex

talisman [ˈtælizmən] – n. a trinket or piece of jewelry usually hung about the neck and thought to be a magical protection against evil or disease

talkative [ˈtɔ:kətiv] – adj. full of trivial conversation

tally [ˈtæli] – v. be compatible, similar or consistent; coincide in their characteristics

tamper [ˈtæmpə] – v. play around with or alter or falsify, usually secretively or dishonestly: Someone tampered with the documents on my desk

tangential [tænˈdʒenʃəl] – adj. of superficial relevance if any: a tangential remark

tangible [ˈtændʒəbəl] – adj. perceptible by the senses especially the sense of touch: skin with a tangible roughness

tangle [ˈtæŋgl] – v. force into some kind of situation, condition, or course of action

tanker [ˈtæŋkə] – n. a cargo ship designed to carry crude oil in bulk

tantalize [ˈtæntl-aiz] – v. harass with persistent criticism or carping

tantamount [ˈtæntəmaunt] – adj. being essentially equal to something: his statement was tantamount to an admission of guilt

tantrum [ˈtæntrəm] – n. a display of bad temper: she threw a tantrum

tar [tɑ:] – n. a man who serves as a sailor

tarry [ˈtæri, ˈtɑ:ri] – v. be about

tattered [ˈtætəd] – adj. worn to shreds; or wearing torn or ragged clothing: a man in a tattered shirt

taut [tɔ:t] – adj. pulled or drawn tight: taut sails

tautological [.tɔ:təˈlɔdʒikəl] – adj. repetition of same sense in different words: the phrase `a beginner who has just started’ is tautological

tawdry [ˈtɔ:dri] – adj. tastelessly showy: tawdry ornaments

teamwork [ˈti:mwə:k] – n. cooperative work done by a team (especially when it is effective): it will take money, good planning and, above all, teamwork

tedium [ˈti:diəm] – n. dullness owing to length or slowness

teem [ti:m] – v. move in large numbers

teleology [.teliˈɔlədʒi] – n. (philosophy) a doctrine explaining phenomena by their ends or purposes

teller [ˈtelə] – n. United States physicist (born in Hungary) who worked on the first atom bomb and the first hydrogen bomb (1908-2003)

temerity [tiˈmeriti] – n. fearless daring

temperament [ˈtempərəmənt] – n. your usual mood

temperamental [.tempərəˈmentl] – adj. subject to sharply varying moods: a temperamental opera singer

tempest [ˈtempist] – n. a violent commotion or disturbance: it was only a tempest in a teapot

tempo [ˈtempəu] – n. (music) the speed at which a composition is to be played

temporal [ˈtempərəl] – adj. not eternal: temporal matters of but fleeting moment

tenable [ˈtenəbəl] – adj. based on sound reasoning or evidence

tenacious [tiˈneiʃəs] – adj. good at remembering: tenacious memory

tendentious [tenˈdenʃəs] – adj. having or marked by a strong tendency especially a controversial one: a tendentious account of recent elections

tenet [ˈtenit] – n. a religious doctrine that is proclaimed as true without proof

tensile [ˈtensail] – adj. capable of being shaped or bent or drawn out: made of highly tensile steel alloy

tentative [ˈtentətiv] – adj. under terms not final or fully worked out or agreed upon: just a tentative schedule

tenuous [ˈtenjuəs] – adj. having thin consistency: a tenuous fluid

tenure [ˈtenjuə] – n. the term during which some position is held

tepid [ˈtepid] – adj. moderately warm: tepid bath water

termagant [ˈtə:məgənt] – n. a scolding nagging bad-tempered woman

terrain [teˈrein] – n. a piece of ground having specific characteristics or military potential: they decided to attack across the rocky terrain

terrestrial [tiˈrestriəl] – adj. of or relating to or inhabiting the land as opposed to the sea or air

terse [tə:s] – adj. brief and to the point; effectively cut short: short and terse and easy to understand

testify [ˈtestifai] – v. provide evidence for

testimony [ˈtestiməni] – n. a solemn statement made under oath

testy [ˈtesti] – adj. easily irritated or annoyed

tether [ˈteðə] – n. restraint consisting of a rope (or light chain) used to restrain an animal

