Complete CET6 Vocabulary Words

Below are the complete list of CET6 Vocabulary Words from the CET committee and grouped together in the Select function.  Most CET4 words are excluded from this list since CET6 is the next level after CET4.  When choosing CET6 word group in the Select function, these CET6 vocabulary words will be displayed in the Source List for you to choose for your study.  Alternatively, you can download the CET vocabulary words from CET committee, use the Type-in method of the Select function to choose words for your study.  You can move all CET4 words to the Known List, so you will not be bothered by any words you already know.

You can download this list of CET6 vocabulary words at the bottom of this page and use it to plan your study and set up your priority and strategy.  For example, you can put all words you already know into the Known List, leaving only the new words you need to learn in the Source List.  You can then figure out how much work is needed to reach your goal and make your plan accordingly.  There are words more important than the others for the CET6 test, and there are words much easier or more difficult for you as well.  Your plan should be based on your situation and the information from the CET committee to enable you to reach your goal with maximum speed and efficiency.

In the CET6 vocabulary words listed below, only the primary or the most popular definition is provided for each word.  You will see the complete dictionary definition and plenty of useful information of each word when you access the Dictionary Dialog in VocabularyShop.



abbreviation [ə.bri:viˈeiʃən] – n. a shortened form of a word or phrase

abide [əˈbaid] – v. dwell

abnormal [æbˈnɔ:məl] – adj. not normal; not typical or usual or regular or conforming to a norm: abnormal powers of concentration

abolish [əˈbɔliʃ] – v. do away with: Slavery was abolished in the mid-19th century in America and in Russia

abortion [əˈbɔ:ʃən] – n. termination of pregnancy

abound [əˈbaund] – v. be abundant or plentiful; exist in large quantities

abreast [əˈbrest] – adj. being up to particular standard or level especially in being up to date in knowledge: kept abreast of the latest developments

abrupt [əˈbrʌpt] – adj. marked by sudden changes in subject and sharp transitions: abrupt prose

absent [ˈæbsənt] – adj. not being in a specified place

absorption [əbˈsɔ:pʃən] – n. (chemistry) a process in which one substance permeates another; a fluid permeates or is dissolved by a liquid or solid

abstain [əbˈstein] – v. refrain from voting

abstract [ˈæbstrækt] – v. make off with belongings of others

absurd [əbˈsə:d] – adj. inconsistent with reason or logic or common sense: the absurd predicament of seeming to argue that virtue is highly desirable but intensely unpleasant

abundance [əˈbʌndəns] – n. the property of a more than adequate quantity or supply: an age of abundance

academy [əˈkædəmi] – n. a secondary school (usually private)

accessory [ækˈsesəri] – n. clothing that is worn or carried, but not part of your main clothing

acclaim [əˈkleim] – v. praise vociferously

accommodate [əˈkɔmədeit] – v. be agreeable or acceptable to

accomplice [əˈkʌmplis] – n. a person who joins with another in carrying out some plan (especially an unethical or illegal plan)

accord [əˈkɔ:d] – n. harmony of people’s opinions or actions or characters

accountable [əˈkauntəbəl] – adj. liable to account for one’s actions: governments must be accountable to someone beside themselves

ace [eis] – n. the smallest whole number or a numeral representing this number

acknowledge [əkˈnɔlidʒ] – v. declare to be true or admit the existence or reality or truth of: She acknowledged that she might have forgotten

acoustic [əˈku:stik] – n. a remedy for hearing loss or deafness

acquaint [əˈkweint] – v. cause to come to know personally: permit me to acquaint you with my son

acquisition [.ækwiˈziʃən] – n. the act of contracting or assuming or acquiring possession of something: the acquisition of wealth

acquit [əˈkwit] – v. pronounce not guilty of criminal charges

action [ˈækʃən] – n. something done (usually as opposed to something said): there were stories of murders and other unnatural actions

activate [ˈæktiveit] – v. put in motion or move to act

activist [ˈæktivist] – n. a militant reformer

acute [əˈkju:t] – adj. having or experiencing a rapid onset and short but severe course: acute appendicitis

addict [əˈdikt] – v. to cause (someone or oneself) to become dependent (on something, especially a narcotic drug)

additive [ˈæditiv] – adj. designating or involving an equation whose terms are of the first degree

adhere [ədˈhiə] – v. be compatible or in accordance with: You must adhere to the rules

adhesive [ədˈhi:siv] – n. a substance that unites or bonds surfaces together

adjacent [əˈdʒeisnt] – adj. nearest in space or position; immediately adjoining without intervening space: had adjacent rooms

adjoin [əˈdʒɔin] – v. be in direct physical contact with; make contact

adjourn [əˈdʒə:n] – v. close at the end of a session: The court adjourned

adjustable [əˈdʒʌstəb(ə)l] – adj. capable of being changed so as to match or fit: adjustable seat belts

administer [ədˈministə] – v. perform (a church sacrament) ritually: administer the last unction

administration [əd.miniˈstreiʃən] – n. a method of tending to or managing the affairs of a some group of people (especially the group’s business affairs)

admiral [ˈædmərəl] – n. any of several brightly colored butterflies

admiration [.ædməˈreiʃən] – n. a feeling of delighted approval and liking

adolescent [.ædəˈlesnt] – adj. being of the age 13 through 19

adoption [əˈdɔpʃən] – n. the act of accepting with approval; favorable reception: its adoption by society

adore [əˈdɔ:] – v. love intensely: he just adored his wife

adorn [əˈdɔ:n] – v. make more attractive by adding ornament, colour, etc.

advantageous [.ædvənˈteidʒəs] – adj. appropriate for achieving a particular end; implies a lack of concern for fairness

advent [ˈædvent] – n. arrival that has been awaited (especially of something momentous): the advent of the computer

adversary [ˈædvəsəri] – n. someone who offers opposition

adverse [ˈædvə:s] – adj. contrary to your interests or welfare: adverse circumstances

advertise [ˈædvətaiz] – v. call attention to: Please don’t advertise the fact that he has AIDS

advocate [ˈædvəkeit,ˈædvəkit] – n. a person who pleads for a cause or propounds an idea

aerial [ˈɛəriəl] – n. a pass to a receiver downfield from the passer

aerospace [ˈɛərə.speis] – n. the atmosphere and outer space considered as a whole

aesthetic [i:sˈθetik] – adj. concerning or characterized by an appreciation of beauty or good taste: the aesthetic faculties

affiliate [əˈfilieit] – v. keep company with; hang out with: She affiliates with her colleagues

affirm [əˈfə:m] – v. establish or strengthen as with new evidence or facts

afflict [əˈflikt] – v. cause great unhappiness for; distress: she was afflicted by the death of her parents

affluent [ˈæfluənt] – n. a branch that flows into the main stream

aftermath [ˈɑ:ftəmæθ] – n. the consequences of an event (especially a catastrophic event): the aftermath of war

agenda [əˈdʒendə] – n. a temporally organized plan for matters to be attended to

aggravate [ˈægrəveit] – v. make worse: This drug aggravates the pain

aggregate [ˈægrigeit,ˈægrigit] – n. the whole amount

agitate [ˈædʒiteit] – v. try to stir up public opinion

agitation [ædʒiˈteiʃən] – n. a mental state of extreme emotional disturbance

agony [ˈægəni] – n. intense feelings of suffering; acute mental or physical pain: an agony of doubt

agreeable [əˈgri:əbəl] – adj. conforming to your own liking or feelings or nature: Is the plan agreeable to you?

aide [eid] – n. an officer who acts as military assistant to a more senior officer

ailment [ˈeilmənt] – n. an often persistent bodily disorder or disease; a cause for complaining

aisle [ail] – n. a long narrow passage (as in a cave or woods)

alas [əˈlæs] – adv. by bad luck: alas, I cannot stay

album [ˈælbəm] – n. a book of blank pages with pockets or envelopes; for organizing photographs or stamp collections etc

alcoholic [.ælkəˈhɔ:lik] – adj. addicted to alcohol: alcoholic expatriates in Paris

alert [əˈlə:t] – n. condition of heightened watchfulness or preparation for action: bombers were put on alert during the crisis

algebra [ˈældʒibrə] – n. the mathematics of generalized arithmetical operations

alien [ˈeiljən] – n. a person who comes from a foreign country; someone who does not owe allegiance to your country

alienate [ˈeiljəneit] – v. arouse hostility or indifference in where there had formerly been love, affection, or friendliness: She alienated her friends when she became fanatically religious

alignment [əˈlainmənt] – n. an organization of people (or countries) involved in a pact or treaty

allege [əˈledʒ] – v. report or maintain: He alleged that he was the victim of a crime

alleviate [əˈli:vieit] – v. provide physical relief, as from pain

alley [ˈæli] – n. a lane down which a bowling ball is rolled toward pins

alliance [əˈlaiəns] – n. a connection based on kinship or marriage or common interest: the shifting alliances within a large family

allied [ˈælaid] – adj. related by common characteristics or ancestry: allied species

allocate [ˈæləkeit] – v. distribute according to a plan or set apart for a special purpose

allot [əˈlɔt] – v. give out

allowance [əˈlauəns] – n. a sum granted as reimbursement for expenses

alloy [əˈlɔi,ˈælɔi] – n. the state of impairing the quality or reducing the value of something

allude [əˈlu:d] – v. make a more or less disguised reference to: He alluded to the problem but did not mention it

allure [əˈljuə, əˈlur] – n. the power to entice or attract through personal charm

ally [əˈlai] – n. a friendly nation

almighty [ɔ:lˈmaiti] – n. terms referring to the Judeo-Christian God

alongside [əˈlɔŋˈsaid] – adv. side by side

alteration [.ɔ:ltəˈreiʃən] – n. an event that occurs when something passes from one state or phase to another

alternate [ɔ:lˈtə:nit,ˈɔ:ltə:neit] – v. go back and forth; swing back and forth between two states or conditions

amass [əˈmæs] – v. collect or gather

amateur [ˈæmətə:] – n. someone who pursues a study or sport as a pastime

ambassador [æmˈbæsədə] – n. a diplomat of the highest rank; accredited as representative from one country to another

ambient [ˈæmbiənt] – adj. completely enveloping: the ambient air

ambiguous [æmˈbigjuəs] – adj. open to two or more interpretations; or of uncertain nature or significance; or (often) intended to mislead: the polling had a complex and equivocal (or ambiguous) message for potential female candidates

ambitious [æmˈbiʃəs] – adj. having a strong desire for success or achievement

amend [əˈmend] – v. to make better

amends [əˈmendz] – n. a sum of money paid in compensation for loss or injury

amiable [ˈeimjəbl] – adj. disposed to please: an amiable villain with a cocky sidelong grin

ammunition [.æmjuˈniʃən] – n. projectiles to be fired from a gun

ample [ˈæmpl] – adj. more than enough in size or scope or capacity: had ample food for the party

amplify [ˈæmplifai] – v. increase in size, volume or significance

amplitude [ˈæmplitju:d] – n. (physics) the maximum displacement of a periodic wave

amusement [əˈmju:zmənt] – n. a feeling of delight at being entertained

analogue [ˈænəlɔg] – n. something having the property of being analogous to something else

analogy [əˈnælədʒi] – n. an inference that if things agree in some respects they probably agree in others

analyst [ˈænəlist] – n. someone who is skilled at analyzing data

analytic [.ænəˈlitik] – adj. using or subjected to a methodology using algebra and calculus: analytic statics

analytical [.ænəˈlitikl] – adj. of a proposition that is necessarily true independent of fact or experience

anarchist [ˈænəkist] – n. an advocate of anarchism

ancestry [ˈænsistri] – n. the descendants of one individual

anecdote [ˈænik.dəut] – n. short account of an incident (especially a biographical one)

angel [ˈeindʒəl] – n. spiritual being attendant upon God

anguish [ˈæŋgwiʃ] – n. extreme mental distress

annex [əˈneks] – v. take (territory) as if by conquest: Hitler annexed Lithuania

anniversary [.æniˈvə:səri] – n. the date on which an event occurred in some previous year (or the celebration of it)

announce [əˈnauns] – v. give the names of: He announced the winners of the spelling bee

annually [ˈænjuəli] – adv. without missing a year: they travel to China annually

anode [ˈænəud] – n. a positively charged electrode by which electrons leave an electrical device

anonymous [əˈnɔniməs] – adj. having no known name or identity or known source: anonymous authors

answer [ˈɑ:nsə] – v. react verbally: She didn’t want to answer

antagonism [ænˈtægənizəm] – n. a state of deep-seated ill-will

Antarctic [ænˈtɑ:ktik] – adj. at or near the south pole

antenna [ænˈtenə] – n. an electrical device that sends or receives radio or television signals

anthropologist [ænθrəˈpɔlədʒist] – n. a social scientist who specializes in anthropology

antique [ænˈti:k] – adj. made in or typical of earlier times and valued for its age: the beautiful antique French furniture

antonym [ˈæntənim] – n. a word that expresses a meaning opposed to the meaning of another word, in which case the two words are antonyms of each other: to him the antonym of `gay’ was `depressed’

ape [eip] – n. any of various primates with short tails or no tail at all

appall [əˈpɔ:l] – v. strike with disgust or revulsion

apparatus [.æpəˈreitəs] – n. equipment designed to serve a specific function

apparent [əˈpærənt] – adj. clearly revealed to the mind or the senses or judgment: the effects of the drought are apparent to anyone who sees the parched fields

appease [əˈpi:z] – v. cause to be more favorably inclined; gain the good will of

appendix [əˈpendiks] – n. a vestigial process that extends from the lower end of the cecum and that resembles a small pouch

applaud [əˈplɔ:d] – v. clap one’s hands or shout after performances to indicate approval

applause [əˈplɔ:z] – n. a demonstration of approval by clapping the hands together

appraisal [əˈpreizəl] – n. the classification of someone or something with respect to its worth

appreciable [əˈpri:ʃəbl] – adj. enough to be estimated or measured: appreciable amounts of noxious wastes are dumped into the harbor

appreciation [ə.pri:ʃiˈeiʃən] – n. understanding of the nature or meaning or quality or magnitude of something

apprehend [.æpriˈhend] – v. get the meaning of something

apprehension [.æpriˈhenʃən] – n. fearful expectation or anticipation: the student looked around the examination room with apprehension

apprentice [əˈprentis] – n. works for an expert to learn a trade

apron [ˈeiprən] – n. a garment of cloth or leather or plastic that is tied about the waist and worn to protect your clothing

apt [æpt] – adj. (usually followed by `to’) naturally disposed toward: he is apt to ignore matters he considers unimportant

aptitude [ˈæptitju:d] – n. inherent ability

arc [ɑ:k] – n. electrical conduction through a gas in an applied electric field

arch [ɑ:tʃ] – n. a curved shape in the vertical plane that spans an opening

archaeology [.ɑ:kiˈɔlədʒi] – n. the branch of anthropology that studies prehistoric people and their cultures

architect [ˈɑ:kitekt] – n. someone who creates plans to be used in making something (such as buildings)

arctic [ˈɑ:ktik] – n. the regions to the north of the Arctic Circle centered on the North Pole

ardent [ˈɑ:dənt] – adj. characterized by intense emotion: ardent love

arena [əˈri:nə] – n. a particular environment or walk of life

aristocrat [ˈæristəkræt] – n. a member of the aristocracy

armor [ˈɑ:mə] – n. protective covering made of metal and used in combat

armour  – n. protective covering made of metal and used in combat

array [əˈrei] – n. an impressive display: it was a bewildering array of books

arrogant [ˈærəgənt] – adj. having or showing feelings of unwarranted importance out of overbearing pride: an arrogant official

arson [ˈɑ:sən] – n. malicious burning to destroy property: the British term for arson is fire-raising

artery [ˈɑ:təri] – n. a major thoroughfare that bears important traffic

articulate [ɑ:ˈtikjuleit] – v. provide with a joint

artillery [ɑ:ˈtiləri] – n. large but transportable armament

ascend [əˈsend] – v. travel up,: We ascended the mountain

ascertain [.æsəˈtein] – v. establish after a calculation, investigation, experiment, survey, or study

ascribe [əˈskraib] – v. attribute or credit to

ashore [əˈʃɔ:] – adv. towards the shore from the water: we invited them ashore

aspiration [.æspəˈreiʃən] – n. a will to succeed

aspire [əsˈpaiə] – v. have an ambitious plan or a lofty goal

ass [æs] – n. the fleshy part of the human body that you sit on

assassinate [əˈsæsineit] – v. murder; especially of socially prominent persons: Anwar Sadat was assassinated because many people did not like his peace politics with Israel

assassination [ə.sæsiˈneiʃən] – n. an attack intended to ruin someone’s reputation

assault [əˈsɔ:lt] – n. close fighting during the culmination of a military attack

assert [əˈsə:t] – v. state categorically

assessment [əˈsesmənt] – n. the classification of someone or something with respect to its worth

asset [ˈæset] – n. a useful or valuable quality

assimilate [əˈsimileit] – v. take up mentally

assorted [əˈsɔ:tid] – adj. of many different kinds purposefully arranged but lacking any uniformity: assorted sizes

assumption [əˈsʌmpʃən] – n. a hypothesis that is taken for granted: any society is built upon certain assumptions

assurance [əˈʃuərəns] – n. freedom from doubt; belief in yourself and your abilities: his assurance in his superiority did not make him popular

asthma [ˈæsmə] – n. respiratory disorder characterized by wheezing; usually of allergic origin

astonishment [əˈstɔniʃmənt] – n. the feeling that accompanies something extremely surprising: he looked at me in astonishment

astronaut [ˈæstrənɔ:t] – n. a person trained to travel in a spacecraft: the Russians called their astronauts cosmonauts

astronomy [əˈstrɔnəmi] – n. the branch of physics that studies celestial bodies and the universe as a whole

asylum [əˈsailəm] – n. a shelter from danger or hardship

athlete [ˈæθli:t] – n. a person trained to compete in sports

atlas [ˈætləs] – n. (Greek mythology) a Titan who was forced by Zeus to bear the sky on his shoulders

atom [ˈætəm] – n. (physics and chemistry) the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element

atrocity [əˈtrɔsiti] – n. the quality of being shockingly cruel and inhumane

attachment [əˈtætʃmənt] – n. a feeling of affection for a person or an institution

attendance [əˈtendəns] – n. the act of being present (at a meeting or event etc.)

attendant [əˈtendənt] – n. a person who is present and participates in a meeting

attic [ˈætik] – n. floor consisting of open space at the top of a house just below roof; often used for storage

attorney [əˈtə:ni] – n. a professional person authorized to practice law; conducts lawsuits or gives legal advice

auction [ˈɔ:kʃən] – n. the public sale of something to the highest bidder

audience [ˈɔ:diəns] – n. a gathering of spectators or listeners at a (usually public) performance: the audience applauded

audit [ˈɔ:dit] – n. an inspection of the accounting procedures and records by a trained accountant or CPA

auditor [ˈɔ:ditə] – n. someone who listens attentively

auditorium [.ɔ:diˈtɔ:riəm] – n. the area of a theater or concert hall where the audience sits

auditory [ˈɔ:ditəri] – adj. of or relating to the process of hearing: auditory processing

augment [ɔ:gˈment] – v. enlarge or increase: The recent speech of the president augmented tensions in the Near East

austere [ɔˈstiə] – adj. severely simple

authentic [ɔ:ˈθentik] – adj. conforming to fact and therefore worthy of belief: an authentic account by an eyewitness

author [ˈɔ:θə] – n. writes (books or stories or articles or the like) professionally (for pay)

authorise  – v. grant authorization or clearance for

authoritative [ɔ:ˈθɔrətətiv] – adj. of recognized authority or excellence

authorize [ˈɔ:θəraiz] – v. give or delegate power or authority to: She authorized her assistant to sign the papers

autobiography [.ɔ:təbaiˈɔgrəfi] – n. a biography of yourself

automate [ˈɔ:təmeit] – v. make automatic or control or operate automatically: automate the movement of the robot

automation [.ɔ:təˈmeiʃən] – n. the act of implementing the control of equipment with advanced technology; usually involving electronic hardware: automation replaces human workers by machines

autonomous [ɔ:ˈtɔnəməs] – adj. (of political bodies) not controlled by outside forces: an autonomous judiciary

autonomy [ɔ:ˈtɔnəmi] – n. immunity from arbitrary exercise of authority: political independence

avail [əˈveil] – v. use to one’s advantage: He availed himself of the available resources

availability [ə.veiləˈbiliti] – n. the quality of being at hand when needed

avenge [əˈvendʒ] – v. take revenge for a perceived wrong: He wants to avenge the murder of his brother

avert [əˈvə:t] – v. prevent the occurrence of; prevent from happening: avert a strike

aviation [.eiviˈeiʃən] – n. the aggregation of a country’s military aircraft

awake [əˈweik] – adj. not in a state of sleep; completely conscious: lay awake thinking about his new job

awe [ɔ:] – n. an overwhelming feeling of wonder or admiration: he stared over the edge with a feeling of awe

awful [ˈɔ:ful] – adj. exceptionally bad or displeasing: an awful voice

awkward [ˈɔ:kwəd] – adj. causing inconvenience: they arrived at an awkward time

axial [ˈæksiəl] – adj. relating to or attached to the axis: axial angle

axis [ˈæksis] – n. a straight line through a body or figure that satisfies certain conditions

axle [ˈæksl] – n. a shaft on which a wheel rotates

baby [ˈbeibi] – n. a very young child (birth to 1 year) who has not yet begun to walk or talk: the baby began to cry again

bachelor [ˈbætʃələ] – n. a man who has never been married

bacon [ˈbeikən] – n. back and sides of a hog salted and dried or smoked; usually sliced thin and fried

bacterium [bækˈtiəriəm] – n. (microbiology) single-celled or noncellular spherical or spiral or rod-shaped organisms lacking chlorophyll that reproduce by fission; important as pathogens and for biochemical properties; taxonomy is difficult; often considered to be plants

badge [bædʒ] – n. any feature that is regarded as a sign of status (a particular power or quality or rank): wearing a tie was regarded as a badge of respectability

baffle [ˈbæfl] – v. be a mystery or bewildering to

bail [beil] – v. release after a security has been paid

bait [beit] – v. harass with persistent criticism or carping

balcony [ˈbælkəni] – n. an upper floor projecting from the rear over the main floor in an auditorium

bald [bɔ:ld] – adj. with no effort to conceal

ballet [ˈbælei] – n. a theatrical representation of a story that is performed to music by trained dancers

ballot [ˈbælət] – n. a document listing the alternatives that is used in voting

bamboo [.bæmˈbu:] – n. woody tropical grass having hollow woody stems; mature canes used for construction and furniture

ban [bæn] – n. a decree that prohibits something

bandage [ˈbændidʒ] – v. wrap around with something so as to cover or enclose

bandit [ˈbændit] – n. an armed thief who is (usually) a member of a band

banish [ˈbæniʃ] – v. expel from a community or group

bank [bæŋk] – n. sloping land (especially the slope beside a body of water): they pulled the canoe up on the bank

banker [ˈbæŋkə] – n. the person in charge of the bank in a gambling game

bankrupt [ˈbæŋkrʌpt] – n. someone who has insufficient assets to cover their debts

banquet [ˈbæŋkwit] – n. a ceremonial dinner party for many people

barbecue [ˈbɑ:bikju:] – n. a cookout in which food is cooked over an open fire; especially a whole animal carcass roasted on a spit

barely [ˈbɛəli] – adv. only a very short time before: they could barely hear the speaker

barge [bɑ:dʒ] – v. push one’s way: she barged into the meeting room

barley [ˈbɑ:li] – n. cultivated since prehistoric times; grown for forage and grain

barometer [bəˈrɔmitə] – n. an instrument that measures atmospheric pressure

baron [ˈbærən] – n. a nobleman (in various countries) of varying rank

barrack [ˈbærək] – v. spur on or encourage especially by cheers and shouts

barren [ˈbærən] – adj. providing no shelter or sustenance: barren lands

barricade [ˈbærikeid] – v. render unsuitable for passage: barricade the streets

baseball [ˈbeis.bɔ:l] – n. a ball game played with a bat and ball between two teams of nine players; teams take turns at bat trying to score runs: he played baseball in high school

basement [ˈbeismənt] – n. the lowermost portion of a structure partly or wholly below ground level; often used for storage

basin [ˈbeisn] – n. a bowl-shaped vessel; usually used for holding food or liquids: she mixed the dough in a large basin

bass [beis] – n. the lowest part of the musical range

bastard [ˈbæstəd] – n. insulting terms of address for people who are stupid or irritating or ridiculous

batch [bætʃ] – n. all the loaves of bread baked at the same time

batter [ˈbætə] – v. strike against forcefully

battery [ˈbætəri] – n. group of guns or missile launchers operated together at one place

battle [ˈbætl] – n. a hostile meeting of opposing military forces in the course of a war: Grant won a decisive victory in the battle of Chickamauga

bazaar [bəˈzɑ:] – n. a shop where a variety of goods are sold

bead [bi:d] – n. a small ball with a hole through the middle

beak [bi:k] – n. horny projecting mouth of a bird

beam [bi:m] – n. a signal transmitted along a narrow path; guides airplane pilots in darkness or bad weather

bearing [ˈbɛəriŋ] – n. relevant relation or interconnection: those issues have no bearing on our situation

beckon [ˈbekən] – v. signal with the hands or nod

bed [bed] – n. a piece of furniture that provides a place to sleep: he sat on the edge of the bed

beetle [ˈbi:tl] – v. be suspended over or hang over: This huge rock beetles over the edge of the town

beforehand [biˈfɔ:hænd] – adj. being ahead of time or need: was beforehand with her report

bellow [ˈbeləu] – n. a very loud utterance (like the sound of an animal): his bellow filled the hallway

belly [ˈbeli] – n. the region of the body of a vertebrate between the thorax and the pelvis

bend [bend] – n. a circular segment of a curve: a bend in the road

benevolent [biˈnevələnt] – adj. intending or showing kindness: a benevolent society

benign [biˈnain] – adj. not dangerous to health; not recurrent or progressive (especially of a tumor)

besiege [biˈsi:dʒ] – v. surround so as to force to give up: The Turks besieged Vienna

bestow [biˈstəu] – v. present: bestow an honor on someone

betray [biˈtrei] – v. reveal unintentionally: Her smile betrayed her true feelings

between [biˈtwi:n] – adv. in the interval: dancing all the dances with little rest between

beverage [ˈbevəridʒ] – n. any liquid suitable for drinking: may I take your beverage order?

beware [biˈwɛə] – v. be on one’s guard; be cautious or wary about; be alert to

bewilder [biˈwildə] – v. cause to be confused emotionally

bias [ˈbaiəs] – n. a partiality that prevents objective consideration of an issue or situation

bibliography [.bibliˈɔgrəfi] – n. a list of writings with time and place of publication (such as the writings of a single author or the works referred to in preparing a document etc.)

bid [bid] – v. propose a payment

bilateral [baiˈlætərəl] – adj. having identical parts on each side of an axis

billow [ˈbiləu] – v. rise up as if in waves: smoke billowed up into the sky

bin [bin] – n. a container; usually has a lid

binoculars [baiˈnɔkjuləz] – n. an optical instrument designed for simultaneous use by both eyes

biography [baiˈɔgrəfi] – n. an account of the series of events making up a person’s life

bishop [ˈbiʃəp] – n. port wine mulled with oranges and cloves

bitterness [ˈbitənis] – n. a rough and bitter manner

bizarre [biˈzɑ:] – adj. conspicuously or grossly unconventional or unusual: restaurants of bizarre design–one like a hat, another like a rabbit

blackmail [ˈblækmeil] – v. exert pressure on someone through threats

blacksmith [ˈblæk.smiθ] – n. a smith who forges and shapes iron with a hammer and anvil

bladder [ˈblædə] – n. a distensible membranous sac (usually containing liquid or gas)

bland [blænd] – adj. lacking taste or flavor or tang: a bland diet

blast [blɑ:st] – v. make a strident sound: She tended to blast when speaking into a microphone

blaze [bleiz] – n. a strong flame that burns brightly: the blaze spread rapidly

bleach [bli:tʃ] – n. the whiteness that results from removing the color from something: a complete bleach usually requires several applications

bleak [bli:k] – adj. offering little or no hope: prospects were bleak

bless [bles] – v. give a benediction to: The dying man blessed his son

blight [blait] – n. any plant disease resulting in withering without rotting

blind [blaind] – n. people who have severe visual impairments, considered as a group: he spent hours reading to the blind

blink [bliŋk] – v. briefly shut the eyes: The TV announcer never seems to blink

bliss [blis] – n. a state of extreme happiness

blister [ˈblistə] – n. a flaw on a surface resulting when an applied substance does not adhere (as an air bubble in a coat of paint)

block [blɔk] – v. render unsuitable for passage: block the way

blond [blɔnd] – n. a person with fair skin and hair

blonde [blɔnd] – n. a person with fair skin and hair

blossom [ˈblɔsəm] – n. reproductive organ of angiosperm plants especially one having showy or colorful parts

blot [blɔt] – n. an act that brings discredit to the person who does it: he made a huge blot on his copybook

blouse [blauz] – n. a top worn by women

blue [blu:] – adj. of the color intermediate between green and violet; having a color similar to that of a clear unclouded sky: October’s bright blue weather

blueprint [ˈblu:ˈprint] – n. something intended as a guide for making something else: a blueprint for a house

bluff [blʌf] – n. a high steep bank (usually formed by river erosion)

blunder [ˈblʌndə] – v. commit a faux pas or a fault or make a serious mistake: I blundered during the job interview

blunt [blʌnt] – v. make less intense: blunted emotions

blur [blə:] – v. become glassy; lose clear vision

blurt [blə:t] – v. utter impulsively: He blurted out the secret

blush [blʌʃ] – n. a rosy color (especially in the cheeks) taken as a sign of good health

board [bɔ:d] – n. a committee having supervisory powers: the board has seven members

body [ˈbɔdi] – n. the entire structure of an organism (an animal, plant, or human being): he felt as if his whole body were on fire

bog [bɔg] – v. cause to slow down or get stuck: The vote would bog down the house

boiler [ˈbɔilə] – n. sealed vessel where water is converted to steam

bondage [ˈbɔndidʒ] – n. the state of being under the control of a force or influence or abstract power: he was in bondage to fear

bonus [ˈbəunəs] – n. anything that tends to arouse

booklet [ˈbuklit] – n. a small book usually having a paper cover

boom [bu:m] – n. a deep prolonged loud noise

boost [bu:st] – v. increase

booth [bu:θ] – n. a table (in a restaurant or bar) surrounded by two high-backed benches

bore [bɔ:] – n. a high wave (often dangerous) caused by tidal flow (as by colliding tidal currents or in a narrow estuary)

borough [ˈbʌrə] – n. one of the administrative divisions of a large city

bosom [ˈbuzəm] – n. the chest considered as the place where secret thoughts are kept: his bosom was bursting with the secret

bound [baund] – adj. confined by bonds: bound and gagged hostages

bounty [ˈbaunti] – n. the property of copious abundance

bouquet [bu:ˈkei] – n. an arrangement of flowers that is usually given as a present

bourgeois [buəˈʒwɑ:] – adj. (according to Marxist thought) being of the property-owning class and exploitive of the working class

bout [baut] – n. (sports) a division during which one team is on the offensive

bowel [ˈbauəl] – n. the part of the alimentary canal between the stomach and the anus

bowling [ˈbəuliŋ] – n. a game in which balls are rolled at an object or group of objects with the aim of knocking them over or moving them

box [bɔks] – n. a (usually rectangular) container; may have a lid: he rummaged through a box of spare parts

boycott [ˈbɔikɔt] – n. a group’s refusal to have commercial dealings with some organization in protest against its policies

brace [breis] – n. a support that steadies or strengthens something else: he wore a brace on his knee

bracelet [ˈbreislit] – n. a band of cloth or leather or metal links attached to a wristwatch and wrapped around the wrist

bracket [ˈbrækit] – n. a category falling within certain defined limits

brag [bræg] – n. an instance of boastful talk: his brag is worse than his fight

brand [brænd] – n. a name given to a product or service

brandy [ˈbrændi] – n. distilled from wine or fermented fruit juice

brawl [brɔ:l] – n. an uproarious party

breach [bri:tʃ] – n. a failure to perform some promised act or obligation

breakdown [ˈbreikdaun] – n. the act of disrupting an established order so it fails to continue: his warning came after the breakdown of talks in London

breakfast [ˈbrekfəst] – v. eat an early morning meal: We breakfast at seven

breakthrough [ˈbreikθru:] – n. a productive insight

breed [bri:d] – v. call forth

brew [bru:] – v. sit or let sit in boiling water so as to extract the flavor: the tea is brewing

bribe [braib] – n. payment made to a person in a position of trust to corrupt his judgment

bridegroom [ˈbraidgru:m] – n. a man who has recently been married

bridge [bridʒ] – n. a structure that allows people or vehicles to cross an obstacle such as a river or canal or railway etc.

bridle [ˈbraidl] – v. anger or take offense: She bridled at his suggestion to elope

briefcase [ˈbri:fkeis] – n. a case with a handle; for carrying papers or files or books

brigade [briˈgeid] – n. army unit smaller than a division

brightness [ˈbraitnis] – n. the location of a visual perception along a continuum from black to white

brim [brim] – n. the top edge of a vessel or other container

brink [briŋk] – n. a region marking a boundary

brisk [brisk] – adj. quick and energetic: a brisk walk in the park

bristle [ˈbrisl] – v. be in a state of movement or action: The garden bristled with toddlers

brittle [ˈbritl] – adj. having little elasticity; hence easily cracked or fractured or snapped: brittle bones

broaden [ˈbrɔ:dn] – v. extend in scope or range or area: broaden your horizon

bronze [brɔnz] – v. get a tan, from wind or sun

brood [bru:d] – v. think moodily or anxiously about something

brook [bruk] – n. a natural stream of water smaller than a river (and often a tributary of a river)

browse [brauz] – v. shop around; not necessarily buying

bruise [bru:z] – v. injure the underlying soft tissue or bone of: I bruised my knee

brutal [ˈbru:tl] – adj. (of persons or their actions) able or disposed to inflict pain or suffering: brutal beatings

buck [bʌk] – n. a gymnastic horse without pommels and with one end elongated; used lengthwise for vaulting

buckle [ˈbʌkəl] – v. fold or collapse: His knees buckled

bud [bʌd] – n. a partially opened flower

Buddhism [ˈbudizəm] – n. the teaching of Buddha that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire, that suffering ceases when desire ceases, and that enlightenment obtained through right conduct and wisdom and meditation releases one from desire and suffering and rebirth

Buddhist [ˈbudist] – n. one who follows the teachings of Buddha

budget [ˈbʌdʒit] – n. a sum of money allocated for a particular purpose: the laboratory runs on a budget of a million a year

buffalo [ˈbʌfələu] – n. large shaggy-haired brown bison of North American plains

buffer [ˈbʌfə] – n. (chemistry) an ionic compound that resists changes in its pH

buffet [ˈbʌfit] – n. a piece of furniture that stands at the side of a dining room; has shelves and drawers

bug [bʌg] – n. general term for any insect or similar creeping or crawling invertebrate

bugle [ˈbju:gl] – n. a brass instrument without valves; used for military calls and fanfares

bulge [bʌldʒ] – v. swell or protrude outwards: His stomach bulged after the huge meal

bull [bul] – n. uncastrated adult male of domestic cattle

bulletin [ˈbulitin] – n. a brief report (especially an official statement issued for immediate publication or broadcast)

bully [ˈbuli] – n. a cruel and brutal fellow

bump [bʌmp] – v. knock against with force or violence: My car bumped into the tree

bumper [ˈbʌmpə] – n. a glass filled to the brim (especially as a toast): we quaffed a bumper of ale

bun [bʌn] – n. small rounded bread either plain or sweet

bunch [bʌntʃ] – n. a grouping of a number of similar things: a bunch of trees

bunk [bʌŋk] – n. a long trough for feeding cattle

bureaucracy [bjuəˈrɔkrəsi] – n. nonelective government officials

burglar [ˈbə:glə] – n. a thief who enters a building with intent to steal

burial [ˈberiəl] – n. the ritual placing of a corpse in a grave

burner [ˈbə:nə] – n. the heating elements of a stove or range on which pots and pans are placed for cooking: the electric range had one large burner and three smaller one

burrow [ˈbʌrəu] – n. a hole made by an animal, usually for shelter

bushel [ˈbuʃl] – n. a United States dry measure equal to 4 pecks or 2152.42 cubic inches

bust [bʌst] – v. ruin completely: He busted my radio!

bustle [ˈbʌsəl] – n. a rapid active commotion

butt [bʌt] – n. thick end of the handle

buzz [bʌz] – v. fly low: Planes buzzed the crowds in the square

bypass [ˈbaipɑ:s] – n. a highway that encircles an urban area so that traffic does not have to pass through the center

by-product [ˈbai.prɔdʌkt] – n. a secondary and sometimes unexpected consequence

cable [ˈkeibl] – n. a telegram sent abroad

cafeteria [.kæfiˈtiəriə] – n. a restaurant where you serve yourself and pay a cashier

calamity [kəˈlæmiti] – n. an event resulting in great loss and misfortune: the whole city was affected by the irremediable calamity

calcium [ˈkælsiəm] – n. a white metallic element that burns with a brilliant light; the fifth most abundant element in the earth’s crust; an important component of most plants and animals

calculus [ˈkælkjuləs] – n. a hard lump produced by the concretion of mineral salts; found in hollow organs or ducts of the body

calf [kɑ:f] – n. the muscular back part of the shank

calibration [.kæliˈbreiʃən] – n. the act of checking or adjusting (by comparison with a standard) the accuracy of a measuring instrument: the thermometer needed calibration

calorie [ˈkæləri] – n. a unit of heat equal to the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water by one degree at one atmosphere pressure; used by nutritionists to characterize the energy-producing potential in food

can [kæn] – n. airtight sealed metal container for food or drink or paint etc.

cancel [ˈkænsl] – v. postpone indefinitely or annul something that was scheduled: cancel the dinner party

cane [kein] – n. a stick that people can lean on to help them walk

cannon [ˈkænən] – n. a large artillery gun that is usually on wheels

canoe [kəˈnu:] – n. small and light boat; pointed at both ends; propelled with a paddle

canvas [ˈkænvəs] – n. a heavy, closely woven fabric (used for clothing or chairs or sails or tents)

canyon [ˈkænjən] – n. a ravine formed by a river in an area with little rainfall

capability [.keipəˈbiləti] – n. the susceptibility of something to a particular treatment: the capability of a metal to be fused

capacitance  – n. an electrical phenomenon whereby an electric charge is stored

capacitor  – n. an electrical device characterized by its capacity to store an electric charge

cape [keip] – n. a strip of land projecting into a body of water

capitalism [ˈkæpitəlizəm] – n. an economic system based on private ownership of capital

capsule [ˈkæpsju:l] – n. a small container

caption [ˈkæpʃən] – n. translation of foreign dialogue of a movie or TV program; usually displayed at the bottom of the screen

captive [ˈkæptiv] – n. a person who is confined; especially a prisoner of war

caravan [ˈkærəvæn] – n. a procession (of wagons or mules or camels) traveling together in single file: we were part of a caravan of almost a thousand camels

carbohydrate [ˈkɑ:bəuˈhaidreit] – n. an essential structural component of living cells and source of energy for animals; includes simple sugars with small molecules as well as macromolecular substances; are classified according to the number of monosaccharide groups they contain

carcass [ˈkɑ:kəs] – n. the dead body of an animal especially one slaughtered and dressed for food

cardboard [ˈkɑ:dbɔ:d] – n. a stiff moderately thick paper

cardinal [ˈkɑ:dinəl] – n. the number of elements in a mathematical set; denotes a quantity but not the order

caress [kəˈres] – n. a gentle affectionate stroking (or something resembling it): he showered her with caresses

caretaker [ˈkɛəteikə] – n. a custodian who is hired to take care of something (property or a person)

carry [ˈkæri] – v. move while supporting, either in a vehicle or in one’s hands or on one’s body: You must carry your camping gear

carton [ˈkɑ:tən] – n. a box made of cardboard; opens by flaps on top

cartoon [kɑ:ˈtu:n] – n. a humorous or satirical drawing published in a newspaper or magazine

cartridge [ˈkɑ:tridʒ] – n. ammunition consisting of a cylindrical casing containing an explosive charge and a bullet; fired from a rifle or handgun

carve [kɑ:v] – v. engrave or cut by chipping away at a surface: carve one’s name into the bark

casualty [ˈkæʒjuəlti] – n. someone injured or killed or captured or missing in a military engagement

catalogue [ˈkætəlɔg] – n. a complete list of things; usually arranged systematically

catalyst [ˈkætəlist] – n. (chemistry) a substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected

catastrophe [kəˈtæstrəfi] – n. an event resulting in great loss and misfortune

category [ˈkætigəri] – n. a collection of things sharing a common attribute

cater [ˈkeitə] – v. give what is desired or needed, especially support, food or sustenance

cathedral [kəˈθi:drəl] – n. any large and important church

catholic  – adj. of or relating to or supporting Catholicism

cauliflower [ˈkɔli.flauə] – n. a plant having a large edible head of crowded white flower buds

caution [ˈkɔ:ʃən] – n. a warning against certain acts

cautious [ˈkɔ:ʃəs] – adj. showing careful forethought: reserved and cautious; never making swift decisions

cavalry [ˈkævəlri] – n. troops trained to fight on horseback

cavern [ˈkævən] – n. any large dark enclosed space: his eyes were dark caverns

cavity [ˈkæviti] – n. a sizeable hole (usually in the ground)

cedar [ˈsi:də] – n. any cedar of the genus Cedrus

celebrity [siˈlebriti] – n. a widely known person: he was a baseball celebrity

cellar [ˈselə] – n. the lowermost portion of a structure partly or wholly below ground level; often used for storage

cement [siˈment] – n. something that hardens to act as adhesive material

cemetery [ˈsemitri] – n. a tract of land used for burials

censor [ˈsensə] – n. someone who censures or condemns

census [ˈsensəs] – n. a periodic count of the population

ceramic [siˈræmik] – n. an artifact made of hard brittle material produced from nonmetallic minerals by firing at high temperatures

cereal [ˈsiəriəl] – n. grass whose starchy grains are used as food: wheat; rice; rye; oats; maize; buckwheat; millet

certainty [ˈsə:tnti] – n. something that is certain: his victory is a certainty

certify [ˈsə:tifai] – v. provide evidence for; stand as proof of; show by one’s behavior, attitude, or external attributes

challenge [ˈtʃælindʒ] – n. a demanding or stimulating situation: they reacted irrationally to the challenge of Russian power

champagne [ʃæmˈpein] – n. a white sparkling wine either produced in Champagne or resembling that produced there

champion [ˈtʃæmpjən] – n. someone who has won first place in a competition

chancellor [ˈtʃɑ:nsələ] – n. the British cabinet minister responsible for finance

chant [tʃɑ:nt] – v. utter monotonously and repetitively and rhythmically: The students chanted the same slogan over and over again

chaos [ˈkeiɔs] – n. a state of extreme confusion and disorder

chapel [ˈtʃæpəl] – n. a place of worship that has its own altar

characterize [ˈkæriktəraiz] – v. be characteristic of: What characterizes a Venetian painting?

charcoal [ˈtʃɑ:kəul] – n. a carbonaceous material obtained by heating wood or other organic matter in the absence of air

charge [tʃɑ:dʒ] – v. to make a rush at or sudden attack upon, as in battle

charity [ˈtʃæriti] – n. a foundation created to promote the public good (not for assistance to any particular individuals)

charm [tʃɑ:m] – n. attractiveness that interests or pleases or stimulates

charter [ˈtʃɑ:tə] – v. hold under a lease or rental agreement; of goods and services

chat [tʃæt] – n. an informal conversation

chatter [ˈtʃætə] – v. click repeatedly or uncontrollably

chauffeur [ˈʃəufə,ʃeuˈfə:] – n. a man paid to drive a privately owned car

cheat [tʃi:t] – n. weedy annual grass often occurs in grainfields and other cultivated land; seeds sometimes considered poisonous

check [tʃek] – v. examine so as to determine accuracy, quality, or condition: check the brakes

chef [ʃef] – n. a professional cook

cherish [ˈtʃeriʃ] – v. be fond of; be attached to

chestnut [ˈtʃestnʌt] – n. any of several attractive deciduous trees yellow-brown in autumn; yield a hard wood and edible nuts in a prickly bur

chill [tʃil] – n. coldness due to a cold environment

chimpanzee [ˈtʃimpænˈzi:] – n. intelligent somewhat arboreal ape of equatorial African forests

chip [tʃip] – n. a small fragment of something broken off from the whole

choice [tʃɔis] – n. the act of choosing or selecting: your choice of colors was unfortunate

choir [ˈkwaiə] – n. a family of similar musical instrument playing together

cholesterol [kəˈlestərɔl] – n. an animal sterol that is normally synthesized by the liver; the most abundant steroid in animal tissues

chop [tʃɔp] – v. cut into pieces: chop meat

chord [kɔ:d] – n. a straight line connecting two points on a curve

chore [tʃɔ:] – n. a specific piece of work required to be done as a duty or for a specific fee: the farmer’s morning chores

chorus [ˈkɔ:rəs] – n. any utterance produced simultaneously by a group: a chorus of boos

Christ [kraist] – n. a teacher and prophet born in Bethlehem and active in Nazareth; his life and sermons form the basis for Christianity (circa 4 BC – AD 29)

Christian [ˈkristʃən] – adj. relating to or characteristic of Christianity: Christian rites

chronic [ˈkrɔnik] – adj. being long-lasting and recurrent or characterized by long suffering: chronic indigestion

chrysanthemum [kriˈsænθəməm] – n. any of numerous perennial Old World herbs having showy brightly colored flower heads of the genera Chrysanthemum, Argyranthemum, Dendranthema, Tanacetum; widely cultivated

chuckle [ˈtʃʌkl] – n. a soft partly suppressed laugh

chunk [tʃʌŋk] – n. a compact mass

cigar [siˈgɑ:] – n. a roll of tobacco for smoking

circular [ˈsə:kjulə] – adj. describing a circle; moving in a circle: the circular motion of the wheel

circulation [.sə:kjuˈleiʃən] – n. the dissemination of copies of periodicals (as newspapers or magazines)

circus [ˈsə:kəs] – n. a travelling company of entertainers; including trained animals: he ran away from home to join the circus

cite [sait] – v. make reference to

civilian [siˈviljən] – n. a nonmilitary citizen

claim [kleim] – n. an assertion of a right (as to money or property): his claim asked for damages

clamp [klæmp] – v. impose or inflict forcefully: The military government clamped a curfew onto the capital

clan [klæn] – n. group of people related by blood or marriage

clap [klæp] – v. put quickly or forcibly: The judge clapped him in jail

clarity [ˈklæriti] – n. free from obscurity and easy to understand; the comprehensibility of clear expression

clash [klæʃ] – n. a loud resonant repeating noise

clasp [klɑ:sp] – v. hold firmly and tightly

classic [ˈklæsik] – adj. of recognized authority or excellence: classical methods of navigation

clatter [ˈklætə] – n. a rattling noise (often produced by rapid movement): the shutters clattered against the house

clause [klɔ:z] – n. (grammar) an expression including a subject and predicate but not constituting a complete sentence

cleanliness  – n. the habit of keeping free of superficial imperfections

cleanse [klenz] – v. purge of an ideology, bad thoughts, or sins: Purgatory is supposed to cleanse you from your sins

clearance [ˈkliərəns] – n. vertical space available to allow easy passage under something

clearing  – n. a tract of land with few or no trees in the middle of a wooded area

clench [klentʃ] – n. a small slip noose made with seizing

clergy [ˈklə:dʒi] – n. in Christianity, clergymen collectively (as distinguished from the laity)

cliche [ˈkli:ʃei] – n. a trite or obvious remark

client [ˈklaiənt] – n. a person who seeks the advice of a lawyer

climax [ˈklaimæks] – n. the highest point of anything conceived of as growing or developing or unfolding: the climax of the artist’s career

clinch [klintʃ] – v. secure or fasten by flattening the ends of nails or bolts: The girder was clinched into the wall

cling [kliŋ] – v. come or be in close contact with; stick or hold together and resist separation: The dress clings to her body

clinic [ˈklinik] – n. a medical establishment run by a group of medical specialists

clip [klip] – n. a metal frame or container holding cartridges; can be inserted into an automatic gun

cloak [kləuk] – v. hide under a false appearance

clockwise [ˈklɔkwaiz] – adj. in the same direction as the rotating hands of a clock

clog [klɔg] – v. become or cause to become obstructed: The leaves clog our drains in the Fall

clone [kləun] – n. a person who is almost identical to another

closet [ˈklɔzit] – n. a small room (or recess) or cabinet used for storage space

cloudy [ˈklaudi] – adj. lacking definite form or limits: gropes among cloudy issues toward a feeble conclusion

clown [klaun] – n. a rude or vulgar fool

cluster [ˈklʌstə] – n. a grouping of a number of similar things: a cluster of admirers

clutch [klʌtʃ] – n. the act of grasping

coach [kəutʃ] – n. (sports) someone in charge of training an athlete or a team

coalition [.kəuəˈliʃən] – n. an organization of people (or countries) involved in a pact or treaty

coax [kəuks] – n. a transmission line for high-frequency signals

cocaine [kəuˈkein] – n. a narcotic (alkaloid) extracted from coca leaves; used as a surface anesthetic or taken for pleasure; can become powerfully addictive

cock [kɔk] – n. obscene terms for penis

cockpit [ˈkɔkpit] – n. compartment where the pilot sits while flying the aircraft

cocktail [ˈkɔkteil] – n. a short mixed drink

coconut [ˈkəukənʌt] – n. large hard-shelled oval nut with a fibrous husk containing thick white meat surrounding a central cavity filled (when fresh) with fluid or milk

coefficient [kəuiˈfiʃənt] – n. a constant number that serves as a measure of some property or characteristic

coffin [ˈkɔfin] – n. box in which a corpse is buried or cremated

cognitive [ˈkɔgnitiv] – adj. of or being or relating to or involving cognition: cognitive psychology

coherent [kəuˈhiərənt] – adj. marked by an orderly, logical, and aesthetically consistent relation of parts: a coherent argument

cohesive [kəuˈhi:siv] – adj. cohering or tending to cohere; well integrated: a cohesive organization

coin [kɔin] – v. make up: coin phrases or words

coincide [.kəuinˈsaid] – v. go with, fall together

coincidence [kəuˈinsidəns] – n. an event that might have been arranged although it was really accidental

coke [kəuk] – n. Coca Cola is a trademarked cola

collaborate [kəˈlæbə.reit] – v. work together on a common enterprise of project

collaboration [kə.læbəˈreiʃən] – n. act of working jointly: they worked either in collaboration or independently

collide [kəˈlaid] – v. be incompatible; be or come into conflict

colon [ˈkəulən] – n. the basic unit of money in El Salvador; equal to 100 centavos

colonel [ˈkə:nl] – n. a commissioned military officer in the United States Army or Air Force or Marines who ranks above a lieutenant colonel and below a brigadier general

colonial [kəˈləunjəl] – adj. of animals who live in colonies, such as ants

colonist [ˈkɔlənist] – n. a person who settles in a new colony or moves into new country

colossal [kəˈlɔsəl] – adj. so great in size or force or extent as to elicit awe: colossal crumbling ruins of an ancient temple

columnist [ˈkɔləmnist] – n. a journalist who writes editorials

combat [ˈkɑ:mbæt] – n. an engagement fought between two military forces

combustion [kəmˈbʌstʃən] – n. a process in which a substance reacts with oxygen to give heat and light

comedy [ˈkɔmidi] – n. light and humorous drama with a happy ending

comet [ˈkɔmit] – n. (astronomy) a relatively small extraterrestrial body consisting of a frozen mass that travels around the sun in a highly elliptical orbit

comic [ˈkɔmik] – adj. arousing or provoking laughter: a comic hat

comma [ˈkɔmə] – n. a punctuation mark (,) used to indicate the separation of elements within the grammatical structure of a sentence

commemorate [kəˈmeməreit] – v. mark by some ceremony or observation

commence [kəˈmens] – v. take the first step or steps in carrying out an action

commencement [kəˈmensmənt] – n. the time at which something is supposed to begin

commend [kəˈmend] – v. express approval of

commentary [ˈkɔməntəri] – n. a written explanation or criticism or illustration that is added to a book or other textual material

commission [kəˈmiʃən] – n. a special group delegated to consider some matter

commitment [kəˈmitmənt] – n. the trait of sincere and steadfast fixity of purpose: a man of energy and commitment

commodity [kəˈmɔditi] – n. articles of commerce

commonplace [ˈkɔmənpleis] – adj. completely ordinary and unremarkable: air travel has now become commonplace

commonsense [.kɔmənˈsens] – adj. exhibiting native good judgment: commonsense scholarship on the foibles of a genius

commonwealth [ˈkɔmənwelθ] – n. a politically organized body of people under a single government

commotion [kəˈməuʃən] – n. a disorderly outburst or tumult

communal [ˈkɔmjunl] – adj. for or by a group rather than individuals: dipping each his bread into a communal dish of stew

commute [kəˈmju:t] – v. exchange positions without a change in value: These operators commute with each other

compact [kəmˈpækt] – v. compress into a wad

comparable [ˈkɔmpərəbl] – adj. conforming in every respect

compartment [kəmˈpɑ:tmənt] – n. a space into which an area is subdivided

compassion [kəmˈpæʃən] – n. a deep awareness of and sympathy for another’s suffering

compatible [kəmˈpætəbl] – adj. able to exist and perform in harmonious or agreeable combination: a compatible married couple

compensate [ˈkɔmpenseit] – v. adjust for

compensation [.kɔmpenˈseiʃən] – n. something (such as money) given or received as payment or reparation (as for a service or loss or injury)

competence [ˈkɔmpitəns] – n. the quality of being adequately or well qualified physically and intellectually

competitive [kəmˈpetitiv] – adj. subscribing to capitalistic competition

competitor [kəmˈpetitə] – n. the contestant you hope to defeat

compile [kəmˈpail] – v. get or gather together

complacent [kəmˈpleisənt] – adj. contented to a fault with oneself or one’s actions: he had become complacent after years of success

complaint [kəmˈpleint] – n. (formerly) a loud cry (or repeated cries) of pain or rage or sorrow

complement [ˈkɔmplimənt] – n. a complete number or quantity: a full complement

completion [kəmˈpli:ʃ(ə)n] – n. (American football) a successful forward pass in football

complexion [kəmˈplekʃən] – n. the coloring of a person’s face

complexity [kəmˈpleksiti] – n. the quality of being intricate and compounded: he enjoyed the complexity of modern computers

complication [.kɔmpliˈkeiʃən] – n. a situation or condition that is complex or confused: her coming was a serious complication

compliment [ˈkɔmplimənt] – v. say something to someone that expresses praise: He complimented her on her last physics paper

comply [kəmˈplai] – v. act in accordance with someone’s rules, commands, or wishes: You must comply or else!