Thanksgiving [θæŋksˈgiviŋ] – n. fourth Thursday in November in the United States; second Monday in October in Canada; commemorates a feast held in 1621 by the Pilgrims and the Wampanoag

theater [ˈθiətə] – n. the art of writing and producing plays

therapeutic [.θerəˈpju:tik] – adj. tending to cure or restore to health: a therapeutic agent

thermal [ˈθə:məl,ˈθə:ml] – adj. relating to or associated with heat: thermal movements of molecules

thrall [θrɔ:l] – n. the state of being under the control of another person

threnody [ˈθrenədi] – n. a song or hymn of mourning composed or performed as a memorial to a dead person

thrift [θrift] – n. any of numerous sun-loving low-growing evergreens of the genus Armeria having round heads of pink or white flowers

thrifty [ˈθrifti] – adj. careful and diligent in the use of resources

throe  – n. severe spasm of pain: the throes of dying

thwart [θwɔ:t] – n. a crosspiece spreading the gunnels of a boat; used as a seat in a rowboat

tilt [tilt] – n. a contentious speech act; a dispute where there is strong disagreement

timbre [ˈtæmbə, ˈtim-] – n. (music) the distinctive property of a complex sound (a voice or noise or musical sound): the timbre of her soprano was rich and lovely

timely [ˈtaimli] – adj. done or happening at the appropriate or proper time: a timely warning

timorous [ˈtimərəs] – adj. timid by nature or revealing timidity: timorous little mouse

tirade [taiˈreid] – n. a speech of violent denunciation

tiresome [ˈtaiəsəm] – adj. so lacking in interest as to cause mental weariness: the tiresome chirping of a cricket

tithe [taið] – v. pay a tenth of one’s income, especially to the church: Although she left the church officially, she still tithes

titular [ˈtitʃulə] – adj. of or relating to a legal title to something: titulary rights

token [ˈtəukən] – n. an individual instance of a type of symbol: the word`error’ contains three tokens of `r’

tolerant [ˈtɔlərənt] – adj. showing respect for the rights or opinions or practices of others

tonsure [ˈtɔnʃə] – n. the shaved crown of a monk’s or priest’s head

torment [ˈtɔ:ment,tɔ:ˈment] – n. unbearable physical pain

torpid [ˈtɔ:pid] – adj. slow and apathetic: a mind grown torpid in old age

tortuous [ˈtɔ:tjuəs] – adj. highly complex or intricate and occasionally devious: tortuous legal procedures

tout [taut] – n. someone who advertises for customers in an especially brazen way

tow [təu] – n. the act of hauling something (as a vehicle) by means of a hitch or rope: the truck gave him a tow to the garage

tractable [ˈtræktəbəl] – adj. easily managed (controlled or taught or molded): tractable young minds

trademark [ˈtreidmɑ:k] – n. a distinctive characteristic or attribute

traduce [trəˈdju:s] – v. speak unfavorably about

trammel [ˈtræməl] – n. a fishing net with three layers; the outer two are coarse mesh and the loose inner layer is fine mesh

tranquillity  – n. an untroubled state; free from disturbances

transact [trænsˈækt] – v. conduct business: transact with foreign governments

transcend [trænˈsend] – v. be greater in scope or size than some standard

transcendental [.trænsenˈdentl] – adj. existing outside of or not in accordance with nature: find transcendental motives for sublunary action

transfuse [trænsˈfju:z] – v. impart gradually: transfuse love of music into the students

transgress [trænsˈgres] – v. act in disregard of laws, rules, contracts, or promises

transient [ˈtrænʃənt,ˈtrænziənt] – n. one who stays for only a short time: transient laborers

translucent [trænzˈlusənt, træns-] – adj. allowing light to pass through diffusely: translucent amber

transmutation  – n. an act that changes the form or character or substance of something

transmute [trænzˈmju:t] – v. change in outward structure or looks

transpire [trænˈspaiə] – v. pass through the tissue or substance or its pores or interstices, as of gas

traumatic [trɔ:ˈmætik] – adj. of or relating to a physical injury or wound to the body

travail [ˈtræveil] – n. concluding state of pregnancy; from the onset of contractions to the birth of a child