composer [kɔmˈpəuzə] – n. someone who composes music as a profession

composite [ˈkɔmpəzit] – n. a conceptual whole made up of complicated and related parts

composition [.kɔmpəˈziʃən] – n. the spatial property resulting from the arrangement of parts in relation to each other and to the whole: harmonious composition is essential in a serious work of art

comprehend [.kɔmpriˈhend] – v. get the meaning of something: Do you comprehend the meaning of this letter?

compression [kəmˈpreʃ(ə)n] – n. an increase in the density of something

compulsory [kəmˈpʌlsəri] – adj. required by rule: in most schools physical education is compulsory

compute [kəmˈpju:t] – v. make a mathematical calculation or computation

concede [kənˈsi:d] – v. admit (to a wrongdoing)

conceit [kənˈsi:t] – n. feelings of excessive pride

conceive [kənˈsi:v] – v. have the idea for: He conceived of a robot that would help paralyzed patients

concentrate [ˈkɔnsentreit] – v. make denser, stronger, or purer: concentrate juice

conception [kənˈsepʃən] – n. an abstract or general idea inferred or derived from specific instances

concern [kənˈsə:n] – n. something that interests you because it is important or affects you: the safety of the ship is the captain’s concern

concert [ˈkɔnsət] – v. contrive (a plan) by mutual agreement

concerto [kənˈtʃə:təu] – n. a composition for orchestra and a soloist

concession [kənˈseʃən] – n. a contract granting the right to operate a subsidiary business: he got the beer concession at the ball park

concise [kənˈsais] – adj. expressing much in few words: a concise explanation

conducive [kənˈdju:siv] – adj. tending to bring about; being partly responsible for: working conditions are not conducive to productivity

cone [kəun] – n. a shape whose base is a circle and whose sides taper up to a point

confer [kənˈfə:] – v. present: The university conferred a degree on its most famous former student, who never graduated

confide [kənˈfaid] – v. confer a trust upon

confidence [ˈkɔnfidəns] – n. freedom from doubt; belief in yourself and your abilities: after that failure he lost his confidence

confidential [.kɑ:nfiˈdenʃəl] – adj. (of information) given in confidence or in secret: this arrangement must be kept confidential

configuration [kən.figjuˈreiʃən] – n. an arrangement of parts or elements: the outcome depends on the configuration of influences at the time

confirmation [.kɔnfəˈmeiʃən] – n. additional proof that something that was believed (some fact or hypothesis or theory) is correct: fossils provided further confirmation of the evolutionary theory

confiscate [ˈkɔnfiskeit] – v. take temporary possession of as a security, by legal authority: The police confiscated the stolen artwork

conform [kənˈfɔ:m] – v. be similar, be in line with

confront [kənˈfrʌnt] – v. oppose, as in hostility or a competition: You must confront your opponent

confusion [kənˈfju:ʒən] – n. disorder resulting from a failure to behave predictably: the army retreated in confusion

congregate [ˈkɔŋgrigeit] – v. come together, usually for a purpose: The crowds congregated in front of the Vatican on Christmas Eve

conqueror [ˈkɔŋkərə] – n. someone who is victorious by force of arms

conscientious [.kɔnʃiˈenʃəs] – adj. characterized by extreme care and great effort: conscientious application to the work at hand

consciousness [ˈkɔnʃəsnəs] – n. an alert cognitive state in which you are aware of yourself and your situation: he lost consciousness

consecutive [kənˈsekjutiv] – adj. one after the other

consensus [kənˈsensəs] – n. agreement in the judgment or opinion reached by a group as a whole: the lack of consensus reflected differences in theoretical positions

consequence [ˈkɔnsikwəns] – n. a phenomenon that follows and is caused by some previous phenomenon: his decision had depressing consequences for business

consequent [ˈkɔnsikwənt] – adj. following or accompanying as a consequence: the period of tension and consequent need for military preparedness

conservative [kənˈsə:vətiv] – adj. resistant to change

conserve [kənˈsə:v] – v. keep in safety and protect from harm, decay, loss, or destruction: children must be taught to conserve our national heritage

consistent [kənˈsistənt] – adj. capable of being reproduced

console [ˈkɔnsəul,kənˈsəul] – n. a small table fixed to a wall or designed to stand against a wall

consolidate [kənˈsɔlideit] – v. unite into one: The companies consolidated

conspicuous [kənˈspikjuəs] – adj. obvious to the eye or mind: a tower conspicuous at a great distance

conspiracy [kənˈspirəsi] – n. a secret agreement between two or more people to perform an unlawful act

conspire [kənˈspaiə] – v. act in unison or agreement and in secret towards a deceitful or illegal purpose: The two companies conspired to cause the value of the stock to fall

constituent [kənˈstitjuənt] – n. a member of a constituency; a citizen who is represented in a government by officials for whom he or she votes: needs continued support by constituents to be re-elected

constitute [ˈkɔnstitju:t] – v. form or compose: These constitute my entire belonging

constitution [.kɔnstiˈtju:ʃən] – n. law determining the fundamental political principles of a government

constrain [kənˈstrein] – v. hold back

constraint [kənˈstreint] – n. a device that retards something’s motion

constrict [kənˈstrikt] – v. squeeze or press together

construction [kənˈstrʌkʃən] – n. a group of words that form a constituent of a sentence and are considered as a single unit: I concluded from his awkward constructions that he was a foreigner

consul [ˈkɔnsəl] – n. a diplomat appointed by a government to protect its commercial interests and help its citizens in a foreign country

consulate [ˈkɔnsjulit] – n. diplomatic building that serves as the residence or workplace of a consul

consultant [kənˈsʌltənt] – n. an expert who gives advice

consumer [kənˈsju:mə] – n. a person who uses goods or services

consumption [kənˈsʌmpʃən] – n. the process of taking food into the body through the mouth (as by eating)

contagious [kənˈteidʒəs] – adj. easily diffused or spread as from one person to another: a contagious grin

contaminate [kənˈtæmineit] – v. make impure

contemplate [ˈkɔntem.pleit] – v. look at thoughtfully; observe deep in thought: contemplate one’s navel

contempt [kənˈtempt] – n. lack of respect accompanied by a feeling of intense dislike: he was held in contempt

contend [kənˈtend] – v. maintain or assert: He contended that Communism had no future

contention [kənˈtenʃən] – n. a point asserted as part of an argument

contestant [kənˈtestənt] – n. a person who participates in competitions

context [ˈkɔntekst] – n. discourse that surrounds a language unit and helps to determine its interpretation

continental [.kɔntiˈnentl] – adj. of or pertaining to or typical of Europe

contingent [kənˈtindʒənt] – adj. possible but not certain to occur: they had to plan for contingent expenses

continuity [.kɔntiˈnju:iti] – n. uninterrupted connection or union

contradict [.kɔntrəˈdikt] – v. deny the truth of

contrary [ˈkɔntrəri] – adj. very opposed in nature or character or purpose: acts contrary to our code of ethics

contrast [ˈkɔntræst,kənˈtræst] – n. the opposition or dissimilarity of things that are compared: in contrast to

contribution [.kɔntriˈbju:ʃən] – n. the part played by a person in bringing about a result: I am proud of my contribution in advancing the project

contrive [kənˈtraiv] – v. make or work out a plan for; devise: They contrived to murder their boss

controversial [.kɔntrəˈvə:ʃəl] – adj. marked by or capable of arousing controversy: the issue of the death penalty is highly controversial

controversy [ˈkɔntrəvə:si] – n. a contentious speech act; a dispute where there is strong disagreement

convene [kənˈvi:n] – v. meet formally: The council convened last week

convent [ˈkɔnvənt] – n. a religious residence especially for nuns

convention [kənˈvenʃən] – n. a large formal assembly: political convention

converge [kənˈvə:dʒ] – v. be adjacent or come together: The lines converge at this point

converse [kənˈvə:s] – adj. of words so related that one reverses the relation denoted by the other: `parental’ and `filial’ are converse terms

conversion [kənˈvə:ʃən] – n. an event that results in a transformation

convert [ˈkɔnvə:t,kənˈvə:t] – v. change from one system to another or to a new plan or policy: We converted from 220 to 110 Volt

convey [kənˈvei] – v. make known; pass on, of information: She conveyed the message to me

convict [ˈkɔnvikt,kənˈvikt] – n. a person serving a sentence in a jail or prison

conviction [kənˈvikʃən] – n. an unshakable belief in something without need for proof or evidence

cooker [ˈkukə] – n. a utensil for cooking

cookie [ˈkuki] – n. any of various small flat sweet cakes (`biscuit’ is the British term)

cooperative [kəuˈɔpərətiv] – adj. involving the joint activity of two or more: a cooperative effort

coordinate [kəuˈɔ:dneit] – v. bring order and organization to

coral [ˈkɔrəl] – n. a variable color averaging a deep pink

cordial [ˈkɔ:djəl] – adj. diffusing warmth and friendliness: cordial relations

cork [kɔ:k] – n. (botany) outer tissue of bark; a protective layer of dead cells

corporal [ˈkɔ:pərəl] – adj. affecting or characteristic of the body as opposed to the mind or spirit: a corporal defect

corporate [ˈkɔ:pərit] – adj. possessing or existing in bodily form: `corporate’ is an archaic term

corps [kɔ:] – n. an army unit usually consisting of two or more divisions and their support

corpse [kɔ:ps] – n. the dead body of a human being: the end of the police search was the discovery of a corpse

correctly [kəˈrektli] – adv. in an accurate manner: the flower had been correctly depicted by his son

correlate [ˈkɔ:rə.leit] – v. to bear a reciprocal or mutual relation: Do these facts correlate?

correlation [, kɔrəˈleiʃən] – n. a reciprocal relation between two or more things

correspondence [.kɔriˈspɔndəns] – n. communication by the exchange of letters

correspondent [.kɔriˈspɔndənt] – n. someone who communicates by means of letters

corrode [kəˈrəud] – v. cause to deteriorate due to the action of water, air, or an acid: The acid corroded the metal

corrosion [kəˈrəuʒən] – n. a state of deterioration in metals caused by oxidation or chemical action

corrupt [kəˈrʌpt] – v. make illegal payments to in exchange for favors or influence

cosmetic [kɔzˈmetik] – adj. serving an esthetic rather than a useful purpose: cosmetic fenders on cars

cosmic [ˈkɔzmik] – adj. inconceivably extended in space or time

cosmopolitan [.kɔzməˈpɔlitən] – adj. growing or occurring in many parts of the world: a cosmopolitan herb

cosmos [ˈkɔzmɔs] – n. everything that exists anywhere

costume [ˈkɔstju:m] – n. the attire worn in a play or at a fancy dress ball: he won the prize for best costume

cosy  – n. a padded cloth covering to keep a teapot warm

couch [kautʃ] – n. an upholstered seat for more than one person

counsel [ˈkaunsəl] – n. a lawyer who pleads cases in court

count  – v. determine the number or amount of: Can you count the books on your shelf?

counter [ˈkauntə] – n. table consisting of a horizontal surface over which business is transacted

counteract [.kauntəˈrækt] – v. act in opposition to

counterpart [ˈkauntəpɑ:t] – n. a person or thing having the same function or characteristics as another

coup [ku:] – n. a sudden and decisive change of government illegally or by force

coupon [ˈku:pɔn] – n. a negotiable certificate that can be detached and redeemed as needed

courageous [kəˈreidʒəs] – adj. possessing or displaying courage; able to face and deal with danger or fear without flinching: a frank courageous heart…triumphed over pain

courteous [ˈkə:tjəs] – adj. characterized by courtesy and gracious good manners: if a man be gracious and courteous to strangers it shows he is a citizen of the world

courtesy [ˈkə:tisi] – n. a courteous or respectful or considerate remark

coverage [ˈkʌvəridʒ] – n. the total amount and type of insurance carried

coward [ˈkauəd] – n. a person who shows fear or timidity

cozy [ˈkəuzi] – adj. having or fostering a warm or friendly and informal atmosphere: had a cozy chat

crab [kræb] – n. a quarrelsome grouch

crack [kræk] – v. make a very sharp explosive sound: His gun cracked

cracker [ˈkrækə] – n. a thin crisp wafer made of flour and water with or without leavening and shortening; unsweetened or semisweet

cradle [ˈkreidl] – v. hold gently and carefully: He cradles the child in his arms

craft [krɑ:ft] – n. the skilled practice of a practical occupation

cram [kræm] – v. put something somewhere so that the space is completely filled: cram books into the suitcase

cramp [kræmp] – v. prevent the progress or free movement of

crank [kræŋk] – v. travel along a zigzag path

crash [kræʃ] – v. fall or come down violently: The branch crashed down on my car

crate [kreit] – n. a rugged box (usually made of wood); used for shipping

crater [ˈkreitə] – n. a bowl-shaped geological formation at the top of a volcano

crave [kreiv] – v. plead or ask for earnestly

crayon [ˈkreiən] – n. writing implement consisting of a colored stick of composition wax used for writing and drawing

creak [kri:k] – n. a squeaking sound: the creak of the floorboards gave him away

crease [kri:s] – v. scrape gently

creation [kriˈeiʃən] – n. an artifact that has been brought into existence by someone

credentials [kriˈdenʃəlz] – n. a document attesting to the truth of certain stated facts

credible [ˈkredəbəl] – adj. capable of being believed: completely credible testimony

credit [ˈkredit] – n. approval: he was given credit for his work

creed [kri:d] – n. any system of principles or beliefs

creek [kri:k] – n. a natural stream of water smaller than a river (and often a tributary of a river): the creek dried up every summer

crescent [ˈkresənt] – n. any shape resembling the curved shape of the moon in its first or last quarters

crest [krest] – n. the top line of a hill, mountain, or wave

crib [krib] – n. baby bed with high sides made of slats

cricket [ˈkrikit] – n. leaping insect; male makes chirping noises by rubbing the forewings together

crimson [ˈkrimzn] – adj. characterized by violence or bloodshed: writes of crimson deeds and barbaric days

cripple [ˈkripl] – v. deprive of strength or efficiency; make useless or worthless: This measure crippled our efforts

crisis [ˈkraisis] – n. an unstable situation of extreme danger or difficulty: they went bankrupt during the economic crisis

crisp [krisp] – adj. (of something seen or heard) clearly defined: the crisp snap of dry leaves underfoot

criterion [kraiˈtiəriən] – n. a basis for comparison; a reference point against which other things can be evaluated

crocodile [ˈkrɔkədail] – n. large voracious aquatic reptile having a long snout with massive jaws and sharp teeth and a body covered with bony plates; of sluggish tropical waters

cross [krɔs] – v. meet at a point

crouch [ˈkrautʃ] – v. bend one’s back forward from the waist on down: he crouched down

crow [krəu] – n. black birds having a raucous call

crucial [ˈkru:ʃəl] – adj. of extreme importance; vital to the resolution of a crisis: a crucial moment in his career

cruelty [ˈkru:əlti] – n. feelings of extreme heartlessness

cruise [kru:z] – v. drive around aimlessly but ostentatiously and at leisure: She cruised the neighborhood in her new convertible

cruiser [ˈkru:zə] – n. a large fast warship; smaller than a battleship and larger than a destroyer

crumb [krʌm] – n. a very small quantity of something: he gave only a crumb of information about his plans

crumble [ˈkrʌmbl] – v. fall apart: the building crumbled after the explosion

crumple [ˈkrʌmpəl] – v. fall apart

crunch [krʌntʃ] – v. press or grind with a crushing noise

crutch [krʌtʃ] – n. a wooden or metal staff that fits under the armpit and reaches to the ground; used by disabled person while walking

cub [kʌb] – n. an awkward and inexperienced youth

cubic [ˈkju:bik] – adj. having three dimensions

cuckoo [ˈkuku:] – n. a man who is a stupid incompetent fool

cucumber [ˈkju:kəmbə] – n. a melon vine of the genus Cucumis; cultivated from earliest times for its cylindrical green fruit

cue [kju:] – n. an actor’s line that immediately precedes and serves as a reminder for some action or speech

cuff [kʌf] – n. the lap consisting of a turned-back hem encircling the end of the sleeve or leg

culminate [ˈkʌlmineit] – v. end, especially to reach a final or climactic stage: The meeting culminated in a tearful embrace

culprit [ˈkʌlprit] – n. someone who perpetrates wrongdoing

cult [kʌlt] – n. followers of an exclusive system of religious beliefs and practices

cumulative [ˈkju:mjulətiv] – adj. increasing by successive addition: the benefits are cumulative

cunning [ˈkʌniŋ] – adj. attractive especially by means of smallness or prettiness or quaintness: cunning kittens

curb [kə:b] – n. a horse’s bit with an attached chain or strap to check the horse

curly [ˈkə:li] – adj. (of hair) having curls or waves: they envied her naturally curly hair

currency [ˈkʌrənsi] – n. the metal or paper medium of exchange that is presently used

currently [ˈkʌrəntli] – adv. at this time or period; now: currently they live in Connecticut

curriculum [kəˈrikjuləm] – n. an integrated course of academic studies

curt [kə:t] – adj. marked by rude or peremptory shortness: a curt reply

curtail [kə:ˈteil] – v. place restrictions on: curtail drinking in school

custody [ˈkʌstədi] – n. a state of being confined (usually for a short time): he is in the custody of police

custom [ˈkʌstəm] – n. accepted or habitual practice

customary [ˈkʌstəməri] – adj. commonly used or practiced; usual: took his customary morning walk

cute [kju:t] – adj. attractive especially by means of smallness or prettiness or quaintness: a cute kid with pigtails

cutlery [ˈkʌtləri] – n. a cutting implement; a tool for cutting

cutter [ˈkʌtə] – n. someone who carves the meat

cyberspace [ˈsaibəspeis] – n. a computer network consisting of a worldwide network of computer networks that use the TCP/IP network protocols to facilitate data transmission and exchange

cylinder [ˈsilində] – n. a surface generated by rotating a parallel line around a fixed line

cynical [ˈsinikəl] – adj. believing the worst of human nature and motives; having a sneering disbelief in e.g. selflessness of others

dagger [ˈdægə] – n. a short knife with a pointed blade used for piercing or stabbing

damn [dæm] – adj. used as expletives: oh, damn (or goddamn)!

database [ˈdeitə.beis] – n. an organized body of related information

datum [ˈdeitəm] – n. an item of factual information derived from measurement or research

daunt [dɔ:nt] – v. cause to lose courage

dazzle [ˈdæzl] – v. to cause someone to lose clear vision, especially from intense light: She was dazzled by the bright headlights

deadlock [ˈdedlɔk] – n. a situation in which no progress can be made or no advancement is possible

deadly [ˈdedli] – adj. causing or capable of causing death: a deadly enemy

deafen [ˈdefn] – v. be unbearably loud: a deafening noise

deal [di:l] – v. act on verbally or in some form of artistic expression: This book deals with incest

dealer [ˈdi:lə] – n. someone who purchases and maintains an inventory of goods to be sold

dean [di:n] – n. an administrator in charge of a division of a university or college

debut [ˈdeibju:] – v. present for the first time to the public: The band debuts a new song or two each month

decay [diˈkei] – n. the process of gradually becoming inferior

deceit [diˈsi:t] – n. the quality of being fraudulent

decent [ˈdi:snt] – adj. socially or conventionally correct; refined or virtuous: from a decent family

deceptive [diˈseptiv] – adj. causing one to believe what is not true or fail to believe what is true: deceptive calm

decidedly [diˈsaididli] – adv. without question and beyond doubt: it was decidedly too expensive

decimal [ˈdesiməl] – n. a proper fraction whose denominator is a power of 10

decisive [diˈsaisiv] – adj. determining or having the power to determine an outcome: cast the decisive vote

declaration [.dekləˈreiʃən] – n. a statement that is emphatic and explicit (spoken or written)

decline [diˈklain] – v. grow worse

decode [.di:ˈkəud] – v. convert code into ordinary language

decompose [.di:kəmˈpəuz] – v. separate (substances) into constituent elements or parts

decorative [ˈdekərətiv] – adj. serving an esthetic rather than a useful purpose: the buildings were utilitarian rather than decorative

decree [diˈkri:] – v. decide with authority: The King decreed that all firstborn males should be killed

dedicate [ˈdedikeit] – v. give entirely to a specific person, activity, or cause

deduce [diˈdju:s] – v. conclude by reasoning; in logic

deduct [diˈdʌkt] – v. make a subtraction

deem [di:m] – v. keep in mind or convey as a conviction or view

deepen [ˈdi:pən] – v. make more intense, stronger, or more marked: This event only deepened my convictions

default [diˈfɔ:lt] – n. loss due to not showing up: he lost the game by default

defendant [diˈfendənt] – n. a person or institution against whom an action is brought in a court of law; the person being sued or accused

defer [diˈfə:] – v. hold back to a later time

defiance [diˈfaiəns] – n. intentionally contemptuous behavior or attitude

deficiency [diˈfiʃənsi] – n. the state of needing something that is absent or unavailable: water is the critical deficiency in desert regions

deficient [diˈfiʃənt] – adj. inadequate in amount or degree: a deficient education

deficit [ˈdefisit] – n. the property of being an amount by which something is less than expected or required: new blood vessels bud out from the already dilated vascular bed to make up the nutritional deficit

define [diˈfain] – v. determine the essential quality of

definitive [diˈfinitiv] – adj. of recognized authority or excellence: the definitive work on Greece

deflect [diˈflekt] – v. prevent the occurrence of; prevent from happening

deflection [diˈflekʃən] – n. a twist or aberration; especially a perverse or abnormal way of judging or acting

deform [di:ˈfɔ:m] – v. make formless: the heat deformed the plastic sculpture

deformation [.di:fɔ:ˈmeiʃən] – n. a change for the worse

defy [diˈfai] – v. resist or confront with resistance

degenerate [diˈdʒenəreit] – n. a person whose behavior deviates from what is acceptable especially in sexual behavior

degradation [.degrəˈdeiʃən] – n. changing to a lower state (a less respected state)

degrade [diˈgreid] – v. reduce the level of land, as by erosion

delegate [ˈdeligeit,ˈdeligit] – v. transfer power to someone

deliberate [diˈlibərit] – v. think about carefully; weigh

deliberately [diˈlibərətli] – adv. with intention; in an intentional manner

delusion [diˈlu:ʒən] – n. (psychology) an erroneous belief that is held in the face of evidence to the contrary

democrat [ˈdeməkræt] – n. a member of the Democratic Party

demolish [diˈmɔliʃ] – v. destroy completely: the wrecking ball demolished the building

den [den] – n. the habitation of wild animals

denial [diˈnaiəl] – n. the act of refusing to comply (as with a request): it resulted in a complete denial of his privileges

denote [diˈnəut] – v. be a sign or indication of: Her smile denoted that she agreed

denounce [diˈnauns] – v. speak out against: He denounced the Nazis

dentist [ˈdentist] – n. a person qualified to practice dentistry

dependant [diˈpendənt] – adj. contingent on something else

depict [diˈpikt] – v. show in, or as in, a picture: This scene depicts country life

deplete [diˈpli:t] – v. use up (resources or materials)

deplore [diˈplɔ:] – v. express strong disapproval of: We deplore the government’s treatment of political prisoners

deploy [diˈplɔi] – v. place troops or weapons in battle formation

deport [diˈpɔ:t] – v. behave in a certain manner

deposit [diˈpɔzit] – n. the phenomenon of sediment or gravel accumulating

deposition [.depəˈziʃən, di:-] – n. (law) a pretrial interrogation of a witness; usually conducted in a lawyer’s office

depot [ˈdepəu; ˈdi:-] – n. station where transport vehicles load or unload passengers or goods

depression [diˈpreʃən] – n. a mental state characterized by a pessimistic sense of inadequacy and a despondent lack of activity

deprive [diˈpraiv] – v. take away possessions from someone

depute [diˈpju:t] – v. transfer power to someone

deputy [ˈdepjuti] – n. someone authorized to exercise the powers of sheriff in emergencies

derivation [deriˈveiʃən] – n. (historical linguistics) an explanation of the historical origins of a word or phrase

derivative [diˈrivətiv] – n. the result of mathematical differentiation; the instantaneous change of one quantity relative to another; df(x)/dx

descendant [diˈsendənt] – adj. going or coming down

descent [diˈsent] – n. a movement downward

desert [ˈdezət,diˈzə:t] – v. leave someone who needs or counts on you; leave in the lurch: The mother deserted her children

designate [ˈdezigneit] – v. assign a name or title to

desolate [ˈdesəleit,ˈdesəlit] – v. leave someone who needs or counts on you; leave in the lurch

despatch  – n. an official report (usually sent in haste)

despise [diˈspaiz] – v. look down on with disdain: He despises the people he has to work for

dessert [diˈzə:t] – n. a dish served as the last course of a meal

destine [ˈdestin] – v. decree or designate beforehand: She was destined to become a great pianist

destined [ˈdestind] – adj. headed or intending to head in a certain direction; often used as a combining form as in `college-bound students’: a flight destined for New York

destiny [ˈdestini] – n. an event (or a course of events) that will inevitably happen in the future

destructive [diˈstrʌktiv] – adj. causing destruction or much damage: a policy that is destructive to the economy

detach [diˈtætʃ] – v. separate (a small unit) from a larger, especially for a special assignment: detach a regiment

detail [ˈdi:teil] – n. an isolated fact that is considered separately from the whole: several of the details are similar

detain [diˈtein] – v. deprive of freedom; take into confinement

detective [diˈtektiv] – n. a police officer who investigates crimes

detector  – n. rectifier that extracts modulation from a radio carrier wave

detergent [diˈtə:dʒənt] – n. a surface-active chemical widely used in industry and laundering

deteriorate [diˈtiəriəreit] – v. become worse or disintegrate: His mind deteriorated

detour [diˈtʊər] – n. a roundabout road (especially one that is used temporarily while a main route is blocked)

detrimental [.detriˈmentl] – adj. (sometimes followed by `to’) causing harm or injury

devastating [ˈdevəsteitiŋ] – adj. making light of: a devastating portrait of human folly

develop [diˈveləp] – v. make something new, such as a product or a mental or artistic creation: Her company developed a new kind of building material that withstands all kinds of weather

deviate [ˈdi:vieit] – v. turn aside; turn away from

deviation [.di:viˈeiʃən] – n. the difference between an observed value and the expected value of a variable or function

devious [ˈdi:viəs] – adj. indirect in departing from the accepted or proper way; misleading: used devious means to achieve success

devotion [diˈvəuʃən] – n. feelings of ardent love: their devotion to each other was beautiful

devour [diˈvauə] – v. destroy completely: Fire had devoured our home

dew [dju:] – n. water that has condensed on a cool surface overnight from water vapor in the air: in the morning the grass was wet with dew

diagnose [ˈdaiəgnəuz] – v. subject to a medical analysis

diagnosis [.daiəgˈnəusis] – n. identifying the nature or cause of some phenomenon

dice [dais] – v. cut into cubes

dictator [dikˈteitə] – n. a ruler who is unconstrained by law

diesel [ˈdi:zəl] – n. an internal-combustion engine that burns heavy oil

diet [ˈdaiət] – n. a prescribed selection of foods

differentiate [.difəˈrenʃi.eit] – v. be a distinctive feature, attribute, or trait; sometimes in a very positive sense

difficult [ˈdifikəlt] – adj. not easy; requiring great physical or mental effort to accomplish or comprehend or endure: a difficult task

diffuse [diˈfju:s,diˈfju:z] – v. move outward

digit [ˈdidʒit] – n. one of the elements that collectively form a system of numeration: 0 and 1 are digits

dignity [ˈdigniti] – n. the quality of being worthy of esteem or respect: it was beneath his dignity to cheat

dilemma [diˈlemə] – n. state of uncertainty or perplexity especially as requiring a choice between equally unfavorable options

diligent [ˈdilidʒənt] – adj. quietly and steadily persevering especially in detail or exactness: a diligent (or patient) worker

dilute [daiˈlju:t] – v. lessen the strength or flavor of a solution or mixture

dime [daim] – n. a United States coin worth one tenth of a dollar

diminish [diˈminiʃ] – v. decrease in size, extent, or range

dine [dain] – v. give dinner to; host for dinner

dinosaur [ˈdainəsɔ:] – n. any of numerous extinct terrestrial reptiles of the Mesozoic era

dioxide [daiˈɔksaid] – n. an oxide containing two atoms of oxygen in the molecule

diploma [diˈpləumə] – n. a document certifying the successful completion of a course of study

diplomat [ˈdipləmæt] – n. an official engaged in international negotiations

diplomatic [.dipləˈmætik] – adj. using or marked by tact in dealing with sensitive matters or people: the hostess averted a confrontation with a diplomatic chenage of subject

directory [diˈrektəri] – n. an alphabetical list of names and addresses

disability [.disəˈbiliti] – n. the condition of being unable to perform as a consequence of physical or mental unfitness: reading disability

disable [disˈeibl] – v. make unable to perform a certain action: disable this command on your computer

disagreement [disəˈgri:mənt] – n. a conflict of people’s opinions or actions or characters

disappearance [.disəˈpiərəns] – n. the act of leaving secretly or without explanation

disastrous [diˈzɑ:strəs] – adj. (of events) having extremely unfortunate or dire consequences; bringing ruin: the battle was a disastrous end to a disastrous campaign

discern [diˈzə:n] – v. detect with the senses

disclose [disˈkləuz] – v. make known to the public information that was previously known only to a few people or that was meant to be kept a secret: The auction house would not disclose the price at which the van Gogh had sold

disco [ˈdiskəu] – n. a public dance hall for dancing to recorded popular music

discord [ˈdiskɔ:d] – n. lack of agreement or harmony

discourse [disˈkɔ:s, ˈdiskɔ:s] – n. extended verbal expression in speech or writing

discreet [diˈskri:t] – adj. marked by prudence or modesty and wise self-restraint: his trusted discreet aide

discrepancy [disˈkrepənsi] – n. a difference between conflicting facts or claims or opinions

discrete [diˈskri:t] – adj. constituting a separate entity or part: a government with three discrete divisions

discriminate [diˈskrimineit] – v. recognize or perceive the difference

discrimination [di.skrimiˈneiʃən] – n. unfair treatment of a person or group on the basis of prejudice

disdain [disˈdein] – n. lack of respect accompanied by a feeling of intense dislike

disgrace [disˈgreis] – v. bring shame or dishonor upon

disguise [disˈgaiz] – n. an outward semblance that misrepresents the true nature of something: the theatrical notion of disguise is always associated with catastrophe in his stories

disillusion [.disiˈlu:ʒən] – n. freeing from false belief or illusions

dismal [ˈdizməl] – adj. causing dejection: the first dismal dispiriting days of November

dismantle [disˈmæntl] – v. tear down so as to make flat with the ground

dismay [disˈmei] – n. the feeling of despair in the face of obstacles

dismiss [disˈmis] – v. bar from attention or consideration: She dismissed his advances

disorder [disˈɔ:də] – n. a physical condition in which there is a disturbance of normal functioning: the doctor prescribed some medicine for the disorder

dispatch [diˈspætʃ] – v. send away towards a designated goal

dispense [disˈpens] – v. administer or bestow, as in small portions: the machine dispenses soft drinks

disperse [disˈpə:s] – v. distribute loosely

displace [disˈpleis] – v. cause to move, usually with force or pressure: the refugees were displaced by the war

displacement [disˈpleismənt] – n. act of taking the place of another especially using underhanded tactics

disposition [.dispəˈziʃən] – n. your usual mood: he has a happy disposition

disregard [.disriˈgɑ:d] – v. refuse to acknowledge

disrupt [disˈrʌpt] – v. make a break in

dissatisfaction [ˈdis.sætisˈfækʃən] – n. the feeling of being displeased and discontent: he was never slow to express his dissatisfaction with the service he received

disseminate [diˈsemineit] – v. cause to become widely known

dissent [diˈsent] – n. (law) the difference of one judge’s opinion from that of the majority: he expressed his dissent in a contrary opinion

dissertation [.disəˈteiʃən] – n. a treatise advancing a new point of view resulting from research; usually a requirement for an advanced academic degree

dissipate [ˈdisipeit] – v. to cause to separate and go in different directions

dissolve [diˈzɔlv] – v. become weaker

distil [disˈtil] – v. undergo condensation; change from a gaseous to a liquid state and fall in drops: The acid distills at a specific temperature

distill [disˈtil] – v. undergo condensation; change from a gaseous to a liquid state and fall in drops: The acid distills at a specific temperature

distinct [diˈstiŋkt] – adj. (often followed by `from’) not alike; different in nature or quality: plants of several distinct types

distinctly [diˈstiŋktli] – adv. in a distinct and distinguishable manner: the subtleties of this distinctly British occasion

distinguish [diˈstiŋgwiʃ] – v. mark as different: We distinguish several kinds of maple

distort [disˈtɔ:t] – v. make false by mutilation or addition; as of a message or story

distortion [disˈtɔ:ʃən] – n. a change for the worse

distract [diˈstrækt] – v. draw someone’s attention away from something: The thief distracted the bystanders

disturbance [disˈtə:bəns] – n. activity that is a malfunction, intrusion, or interruption: he looked around for the source of the disturbance

diverge [daiˈvə:dʒ] – v. move or draw apart: The two paths diverge here

diversify [daiˈvə:sifai] – v. spread into new habitats and produce variety or variegate

diversion [daiˈvə:ʒən] – n. a turning aside (of your course or attention or concern): a diversion from the main highway

divert [daiˈvə:t] – v. turn aside; turn away from

dividend [ˈdividend] – n. that part of the earnings of a corporation that is distributed to its shareholders; usually paid quarterly

divine [diˈvain] – adj. emanating from God: divine judgment

dizzy [ˈdizi] – adj. having or causing a whirling sensation; liable to falling: had a dizzy spell

dock [dɔk] – n. an enclosure in a court of law where the defendant sits during the trial

doctorate [ˈdɔktərit] – n. one of the highest earned academic degrees conferred by a university

doctrine [ˈdɔktrin] – n. a belief (or system of beliefs) accepted as authoritative by some group or school

documentary [.dɔkjuˈmentəri] – adj. relating to or consisting of or derived from documents

dodge [dɔdʒ] – n. an elaborate or deceitful scheme contrived to deceive or evade

dole [dəul] – n. a share of money or food or clothing that has been charitably given

dolphin [ˈdɔlfin] – n. large slender food and game fish widely distributed in warm seas (especially around Hawaii)

domain [dəˈmein] – n. a particular environment or walk of life

dome [dəum] – n. informal terms for a human head

domestic [dəˈmestik] – adj. of concern to or concerning the internal affairs of a nation: domestic issues such as tax rate and highway construction

dominant [ˈdɔminənt] – adj. exercising influence or control: television plays a dominant role in molding public opinion

dominate [ˈdɔmineit] – v. be larger in number, quantity, power, status or importance: Hispanics predominate in this neighborhood

dominion [dəˈminiən] – n. a region marked off for administrative or other purposes

donate [ˈdəuneit] – v. give to a charity or good cause: I donated blood to the Red Cross for the victims of the earthquake

doom [du:m] – v. decree or designate beforehand

doubtless [ˈdautlis] – adv. without doubt; certainly

dough [dəu] – n. a flour mixture stiff enough to knead or roll

dove [dʌv] – n. any of numerous small pigeons

downfall [ˈdaunfɔ:l] – n. failure that results in a loss of position or reputation

downgrade [ˈdaungreid] – n. the property possessed by a slope or surface that descends

doze [dəuz] – n. a light fitful sleep

drain [drein] – n. emptying something accomplished by allowing liquid to run out of it

drainage [ˈdreinidʒ] – n. emptying something accomplished by allowing liquid to run out of it

drama [ˈdrɑ:mə] – n. an episode that is turbulent or highly emotional

drastic [ˈdræstik] – adj. forceful and extreme and rigorous: drastic measures

drawback [ˈdrɔ:bæk] – n. the quality of being a hindrance: he pointed out all the drawbacks to my plan

dread [dred] – n. fearful expectation or anticipation

dreadful [ˈdredful] – adj. exceptionally bad or displeasing: dreadful manners

dreary [ˈdriəri] – adj. lacking in liveliness or charm or surprise: a series of dreary dinner parties

drizzle [ˈdrizl] – v. rain lightly: When it drizzles in summer, hiking can be pleasant

drought [draut] – n. a shortage of rainfall: farmers most affected by the drought hope that there may yet be sufficient rain early in the growing season

dry [drai] – adj. free from liquid or moisture; lacking natural or normal moisture or depleted of water; or no longer wet: dry land

dual [ˈdju:əl] – adj. consisting of or involving two parts or components usually in pairs: dual controls for pilot and copilot

dub [dʌb] – v. give a nickname to

dubious [ˈdju:biəs] – adj. fraught with uncertainty or doubt: dubious about agreeing to go

duke [dju:k] – n. a British peer of the highest rank

duplicate [ˈdju:plikit] – v. make or do or perform again

dust [dʌst] – v. distribute loosely

dwarf [dwɔ:f] – n. a person who is markedly small

dwell [dwel] – v. think moodily or anxiously about something

dwindle [ˈdwindl] – v. become smaller or lose substance: Her savings dwindled down

dynamite [ˈdainəmait] – n. an explosive containing nitrate sensitized with nitroglycerin absorbed on wood pulp

dynamo [ˈdainəməu] – n. generator consisting of a coil (the armature) that rotates between the poles of an electromagnet (the field magnet) causing a current to flow in the armature

dynasty [ˈdainəsti] – n. a sequence of powerful leaders in the same family

ear [iə] – n. attention to what is said: he tried to get her ear

earnings [ˈə:niŋz] – n. the excess of revenues over outlays in a given period of time (including depreciation and other non-cash expenses)

earthenware [ˈə:θənwɛə] – n. ceramic ware made of porous clay fired at low heat

eastward [ˈi:stwəd] – n. the cardinal compass point that is at 90 degrees

ebb [eb] – v. flow back or recede: the tides ebbed at noon

eccentric [ikˈsentrik] – n. a person with an unusual or odd personality

echo [ˈekəu] – n. (Greek mythology) a nymph who was spurned by Narcissus and pined away until only her voice remained

eclipse [iˈklips] – v. be greater in significance than

ecology [i:ˈkɔlədʒi] – n. the environment as it relates to living organisms: it changed the ecology of the island

economically [i:kəˈnɔmikəli] – adv. with respect to the economic system: economically the country is worse off

economics [.i:kəˈnɔmiks] – n. the branch of social science that deals with the production and distribution and consumption of goods and services and their management

ecstasy [ˈekstəsi] – n. a state of being carried away by overwhelming emotion

edible [ˈedibl] – n. any substance that can be used as food

edit [ˈedit] – v. prepare for publication or presentation by correcting, revising, or adapting: she edited the letters of the politician so as to omit the most personal passages

editorial [.ediˈtɔ:riəl] – adj. of or relating to an article stating opinions or giving perspectives: editorial column

ego [ˈi:gəu] – n. an inflated feeling of pride in your superiority to others

Egyptian [iˈdʒipʃ(ə)n] – n. the ancient and now extinct language of Egypt under the Pharaohs; written records date back to 3000 BC

eject [iˈdʒekt] – v. put out or expel from a place

elapse [iˈlæps] – v. pass by: three years elapsed

elbow [ˈelbəu] – n. hinge joint between the forearm and upper arm and the corresponding joint in the forelimb of a quadruped

elderly [ˈeldəli] – n. people who are old collectively

electorate [iˈlektərit] – n. the body of enfranchised citizens; those qualified to vote

electrician [ilekˈtriʃən] – n. a person who installs or repairs electrical or telephone lines

electrode  – n. a conductor used to make electrical contact with some part of a circuit

electronics [ilekˈtrɔniks] – n. the branch of physics that deals with the emission and effects of electrons and with the use of electronic devices

elegant [ˈeligənt] – adj. refined and tasteful in appearance or behavior or style: elegant handwriting

elemental [.eliˈmentl] – adj. relating to severe atmospheric conditions: a race against hail or cold rains or some other elemental catastrophe

elevate [ˈeliveit] – v. give a promotion to or assign to a higher position

elevation [.eliˈveiʃən] – n. the event of something being raised upward: an elevation of the temperature in the afternoon

elicit [iˈlisit] – v. deduce (a principle) or construe (a meaning)

eligible [ˈelidʒəbl] – adj. qualified for or allowed or worthy of being chosen: eligible to run for office

elite [eiˈli:t] – n. a group or class of persons enjoying superior intellectual or social or economic status

elliptical [iˈliptikəl] – adj. rounded like an egg

eloquence [ˈeləkwəns] – n. powerful and effective language: his eloquence attracted a large congregation

eloquent [ˈeləkwənt] – adj. expressing yourself readily, clearly, effectively

embargo [emˈbɑ:gəu] – v. ban the publication of (documents), as for security or copyright reasons: embargoed publications

embark [imˈbɑ:k] – v. go on board

embarrass [imˈbærəs] – v. hinder or prevent the progress or accomplishment of

embassy [ˈembəsi] – n. a diplomatic building where ambassadors live or work

embed [imˈbed] – v. fix or set securely or deeply

embody [imˈbɔdi] – v. represent in bodily form

embrace [imˈbreis] – n. the act of clasping another person in the arms (as in greeting or affection)

embroidery [imˈbrɔidəri] – n. elaboration of an interpretation by the use of decorative (sometimes fictitious) detail

embryo [ˈembriəu] – n. (botany) a minute rudimentary plant contained within a seed or an archegonium

emerge [iˈmə:dʒ] – v. come out into view, as from concealment: Suddenly, the proprietor emerged from his office

emigrate [ˈemigreit] – v. leave one’s country of residence for a new one: Many people had to emigrate during the Nazi period

eminent [ˈeminənt] – adj. standing above others in quality or position: eminent members of the community

emission [iˈmiʃən] – n. the act of emitting; causing to flow forth

emphatic [imˈfætik] – adj. sudden and strong: an emphatic no

empirical [emˈpirikəl] – adj. derived from experiment and observation rather than theory: an empirical basis for an ethical theory

emulate [ˈemjuleit] – v. strive to equal or match, especially by imitating

enact [iˈnækt] – v. order by virtue of superior authority; decree: the legislature enacted this law in 1985

enamel [iˈnæm(ə)l] – n. hard white substance covering the crown of a tooth

enchant [inˈtʃɑ:nt] – v. hold spellbound

enclosure [inˈkləuʒə] – n. the act of enclosing something inside something else

encyclopedia [en.saikləuˈpi:diə] – n. a reference work (often in several volumes) containing articles on various topics (often arranged in alphabetical order) dealing with the entire range of human knowledge or with some particular specialty

end [end] – n. either extremity of something that has length: the end of the pier

endanger [inˈdeindʒə] – v. pose a threat to; present a danger to: The pollution is endangering the crops

endeavor [inˈdevə] – n. a purposeful or industrious undertaking (especially one that requires effort or boldness)

endeavour  – n. a purposeful or industrious undertaking (especially one that requires effort or boldness)

endow [inˈdau] – v. give qualities or abilities to

endurance [inˈdjuərəns] – n. the power to withstand hardship or stress: the marathon tests a runner’s endurance

energetic [.enəˈdʒetik] – adj. working hard to promote an enterprise

energize [ˈenədʒaiz] – v. raise to a higher energy level

engage [inˈgeidʒ] – v. carry out or participate in an activity; be involved in: They engaged in a discussion

engagement [inˈgeidʒmənt] – n. a hostile meeting of opposing military forces in the course of a war: he lost his romantic ideas about war when he got into a real engagement

engrave [inˈgreiv] – v. carve, cut, or etch into a material or surface: engrave a pen

enhance [inˈhɑ:ns] – v. increase: This will enhance your enjoyment

enlighten [inˈlaitn] – v. make understand: Can you enlighten me–I don’t understand this proposal

enlist [inˈlist] – v. join the military

enrich [inˈritʃ] – v. make better or improve in quality: The experience enriched her understanding

enrol  – v. register formally as a participant or member

enroll [inˈroul] – v. register formally as a participant or member

ensemble [ɑ:nˈsɑ:mbəl] – n. a group of musicians playing or singing together: a string ensemble

ensue [inˈsju:] – v. issue or terminate (in a specified way, state, etc.); end

entail [inˈteil] – v. have as a logical consequence

enterprise [ˈentəpraiz] – n. a purposeful or industrious undertaking (especially one that requires effort or boldness): he had doubts about the whole enterprise

entertainment [.entəˈteinmənt] – n. an activity that is diverting and that holds the attention

enthusiastic [in.θju:ziˈæstik] – adj. having or showing great excitement and interest: enthusiastic crowds filled the streets

entitle [inˈtaitl] – v. give the right to: The Freedom of Information Act entitles you to request your FBI file

entity [ˈentiti] – n. that which is perceived or known or inferred to have its own distinct existence (living or nonliving)

entreat [inˈtri:t] – v. ask for or request earnestly

entrepreneur [.ɔntrəprəˈnə:] – n. someone who organizes a business venture and assumes the risk for it

entry [ˈentri] – n. an item inserted in a written record

environmental [in.vaiərənˈmentl] – adj. of or relating to the external conditions or surroundings: environmental factors

envisage [inˈvizidʒ] – v. form a mental image of something that is not present or that is not the case

epic [ˈepik] – adj. very imposing or impressive; surpassing the ordinary (especially in size or scale): an epic voyage

epidemic [.epiˈdemik] – n. a widespread outbreak of an infectious disease; many people are infected at the same time

episode [ˈepisəud] – n. a happening that is distinctive in a series of related events

epoch [ˈi:pɔk] – n. a period marked by distinctive character or reckoned from a fixed point or event

equation [iˈkweiʃən] – n. a state of being essentially equal or equivalent; equally balanced

equator [iˈkweitə] – n. an imaginary line around the Earth forming the great circle that is equidistant from the north and south poles: the equator is the boundary between the northern and southern hemispheres

equilibrium [.i:kwiˈlibriəm] – n. a stable situation in which forces cancel one another

equity [ˈekwiti] – n. the difference between the market value of a property and the claims held against it

equivalent [iˈkwivələnt] – n. a person or thing equal to another in value or measure or force or effect or significance etc: send two dollars or the equivalent in stamps

erase [iˈreiz] – v. remove from memory or existence: The Turks erased the Armenians in 1915

erect [iˈrekt] – v. cause to rise up

erosion [iˈrəuʒən] – n. (geology) the mechanical process of wearing or grinding something down (as by particles washing over it)

err [ə:] – v. to make a mistake or be incorrect

errand [ˈerənd] – n. a short trip that is taken in the performance of a necessary task or mission

erroneous [iˈrəuniəs] – adj. containing or characterized by error: erroneous conclusions

erupt [iˈrʌpt] – v. start abruptly

escalate [ˈeskəleit] – v. increase in extent or intensity: The Allies escalated the bombing

escort [ˈeskɔ:t] – n. the act of accompanying someone or something in order to protect them

espionage [ˈespiənɑ:ʒ] – n. the systematic use of spies to get military or political secrets

essence [ˈesns] – n. the choicest or most essential or most vital part of some idea or experience

essential [iˈsenʃəl] – adj. absolutely necessary; vitally necessary: essential tools and materials

establish [iˈstæbliʃ] – v. set up or found

estate [isˈteit] – n. everything you own; all of your assets (whether real property or personal property) and liabilities

esteem [isˈti:m] – n. a feeling of delighted approval and liking

esthetic [i:sˈθetik] – adj. concerning or characterized by an appreciation of beauty or good taste: the aesthetic faculties

eternal [iˈtə:nəl] – adj. continuing forever or indefinitely: eternal truths

ethic [ˈeθik] – n. the principles of right and wrong that are accepted by an individual or a social group: the Puritan ethic

ethics [ˈeθiks] – n. motivation based on ideas of right and wrong

ethnic [ˈeθnik] – adj. denoting or deriving from or distinctive of the ways of living built up by a group of people: influenced by ethnic and cultural ties

etiquette [ˈetiket] – n. rules governing socially acceptable behavior

evacuate [iˈvækjueit] – v. move out of an unsafe location into safety: After the earthquake, residents were evacuated

evade [iˈveid] – v. avoid or try to avoid fulfilling, answering, or performing (duties, questions, or issues): They tend to evade their responsibilities

evaporate [iˈvæpəreit] – v. lose or cause to lose liquid by vaporization leaving a more concentrated residue: evaporate milk

even [ˈi:vən] – adj. divisible by two

evenly [ˈi:vənli] – adv. in equal amounts or shares; in a balanced or impartial way: a class evenly divided between girls and boys

evergreen [ˈevəgri:n] – n. a plant having foliage that persists and remains green throughout the year

everlasting [.evəˈlɑ:stiŋ] – adj. continuing forever or indefinitely: life everlasting

evil [ˈi:vl] – n. morally objectionable behavior

evoke [iˈvəuk] – v. call forth (emotions, feelings, and responses): evoke sympathy

evolution [.i:vəˈlu:ʃən] – n. a process in which something passes by degrees to a different stage (especially a more advanced or mature stage): the evolution of Greek civilization

excel [ikˈsel] – v. distinguish oneself: She excelled in math

except [ikˈsept] – v. prevent from being included or considered or accepted

exceptional [ikˈsepʃənl] – adj. far beyond what is usual in magnitude or degree: an exceptional memory

excerpt [ˈeksə:pt,ekˈsə:pt] – n. a passage selected from a larger work: he presented excerpts from William James’ philosophical writings

excess [ikˈses] – n. a quantity much larger than is needed

excessively  – adv. to a degree exceeding normal or proper limits

exclamation [.ekskləˈmeiʃən] – n. an abrupt excited utterance: she gave an exclamation of delight

exclusive [iksˈklu:siv] – adj. not divided or shared with others: they have exclusive use of the machine

excursion [iksˈkə:ʃən] – n. a journey taken for pleasure: many summer excursions to the shore

excuse [iksˈkju:z] – v. grant exemption or release to: Please excuse me from this class

execution [.eksiˈkju:ʃən] – n. putting a condemned person to death

executive [igˈzekjutiv] – n. a person responsible for the administration of a business

exemplify [igˈzemplifai] – v. be characteristic of

exempt [igˈzempt] – adj. (of goods or funds) not subject to taxation: income exempt from taxation

exert [igˈzə:t] – v. put to use: exert one’s power or influence

exile [ˈeksail] – n. a person who is voluntarily absent from home or country

exotic [egˈzɔtik] – adj. being or from or characteristic of another place or part of the world: exotic plants in a greenhouse

expect [iksˈpekt] – v. regard something as probable or likely: The meteorologists are expecting rain for tomorrow

expedition [.ekspiˈdiʃən] – n. a military campaign designed to achieve a specific objective in a foreign country

expel [iksˈpel] – v. force to leave or move out: He was expelled from his native country

expend [iksˈpend] – v. use up, consume fully: The legislature expended its time on school questions

expenditure [iksˈpenditʃə] – n. money paid out; an amount spent

experimentally  – adv. in an experimental fashion: this can be experimentally determined

experimentation [eks.perimenˈteiʃən] – n. the testing of an idea: not all experimentation is done in laboratories

expertise [.ekspə:ˈti:z] – n. skillfulness by virtue of possessing special knowledge

expire [iksˈpaiə] – v. lose validity: My passports expired last month

explicit [iksˈplisit] – adj. precisely and clearly expressed or readily observable; leaving nothing to implication: explicit instructions

exploration [.eksplɔ:ˈreiʃən] – n. to travel for the purpose of discovery

exponent [ikˈspəunənt] – n. a person who pleads for a cause or propounds an idea

exposition [.ekspəˈziʃən] – n. a systematic interpretation or explanation (usually written) of a specific topic

exquisite [ˈekskwizit] – adj. intense or sharp: suffered exquisite pain

extinct [iksˈtiŋkt] – adj. no longer in existence; lost or especially having died out leaving no living representatives: an extinct species of fish

extinguish [iksˈtiŋgwiʃ] – v. put an end to; kill

extra [ˈekstrə] – n. a minor actor in crowd scenes

extract [ˈekstrækt,iksˈtrækt] – v. remove, usually with some force or effort; also used in an abstract sense: extract a bad tooth

extraction [iksˈtrækʃən] – n. the process of obtaining something from a mixture or compound by chemical or physical or mechanical means

extraordinarily  – adv. extremely: it will be an extraordinarily painful step to negotiate

extravagant [iksˈtrævəgənt] – adj. unrestrained, especially with regard to feelings: extravagant praise

extreme [iksˈtri:m] – adj. of the greatest possible degree or extent or intensity: extreme cold

eyebrow [ˈaibrau] – n. the arch of hair above each eye

fabricate [ˈfæbrikeit] – v. put together out of artificial or natural components or parts: the company fabricates plastic chairs

fabrication [.fæbriˈkeiʃən] – n. a deliberately false or improbable account

fabulous [ˈfæbjuləs] – adj. extremely pleasing: a fabulous vacation

facet [ˈfæsit] – n. a distinct feature or element in a problem: he studied every facet of the question

facilitate [fəˈsiliteit] – v. make easier: you could facilitate the process by sharing your knowledge

faction [ˈfækʃən] – n. a clique (often secret) that seeks power usually through intrigue

factual [ˈfæktjuəl] – adj. of or relating to or characterized by facts: factual considerations

fair [fɛə] – adj. free from favoritism or self-interest or bias or deception; conforming with established standards or rules: a fair referee

fake [feik] – n. something that is a counterfeit; not what it seems to be

fall [fɔ:l] – v. move downward and lower, but not necessarily all the way: The barometer is falling

falter [ˈfɔ:ltə] – v. be unsure or weak: Their enthusiasm is faltering

fanatic [fəˈnætik] – n. a person motivated by irrational enthusiasm (as for a cause): A fanatic is one who can’t change his mind and won’t change the subject

fantastic [fænˈtæstik] – adj. ludicrously odd: fantastic Halloween costumes

fantasy [ˈfæntəsi] – n. imagination unrestricted by reality: a schoolgirl fantasy

fascinate [ˈfæsineit] – v. cause to be interested or curious

fastener  – n. restraint that attaches to something or holds something in place

faultless [ˈfɔ:ltlis] – adj. without fault or error: faultless logic

fax [fæks] – n. duplicator that transmits the copy by wire or radio

fearless [ˈfiəlis] – adj. oblivious of dangers or perils or calmly resolute in facing them

feast [fi:st] – n. a ceremonial dinner party for many people

feat [fi:t] – n. a notable achievement: he performed a great feat

federation [.fedəˈreiʃən] – n. an organization formed by merging several groups or parties

feeble [fi:bl] – adj. pathetically lacking in force or effectiveness: a feeble excuse

feel [fi:l] – v. undergo an emotional sensation or be in a particular state of mind

fell [fel] – n. the dressed skin of an animal (especially a large animal)

fellowship [ˈfeləuʃip] – n. an association of people who share common beliefs or activities: the church welcomed new members into its fellowship

feminine [ˈfeminin] – adj. associated with women and not with men: feminine intuition

feminist [ˈfeminist] – n. a supporter of feminism

fence [fens] – v. receive stolen goods

fencing [ˈfensiŋ] – n. a barrier that serves to enclose an area

fend [fend] – v. try to manage without help: The youngsters had to fend for themselves after their parents died

ferocious [fəˈrəuʃəs] – adj. marked by extreme and violent energy: a ferocious beating

ferrous [ˈferəs] – adj. of or relating to or containing iron

ferry [ˈferi] – v. transport from one place to another

fertile [ˈfə:tail] – adj. capable of reproducing

fiddle [ˈfidl] – v. avoid (one’s assigned duties)

fidelity [fiˈdeliti] – n. accuracy with which an electronic system reproduces the sound or image of its input signal

fiery [ˈfaiəri] – adj. characterized by intense emotion: fiery oratory

fighter [ˈfaitə] – n. a high-speed military or naval airplane designed to destroy enemy aircraft in the air

filament [ˈfiləmənt] – n. a very slender natural or synthetic fiber

fill [fil] – v. make full, also in a metaphorical sense: fill a container

filter [ˈfiltə] – v. pass through

filth [filθ] – n. any substance considered disgustingly foul or unpleasant

fin [fin] – n. the cardinal number that is the sum of four and one

finance [faiˈnæns] – n. the commercial activity of providing funds and capital

finely  – adv. in tiny pieces: the surfaces were finely granular

finite [ˈfainait] – adj. bounded or limited in magnitude or spatial or temporal extent

fireplace [ˈfaiəpleis] – n. an open recess in a wall at the base of a chimney where a fire can be built: the fireplace was so large you could walk inside it

firework [ˈfaiəwə:k] – n. (usually plural) a device with an explosive that burns at a low rate and with colored flames; can be used to illuminate areas or send signals etc.