travelogue [ˈtrævəlɔg] – n. a film or illustrated lecture on traveling

treacherous [ˈtretʃərəs] – adj. dangerously unstable and unpredictable: treacherous winding roads

trek [trek] – n. a journey by ox wagon (especially an organized migration by a group of settlers)

trenchant [ˈtrentʃənt] – adj. having keenness and forcefulness and penetration in thought, expression, or intellect: trenchant criticism

trepidation [.trepiˈdeiʃən] – n. a feeling of alarm or dread

triple [ˈtripl] – n. a base hit at which the batter stops safely at third base

trite [trait] – adj. repeated too often; overfamiliar through overuse: his remarks were trite and commonplace

troth [trəuθ] – n. a mutual promise to marry

truculent [ˈtrʌkjulənt] – adj. defiantly aggressive: a truculent speech against the new government

truncate [trʌŋˈkeit] – v. replace a corner by a plane

tug [tʌg] – v. pull hard: The prisoner tugged at the chains

tumid [ˈtju:mid, ˈtu:-] – adj. ostentatiously lofty in style: tumid political prose

tumult [ˈtju:mʌlt] – n. a state of commotion and noise and confusion

turbid [ˈtə:bid] – adj. (of liquids) clouded as with sediment

turbulence [ˈtɜ:bjʊləns] – n. unstable flow of a liquid or gas

turmoil [ˈtə:mɔil] – n. a violent disturbance

turpitude [ˈtə:pitju:d] – n. a corrupt or depraved or degenerate act or practice: the various turpitudes of modern society

tutelage [ˈtju:tilidʒ] – n. teaching pupils individually (usually by a tutor hired privately)

twig [twig] – v. understand, usually after some initial difficulty

tycoon [taiˈku:n] – n. a very wealthy or powerful businessman

tyrannical [tiˈrænikəl] – adj. marked by unjust severity or arbitrary behavior: a tyrannical parent

tyro [ˈtaiərəu] – n. someone new to a field or activity

ubiquitous [juˈbikwitəs] – adj. being present everywhere at once

UFO [ˈju:fəu, .ju:efˈəu] – n. an (apparently) flying object whose nature is unknown; especially those considered to have extraterrestrial origins

ulterior [ʌlˈtiəriə] – adj. lying beyond what is openly revealed or avowed (especially being kept in the background or deliberately concealed): looked too closely for an ulterior purpose in all knowledge

umbrage [ˈʌmbridʒ] – n. a feeling of anger caused by being offended

unalloyed [.ʌnəˈlɔid] – adj. free from admixture: unalloyed metal

unanimous [juˈnæniməs] – adj. in complete agreement: a unanimous decision

uncanny [ʌnˈkæni] – adj. suggesting the operation of supernatural influences: stumps…had uncanny shapes as of monstrous creatures

uncouth [ʌnˈku:θ] – adj. lacking refinement or cultivation or taste: an untutored and uncouth human being

unctuous [ˈʌŋktʃuəs] – adj. unpleasantly and excessively suave or ingratiating in manner or speech: the unctuous Uriah Heep

underestimate [ˈʌndərˈestimeit] – v. assign too low a value to: Don’t underestimate the value of this heirloom-you may sell it at a good price

underlie [.ʌndəˈlai] – v. be or form the base for

underwrite [.ʌndəˈrait] – v. guarantee financial support of

unequivocal [.ʌniˈkwivəkəl] – adj. admitting of no doubt or misunderstanding; having only one meaning or interpretation and leading to only one conclusion: unequivocal evidence

unfavourable  – adj. not encouraging or approving or pleasing

unfeigned [ʌnˈfeind] – adj. not pretended; sincerely felt or expressed: her interest in people was unfeigned

unfold [ʌnˈfəuld] – v. develop or come to a promising stage

ungainly [ʌnˈgeinli] – adj. lacking grace in movement or posture: a gawky lad with long ungainly legs

unify [ˈju:nifai] – v. become one

unkempt [.ʌnˈkempt] – adj. not neatly combed: wild unkempt hair

unobtrusive  – adj. not obtrusive or undesirably noticeable: a quiet, unobtrusive life of self-denial

unpretentious  – adj. lacking pretension or affectation: an unpretentious country church