firmness [ˈfɜ:mnis] – n. the muscle tone of healthy tissue: his muscular firmness

first-rate  – adj. of the highest quality: a first-rate golfer

fiscal [ˈfiskəl] – adj. involving financial matters: fiscal responsibility

fission [ˈfiʃən] – n. reproduction of some unicellular organisms by division of the cell into two more or less equal parts

fist [fist] – n. a hand with the fingers clenched in the palm (as for hitting)

fitness [ˈfitnis] – n. the quality of being suitable: they had to prove their fitness for the position

fitting [ˈfitiŋ] – n. making or becoming suitable; adjusting to circumstances

fixture [ˈfikstʃə] – n. an object firmly fixed in place (especially in a household)

flake [fleik] – n. a crystal of snow

flame [fleim] – v. shine with a sudden light

flank [flæŋk] – n. the side of military or naval formation: they attacked the enemy’s right flank

flannel [ˈflænl] – n. a soft light woolen fabric; used for clothing

flap [flæp] – v. move in a wavy pattern or with a rising and falling motion

flare [flɛə] – n. a shape that spreads outward: the skirt had a wide flare

flask [flɑ:sk] – n. bottle that has a narrow neck

flatten [ˈflætn] – v. become flat or flatter: The landscape flattened

flatter [ˈflætə] – v. praise somewhat dishonestly

flavour  – n. the general atmosphere of a place or situation and the effect that it has on people

flaw [flɔ:] – n. an imperfection in an object or machine: a flaw caused the crystal to shatter

flee [fli:] – v. run away quickly

flexible [ˈfleksəbl] – adj. capable of being changed: flexible schedules

flick [flik] – v. flash intermittently: The lights flicked on and off

flicker [ˈflikə] – n. a momentary flash of light

flight [flait] – n. an instance of traveling by air

fling [fliŋ] – v. throw with force or recklessness: fling the frisbee

flip [flip] – v. lightly throw to see which side comes up: I don’t know what to do–I may as well flip a coin!

flirt [flə:t] – n. a seductive woman who uses her sex appeal to exploit men

flit [flit] – n. a sudden quick movement

float [fləut] – v. be in motion due to some air or water current

flock [flɔk] – n. a church congregation guided by a pastor

floral [ˈflɔ:rəl] – adj. relating to or associated with flowers: floral organs

flu [flu:] – n. an acute febrile highly contagious viral disease

fluctuate [ˈflʌktjueit] – v. move or sway in a rising and falling or wavelike pattern

fluctuation [.flʌktjuˈeiʃən] – n. a wave motion: the fluctuations of the sea

fluorescent [fluəˈresənt] – adj. emitting light during exposure to radiation from an external source

flush [flʌʃ] – n. the period of greatest prosperity or productivity

flute [flu:t] – n. a tall narrow wineglass

flutter [ˈflʌtə] – v. move along rapidly and lightly; skim or dart

flux [flʌks] – n. a flow or discharge

fly [flai] – v. travel through the air; be airborne: Man cannot fly

foam [fəum] – n. a lightweight material in cellular form; made by introducing gas bubbles during manufacture

foe [fəu] – n. a personal enemy: they had been political foes for years

foil [fɔil] – n. a piece of thin and flexible sheet metal: the photographic film was wrapped in foil

foliage [ˈfəuliidʒ] – n. the main organ of photosynthesis and transpiration in higher plants

follow [ˈfɔləu] – v. to travel behind, go after, come after: The ducklings followed their mother around the pond

follower [ˈfɔləuə] – n. a person who accepts the leadership of another

footpath [ˈfʊtpɑ:θ] – n. a trodden path

ford [fɔ:d] – n. United States film maker (1896-1973)

fore [fɔ:] – n. front part of a vessel or aircraft

foreground [ˈfɔ:graund] – n. the part of a scene that is near the viewer

foreign [ˈfɔrin] – adj. of concern to or concerning the affairs of other nations (other than your own): foreign trade

foremost [ˈfɔ:məust] – adj. ranking above all others: the foremost figure among marine artists

forerunner [ˈfɔ:.rʌnə] – n. a person who goes before or announces the coming of another

foresee [fɔ:ˈsi:] – v. picture to oneself; imagine possible

forfeit [ˈfɔ:fit] – n. something that is lost or surrendered as a penalty

forge [fɔ:dʒ] – v. create by hammering: forge a pair of tongues

forgery [ˈfɔ:dʒəri] – n. a copy that is represented as the original

formal [ˈfɔ:məl] – adj. characteristic of or befitting a person in authority: formal duties

format [ˈfɔ:mæt] – v. determine the arrangement of (data) for storage and display (in computer science)

formerly [ˈfɔ:məli] – adv. at a previous time

formidable [ˈfɔ:midəbl] – adj. extremely impressive in strength or excellence: a formidable opponent

formulate [ˈfɔ:mjuleit] – v. elaborate, as of theories and hypotheses

formulation [.fɔ:mjuˈleiʃən] – n. inventing or contriving an idea or explanation and formulating it mentally

forsake [fəˈseik] – v. leave someone who needs or counts on you; leave in the lurch

fort [fɔ:t] – n. a fortified military post where troops are stationed

forthcoming [.fɔ:θˈkʌmiŋ] – adj. at ease in talking to others

forthright [ˈfɔ:θrait] – adj. characterized by directness in manner or speech; without subtlety or evasion: forthright criticism

fortify [ˈfɔ:tifai] – v. make strong or stronger

fortress [ˈfɔ:tris] – n. a fortified defensive structure

forum [ˈfɔ:rəm] – n. a public facility to meet for open discussion

forward [ˈfɔ:wəd] – adv. at or to or toward the front: he faced forward

fossil [ˈfɔsl] – n. someone whose style is out of fashion

foster [ˈfɔstə] – v. promote the growth of

foul [faul] – adj. highly offensive; arousing aversion or disgust

fowl [faul] – v. hunt fowl

fraction [ˈfrækʃən] – n. a small part or item forming a piece of a whole

fracture [ˈfræktʃə] – v. violate or abuse: This writer really fractures the language

fragile [ˈfrædʒail] – adj. easily broken or damaged or destroyed: fragile porcelain plates

fragrance [ˈfreigrəns] – n. a distinctive odor that is pleasant

fragrant [ˈfreigrənt] – adj. pleasant-smelling

frail [freil] – adj. physically weak: an invalid’s frail body

framework [ˈfreimwə:k] – n. a hypothetical description of a complex entity or process

frantic [ˈfræntik] – adj. excessively agitated; distraught with fear or other violent emotion: frantic with anger and frustration

fraternity [frəˈtə:niti] – n. a social club for male undergraduates

fraud [frɔ:d] – n. intentional deception resulting in injury to another person

freelance [ˈfri:lɑ:ns] – adj. working for yourself

freight [freit] – n. goods carried by a large vehicle

frenzy [ˈfrenzi] – n. state of violent mental agitation

frequency [ˈfri:kwənsi] – n. the number of occurrences within a given time period: the frequency of modulation was 40 cycles per second

frequent [ˈfri:kwənt] – v. do one’s shopping at; do business with; be a customer or client of

freshen [ˈfreʃn] – v. become or make oneself fresh again: She freshened up after the tennis game

fret [fret] – v. worry unnecessarily or excessively

friction [ˈfrikʃən] – n. a state of conflict between persons

fright [frait] – v. cause fear in: The stranger who hangs around the building frightens me

frightful [ˈfraitful] – adj. provoking horror: a frightful crime of decapitation

fringe [frindʒ] – n. the outside boundary or surface of something

frock [frɔk] – n. a habit worn by clerics

frustrate [frʌsˈtreit] – v. hinder or prevent (the efforts, plans, or desires) of: What ultimately frustrated every challenger was Ruth’s amazing September surge

fugitive [ˈfju:dʒitiv] – n. someone who flees from an uncongenial situation: fugitives from the sweatshops

fumble [ˈfʌmbl] – v. feel about uncertainly or blindly

fume [fju:m] – v. emit a cloud of fine particles

fungus [ˈfʌŋgəs] – n. an organism of the kingdom Fungi lacking chlorophyll and feeding on organic matter; ranging from unicellular or multicellular organisms to spore-bearing syncytia

furious [ˈfjuəriəs] – adj. marked by extreme and violent energy: a furious battle

further [ˈfə:ðə] – v. promote the growth of

fury [ˈfjuəri] – n. a feeling of intense anger: hell hath no fury like a woman scorned

fuse [fju:z] – v. mix together different elements

fusion [ˈfju:ʒən] – n. an occurrence that involves the production of a union

fuss [fʌs] – n. an excited state of agitation

futile [ˈfju:tail] – adj. producing no result or effect: a futile effort

galaxy [ˈgæləksi] – n. a splendid assemblage (especially of famous people)

gallant [ˈgælənt] – adj. unflinching in battle or action: a gallant warrior

gallery [ˈgæləri] – n. spectators at a golf or tennis match

gallop [ˈgæləp] – n. a fast gait of a horse; a two-beat stride during which all four legs are off the ground simultaneously

gamble [ˈgæmbl] – n. money that is risked for possible monetary gain

gangster [ˈgæŋstə] – n. a criminal who is a member of gang

gaol  – v. lock up or confine, in or as in a jail

gap [gæp] – n. a conspicuous disparity or difference as between two figures: gap between income and outgo

garage [ˈgærɑ:ʒ] – n. an outbuilding (or part of a building) for housing automobiles

garbage [ˈgɑ:bidʒ] – n. food that is discarded (as from a kitchen)

garlic [ˈgɑ:lik] – n. bulbous herb of southern Europe widely naturalized; bulb breaks up into separate strong-flavored cloves

garment [ˈgɑ:mənt] – n. an article of clothing: garments of the finest silk

garrison [ˈgærisn] – n. a fortified military post where troops are stationed

gash [gæʃ] – n. a wound made by cutting

gasp [gɑ:sp] – n. a short labored intake of breath with the mouth open: she gave a gasp and fainted

gather [ˈgæðə] – v. assemble or get together: gather some stones

gauge [geidʒ] – v. judge tentatively or form an estimate of (quantities or time)

gear [giə] – n. a toothed wheel that engages another toothed mechanism in order to change the speed or direction of transmitted motion

gender [ˈdʒendə] – n. the properties that distinguish organisms on the basis of their reproductive roles

gene [dʒi:n] – n. (genetics) a segment of DNA that is involved in producing a polypeptide chain; it can include regions preceding and following the coding DNA as well as introns between the exons; it is considered a unit of heredity: genes were formerly called factors

generalise  – v. draw from specific cases for more general cases

generalization [.dʒenərəlaiˈzeiʃən] – n. an idea or conclusion having general application

generalize [ˈdʒenərəlaiz] – v. speak or write in generalities

generate [ˈdʒenəreit] – v. bring into existence: The new manager generated a lot of problems

generosity [.dʒenəˈrɔsiti] – n. the trait of being willing to give your money or time

genetic [dʒiˈnetik] – adj. occurring among members of a family usually by heredity: genetically transmitted features

genre [ʒɑ:ŋr] – n. a kind of literary or artistic work

geographical  – adj. determined by geography

geology [dʒiˈɔlədʒi] – n. a science that deals with the history of the earth as recorded in rocks

geometrical  – adj. characterized by simple geometric forms in design and decoration

germ [dʒə:m] – n. anything that provides inspiration for later work

gesture [ˈdʒestʃə] – n. motion of hands or body to emphasize or help to express a thought or feeling

gigantic [dʒaiˈgæntik] – adj. so exceedingly large or extensive as to suggest a giant or mammoth: a gigantic redwood

giggle [ˈgigl] – n. a foolish or nervous laugh

ginger [ˈdʒindʒə] – n. perennial plants having thick branching aromatic rhizomes and leafy reedlike stems

given [ˈgiv(ə)n] – adj. acknowledged as a supposition: given the engine’s condition, it is a wonder that it started

glacier [ˈglæsiə] – n. a slowly moving mass of ice

glamor  – n. alluring beauty or charm (often with sex-appeal)

glamour [ˈglæmə] – n. alluring beauty or charm (often with sex-appeal)

gland [glænd] – n. any of various organs that synthesize substances needed by the body and release it through ducts or directly into the bloodstream

glare [glɛə] – n. a light within the field of vision that is brighter than the brightness to which the eyes are adapted: a glare of sunlight

glaze [gleiz] – v. become glassy or take on a glass-like appearance: Her eyes glaze over when she is bored

gleam [gli:m] – v. be shiny, as if wet

glide [glaid] – n. a vowellike sound that serves as a consonant

glider [ˈglaidə] – n. aircraft supported only by the dynamic action of air against its surfaces

glisten [glisn] – n. the quality of shining with a bright reflected light

glitter [ˈglitə] – n. the quality of shining with a bright reflected light

global [ˈgləubəl] – adj. involving the entire earth; not limited or provincial in scope: global war

gloom [glu:m] – n. a state of partial or total darkness: he struck a match to dispel the gloom

gloomy [ˈglu:mi] – adj. depressingly dark: the gloomy forest

glorify [ˈglɔ:rifai] – v. bestow glory upon

glossary [ˈglɔsəri] – n. an alphabetical list of technical terms in some specialized field of knowledge; usually published as an appendix to a text on that field

glue [glu:] – n. cement consisting of a sticky substance that is used as an adhesive

gnaw [nɔ:] – v. bite or chew on with the teeth: gnaw an old cracker

goddess [ˈgɔdis] – n. a female deity

goodness [ˈgudnis] – n. that which is pleasing or valuable or useful

gorgeous [ˈgɔ:dʒəs] – adj. dazzlingly beautiful: a gorgeous Victorian gown

gorilla [gəˈrilə] – n. largest anthropoid ape; terrestrial and vegetarian; of forests of central west Africa

gospel [ˈgɔspəl] – n. the four books in the New Testament (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John) that tell the story of Christ’s life and teachings

gossip [ˈgɔsip] – n. light informal conversation for social occasions

govern [ˈgʌvən] – v. bring into conformity with rules or principles or usage; impose regulations

gown [gaun] – n. a woman’s dress, usually with a close-fitting bodice and a long flared skirt, often worn on formal occasions

grab [græb] – v. take hold of so as to seize or restrain or stop the motion of

gracious [ˈgreiʃəs] – adj. characterized by charm, good taste, and generosity of spirit: gracious even to unexpected visitors

gradient [ˈgreidiənt] – n. the property possessed by a line or surface that departs from the horizontal: a five-degree gradient

graft [grɑ:ft] – n. the practice of offering something (usually money) in order to gain an illicit advantage

gramophone [ˈgræməfəun] – n. an antique record player; the sound of the vibrating needle is amplified acoustically

grandeur [ˈgrændʒə] – n. the quality of elevation of mind and exaltation of character or ideals or conduct

granite [ˈgrænit] – n. plutonic igneous rock having visibly crystalline texture; generally composed of feldspar and mica and quartz

grant [grɑ:nt] – n. any monetary aid

graphic [ˈgræfik] – adj. written or drawn or engraved: graphic symbols

graphite [ˈgræfait] – n. used as a lubricant and as a moderator in nuclear reactors

grasshopper [ˈgrɑ:shɔpər] – n. terrestrial plant-eating insect with hind legs adapted for leaping

grassy  – adj. abounding in grass

grateful [ˈgreitfəl] – adj. affording comfort or pleasure: the grateful warmth of the fire

gravel [ˈgrævəl] – v. cause annoyance in; disturb, especially by minor irritations

gravy [ˈgreivi] – n. a sauce made by adding stock, flour, or other ingredients to the juice and fat that drips from cooking meats

graze [greiz] – v. feed as in a meadow or pasture

grease [gri:s] – n. a thick fatty oil (especially one used to lubricate machinery)

greed [gri:d] – n. excessive desire to acquire or possess more (especially more material wealth) than one needs or deserves

grief [gri:f] – n. intense sorrow caused by loss of a loved one (especially by death)

grieve [gri:v] – v. cause to feel sorrow: his behavior grieves his mother

grill [gril] – n. a framework of metal bars used as a partition or a grate: he cooked hamburgers on the grill

grim [grim] – adj. not to be placated or appeased or moved by entreaty: grim determination

grin [grin] – n. a facial expression characterized by turning up the corners of the mouth; usually shows pleasure or amusement

grind [graind] – v. work hard

groan [grəun] – n. an utterance expressing pain or disapproval

groom [gru:m] – n. a man participant in his own marriage ceremony

groove [gru:v] – n. a settled and monotonous routine that is hard to escape

grope [grəup] – v. feel about uncertainly or blindly: She groped for her glasses in the darkness of the bedroom

gross [grəus] – adj. before any deductions: gross income

grotesque [grəuˈtesk] – adj. distorted and unnatural in shape or size; abnormal and hideous: tales of grotesque serpents eight fathoms long that churned the seas

grove [grəuv] – n. garden consisting of a small cultivated wood without undergrowth

growl [graul] – v. to utter or emit low dull rumbling sounds

grudge [grʌdʒ] – v. accept or admit unwillingly

grumble [ˈgrʌmbl] – v. show one’s unhappiness or critical attitude: We grumbled about the increased work load

grunt [grʌnt] – n. an unskilled or low-ranking soldier or other worker: infantrymen in Vietnam were called grunts

guardian [ˈgɑ:djən] – n. a person who cares for persons or property

guerrilla [gəˈrilə] – n. a member of an irregular armed force that fights a stronger force by sabotage and harassment

guideline [ˈgaidlain] – n. a light line that is used in lettering to help align the letters

guild [gild] – n. a formal association of people with similar interests

guilt [gilt] – n. the state of having committed an offense

guitar [giˈtɑ:] – n. a stringed instrument usually having six strings; played by strumming or plucking

gulp [gʌlp] – n. a large and hurried swallow: he finished it at a single gulp

gush [gʌʃ] – v. praise enthusiastically

gust [gʌst] – n. a strong current of air: the tree was bent almost double by the gust

gut [gʌt] – n. the part of the alimentary canal between the stomach and the anus

gutter [ˈgʌtə] – n. a channel along the eaves or on the roof; collects and carries away rainwater

guy [gai] – n. an informal term for a youth or man: a nice guy

habitat [ˈhæbitæt] – n. the type of environment in which an organism or group normally lives or occurs: a marine habitat

hack [hæk] – n. a politician who belongs to a small clique that controls a political party for private rather than public ends

hail [heil] – v. praise vociferously: The critics hailed the young pianist as a new Rubinstein

halve [hɑ:v] – v. divide by two; divide into halves

ham [hæm] – n. meat cut from the thigh of a hog (usually smoked)

hamburger [ˈhæmbə:gə] – n. a sandwich consisting of a fried cake of minced beef served on a bun, often with other ingredients

hamper [ˈhæmpə] – n. a restraint that confines or restricts freedom (especially something used to tie down or restrain a prisoner)

handbook [ˈhændbuk] – n. a concise reference book providing specific information about a subject or location

handicap [ˈhændikæp] – n. the condition of being unable to perform as a consequence of physical or mental unfitness

handout [ˈhændaut] – n. an announcement distributed to members of the press in order to supplement or replace an oral presentation

handy [ˈhændi] – adj. easy to reach: found a handy spot for the can opener

harassment [ˈhærəsmənt] – n. a feeling of intense annoyance caused by being tormented: so great was his harassment that he wanted to destroy his tormentors

harbour  – v. secretly shelter (as of fugitives or criminals)

hard [hɑ:d] – adj. not easy; requiring great physical or mental effort to accomplish or comprehend or endure: why is it so hard for you to keep a secret?

hardy [ˈhɑ:di] – adj. able to survive under unfavorable weather conditions: strawberries are hardy and easy to grow

harmonious [hɑ:ˈməunjəs] – adj. musically pleasing

harp [hɑ:p] – n. a pair of curved vertical supports for a lampshade

harsh [hɑ:ʃ] – adj. unpleasantly stern: wild and harsh country full of hot sand and cactus

hasty [ˈheisti] – adj. excessively quick: made a hasty exit

hatch [hætʃ] – v. emerge from the eggs: young birds, fish, and reptiles hatch

haughty [ˈhɔ:ti] – adj. having or showing arrogant superiority to and disdain of those one views as unworthy: haughty aristocrats

haul [hɔ:l] – n. the quantity that was caught

haunt [hɔ:nt] – v. follow stealthily or recur constantly and spontaneously to: the ghost of her mother haunted her

haven [ˈheivən] – n. a shelter serving as a place of safety or sanctuary

havoc [ˈhævək] – n. violent and needless disturbance

hawk [hɔ:k] – n. an advocate of an aggressive policy on foreign relations

hazard [ˈhæzəd] – n. a source of danger; a possibility of incurring loss or misfortune: drinking alcohol is a health hazard

haze [heiz] – n. confusion characterized by lack of clarity

head [hed] – n. a single domestic animal: 200 head of cattle

heading [ˈhediŋ] – n. a line of text serving to indicate what the passage below it is about: the heading seemed to have little to do with the text

headlong [ˈhedlɔŋ] – adj. excessively quick: a headlong rush to sell

headquarters [ˈhedˈkwɔ:təz] – n. (usually plural) the office that serves as the administrative center of an enterprise: many companies have their headquarters in New York

heal [hi:l] – v. provide a cure for, make healthy again: The quack pretended to heal patients but never managed to

hearth [hɑ:θ] – n. an open recess in a wall at the base of a chimney where a fire can be built: he laid a fire in the hearth and lit it

hearty [ˈhɑ:ti] – adj. providing abundant nourishment: a hearty meal

heater  – n. (baseball) a pitch thrown with maximum velocity

heave [hi:v] – v. utter a sound, as with obvious effort: She heaved a deep sigh when she saw the list of things to do

heaven [ˈhevn] – n. any place of complete bliss and delight and peace

hectare [ˈhektɑ:] – n. (abbreviated `ha’) a unit of surface area equal to 100 ares (or 10,000 square meters)

heighten [ˈhaitn] – v. become more extreme: The tension heightened

heir [ɛə] – n. a person who inherits some title or office

helmet [ˈhelmit] – n. armor plate that protects the head

hem [hem, hm, mm] – n. the edge of a piece of cloth; especially the finished edge that has been doubled under and stitched down: the hem of her dress was stained

hemisphere [ˈhemisfiə] – n. half of the terrestrial globe

henceforth [hensˈfɔ:θ] – adv. from this time forth; from now on: henceforth she will be known as Mrs. Smith

herald [ˈherəld] – v. foreshadow or presage

herb [hə:b] – n. a plant lacking a permanent woody stem; many are flowering garden plants or potherbs; some having medicinal properties; some are pests

herd [hə:d] – n. a group of wild mammals of one species that remain together: antelope or elephants or seals or whales or zebra

hereditary [hiˈreditəri] – adj. inherited or inheritable by established rules (usually legal rules) of descent: hereditary monarchy

heritage [ˈheritidʒ] – n. practices that are handed down from the past by tradition: a heritage of freedom

hermit [ˈhə:mit] – n. one retired from society for religious reasons

heroine [ˈherəuin] – n. the main good female character in a work of fiction

hesitate [ˈheziteit] – v. pause or hold back in uncertainty or unwillingness: Authorities hesitate to quote exact figures

hide [haid] – v. prevent from being seen or discovered: Muslim women hide their faces

hideous [ˈhidiəs] – adj. grossly offensive to decency or morality; causing horror: a hideous pattern of injustice

hierarchy [ˈhaiərɑ:ki] – n. a series of ordered groupings of people or things within a system: put honesty first in her hierarchy of values

highlight [ˈhailait] – n. the most interesting or memorable part: the highlight of the tour was our visit to the Vatican

hijack [ˈhaidʒæk] – v. take arbitrarily or by force

hike [haik] – n. a long walk usually for exercise or pleasure: she enjoys a hike in her spare time

hinder [ˈhində] – v. be a hindrance or obstacle to

hindrance [ˈhindrəns] – n. something immaterial that interferes with or delays action or progress

hinge [hindʒ] – n. a joint that holds two parts together so that one can swing relative to the other

hip [hip] – n. either side of the body below the waist and above the thigh

hiss [his] – v. move with a whooshing sound

historian [hisˈtɔ:riən] – n. a person who is an authority on history and who studies it and writes about it

historic [hisˈtɔ:rik] – adj. belonging to the past; of what is important or famous in the past: historic victories

hit [hit] – v. cause to move by striking: hit a ball

hitch [hitʃ] – n. a period of time spent in military service

hitherto [ˈhiðəˈtu:] – adv. used in negative statement to describe a situation that has existed up to this point or up to the present time

hoard [hɔ:d] – v. save up as for future use

hoarse [hɔ:s] – adj. deep and harsh sounding as if from shouting or illness or emotion: hoarse cries

hockey [ˈhɔki] – n. a game played on an ice rink by two opposing teams of six skaters each who try to knock a flat round puck into the opponents’ goal with angled sticks

hoe [həu] – n. a tool with a flat blade attached at right angles to a long handle

hoist [hɔist] – v. raise or haul up with or as if with mechanical help: hoist the bicycle onto the roof of the car

holder [ˈhəuldə] – n. a person who holds something

hollow [ˈhɔləu] – n. a cavity or space in something: hunger had caused the hollows in their cheeks

homage [ˈhɔmidʒ] – n. respectful deference

homely [ˈhəumli] – adj. lacking in physical beauty or proportion: a homely child

homogeneous [.hɔməˈdʒi:niəs] – adj. all of the same or similar kind or nature: a close-knit homogeneous group

hood [hud] – n. an aggressive and violent young criminal

hoof [hu:f] – n. the foot of an ungulate mammal

hook [huk] – v. rip off; ask an unreasonable price

hop [hɔp] – v. jump lightly

horizon [həˈraizn] – n. the line at which the sky and Earth appear to meet

horn [hɔ:n] – n. a noisemaker (as at parties or games) that makes a loud noise when you blow through it

horrible [ˈhɔrəbl] – adj. provoking horror: war is beyond all words horrible

horrify [ˈhɔrifai] – v. fill with apprehension or alarm; cause to be unpleasantly surprised

hose [həuz] – n. socks and stockings and tights collectively (the British include underwear)

hospitality [.hɔspiˈtæliti] – n. kindness in welcoming guests or strangers

hostage [ˈhɔstidʒ] – n. a prisoner who is held by one party to insure that another party will meet specified terms

hostess [ˈhəustis] – n. a woman innkeeper

hostile [ˈhɔstail] – adj. characterized by enmity or ill will: a hostile nation

hostility [hɔsˈtiliti] – n. a state of deep-seated ill-will

hound [haund] – n. any of several breeds of dog used for hunting typically having large drooping ears

house [haus] – n. a dwelling that serves as living quarters for one or more families: he has a house on Cape Cod

hover [ˈhʌvə] – v. be undecided about something; waver between conflicting positions or courses of action

howl [haul] – v. emit long loud cries: howl with sorrow

huddle [ˈhʌdl] – n. (informal) a quick private conference

hue [hju:] – v. take on color or become colored: In highlights it hued to a dull silver-grey

hug [hʌg] – v. squeeze (someone) tightly in your arms, usually with fondness: He hugged her close to him

hull [hʌl] – n. dry outer covering of a fruit or seed or nut

hum [hʌm] – v. sing with closed lips: She hummed a melody

humanitarian [hju(:).mæniˈtɛəriən] – n. someone devoted to the promotion of human welfare and to social reforms

humanity [hju:ˈmæniti] – n. the quality of being human

humidity [hju:ˈmiditi] – n. wetness in the atmosphere

humiliate [hju:ˈmilieit] – v. cause to feel shame; hurt the pride of: He humiliated his colleague by criticising him in front of the boss

hurdle [ˈhə:dl] – n. a light movable barrier that competitors must leap over in certain races

hurl [hə:l] – v. throw forcefully

hurrah [hʊˈrɑ:] – n. a victory cheer: let’s give the team a big hurrah

hurricane [ˈhʌrikən] – n. a severe tropical cyclone usually with heavy rains and winds moving a 73-136 knots (12 on the Beaufort scale)

hurt [hə:t] – v. be the source of pain

hush [hʌʃ] – v. become quiet or still; fall silent: hush my baby!