unruly [ʌnˈru:li] – adj. noisy and lacking in restraint or discipline: an unruly class

untenable [ʌnˈtenəbəl] – adj. (of theories etc) incapable of being defended or justified

untoward [.ʌntəˈwɔ:d] – adj. not in keeping with accepted standards of what is right or proper in polite society: moved to curb their untoward ribaldry

unwonted [ʌnˈwəuntid] – adj. out of the ordinary: an unwonted softness in her face

upbraid [.ʌpˈbreid] – v. express criticism towards

uproar [ˈʌprɔ:] – n. a state of commotion and noise and confusion

upshot  – n. a phenomenon that follows and is caused by some previous phenomenon

urbane [ɜ:ˈbein] – adj. showing a high degree of refinement and the assurance that comes from wide social experience: maintained an urbane tone in his letters

ursine [ˈə:sain] – adj. of or relating to or similar to bears

USA [ju: es ˈei] – n. the army of the United States of America; the agency that organizes and trains soldiers for land warfare

usurpation [.juzəˈpeʃən] – n. entry to another’s property without right or permission

usury [ˈju:ʒəri] – n. an exorbitant or unlawful rate of interest

utilitarian [.ju:tiliˈtɛəriən] – adj. having a useful function: utilitarian steel tables

utopia [ju:ˈtəupjə, -piə] – n. a book written by Sir Thomas More (1516) describing the perfect society on an imaginary island

uxorious [ʌkˈsɔ:riəs] – adj. foolishly fond of or submissive to your wife

valedictory [.væliˈdiktəri] – adj. of or relating to an occasion or expression of farewell: a valedictory address

validate [ˈsimjuleit] – v. prove valid; show or confirm the validity of something

vapid [ˈvæpid] – adj. lacking taste or flavor or tang: vapid beer

variegated [ˈveərigeitid, ˈver-] – adj. having a variety of colors

vegetarian [.vedʒiˈtɛəriən] – n. eater of fruits and grains and nuts; someone who eats no meat or fish or (often) any animal products

vehement [ˈviəmənt] – adj. marked by extreme intensity of emotions or convictions; inclined to react violently; fervid: vehement dislike

venal [ˈvi:nl] – adj. capable of being corrupted: a venal police officer

vend [vend] – v. sell or offer for sale from place to place

vendetta [venˈdetə] – n. a feud in which members of the opposing parties murder each other

veneer [viˈniə] – n. coating consisting of a thin layer of superior wood glued to a base of inferior wood

venerate [ˈvenəreit] – v. regard with feelings of respect and reverence; consider hallowed or exalted or be in awe of: We venerate genius

venial [ˈvi:niəl] – adj. warranting only temporal punishment: venial sin

vent [vent] – n. a hole for the escape of gas or air

ventilate [ˈventileit] – v. expose to cool or cold air so as to cool or freshen

venturous [ˈventʃərəs] – adj. disposed to venture or take risks: a venturous spirit

verbose [və:ˈbəus] – adj. using or containing too many words: verbose and ineffective instructional methods

verdant [ˈvə:dənt] – adj. characterized by abundance of verdure

verge [və:dʒ] – n. a region marking a boundary

versatile [ˈvə:sətail] – adj. having great diversity or variety: his vast and versatile erudition

vertiginous [və:ˈtidʒinəs] – adj. having or causing a whirling sensation; liable to falling: a vertiginous climb up the face of the cliff

veto [ˈvi:təu] – n. a vote that blocks a decision

viands [ˈvaiəndz] – n. a stock or supply of foods

vicarious [viˈkeəriəs] – adj. experienced at secondhand: read about mountain climbing and felt vicarious excitement

vicinity [viˈsiniti] – n. a surrounding or nearby region: the plane crashed in the vicinity of Asheville

vicissitude [viˈsisitju:d] – n. a variation in circumstances or fortune at different times in your life or in the development of something: the project was subject to the usual vicissitudes of exploratory research

vilify [ˈvilifai] – v. spread negative information about

vindicate [ˈvindikeit] – v. show to be right by providing justification or proof: vindicate a claim

vindictive [vinˈdikətiv] – adj. disposed to seek revenge or intended for revenge: more vindictive than jealous love