hustle [ˈhʌsl] – v. cause to move furtively and hurriedly: The secret service agents hustled the speaker out of the amphitheater

hybrid [ˈhaibrid] – n. a word that is composed of parts from different languages (e.g., `monolingual’ has a Greek prefix and a Latin root)

hydraulic [haiˈdrɔ:lik] – adj. moved or operated or effected by liquid (water or oil): hydraulic erosion

hydrocarbon  – n. an organic compound containing only carbon and hydrogen

hygiene [ˈhaidʒi:n] – n. a condition promoting sanitary practices: personal hygiene

hymn [him] – n. a song of praise (to God or to a saint or to a nation)

hyphen [ˈhaifən] – n. a punctuation mark (-) used between parts of a compound word or between the syllables of a word when the word is divided at the end of a line of text

hypocrisy [hiˈpɔkrəsi] – n. an expression of agreement that is not supported by real conviction

hypothesis [haiˈpɔθisis] – n. a proposal intended to explain certain facts or observations

hysterical [hisˈterikəl] – adj. marked by excessive or uncontrollable emotion: hysterical laughter

ice [ais] – n. water frozen in the solid state: Americans like ice in their drinks

icy [ˈaisi] – adj. devoid of warmth and cordiality; expressive of unfriendliness or disdain: icy stare

idealism [aiˈdiəlizm] – n. impracticality by virtue of thinking of things in their ideal form rather than as they really are

ideally  – adv. in an ideal manner: ideally, this will remove all problems

identical [aiˈdentikəl] – adj. exactly alike; incapable of being perceived as different: rows of identical houses

identification [ai.dentifiˈkeiʃən] – n. evidence of identity; something that identifies a person or thing

identity [aiˈdentiti] – n. the distinct personality of an individual regarded as a persisting entity: you can lose your identity when you join the army

ideology [.aidiˈɔlədʒi] – n. an orientation that characterizes the thinking of a group or nation

idiom [ˈidiəm] – n. a manner of speaking that is natural to native speakers of a language

idiot [ˈidiət] – n. a person of subnormal intelligence

idleness [ˈaidlnis] – n. having no employment

idol [ˈaidl] – n. a material effigy that is worshipped

ignite [igˈnait] – v. cause to start burning; subject to fire or great heat: Great heat can ignite almost any dry matter

ignorance [ˈignərəns] – n. the lack of knowledge or education

illiterate [iˈlitərit] – adj. not able to read or write

illuminate [iˈlju:mineit] – v. make lighter or brighter

illusion [iˈlu:ʒən] – n. an erroneous mental representation

imaginative [iˈmædʒinətiv] – adj. (used of persons or artifacts) marked by independence and creativity in thought or action: an imaginative use of material

imitation [.imiˈteiʃən] – n. something copied or derived from an original

immerse [iˈmə:s] – v. thrust or throw into

immigrate [ˈimigreit] – v. migrate to a new environment: only few plants can immigrate to the island

imminent [ˈiminənt] – adj. close in time; about to occur: in imminent danger

immortal [iˈmɔ:tl] – n. a person (such as an author) of enduring fame: Shakespeare is one of the immortals

immune [iˈmju:n] – adj. secure against: immune from taxation as long as he resided in Bermuda

impair [imˈpɛə] – v. make worse or less effective: His vision was impaired

impart [imˈpɑ:t] – v. transmit (knowledge or skills): impart a new skill to the students

impartial [imˈpɑ:ʃəl] – adj. showing lack of favoritism: the cold neutrality of an impartial judge

impede [imˈpi:d] – v. be a hindrance or obstacle to

imperative [imˈperətiv] – n. a mood that expresses an intention to influence the listener’s behavior

imperial [imˈpiəriəl] – adj. relating to or associated with an empire: imperial colony

impetus [ˈimpitəs] – n. a force that moves something along

implicit [imˈplisit] – adj. being without doubt or reserve: implicit trust

implore [imˈplɔ:] – v. call upon in supplication; entreat

impose [imˈpəuz] – v. compel to behave in a certain way: Social relations impose courtesy

impress [imˈpres] – v. have an emotional or cognitive impact upon: This child impressed me as unusually mature

improper [imˈprɔpə] – adj. not suitable or right or appropriate: slightly improper to dine alone with a married man

impulse [ˈimpʌls] – n. an instinctive motive: profound religious impulses

impurity [imˈpjuəriti] – n. worthless or dangerous material that should be removed

inaccessible [.inækˈsesəbl] – adj. capable of being reached only with great difficulty or not at all

inaccurate [inˈækjurit] – adj. not exact: an inaccurate translation

inadequate [inˈædikwit] – adj. lacking the requisite qualities or resources to meet a task: inadequate training

inaugurate [iˈnɔ:gjureit] – v. commence officially

incapable [inˈkeipəbl] – adj. (followed by `of’) lacking capacity or ability: incapable of carrying a tune

incense [inˈsens] – n. a substance that produces a fragrant odor when burned

incentive [inˈsentiv] – n. a positive motivational influence

incessant [inˈsesnt] – adj. uninterrupted in time and indefinitely long continuing: night and day we live with the incessant noise of the city

incidence [ˈinsidəns] – n. the relative frequency of occurrence of something

incidentally [.insiˈdentəli] – adv. introducing a different topic; in point of fact: incidentally, I won’t go to the party

incite [inˈsait] – v. provoke or stir up: incite a riot

inclination [.inkliˈneiʃən] – n. an attitude of mind especially one that favors one alternative over others: he had an inclination to give up too easily

incline [ˈinklain,inˈklain] – v. bend or turn (one’s ear) towards a speaker in order to listen well: He inclined his ear to the wise old man

inclusive [inˈklu:siv] – adj. including much or everything; and especially including stated limits: an inclusive art form

incompatible [.inkəmˈpætəbl] – adj. not compatible: incompatible personalities

incomplete [.inkəmˈpli:t] – adj. not complete or total; not completed: an incomplete account of his life

incorporate [inˈkɔ:pəreit] – v. make into a whole or make part of a whole: She incorporated his suggestions into her proposal

incredible [inˈkredəbl] – adj. beyond belief or understanding: at incredible speed

incumbent [inˈkʌmbənt] – adj. lying or leaning on something else: an incumbent geological formation

incur [inˈkə:] – v. make oneself subject to; bring upon oneself; become liable to: People who smoke incur a great danger to their health

indebted [inˈdetid] – adj. owing gratitude or recognition to another for help or favors etc

indefinite [inˈdefinit] – adj. vague or not clearly defined or stated: must you be so indefinite?

indicative [inˈdikətiv] – adj. relating to the mood of verbs that is used simple in declarative statements: indicative mood

indict [inˈdait] – v. accuse formally of a crime

indignant [inˈdignənt] – adj. angered at something unjust or wrong: an indignant denial

indignation [.indigˈneiʃən] – n. a feeling of righteous anger

indispensable [.indisˈpensəbl] – adj. not to be dispensed with; essential: foods indispensable to good nutrition

individual [.indiˈvidjuəl] – adj. being or characteristic of a single thing or person: individual drops of rain

indoor [ˈindɔ:] – adj. located, suited for, or taking place within a building: indoor activities for a rainy day

induce [inˈdju:s] – v. cause to arise: induce a crisis

induction [inˈdʌkʃən] – n. a formal entry into an organization or position or office: he was ordered to report for induction into the army

indulge [inˈdʌldʒ] – v. give free rein to: The writer indulged in metaphorical language

industrious [inˈdʌstriəs] – adj. characterized by hard work and perseverance

inertia [iˈnə:ʃjə] – n. (physics) the tendency of a body to maintain its state of rest or uniform motion unless acted upon by an external force

inevitably [inˈevitəbli] – adv. in such a manner as could not be otherwise

infamous [ˈinfəməs] – adj. known widely and usually unfavorably: the infamous Benedict Arnold

infantry [ˈinfəntri] – n. an army unit consisting of soldiers who fight on foot

infect [inˈfekt] – v. communicate a disease to: Your children have infected you with this head cold

infection [inˈfekʃən] – n. the pathological state resulting from the invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms

infectious [inˈfekʃəs] – adj. easily spread: fear is exceedingly infectious; children catch it from their elders

infer [inˈfə:] – v. reason by deduction; establish by deduction

inference [ˈinfərəns] – n. the reasoning involved in drawing a conclusion or making a logical judgment on the basis of circumstantial evidence and prior conclusions rather than on the basis of direct observation

inferior [inˈfiəriə] – adj. of or characteristic of low rank or importance

infinite [ˈinfinit] – adj. having no limits or boundaries in time or space or extent or magnitude: the infinite ingenuity of man

infinitely [ˈinfinitli] – adv. without bounds: he is infinitely wealthy

infinity [inˈfiniti] – n. time without end

inflate [inˈfleit] – v. exaggerate or make bigger: The charges were inflated

inflation [inˈfleiʃən] – n. a general and progressive increase in prices: in inflation everything gets more valuable except money

inflict [inˈflikt] – v. impose something unpleasant

influence [ˈinfluəns] – n. a power to affect persons or events especially power based on prestige etc: used her parents’ influence to get the job

infrared [ˈinfrəˈred] – n. electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths longer than visible light but shorter than radio waves

infrastructure [ˈinfrəˈstrʌktʃə] – n. the basic structure or features of a system or organization

ingenious [inˈdʒi:njəs] – adj. showing inventiveness and skill: an ingenious solution to the problem

ingenuity [.indʒiˈnju:iti] – n. the power of creative imagination

ingredient [inˈgri:diənt] – n. a component of a mixture or compound

inhabit [inˈhæbit] – v. be present in: sweet memories inhabit this house

inhale [inˈheil] – v. draw deep into the lungs in by breathing: Clinton smoked marijuana but never inhaled

inherent [inˈhiərənt] – adj. existing as an essential constituent or characteristic

inhibit [inˈhibit] – v. to put down by force or authority

initial [iˈniʃəl] – n. the first letter of a word (especially a person’s name): he refused to put the initials FRS after his name

initially [iˈniʃəli] – adv. at the beginning

initiate [iˈniʃieit] – v. bring into being: He initiated a new program

initiative [iˈniʃətiv] – n. readiness to embark on bold new ventures

inject [inˈdʒekt] – v. to introduce (a new aspect or element): He injected new life into the performance

inland [ˈinlənd] – adj. situated away from an area’s coast or border

inlet [ˈinlet] – n. an arm off of a larger body of water (often between rocky headlands)

inmate [ˈinmeit] – n. one of several resident of a dwelling (especially someone confined to a prison or hospital)

innate [.iˈneit] – adj. not established by conditioning or learning

innovation [.inəuˈveiʃən] – n. a creation (a new device or process) resulting from study and experimentation

innovative [ˈinəʊveitiv] – adj. ahead of the times: is British industry innovative enough?

innumerable [iˈnju:mərəbl] – adj. too numerous to be counted: innumerable difficulties

inorganic [.inɔ:ˈgænik] – adj. relating or belonging to the class of compounds not having a carbon basis: hydrochloric and sulfuric acids are called inorganic substances

input [ˈinput] – n. signal going into an electronic system

insane [inˈsein] – adj. afflicted with or characteristic of mental derangement: was declared insane

inscription [inˈskripʃən] – n. a short message (as in a book or musical work or on a photograph) dedicating it to someone or something

insert [inˈsə:t] – n. a folded section placed between the leaves of another publication

insight [ˈinsait] – n. clear or deep perception of a situation

insignificant [.insigˈnifikənt] – adj. not worthy of notice

insistent [inˈsistənt] – adj. repetitive and persistent: the bluejay’s insistent cry

insomnia [inˈsɔmniə] – n. an inability to sleep; chronic sleeplessness

inspector [inˈspektə] – n. a high ranking police officer

inspiration [.inspəˈreiʃən] – n. arousal of the mind to special unusual activity or creativity

instability [.instəˈbiliti] – n. an unstable order

installment [inˈstɔ:lmənt] – n. a payment of part of a debt; usually paid at regular intervals

instalment  – n. a part of a broadcast serial

instantaneous [.instənˈteiniəs] – adj. occurring with no delay: relief was instantaneous

instructor [inˈstrʌktə] – n. a person whose occupation is teaching

instrumental [.instruˈmentl] – adj. serving or acting as a means or aid: instrumental in solving the crime

insulate [ˈinsjuleit] – v. place or set apart

insulator [ˈinsju.leitə] – n. a material such as glass or porcelain with negligible electrical or thermal conductivity

intact [inˈtækt] – adj. constituting the undiminished entirety; lacking nothing essential especially not damaged: fought to keep the union intact

intake [ˈinteik] – n. an opening through which fluid is admitted to a tube or container

integral [ˈintigrəl] – adj. existing as an essential constituent or characteristic

integrate [ˈintigreit] – v. make into a whole or make part of a whole

integrity [inˈtegriti] – n. an undivided or unbroken completeness or totality with nothing wanting: the integrity of the nervous system is required for normal development

intellect [ˈintilekt] – n. the capacity for rational thought or inference or discrimination

intelligible [inˈtelidʒəbl] – adj. capable of being apprehended or understood

intensify [inˈtensifai] – v. make more intense, stronger, or more marked

intent [inˈtent] – n. the intended meaning of a communication

interact [.intəˈrækt] – v. act together or towards others or with others: He should interact more with his colleagues

intercept [.intəˈsept] – v. seize on its way: The fighter plane was ordered to intercept an aircraft that had entered the country’s airspace

interconnect  – v. be interwoven or interconnected: The bones are interconnected via the muscle

intercourse [ˈintəkɔ:s] – n. communication between individuals

interface [ˈintəfeis] – n. (chemistry) a surface forming a common boundary between two things (two objects or liquids or chemical phases)

interim [ˈintərim] – n. the time between one event, process, or period and another

interior [inˈtiəriə] – adj. situated within or suitable for inside a building: an interior scene

interjection [.intəˈdʒekʃən] – n. an abrupt emphatic exclamation expressing emotion

intermediate [.intəˈmi:diət] – adj. lying between two extremes in time or space or state: going from sitting to standing without intermediate pushes with the hands

intermittent [.intəˈmitənt] – adj. stopping and starting at irregular intervals: intermittent rain showers

interpret [inˈtə:prit] – v. make sense of; assign a meaning to: How do you interpret his behavior?

intersection [.intəˈsekʃən] – n. a junction where one street or road crosses another

intervene [.intəˈvi:n] – v. get involved, so as to alter or hinder an action, or through force or threat of force: Why did the U.S. not intervene earlier in WW II?

intervention [.intə(:)ˈvenʃən] – n. a policy of intervening in the affairs of other countries

interview [ˈintəvju:] – v. discuss formally with (somebody) for the purpose of an evaluation: We interviewed the job candidates

intimidate [inˈtimideit] – v. make timid or fearful: Her boss intimidates her

intonation [.intəˈneiʃən] – n. rise and fall of the voice pitch

intoxicate [inˈtɔksikeit] – v. fill with high spirits; fill with optimism

intricate [ˈintrikit] – adj. having many complexly arranged elements; elaborate: intricate lacework

intrigue [inˈtri:g] – n. a crafty and involved plot to achieve your (usually sinister) ends

intrinsic [inˈtrinsik] – adj. belonging to a thing by its very nature: form was treated as something intrinsic, as the very essence of the thing

introduce [.intrəˈdju:s] – v. cause to come to know personally: introduce the new neighbors to the community

intrude [inˈtru:d] – v. enter uninvited: They intruded on our dinner party

intuition [.intju:ˈiʃən] – n. instinctive knowing (without the use of rational processes)

invalid [ˈinvəli:d] – v. force to retire, remove from active duty, as of firemen

invaluable [inˈvæljuəbl] – adj. having incalculable monetary, intellectual, or spiritual worth

invariably [inˈveəriəb(ə)li] – adv. without variation or change, in every case

inventory [ˈinvəntri] – n. a detailed list of all the items in stock

inversely [inˈvəsli] – adv. in an inverse or contrary manner: inversely related

invert [inˈvə:t] – v. reverse the position, order, relation, or condition of: when forming a question, invert the subject and the verb

invoice [ˈinvɔis] – n. an itemized statement of money owed for goods shipped or services rendered

ion [ˈaiən] – n. a particle that is electrically charged (positive or negative); an atom or molecule or group that has lost or gained one or more electrons

ironically [aiˈrɔnikəli] – adv. contrary to plan or expectation: ironically, he ended up losing money under his own plan

irony [ˈaiərəni] – n. witty language used to convey insults or scorn: irony is wasted on the stupid

irregularity [.iregjuˈlæriti] – n. behavior that breaches the rule or etiquette or custom or morality

irrespective [.iriˈspektiv] – adv. in spite of everything; without regard to drawbacks

irrigation [.iriˈgeiʃən] – n. supplying dry land with water by means of ditches etc

irritate [ˈiriteit] – v. excite to an abnormal condition, or chafe or inflame: Aspirin irritates my stomach

Islam [ˈizlɑ:m, -læm, -ləm] – n. the civilization of Muslims collectively which is governed by the Muslim religion: Islam is predominant in northern Africa, the Middle East, Pakistan, and Indonesia

Islamic [izˈlæmik] – adj. of or relating to or supporting Islamism: Islamic art

isle [ail] – n. a small island

itch [itʃ] – v. have a strong desire or urge to do something: She is itching to start the project

ivory [ˈaivəri] – n. a shade of white the color of bleached bones

ivy [ˈaivi] – n. Old World vine with lobed evergreen leaves and black berrylike fruits

jack  – n. a small worthless amount: you don’t know jack

jade [dʒeid] – n. a woman adulterer

jail [dʒeil] – n. a correctional institution used to detain persons who are in the lawful custody of the government (either accused persons awaiting trial or convicted persons serving a sentence)

jam [dʒæm] – v. press tightly together or cram

jargon [ˈdʒɑ:gən] – n. a characteristic language of a particular group (as among thieves)

jealousy [ˈdʒeləsi] – n. zealous vigilance: cherish their official political freedom with fierce jealousy

jean  – n. (usually plural) close-fitting trousers of heavy denim for manual work or casual wear

jeep [dʒi:p] – n. a car suitable for traveling over rough terrain

jelly [ˈdʒeli] – n. a preserve made of the jelled juice of fruit

jeopardize [ˈdʒepədaiz] – v. pose a threat to; present a danger to

jerk [dʒə:k] – n. a dull stupid fatuous person

Jesus [ˈdʒi:zəs] – n. a teacher and prophet born in Bethlehem and active in Nazareth; his life and sermons form the basis for Christianity (circa 4 BC – AD 29)

jewellery  – n. an adornment (as a bracelet or ring or necklace) made of precious metals and set with gems (or imitation gems)

jingle [ˈdʒiŋgl] – n. a metallic sound: the jingle of coins

jockey [ˈdʒɔki] – v. defeat someone through trickery or deceit

jog [dʒɔg] – v. continue talking or writing in a desultory manner: This novel rambles on and jogs

jolly [ˈdʒɔli] – n. a happy party

jolt [dʒəult] – n. a sudden jarring impact: the door closed with a jolt

journalist [ˈdʒə:nəlist] – n. a writer for newspapers and magazines

judicial [dʒu:ˈdiʃəl] – adj. decreed by or proceeding from a court of justice: a judicial decision

jug [dʒʌg] – n. a large bottle with a narrow mouth

juggle [ˈdʒʌgəl] – v. influence by slyness

jumbo [ˈdʒʌmbəu] – adj. of great mass; huge and bulky: a jumbo jet

junction [ˈdʒʌŋkʃən] – n. the place where two or more things come together

jungle [ˈdʒʌŋgl] – n. a location marked by an intense competition and struggle for survival

junior [ˈdʒu:njə] – n. term of address for a disrespectful and annoying male: look here, junior, it’s none of your business

junk [dʒʌŋk] – n. the remains of something that has been destroyed or broken up

Jupiter [ˈdʒu:pitə] – n. the largest planet and the 5th from the sun; has many satellites and is one of the brightest objects in the night sky

jurisdiction [.dʒuərisˈdikʃən] – n. (law) the right and power to interpret and apply the law: courts having jurisdiction in this district

jury [ˈdʒuəri] – n. a body of citizens sworn to give a true verdict according to the evidence presented in a court of law

justification [dʒʌstifiˈkeiʃ(ə)n] – n. something (such as a fact or circumstance) that shows an action to be reasonable or necessary: he considered misrule a justification for revolution

juvenile [ˈdʒu:vinail] – adj. of or relating to or characteristic of or appropriate for children or young people: juvenile diabetes

kernel [ˈkə:nl] – n. the inner and usually edible part of a seed or grain or nut or fruit stone: black walnut kernels are difficult to get out of the shell

kidnap [ˈkidnæp] – v. take away to an undisclosed location against their will and usually in order to extract a ransom: The industrialist’s son was kidnapped

kidney [ˈkidni] – n. either of two bean-shaped excretory organs that filter wastes (especially urea) from the blood and excrete them and water in urine: urine passes out of the kidney through ureters to the bladder

kilowatt [ˈkiləuwɔt] – n. a unit of power equal to 1000 watts

kin [kin] – n. group of people related by blood or marriage

kindle [ˈkindl] – v. catch fire: The dried grass of the prairie kindled, spreading the flames for miles

kinetic [kiˈnetik] – adj. relating to the motion of material bodies and the forces associated therewith: kinetic energy

kit [kit] – n. a case for containing a set of articles

kitten [ˈkitn] – n. young domestic cat

knight [nait] – n. a chessman shaped to resemble the head of a horse; can move two squares horizontally and one vertically (or vice versa)

knit [nit] – n. needlework created by interlacing yarn in a series of connected loops using straight eyeless needles or by machine

knob [nɔb] – n. a circular rounded projection or protuberance

knuckle [ˈnʌkəl] – n. a joint of a finger when the fist is closed

lace [leis] – v. spin,wind, or twist together

lamb [læm] – n. young sheep

lame [leim] – n. someone who doesn’t understand what is going on

landscape [ˈlændskeip] – n. an expanse of scenery that can be seen in a single view

lantern [ˈlæntən] – n. light in a transparent protective case

lapse [læps] – v. pass into a specified state or condition

largely [ˈlɑ:dʒli] – adv. on a large scale: the sketch was so largely drawn that you could see it from the back row

lash [læʃ] – v. beat severely with a whip or rod

late [leit] – adj. being or occurring at an advanced period of time or after a usual or expected time: late evening

latent [ˈleitnt] – adj. potentially existing but not presently evident or realized: a latent fingerprint

lathe [leið] – n. machine tool for shaping metal or wood; the workpiece turns about a horizontal axis against a fixed tool

latitude [ˈlætitju:d] – n. the angular distance between an imaginary line around a heavenly body parallel to its equator and the equator itself

lattice [ˈlætis] – n. an arrangement of points or particles or objects in a regular periodic pattern in 2 or 3 dimensions

laundry [ˈlɔ:ndri] – n. workplace where clothes are washed and ironed

layman [ˈleimən] – n. someone who is not a clergyman or a professional person

layoff [ˈleiɔ:f] – n. the act of laying off an employee or a work force

leaflet [ˈli:flit] – n. a thin triangular flap of a heart valve

leakage [ˈli:kidʒ] – n. the discharge of a fluid from some container

lease [li:s] – v. let for money

ledge [ledʒ] – n. a projecting ridge on a mountain or submerged under water

legacy [ˈlegəsi] – n. (law) a gift of personal property by will

legend [ˈledʒənd] – n. a story about mythical or supernatural beings or events

legislation [.ledʒisˈleiʃən] – n. the act of making or enacting laws

legitimate [liˈdʒitimit] – adj. of marriages and offspring; recognized as lawful

lemonade [.leməˈneid] – n. sweetened beverage of diluted lemon juice

length [leŋθ] – n. the linear extent in space from one end to the other; the longest dimension of something that is fixed in place: the length of the table was 5 feet

lengthen [ˈleŋθən] – v. make longer

lenient [ˈli:niənt] – adj. not strict: lenient rules

leopard [ˈlepəd] – n. large feline of African and Asian forests usually having a tawny coat with black spots

lessen [ˈlesn] – v. decrease in size, extent, or range

lettuce [ˈletis] – n. informal terms for money

lever [ˈlev] – n. a rigid bar pivoted about a fulcrum

leverage [ˈli:vəridʒ] – n. strategic advantage; power to act effectively: relatively small groups can sometimes exert immense political leverage

levy [ˈlevi] – n. the act of drafting into military service

liability [.laiəˈbiliti] – n. the state of being legally obliged and responsible

liable [ˈlaiəbl] – adj. at risk of or subject to experiencing something usually unpleasant: she is liable to forget

lick [lik] – v. beat thoroughly and conclusively in a competition or fight: We licked the other team on Sunday!

lieutenant [lefˈtenənt; lju:ˈtenənt] – n. a commissioned military officer

lighter [ˈlaitə] – n. a substance used to ignite or kindle a fire

likelihood [ˈlaiklihud] – n. the probability of a specified outcome

likeness [ˈlaiknis] – n. similarity in appearance or character or nature between persons or things: man created God in his own likeness

lily [ˈlili] – n. any liliaceous plant of the genus Lilium having showy pendulous flowers

limb [lim] – n. any of the main branches arising from the trunk or a bough of a tree

limestone [ˈlaimstəun] – n. a sedimentary rock consisting mainly of calcium that was deposited by the remains of marine animals

limousine [ˈlimu(:)zi:n] – n. large luxurious car; usually driven by a chauffeur

limp [limp] – v. proceed slowly or with difficulty: the boat limped into the harbor

line [lain] – n. a formation of people or things one beside another: the line of soldiers advanced with their bayonets fixed

linear [ˈliniə] – adj. designating or involving an equation whose terms are of the first degree

linen [ˈlinin] – n. a fabric woven with fibers from the flax plant

liner [ˈlainə] – n. (baseball) a hit that flies straight out from the batter: the batter hit a liner to the shortstop

linger [ˈliŋgə] – v. remain present although waning or gradually dying: Her perfume lingered on

linguistic [liŋˈgwistik] – adj. consisting of or related to language: linguistic behavior

lining [ˈlainiŋ] – n. a protective covering that protects an inside surface

lipstick [ˈlipstik] – n. makeup that is used to color the lips

literacy [ˈlitərəsi] – n. the ability to read and write

literal [ˈlitərəl] – adj. being or reflecting the essential or genuine character of something: a literal solitude like a desert

literally [ˈlitərəli] – adv. (intensifier before a figurative expression) without exaggeration: our eyes were literally pinned to TV during the Gulf War

literary [ˈlitərəri] – adj. knowledgeable about literature: a literary style

literate [ˈlitərit] – adj. able to read and write

litter [ˈlitə] – n. the offspring at one birth of a multiparous mammal

livestock [ˈlaivstɔk] – n. any animals kept for use or profit

lobby [ˈlɔbi] – n. a large entrance or reception room or area

lobster [ˈlɔbstə] – n. any of several edible marine crustaceans of the families Homaridae and Nephropsidae and Palinuridae

locality [ləuˈkæliti] – n. a surrounding or nearby region: it is a rugged locality

location [ləuˈkeiʃən] – n. a point or extent in space

locker [ˈlɔkə] – n. a fastener that locks or closes

locomotive [.ləukəˈməutiv] – n. a wheeled vehicle consisting of a self-propelled engine that is used to draw trains along railway tracks

locust [ˈləukəst] – n. migratory grasshoppers of warm regions having short antennae

lodging [ˈlɔdʒiŋ] – n. structures collectively in which people are housed

lofty [ˈlɔfti] – adj. of high moral or intellectual value; elevated in nature or style: a noble and lofty concept

log [lɔg] – n. a segment of the trunk of a tree when stripped of branches

longevity [lɔnˈdʒeviti] – n. duration of service: her longevity as a star

longing [ˈlɔŋiŋ] – n. prolonged unfulfilled desire or need

longitude [ˈlɔndʒitju:d] – n. the angular distance between a point on any meridian and the prime meridian at Greenwich

loom [lu:m] – v. come into view indistinctly, often threateningly: Another air plane loomed into the sky

loosely  – adv. in a relaxed manner; not rigid: his hands lay loosely

loosen [ˈlu:sn] – v. make less severe or strict

loot [lu:t] – n. goods or money obtained illegally

lotion [ˈləuʃən] – n. any of various cosmetic preparations that are applied to the skin

lottery [ˈlɔtəri] – n. something that is regarded as a chance event: the election was just a lottery to them

lotus [ˈləutəs] – n. native to eastern Asia; widely cultivated for its large pink or white flowers

loudspeaker [ˈlaudˈspi:kə] – n. electro-acoustic transducer that converts electrical signals into sounds loud enough to be heard at a distance

lounge [laundʒ] – n. an upholstered seat for more than one person

lubricate [ˈlu:brikeit] – v. apply a lubricant to: lubricate my car

lucrative [ˈlu:krətiv] – adj. producing a sizeable profit

lull [lʌl] – v. calm by deception: Don’t let yourself be lulled into a false state of security

lumber [ˈlʌmbə] – n. the wood of trees cut and prepared for use as building material

luminous [ˈlju:minəs] – adj. softly bright or radiant: a sky luminous with stars

lump [lʌmp] – n. a compact mass

lunar [ˈlu:nə] – adj. of or relating to or associated with the moon: lunar surface

luncheon [ˈlʌntʃən] – n. a midday meal

lure [lu] – n. qualities that attract by seeming to promise some kind of reward

lust [lʌst] – n. a strong sexual desire

luxurious [lʌgˈʒu:riəs] – adj. rich and superior in quality

lyric [ˈlirik] – adj. expressing deep emotion: the dancer’s lyrical performance

magician [məˈdʒiʃən] – n. one who practices magic or sorcery

magistrate [ˈmædʒistreit] – n. a lay judge or civil authority who administers the law (especially one who conducts a court dealing with minor offenses)

magnet [ˈmægnit] – n. a characteristic that provides pleasure and attracts

magnetism [ˈmægnitizəm] – n. attraction for iron; associated with electric currents as well as magnets; characterized by fields of force

magnify [ˈmægnifai] – v. increase in size, volume or significance

magnitude [ˈmægnitju:d] – n. the property of relative size or extent (whether large or small): they tried to predict the magnitude of the explosion

maid [meid] – n. an unmarried girl (especially a virgin)

maiden [ˈmeidn] – n. an unmarried girl (especially a virgin)

main [mein] – adj. most important element: the main doors were of solid glass

maintenance [ˈmeintinəns] – n. activity involved in maintaining something in good working order

majestic [məˈdʒestik] – adj. having or displaying great dignity or nobility: majestic cities

majesty [ˈmædʒisti] – n. impressiveness in scale or proportion

makeup [ˈmeikʌp] – n. cosmetics applied to the face to improve or change your appearance

malaria [məˈlɛəriə] – n. an infective disease caused by sporozoan parasites that are transmitted through the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito; marked by paroxysms of chills and fever

malice [ˈmælis] – n. feeling a need to see others suffer

malignant [məˈlignənt] – adj. dangerous to health; characterized by progressive and uncontrolled growth (especially of a tumor)

mall [mɔ:l, mæl] – n. a public area set aside as a pedestrian walk

malnutrition [.mælnjuˈtriʃən] – n. a state of poor nutrition; can result from insufficient or excessive or unbalanced diet or from inability to absorb foods

mammal [ˈmæməl] – n. any warm-blooded vertebrate having the skin more or less covered with hair; young are born alive except for the small subclass of monotremes and nourished with milk

maneuver [məˈnu:və] – n. a military training exercise

manifest [ˈmænifest] – v. provide evidence for; stand as proof of; show by one’s behavior, attitude, or external attributes: The buildings in Rome manifest a high level of architectural sophistication

manipulate [məˈnipjuleit] – v. influence or control shrewdly or deviously: He manipulated public opinion in his favor

manoeuvre  – n. a plan for attaining a particular goal

mansion [ˈmænʃən] – n. (astrology) one of 12 equal areas into which the zodiac is divided

manuscript [ˈmænjuskript] – n. the form of a literary work submitted for publication

maple [ˈmeipl] – n. any of numerous trees or shrubs of the genus Acer bearing winged seeds in pairs; north temperate zone

mar [mɑ:] – n. the month following February and preceding April

marble [ˈmɑ:bl] – n. a hard crystalline metamorphic rock that takes a high polish; used for sculpture and as building material

mare [meə] – n. a dark region of considerable extent on the surface of the moon

margin [ˈmɑ:dʒin] – n. the boundary line or the area immediately inside the boundary

marginal [ˈmɑ:dʒinəl] – adj. at or constituting a border or edge: the marginal strip of beach

marijuana [.mæriˈwɑ:nə] – n. a strong-smelling plant from whose dried leaves a number of euphoriant and hallucinogenic drugs are prepared

marital [ˈmæritl] – adj. of or relating to the state of marriage: marital status

maritime [ˈmæritaim] – adj. relating to or involving ships or shipping or navigation or seamen: maritime law

market [ˈmɑ:kit] – n. the world of commercial activity where goods and services are bought and sold: without competition there would be no market

Mars  – n. (Roman mythology) Roman god of war and agriculture; father of Romulus and Remus; counterpart of Greek Ares

marsh [mɑ:ʃ] – n. low-lying wet land with grassy vegetation; usually is a transition zone between land and water: thousands of acres of marshland

marshal [ˈmɑ:ʃəl] – v. place in proper rank: marshal the troops

martial [ˈmɑ:ʃəl] – adj. (of persons) befitting a warrior

martyr [ˈmɑ:tə] – n. one who suffers for the sake of principle

marvel [ˈmɑ:vəl] – v. be amazed at: We marvelled at the child’s linguistic abilities

masculine [ˈmæskjulin] – adj. of grammatical gender

mash [mæʃ] – v. to compress with violence, out of natural shape or condition

massacre [ˈmæsəkə] – n. the savage and excessive killing of many people

massage [ˈməsɑ:ʒ] – v. manually manipulate (someone’s body), usually for medicinal or relaxation purposes

massive [ˈmæsiv] – adj. imposing in size or bulk or solidity: massive oak doors

mast [mɑ:st] – n. a vertical spar for supporting sails

masterpiece [ˈmɑ:stəpi:s] – n. the most outstanding work of a creative artist or craftsman

maternal [məˈtə:nl] – adj. characteristic of a mother: warm maternal affection for her guest

mattress [ˈmætris] – n. a large thick pad filled with resilient material and often incorporating coiled springs, used as a bed or part of a bed

mature [məˈtjuə] – v. develop and work out fully in one’s mind: I need to mature my thoughts

meadow [ˈmedəu] – n. a field where grass or alfalfa are grown to be made into hay

measurement [ˈmeʒəmənt] – n. the act or process of assigning numbers to phenomena according to a rule: the measurements were carefully done

mechanics [miˈkæniks] – n. the branch of physics concerned with the motion of bodies in a frame of reference

mechanism [ˈmekənizəm] – n. the atomic process that occurs during a chemical reaction: he determined unique mechanisms for the photochemical reactions

medal [ˈmedl] – n. an award for winning a championship or commemorating some other event

mediate [ˈmidieit] – v. act between parties with a view to reconciling differences: He mediated a settlement

medieval [mediˈi:vəl] – adj. relating to or belonging to the Middle Ages

meditate [ˈmediteit] – v. reflect deeply on a subject

meditation [.mediˈteiʃən] – n. continuous and profound contemplation or musing on a subject or series of subjects of a deep or abstruse nature: the habit of meditation is the basis for all real knowledge

Mediterranean [.meditəˈreinjən] – n. the largest inland sea; between Europe and Africa and Asia

melancholy [ˈmelənkəli] – n. a feeling of thoughtful sadness

mellow [ˈmeləu] – adj. unhurried and relaxed: a mellow conversation

melody [ˈmelədi] – n. a succession of notes forming a distinctive sequence

melon [ˈmelən] – n. any of numerous fruits of the gourd family having a hard rind and sweet juicy flesh

membership [ˈmembəʃip] – n. the state of being a member

memo [ˈmeməu] – n. a written proposal or reminder

memoir [ˈmemwɑ:] – n. an account of the author’s personal experiences

memorise  – v. commit to memory; learn by heart

memorize [ˈmeməraiz] – v. commit to memory; learn by heart: Have you memorized your lines for the play yet?

menace [ˈmenis] – v. pose a threat to; present a danger to

mend [mend] – n. the act of putting something in working order again

mentality [menˈtæliti] – n. mental ability

merchandise [ˈmə:tʃəndaiz] – n. commodities offered for sale: good business depends on having good merchandise

merciful [ˈmə:sifəl] – adj. (used conventionally of royalty and high nobility) gracious: our merciful king

mercury [ˈmə:kjuri] – n. a heavy silvery toxic univalent and bivalent metallic element; the only metal that is liquid at ordinary temperatures

merge [mə:dʒ] – v. become one: the cells merge

merit [ˈmerit] – n. any admirable quality or attribute: work of great merit

mesh [meʃ] – n. contact by fitting together: the meshing of gears

mess [mes] – n. a state of confusion and disorderliness: the house was a mess

message [ˈmesidʒ] – n. a communication (usually brief) that is written or spoken or signaled: he sent a three-word message

messenger [ˈmesindʒə] – n. a person who carries a message

metallic [mi ˈtælik] – n. a yarn made partly or entirely of metal

metallurgy [meˈtælədʒi] – n. the science and technology of metals

metaphor [ˈmetəfə] – n. a figure of speech in which an expression is used to refer to something that it does not literally denote in order to suggest a similarity

methodical [miˈθɔdikəl] – adj. characterized by method and orderliness: a methodical scholar

meticulous [miˈtikjʊləs] – adj. marked by precise accordance with details: meticulous research

metro [ˈmetrəu] – n. an electric railway operating below the surface of the ground (usually in a city): in Paris the subway system is called the `metro’ and in London it is called the `tube’ or the `underground’

metropolitan [.metrəˈpɔlitən] – n. a person who lives in a metropolis

microprocessor [.maikrəuˈprəusesər] – n. integrated circuit semiconductor chip that performs the bulk of the processing and controls the parts of a system: a microprocessor functions as the central processing unit of a microcomputer

microscopic [maikrəˈskɔpik] – adj. visible under a microscope; using a microscope

microwave [ˈmaikrəuweiv] – n. kitchen appliance that cooks food by passing an electromagnetic wave through it; heat results from the absorption of energy by the water molecules in the food

midst [ˈmidst] – n. the location of something surrounded by other things: in the midst of the crowd

mighty [ˈmaiti] – adj. having or showing great strength or force or intensity: struck a mighty blow

migrant [ˈmaigrənt] – n. traveler who moves from one region or country to another

migrate [ˈmaigreit] – v. move from one country or region to another and settle there: Many Germans migrated to South America in the mid-19th century

mild [maild] – adj. moderate in type or degree or effect or force; far from extreme: a mild winter storm

mileage [ˈmailidʒ] – n. the ratio of the number of miles traveled to the number of gallons of gasoline burned

militant [ˈmilitənt] – adj. disposed to warfare or hard-line policies: militant nations

millionaire [.miljənˈɛə] – n. a person whose material wealth is valued at more than a million dollars

mingle [ˈmiŋgl] – v. to bring or combine together or with something else: resourcefully he mingled music and dance

miniature [ˈminiətʃə] – n. painting or drawing included in a book (especially in illuminated medieval manuscripts)

minibus [ˈminibʌs] – n. a light bus (4 to 10 passengers)

minimal [ˈminiməl] – adj. the least possible: needed to enforce minimal standards

minimize [ˈminimaiz] – v. make small or insignificant: Let’s minimize the risk

mint [mint] – n. (often followed by `of’) a large number or amount or extent: he made a mint on the stock market

miraculous [miˈrækjuləs] – adj. peculiarly fortunate or appropriate; as if by divine intervention

mirror [ˈmirə] – n. polished surface that forms images by reflecting light

mischief [ˈmistʃif] – n. reckless or malicious behavior that causes discomfort or annoyance in others

miser [ˈmaizə] – n. a stingy hoarder of money and possessions (often living miserably)

misery [ˈmizəri] – n. a feeling of intense unhappiness: she was exhausted by her misery and grief

misfortune [misˈfɔ:tʃən] – n. unnecessary and unforeseen trouble resulting from an unfortunate event

misgiving [misˈgiviŋ] – n. uneasiness about the fitness of an action

missionary [ˈmiʃənəri] – n. someone who attempts to convert others to a particular doctrine or program

mist [mist] – v. make less visible or unclear

mistress [ˈmistris] – n. an adulterous woman; a woman who has an ongoing extramarital sexual relationship with a man

mitten [ˈmitn] – n. glove that encases the thumb separately and the other four fingers together

mixer [ˈmiksə] – n. a party of people assembled to promote sociability and communal activity

moan [məun] – n. an utterance expressing pain or disapproval

mob [mɔb] – n. a disorderly crowd of people

mobilise  – v. call to arms; of military personnel

mobilize [ˈməubilaiz] – v. make ready for action or use

mock [mɔk] – v. treat with contempt: The new constitution mocks all democratic principles

moderately [ˈmɔdəritli] – adv. with moderation; in a moderate manner: he drinks moderately

modesty [ˈmɔdisti] – n. freedom from vanity or conceit

modification [.mɔdifiˈkeiʃən] – n. the act of making something different (as e.g. the size of a garment)

modulate [ˈmɔdjuleit] – v. change the key of, in music: modulate the melody

module [ˈmɔdju:l] – n. one of the inherent cognitive or perceptual powers of the mind

molecular [məuˈlekjulə] – adj. relating to simple or elementary organization: proceed by more and more detailed analysis to the molecular facts of perception

momentary [ˈməuməntəri] – adj. lasting for a markedly brief time: a momentary glimpse

momentous [məuˈmentəs] – adj. of very great significance: a momentous event

momentum [məuˈmentəm] – n. an impelling force or strength: the car’s momentum carried it off the road

monarch [ˈmɔnək] – n. a nation’s ruler or head of state usually by hereditary right

monarchy [ˈmɔnəki] – n. an autocracy governed by a monarch who usually inherits the authority

monastery [ˈmɔnəstri] – n. the residence of a religious community

monetary [ˈmʌnə.teri] – adj. relating to or involving money: monetary rewards

monk [mʌŋk] – n. a male religious living in a cloister and devoting himself to contemplation and prayer and work

monologue [ˈmɔnəlɔg] – n. speech you make to yourself

monopoly [məˈnɔpəli] – n. (economics) a market in which there are many buyers but only one seller: a monopoly on silver

monotonous [məˈnɔtənəs] – adj. tediously repetitious or lacking in variety: nothing is so monotonous as the sea

monster [ˈmɔnstə] – n. an imaginary creature usually having various human and animal parts

monstrous [ˈmɔnstrəs] – adj. abnormally large

moor [muə] – v. secure in or as if in a berth or dock

mop [mɔp] – v. make a sad face and thrust out one’s lower lip: mop and mow

morale [mɔˈrɑ:l] – n. a state of individual psychological well-being based upon a sense of confidence and usefulness and purpose

morality [məˈræliti] – n. concern with the distinction between good and evil or right and wrong; right or good conduct

mortal [ˈmɔ:tl] – adj. subject to death: mortal beings

mortgage [ˈmɔ:gidʒ] – n. a conditional conveyance of property as security for the repayment of a loan

Moslem [ˈmɔzlem, ˈmɔzlim] – n. a believer in or follower of Islam

mosque [mɔsk] – n. (Islam) a Muslim place of worship that usually has a minaret

moss [mɔs] – n. tiny leafy-stemmed flowerless plants

motel [məuˈtel] – n. a motor hotel

moth [mɔθ] – n. typically crepuscular or nocturnal insect having a stout body and feathery or hairlike antennae

motive [ˈməutiv] – n. a theme that is repeated or elaborated in a piece of music

motorcycle [ˈməutəsaikl] – n. a motor vehicle with two wheels and a strong frame

motorway [ˈməʊtəwei] – n. a broad highway designed for high-speed traffic

motto [ˈmɔtəu] – n. a favorite saying of a sect or political group

mound [maund] – n. (baseball) the slight elevation on which the pitcher stands

mount [maunt] – v. attach to a support: They mounted the aerator on a floating

mountainous [ˈmauntinəs] – adj. having hills and crags

mourn [mɔ:n] – v. feel sadness: She is mourning her dead child

moustache [məsˈtɑ:ʃ, mus-] – n. an unshaved growth of hair on the upper lip

move [mu:v] – v. change residence, affiliation, or place of employment: We moved from Idaho to Nebraska

mow [məu] – v. make a sad face and thrust out one’s lower lip: mop and mow

muddy [ˈmʌdi] – adj. (of soil) soft and watery: muddy barnyard

mule [mju:l] – n. hybrid offspring of a male donkey and a female horse; usually sterile

multiplication [.mʌltipliˈkeiʃən] – n. a multiplicative increase: repeated copying leads to a multiplication of errors

multitude [ˈmʌltitju:d] – n. a large indefinite number: a multitude of TV antennas

mumble [ˈmʌmbl] – v. talk indistinctly; usually in a low voice

municipal [mju:ˈnisipəl] – adj. relating or belonging to or characteristic of a municipality: municipal government

murmur [ˈmə:mə] – n. a low continuous indistinct sound; often accompanied by movement of the lips without the production of articulate speech

muscular [ˈmʌskjulə] – adj. of or relating to or consisting of muscle: muscular contraction

muse [mju:z] – n. in ancient Greek mythology any of 9 daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne; protector of an art or science

Muslim [ˈmʌzlim] – n. a believer in or follower of Islam

mustache [məˈstɑ:ʃ] – n. an unshaved growth of hair on the upper lip: he looked younger after he shaved off his mustache

mustard [ˈmʌstəd] – n. any of several cruciferous plants of the genus Brassica

mute [mju:t] – n. a deaf person who is unable to speak

mutter [ˈmʌtə] – n. a low continuous indistinct sound; often accompanied by movement of the lips without the production of articulate speech

mutton [ˈmʌtn] – n. meat from a mature domestic sheep

muzzle [ˈmʌzl] – n. the open circular discharging end of a gun

myriad [ˈmiriəd] – n. a large indefinite number: he faced a myriad of details

mystery [ˈmistəri] – n. something that baffles understanding and cannot be explained: how it got out is a mystery

mystic [ˈmistik] – adj. having an import not apparent to the senses nor obvious to the intelligence; beyond ordinary understanding: the mystical style of Blake

mystical [ˈmistikəl] – adj. relating to or resembling mysticism: mystical intuition

myth [miθ] – n. a traditional story accepted as history; serves to explain the world view of a people

mythology [miˈθɔlədʒi] – n. myths collectively; the body of stories associated with a culture or institution or person

naive [nɑˈi:v] – adj. marked by or showing unaffected simplicity and lack of guile or worldly experience: a teenager’s naive ignorance of life

napkin [ˈnæpkin] – n. a small piece of table linen that is used to wipe the mouth and to cover the lap in order to protect clothing

narration [næˈreiʃən] – n. the act of giving an account describing incidents or a course of events: his narration was hesitant

narrative [ˈnærətiv] – adj. consisting of or characterized by the telling of a story: narrative poetry

nasty [ˈnɑ:sti] – adj. offensive or even (of persons) malicious: in a nasty mood

naughty [ˈnɔ:ti] – adj. suggestive of sexual impropriety: a naughty wink

necessitate [niˈsesiteit] – v. require as useful, just, or proper

necklace [ˈneklis] – n. jewelry consisting of a cord or chain (often bearing gems) worn about the neck as an ornament (especially by women)

negative [ˈnegətiv] – adj. expressing or consisting of a negation or refusal or denial

negligence [ˈneglidʒəns] – n. failure to act with the prudence that a reasonable person would exercise under the same circumstances

negligible [ˈneglidʒəbl] – adj. so small as to be meaningless; insignificant: the effect was negligible

negotiate [niˈgəuʃieit] – v. discuss the terms of an arrangement: They negotiated the sale of the house

neon [ˈni:, ɔn , ˈni, ɑn] – n. a colorless odorless gaseous element that give a red glow in a vacuum tube; one of the six inert gasses; occurs in the air in small amounts

nest [nest] – n. a structure in which animals lay eggs or give birth to their young

net [net] – n. the excess of revenues over outlays in a given period of time (including depreciation and other non-cash expenses)

network [ˈnetwə:k] – n. an interconnected system of things or people: he owned a network of shops

neutron [ˈnju:trɔn] – n. an elementary particle with 0 charge and mass about equal to a proton; enters into the structure of the atomic nucleus

newscaster [ˈnju:z.kæstə,ˈnju:z.kɑ:stə] – n. someone who broadcasts the news

newsreel [ˈnju:zri:l] – n. a short film and commentary about current events

nice [nais] – adj. pleasant or pleasing or agreeable in nature or appearance: what a nice fellow you are and we all thought you so nasty

nickel [ˈnikl] – n. a United States coin worth one twentieth of a dollar

nickname [ˈnikneim] – n. a familiar name for a person (often a shortened version of a person’s given name): Joe’s mother would not use his nickname and always called him Joseph

nicotine [ˈnikəti:n, -tin] – n. an alkaloid poison that occurs in tobacco; used in medicine and as an insecticide

nightmare [ˈnait.mɛə] – n. a situation resembling a terrifying dream

nil [nil] – n. a quantity of no importance: reduced to nil all the work we had done

nominal [ˈnɔminəl] – adj. relating to or constituting or bearing or giving a name: the Russian system of nominal brevity

nominate [ˈnɔmineit] – v. propose as a candidate for some honor

nonetheless [.nʌnðəˈles] – adv. despite anything to the contrary (usually following a concession)

norm [nɔ:m] – n. a standard or model or pattern regarded as typical: the current middle-class norm of two children per family

normalization [.nɔ:məlaiˈzeiʃən] – n. the imposition of standards or regulations

nose [nəuz] – n. the organ of smell and entrance to the respiratory tract; the prominent part of the face of man or other mammals: he has a cold in the nose

nostalgic [nɔˈstældʒik] – adj. unhappy about being away and longing for familiar things or persons

nostril [ˈnɔstril] – n. either one of the two external openings to the nasal cavity in the nose

notable [ˈnəutəbl] – adj. worthy of notice

notation [nəuˈteiʃən] – n. a technical system of symbols used to represent special things

noted [ˈnəutid] – adj. widely known and esteemed

notify [ˈnəutifai] – v. inform (somebody) of something

notion [ˈnəuʃən] – n. a vague idea in which some confidence is placed

notorious [nəuˈtɔ:riəs] – adj. known widely and usually unfavorably: a notorious gangster

notwithstanding [ˈnɔtwiθˈstændiŋ] – adv. despite anything to the contrary (usually following a concession)

nought  – n. a mathematical element that when added to another number yields the same number

nourish [ˈnʌriʃ] – v. provide with nourishment: This kind of food is not nourishing for young children

nourishment [ˈnʌriʃmənt] – n. the act of nourishing: her nourishment of the orphans saved many lives

novel [ˈnɔvəl] – n. an extended fictional work in prose; usually in the form of a story

novelty [ˈnɔvəlti] – n. originality by virtue of being new and surprising

nucleus [ˈnju:kliəs] – n. a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction

nude [nju:d] – n. a painting of a naked human figure

numb [nʌm] – adj. lacking sensation: numb with cold

number [ˈnʌmbə] – n. the property possessed by a sum or total or indefinite quantity of units or individuals: he had a number of chores to do

numerical [nju:ˈmerikəl] – adj. measured or expressed in numbers: numerical value

nun [nʌn] – n. a woman religious

nursery [ˈnə:səri] – n. a child’s room for a baby

nurture [ˈnə:tʃə] – v. help develop, help grow: nurture his talents

nut [nʌt] – n. usually large hard-shelled seed

nutrient [ˈnju:triənt] – n. any substance that can be metabolized by an animal to give energy and build tissue

nutrition [nju:ˈtriʃən] – n. a source of materials to nourish the body

oak [əuk] – n. a deciduous tree of the genus Quercus; has acorns and lobed leaves: great oaks grow from little acorns

oar [ɔ:] – n. an implement used to propel or steer a boat

oath [əuθ] – n. profane or obscene expression usually of surprise or anger

obedience [əˈbi:djəns] – n. the act of obeying; dutiful or submissive behavior with respect to another person

obedient [əˈbi:djənt] – adj. dutifully complying with the commands or instructions of those in authority: an obedient soldier

objective [əbˈdʒektiv] – adj. undistorted by emotion or personal bias; based on observable phenomena: an objective appraisal

obligation [.ɔbliˈgeiʃən] – n. the social force that binds you to the courses of action demanded by that force: every right implies a responsibility; every opportunity, an obligation; every possession, a duty

oblige [əˈblaidʒ] – v. force somebody to do something

obscene [əbˈsi:n] – adj. designed to incite to indecency or lust: the dance often becomes flagrantly obscene

observation [.ɔbzəˈveiʃən] – n. the act of making and recording a measurement

observe [əbˈzə:v] – v. discover or determine the existence, presence, or fact of

obsession [əbˈseʃən] – n. an irrational motive for performing trivial or repetitive actions, even against your will

obstinate [ˈɔbstinit] – adj. tenaciously unwilling or marked by tenacious unwillingness to yield

obstruct [əbˈstrʌkt] – v. hinder or prevent the progress or accomplishment of

occupancy [ˈɔkjupənsi] – n. the act of occupying or taking possession of a building: occupation of a building without a certificate of occupancy is illegal

occurrence [əˈkʌrəns] – n. an event that happens

odor [ˈəudə] – n. any property detected by the olfactory system

odour  – n. the sensation that results when olfactory receptors in the nose are stimulated by particular chemicals in gaseous form

offence [əˈfens] – n. the action of attacking an enemy

offensive [əˈfensiv] – adj. for the purpose of attack rather than defense: offensive weapons

offer [ˈɔ:fə] – v. make available or accessible, provide or furnish: The conference center offers a health spa

offset [ˈɔf.set] – n. the time at which something is supposed to begin

offspring [ˈɔ:fspriŋ] – n. the immediate descendants of a person: she was the mother of many offspring

ohm  – n. German physicist who formulated Ohm’s law (1787-1854)

olive [ˈɔliv] – n. evergreen tree cultivated in the Mediterranean region since antiquity and now elsewhere; has edible shiny black fruits

opaque [əuˈpeik] – adj. not transmitting or reflecting light or radiant energy; impenetrable to sight: opaque windows of the jail

operation [.ɔpəˈreiʃən] – n. a business especially one run on a large scale: a large-scale farming operation

opium [ˈəupjəm] – n. an addictive narcotic extracted from seed capsules of the opium poppy

oppress [əˈpres] – v. come down on or keep down by unjust use of one’s authority: The government oppresses political activists

opt [ɔpt] – v. select as an alternative over another: She opted for the job on the East coast

optical [ˈɔptikəl] – adj. relating to or using sight: an optical illusion

optimism [ˈɔptimizəm] – n. a general disposition to expect the best in all things

optimum [ˈɔptiməm] – n. most favorable conditions or greatest degree or amount possible under given circumstances

option [ˈɔpʃən] – n. one of a number of things from which only one can be chosen: what option did I have?