virago [viˈrɑ:gəu] – n. a noisy or scolding or domineering woman

virile [ˈvirail, ˈvairəl] – adj. characterized by energy and vigor: a virile and ever stronger free society

virulent [ˈvirulənt] – adj. extremely poisonous or injurious; producing venom: a virulent insect bite

visa [ˈvi:zə] – v. approve officially: The list of speakers must be visaed

vitiate [ˈviʃieit] – v. corrupt morally or by intemperance or sensuality

vitriolic [.vitriˈɔlik] – adj. harsh or corrosive in tone: a vitriolic critique

vivacious [viˈveiʃəs] – adj. vigorous and animated: a charming and vivacious hostess

vocal [ˈvəukəl] – adj. relating to or designed for or using the singing voice: vocal technique

vocation [vəuˈkeiʃən] – n. the particular occupation for which you are trained

vociferous [vəˈsifərəs, vəu-] – adj. conspicuously and offensively loud; given to vehement outcry: a vociferous mob

void [vɔid] – v. declare invalid: void a plea

volatile [ˈvɔlətail] – adj. evaporating readily at normal temperatures and pressures: volatile oils

voluminous [vəˈlu:minəs, vəˈlju:-] – adj. marked by repeated turns and bends

voluptuous [vəˈlʌptʃuəs] – adj. having strong sexual appeal: a voluptuous woman

voracious [vəˈreiʃəs, vɔ-] – adj. excessively greedy and grasping: paying taxes to voracious governments

vouchsafe [vautʃˈseif] – v. grant in a condescending manner

vowel [ˈvauəl] – n. a speech sound made with the vocal tract open

vulgar [ˈvʌlgə] – adj. lacking refinement or cultivation or taste: appealing to the vulgar taste for violence

waft [wɑ:ft, wɔft] – v. be driven or carried along, as by the air: Sounds wafted into the room

waitress [ˈweitris] – n. a woman waiter

waive [weiv] – v. do without or cease to hold or adhere to

wan [wɔn, wɑ:n] – adj. (of light) lacking in intensity or brightness; dim or feeble: the pale (or wan) stars

wane [wein] – v. grow smaller: Interest in the project waned

wanton [ˈwɔntən, ˈwɑ:n-] – v. waste time; spend one’s time idly or inefficiently

warfare [ˈwɔ:fɛə] – n. the waging of armed conflict against an enemy

warship [ˈwɔ:.ʃip] – n. a government ship that is available for waging war

wasteful [ˈweistfəl] – adj. inefficient in use of time and effort and materials: a clumsy and wasteful process

watchful [ˈwɔtʃfəl] – adj. engaged in or accustomed to close observation

watt [wɔt] – n. Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry (1736-1819)

wean [wi:n] – v. gradually deprive (infants and young mammals) of mother’s milk: she weaned her baby when he was 3 months old and started him on powdered milk

web [web] – n. an intricate trap that entangles or ensnares its victim

wedge [wedʒ] – n. any shape that is triangular in cross section

welter [ˈweltə] – v. toss, roll, or rise and fall in an uncontrolled way: The shipwrecked survivors weltered in the sea for hours

wheedle [ˈwi:dl] – v. influence or urge by gentle urging, caressing, or flattering

whet [wet] – v. make keen or more acute: whet my appetite

whimsical [ˈwimzikəl] – adj. determined by chance or impulse or whim rather than by necessity or reason: the victim of whimsical persecutions

whine [wain] – v. talk in a tearful manner

wholesale [ˈhəulseil] – adv. on a large scale without careful discrimination: I buy food wholesale

wholesaler [ˈhəulˈseilə] – n. someone who buys large quantities of goods and resells to merchants rather than to the ultimate customers

wholesome [ˈhəulsəm] – adj. conducive to or characteristic of physical or moral well-being: wholesome attitude

wily [ˈwaili] – adj. marked by skill in deception: a wily old attorney

winding [ˈwaindiŋ] – adj. marked by repeated turns and bends: winding roads are full of surprises

windy [ˈwindi] – adj. not practical or realizable; speculative

wink [wiŋk] – v. gleam or glow intermittently

winsome [ˈwinsəm] – adj. charming in a childlike or naive way