orchard [ˈɔ:tʃəd] – n. garden consisting of a small cultivated wood without undergrowth

orchestra [ˈɔ:kistrə] – n. a musical organization consisting of a group of instrumentalists including string players

ordeal [ɔ:ˈdi:l] – n. a severe or trying experience

ordinarily [ˈɔ:dinərili] – adv. under normal conditions

orient [ˈɔ:riənt] – v. determine one’s position with reference to another point: We had to orient ourselves in the forest

oriental [.ɔ(:)riˈentl] – n. a member of an Oriental race; the term is regarded as offensive by Asians (especially by Asian Americans)

orientation [.ɔ:rienˈteiʃən] – n. an integrated set of attitudes and beliefs

originate [əˈridʒineit] – v. come into existence; take on form or shape: A new religious movement originated in that country

ornament [ˈɔ:nəmənt] – n. something used to beautify

ornamental [.ɔ:nəˈmentl] – adj. serving an esthetic rather than a useful purpose

orphan [ˈɔ:fən] – n. a child who has lost both parents

orthodox [ˈɔ:θədɔks] – adj. of or pertaining to or characteristic of Judaism

otherwise [ˈʌðəwaiz] – adv. in another and different manner: she thought otherwise

oust [aust] – v. remove from a position or office: The chairman was ousted after he misappropriated funds

outbreak [ˈautbreik] – n. a sudden violent spontaneous occurrence (usually of some undesirable condition): the outbreak of hostilities

outcome [ˈautkʌm] – n. something that results

outermost [ˈautəməust] – adj. situated at the farthest possible point from a center

outfit [ˈautfit] – n. any cohesive unit such as a military company

outing [ˈautiŋ] – n. a journey taken for pleasure

outlaw [ˈautlɔ:] – adj. contrary to or forbidden by law: an outlaw strike

outlet [ˈautlet] – n. a place of business for retailing goods

outline [ˈautlain] – n. the line that appears to bound an object

outrage [ˈautreidʒ] – n. a feeling of righteous anger

outright [ˈautˈrait] – adv. without restrictions or stipulations or further payments: buy outright

outside [ˈautˈsaid] – adj. relating to or being on or near the outer side or limit: an outside margin

outskirts [ˈaut.skə:ts] – n. outlying areas (as of a city or town): they lived on the outskirts of Houston

oval [ˈəuvəl] – n. a closed plane curve resulting from the intersection of a circular cone and a plane cutting completely through it

over [ˈəuvə] – adv. at or to a point across intervening space etc.: come over and see us some time

overall [ˈəuvərɔ:l] – n. (usually plural) work clothing consisting of denim trousers (usually with a bib and shoulder straps)

overdue [ˈəuvəˈdju:] – adj. past due; not paid at the scheduled time: an overdue installment

overestimate [.əuvəˈesti.meit] – n. an appraisal that is too high

overflow [.əuvəˈfləu,ˈəuvəfləu] – n. a large flow

overhang [əuvəˈhæŋ] – v. be suspended over or hang over

overhear [.əuvəˈhiə] – v. hear, usually without the knowledge of the speakers: We overheard the conversation at the next table

overlap [ˈəuvəˈlæp,ˈəuvəlæp] – n. a representation of common ground between theories or phenomena: there was no overlap between their proposals

overload [ˈəuvəˈləud] – v. fill to excess so that function is impaired

overlook [.əuvəˈluk] – v. look past, fail to notice

overpass [.əuvˈpæs] – n. bridge formed by the upper level of a crossing of two highways at different levels

override [.əuvəˈraid] – v. rule against

overseas [ˈəuvəˈsi:z] – adj. in a foreign country: overseas markets

overt [əuˈvə:t] – adj. open and observable; not secret or hidden: an overt lie

overtake [.əuvəˈteik] – v. travel past

overthrow [.əuvəˈθrəu] – n. the termination of a ruler or institution (especially by force)

overturn [.əuvəˈtə:n] – v. turn from an upright or normal position: The big vase overturned

overwhelm [.əuvəˈwelm] – v. overcome, as with emotions or perceptual stimuli

owl [aul] – n. nocturnal bird of prey with hawk-like beak and claws and large head with front-facing eyes

oxide [ˈɔksaid] – n. any compound of oxygen with another element or a radical

oxidize [ˈɔksidaiz] – v. add oxygen to or combine with oxygen

oyster [ˈɔistə] – n. marine mollusks having a rough irregular shell; found on the sea bed mostly in coastal waters

ozone [ˈəuzəun] – n. a colorless gas (O3) soluble in alkalis and cold water; a strong oxidizing agent; can be produced by electric discharge in oxygen or by the action of ultraviolet radiation on oxygen in the stratosphere (where it acts as a screen for ultraviolet radiation)

pace [peis] – n. the rate of moving (especially walking or running)

pacific  – adj. relating to or bordering the Pacific Ocean

paddle [ˈpædl] – v. play in or as if in water, as of small children

pal [pæl] – n. a close friend who accompanies his buddies in their activities

pamphlet [ˈpæmflit] – n. a small book usually having a paper cover

panda [ˈpændə] – n. large black-and-white herbivorous mammal of bamboo forests of China and Tibet; in some classifications considered a member of the bear family or of a separate family Ailuropodidae

panel [ˈpænl] – n. sheet that forms a distinct (usually flat and rectangular) section or component of something

pang [pæŋ] – n. a sudden sharp feeling: pangs of regret

panic [ˈpænik] – n. an overwhelming feeling of fear and anxiety

panorama [.pænəˈrɑ:mə] – n. the visual percept of a region

pant [pænt] – n. the noise made by a short puff of steam (as from an engine)

panther [ˈpænθə] – n. a leopard in the black color phase

pantry [ˈpæntri] – n. a small storeroom for storing foods or wines

pants [pænts] – n. underpants worn by women

paper [ˈpeipə] – n. a material made of cellulose pulp derived mainly from wood or rags or certain grasses

paperback [ˈpeipəbæk] – n. a book with paper covers

parachute [ˈpærəʃu:t] – n. rescue equipment consisting of a device that fills with air and retards your fall

parade [pəˈreid] – n. a ceremonial procession including people marching

paradise [ˈpærədais] – n. any place of complete bliss and delight and peace

paradox [ˈpærədɔks] – n. (logic) a statement that contradicts itself: `I always lie’ is a paradox because if it is true it must be false

paragraph [ˈpærəgrɑ:f] – n. one of several distinct subdivisions of a text intended to separate ideas; the beginning is usually marked by a new indented line

paralyse  – v. make powerless and unable to function

paralyze [ˈpærəlaiz] – v. make powerless and unable to function: The bureaucracy paralyzes the entire operation

parameter [pəˈræmitə] – n. a constant in the equation of a curve that can be varied to yield a family of similar curves

parasite [ˈpærəsait] – n. a follower who hangs around a host (without benefit to the host) in hope of gain or advantage

parlor [ˈpɑ:lə] – n. reception room in an inn or club where visitors can be received

parlour  – n. reception room in an inn or club where visitors can be received

parrot [ˈpærət] – n. usually brightly colored zygodactyl tropical birds with short hooked beaks and the ability to mimic sounds

participant [pɑ:ˈtisipənt] – n. someone who takes part in an activity

participate [pɑ:ˈtisipeit] – v. share in something

particular [pəˈtikjulə] – adj. unique or specific to a person or thing or category: the particular demands of the job

partisan [.pɑ:tiˈzæn] – n. a fervent and even militant proponent of something

partition [pɑ:ˈtiʃən] – n. a vertical structure that divides or separates (as a wall divides one room from another)

partnership [ˈpɑ:tnəʃip] – n. the members of a business venture created by contract

passionate [ˈpæʃənit] – adj. having or expressing strong emotions

passport [ˈpɑ:s.pɔ:t] – n. a document issued by a country to a citizen allowing that person to travel abroad and re-enter the home country

pastime [ˈpɑ:s.taim] – n. a diversion that occupies one’s time and thoughts (usually pleasantly): sailing is her favorite pastime

pastry [ˈpeistri] – n. a dough of flour and water and shortening

pasture [ˈpæstʃ] – n. a field covered with grass or herbage and suitable for grazing by livestock

patent [ˈpætnt] – v. make open to sight or notice: His behavior has patented an embarrassing fact about him

pathetic [pəˈθetik] – adj. deserving or inciting pity: the shabby room struck her as extraordinarily pathetic

patriot [ˈpeitriət, ˈpæt-] – n. one who loves and defends his or her country

patriotic [.pætriˈɔtik] – adj. inspired by love for your country

patrol [pəˈtrəul] – n. a detachment used for security or reconnaissance

patron [ˈpeitrən] – n. a regular customer

patronise  – v. do one’s shopping at; do business with; be a customer or client of

patronize [ˈpætrənaiz] – v. assume sponsorship of

pattern [ˈpætən] – n. a perceptual structure: a visual pattern must include not only objects but the spaces between them

pave [peiv] – n. a setting with precious stones so closely set that no metal shows

payroll [ˈpeirəul] – n. a list of employees and their salaries: the company had a long payroll

peacock [ˈpi:kɔk] – n. European butterfly having reddish-brown wings each marked with a purple eyespot

peak [pi:k] – n. the most extreme possible amount or value: voltage peak

peanut [ˈpi:nʌt] – n. a young child who is small for his age

pearl [pə:l] – n. a smooth lustrous round structure inside the shell of a clam or oyster; much valued as a jewel

pebble [ˈpebl] – n. a small smooth rounded rock

peck [pek] – v. hit lightly with a picking motion

peculiarity [pi.kju:liˈæriti] – n. an odd or unusual characteristic

pedal [ˈpedl] – n. a sustained bass note

peddle [ˈpedl] – v. sell or offer for sale from place to place

pedestrian [piˈdestriən] – n. a person who travels by foot

pedlar  – n. someone who travels about selling his wares (as on the streets or at carnivals)

peel [pi:l] – v. strip the skin off

peep [pi:p] – v. look furtively: He peeped at the woman through the window

peer [piə] – n. a person who is of equal standing with another in a group

peg [peg] – n. a wooden pin pushed or driven into a surface

penalise  – v. impose a penalty on; inflict punishment on

penalize [ˈpi:nəlaiz] – v. impose a penalty on; inflict punishment on: The students were penalized for showing up late for class

penalty [ˈpenəlti] – n. the act of punishing

pending [ˈpendiŋ] – adj. awaiting conclusion or confirmation: business still pending

pendulum [ˈpendjuləm] – n. an apparatus consisting of an object mounted so that it swings freely under the influence of gravity

penetration [peniˈtreiʃən] – n. clear or deep perception of a situation

penguin [ˈpeŋgwin] – n. short-legged flightless birds of cold southern especially Antarctic regions having webbed feet and wings modified as flippers

peninsula [piˈninsjulə] – n. a large mass of land projecting into a body of water

pension [ˈpenʃən] – n. a regular payment to a person that is intended to allow them to subsist without working

perception [pəˈsepʃən] – n. a way of conceiving something: Luther had a new perception of the Bible

perch [pə:tʃ] – n. support consisting of a branch or rod that serves as a resting place (especially for a bird)

perfect [ˈpə:fikt] – adj. being complete of its kind and without defect or blemish: a perfect circle

perfection [pəˈfekʃən] – n. the state of being without a flaw or defect

perfume [ˈpə:fju:m,pəˈfju:m] – n. a distinctive odor that is pleasant

peril [ˈperil] – n. a source of danger; a possibility of incurring loss or misfortune

perimeter [pəˈrimitə] – n. the boundary line or the area immediately inside the boundary

periodic [piəriˈɔdik] – adj. happening or recurring at regular intervals: the periodic appearance of the seventeen-year locust

periodical [.piəriˈɔdikəl] – n. a publication that appears at fixed intervals

peripheral [pəˈrifərəl] – adj. on or near an edge or constituting an outer boundary; the outer area: Russia’s peripheral provinces

perish [ˈperiʃ] – v. pass from physical life and lose all bodily attributes and functions necessary to sustain life: The children perished in the fire

permeate [ˈpə:mieit] – v. spread or diffuse through: An atmosphere of distrust has permeated this administration

permissible [pəˈmisəbəl] – adj. that may be permitted especially as according to rule: permissible behavior in school

perpendicular [.pə:pənˈdikjulə] – n. a straight line at right angles to another line

perpetual [pəˈpetjuəl] – adj. continuing forever or indefinitely: hell’s perpetual fires

perplex [pəˈpleks] – v. be a mystery or bewildering to

persecute [ˈpə:sikju:t] – v. cause to suffer: Jews were persecuted in the former Soviet Union

persevere [.pə:siˈviə] – v. be persistent, refuse to stop

persist [pəˈsist] – v. continue to exist

persistence [pəˈsistəns, -ˈzis-] – n. the property of a continuous and connected period of time

persistent [pəˈsistənt] – adj. never-ceasing

personality [.pə:səˈnæliti] – n. a person of considerable prominence: she is a Hollywood personality

personnel [.pə:səˈnel] – n. group of people willing to obey orders

persuasion [pəˈsweiʒən] – n. a personal belief or judgment that is not founded on proof or certainty: I am not of your persuasion

pertain [pə(:)ˈtein] – v. be relevant to: My remark pertained to your earlier comments

pertinent [ˈpə:tinənt] – adj. having precise or logical relevance to the matter at hand: a list of articles pertinent to the discussion

pest [pest] – n. any epidemic disease with a high death rate

pester [ˈpestə] – v. annoy persistently

pesticide [ˈpestisaid] – n. a chemical used to kill pests (as rodents or insects)

petal [ˈpetl] – n. part of the perianth that is usually brightly colored

petition [piˈtiʃən] – n. a formal message requesting something that is submitted to an authority

petty [ˈpeti] – adj. inferior in rank or status: petty officialdom

pharmacy [ˈfɑ:məsi] – n. the art and science of preparing and dispensing drugs and medicines,

photoelectric [fəutəuiˈlektrik] – adj. of or pertaining to photoelectricity: the photoelectric effect

photography [fəˈtɔgrəfi] – n. the process of producing images of objects on photosensitive surfaces

physically [ˈfizik(ə)li] – adv. in accord with physical laws: it is physically impossible

physiological [.fiziəˈlɔdʒikəl] – adj. of or consistent with an organism’s normal functioning: physiological processes

picket [ˈpikit] – n. a person employed to keep watch for some anticipated event

pickle [ˈpikl] – n. vegetables (especially cucumbers) preserved in brine or vinegar

picturesque [.piktʃəˈresk] – adj. strikingly expressive: a picturesque description of the rainforest

pier [piə] – n. (architecture) a vertical supporting structure (as a portion of wall between two doors or windows)

pierce [piəs] – v. cut or make a way through: The path pierced the jungle

piety [ˈpaiəti] – n. righteousness by virtue of being pious

pilgrim [ˈpilgrim] – n. someone who journeys in foreign lands

pineapple [ˈpainæpl] – n. large sweet fleshy tropical fruit with a terminal tuft of stiff leaves; widely cultivated

pinpoint [ˈpinpɔint] – n. a very brief moment: they were strangers sharing a pinpoint of time together

pious [ˈpaiəs] – adj. having or showing or expressing reverence for a deity: pious readings

pipe [paip] – n. a tube with a small bowl at one end; used for smoking tobacco

pirate [ˈpaiərit] – n. someone who uses another person’s words or ideas as if they were his own

pistol [ˈpistl] – n. a firearm that is held and fired with one hand

piston [ˈpistən] – n. United States neoclassical composer (1894-1976)

pitch  – v. throw or toss with a light motion

pitfall [ˈpitfɔ:l] – n. an unforeseen or unexpected or surprising difficulty

pizza [ˈpi:tsə] – n. Italian open pie made of thin bread dough spread with a spiced mixture of e.g. tomato sauce and cheese

plague [pleig] – n. any epidemic disease with a high death rate

plain [plein] – adj. clearly revealed to the mind or the senses or judgment: made his meaning plain

plank [plæŋk] – v. set (something or oneself) down with or as if with a noise: He planked the money on the table

plaster [ˈplɑ:stə] – v. apply a heavy coat to

plastic [ˈplæstik] – adj. capable of being molded or modeled (especially of earth or clay or other soft material): plastic substances such as wax or clay

plateau [ˈplætəu] – n. a relatively flat highland

platform [ˈplætfɔ:m] – n. a raised horizontal surface: the speaker mounted the platform

plausible [ˈplɔ:zəbl] – adj. apparently reasonable and valid, and truthful: a plausible excuse

plea [pli:] – n. a humble request for help from someone in authority

plead [pli:d] – v. appeal or request earnestly: I pleaded with him to stop

pledge [pledʒ] – v. promise solemnly and formally: I pledge that I will honor my wife

plight [plait] – n. a situation from which extrication is difficult especially an unpleasant or trying one: the woeful plight of homeless people

pluck [plʌk] – v. pull or pull out sharply: pluck the flowers off the bush

plum [plʌm] – n. any of several trees producing edible oval fruit having a smooth skin and a single hard stone

plumber [ˈplʌmə] – n. a craftsman who installs and repairs pipes and fixtures and appliances

plume [plu:m] – v. rip off; ask an unreasonable price

plump [plʌmp] – v. drop sharply

plunder [ˈplʌndə] – v. take illegally; of intellectual property: This writer plundered from famous authors

pneumatic [nju(:)ˈmætik] – adj. of or relating to or using air (or a similar gas): pneumatic drill

pneumonia [nju(:)ˈməunjə] – n. respiratory disease characterized by inflammation of the lung parenchyma (excluding the bronchi) with congestion caused by viruses or bacteria or irritants

poignant [ˈpɔinjənt] – adj. arousing affect: poignant grief cannot endure forever

poise [pɔiz] – v. be motionless, in suspension: The bird poised for a few moments before it attacked

poke [pəuk] – n. someone who takes more time than necessary; someone who lags behind

polar [ˈpəulə] – adj. having a pair of equal and opposite charges

polarity [pəuˈlæriti] – n. a relation between two opposite attributes or tendencies: he viewed it as a balanced polarity between good and evil

politics [ˈpɔlitiks] – n. social relations involving intrigue to gain authority or power: office politics is often counterproductive

poll [pəul] – n. an inquiry into public opinion conducted by interviewing a random sample of people

polyester [ˈpɔliestə, .pɔliˈestə] – n. any of numerous synthetic resins; they are light and strong and weather resistant

polymer [ˈpɔlimə] – n. a naturally occurring or synthetic compound consisting of large molecules made up of a linked series of repeated simple monomers

ponder [ˈpɔndə] – v. reflect deeply on a subject

pony [ˈpəuni] – n. a range horse of the western United States

pop [pɔp] – v. bulge outward: His eyes popped

popcorn [ˈpɔpkɔ:n] – n. corn having small ears and kernels that burst when exposed to dry heat

pope [pu:p] – n. the head of the Roman Catholic Church

popularity [.pɔpjuˈlæriti] – n. the quality of being widely admired or accepted or sought after: his charm soon won him affection and popularity

porcelain [ˈpɔ:slin] – n. ceramic ware made of a more or less translucent ceramic

porch [pɔ:tʃ] – n. a structure attached to the exterior of a building often forming a covered entrance

pore [pɔ:, pɔə] – n. any tiny hole admitting passage of a liquid (fluid or gas)

portable [ˈpɔ:təbl] – adj. of a motor designed to be attached to the outside of a boat’s hull: a portable outboard motor

portray [pɔ:ˈtrei] – v. make a portrait of: Goya wanted to portray his mistress, the Duchess of Alba

pose [pəuz] – v. introduce: This poses an interesting question

position [pəˈziʃən] – n. the particular portion of space occupied by something

positive [ˈpɔzitiv] – adj. characterized by or displaying affirmation or acceptance or certainty etc.: a positive attitude

positively [ˈpɔzətivli] – adv. extremely: it was positively monumental

possibility [.pɔsəˈbiliti] – n. a future prospect or potential

postal [ˈpəustəl] – adj. of or relating to the system for delivering mail: postal delivery

poster [ˈpəustə] – n. someone who pastes up bills or placards on walls or billboards

postscript [ˈpəust.skript] – n. a note appended to a letter after the signature

postulate [ˈpɔstjuleit] – v. maintain or assert

posture [ˈpɔstʃə] – n. the arrangement of the body and its limbs

potent [ˈpəutənt] – adj. having great influence

pottery [ˈpɔtəri] – n. ceramic ware made from clay and baked in a kiln

poultry [ˈpəultri] – n. a domesticated gallinaceous bird thought to be descended from the red jungle fowl

practicable [ˈpræktikəbl] – adj. usable for a specific purpose: a practicable solution

practitioner [prækˈtiʃənə] – n. someone who practices a learned profession

prairie [ˈprɛəri] – n. a treeless grassy plain

prawn [prɔ:n] – n. any of various edible decapod crustaceans

prayer [prɛə] – n. the act of communicating with a deity (especially as a petition or in adoration or contrition or thanksgiving): the priest sank to his knees in prayer

preach [pri:tʃ] – v. deliver a sermon: The minister is not preaching this Sunday

precarious [priˈkeəriəs] – adj. affording no ease or reassurance: a precarious truce

precede [pri:ˈsi:d] – v. be earlier in time; go back further: Stone tools precede bronze tools

precedent [ˈpresidənt] – n. an example that is used to justify similar occurrences at a later time

precipitate [priˈsipiteit] – v. bring about abruptly: The crisis precipitated by Russia’s revolution

preclude [priˈklu:d] – v. keep from happening or arising; make impossible: Your role in the projects precludes your involvement in the competitive project

predecessor [ˈpri:disesə] – n. one who precedes you in time (as in holding a position or office)

prediction [priˈdikʃən] – n. a statement made about the future

predominant [priˈdɔminənt] – adj. most frequent or common

prefix [ˈpri:fiks] – n. an affix that is added in front of the word

pregnancy [ˈpregnənsi] – n. the state of being pregnant; the period from conception to birth when a woman carries a developing fetus in her uterus

pregnant [ˈpregnənt] – adj. carrying developing offspring within the body or being about to produce new life

prejudice [ˈpredʒudis] – v. influence (somebody’s) opinion in advance

premature [.preməˈtʃuə] – adj. born after a gestation period of less than the normal time: a premature infant

premier [ˈpremjə] – n. the person who holds the position of head of the government in the United Kingdom

premise [ˈpremis] – v. set forth beforehand, often as an explanation: He premised these remarks so that his readers might understand

premium [ˈpri:miəm] – n. payment for insurance

preoccupy [pri(:)ˈɔkjupai] – v. engage or engross the interest or attention of beforehand or occupy urgently or obsessively

prescription [prisˈkripʃən] – n. a drug that is available only with written instructions from a doctor or dentist to a pharmacist: he told the doctor that he had been taking his prescription regularly

presentation [.prezenˈteiʃən] – n. a show or display; the act of presenting something to sight or view: the presentation of new data

preservation [.prezə(:)ˈveiʃən] – n. the activity of protecting something from loss or danger

preset [ˈpri:ˈset] – adj. set in advance: a preset plan of action

preside [priˈzaid] – v. act as president: preside over companies and corporations

press [pres] – v. force or impel in an indicated direction

pressure [ˈpreʃə] – n. the force applied to a unit area of surface; measured in pascals (SI unit) or in dynes (cgs unit): the compressed gas exerts an increased pressure

prestige [presˈti:ʒ] – n. a high standing achieved through success or influence or wealth etc.: he wanted to achieve power and prestige

presumably [priˈzju:məbli] – adv. by reasonable assumption: presumably, he missed the train

presume [priˈzju:m] – v. take to be the case or to be true; accept without verification or proof

pretentious [priˈtenʃəs] – adj. making claim to or creating an appearance of (often undeserved) importance or distinction: a pretentious country house

pretext [ˈpri:tekst] – n. something serving to conceal plans; a fictitious reason that is concocted in order to conceal the real reason

prevalent [ˈprevələnt] – adj. most frequent or common

prevention [priˈvenʃən] – n. the act of preventing: money was allocated to study the cause and prevention of influenza

preview [pri:ˈvju:] – n. an advertisement consisting of short scenes from a motion picture that will appear in the near future

prey [prei] – n. animal hunted or caught for food

prick [prik] – v. make a small hole into, as with a needle or a thorn: The nurse pricked my finger to get a small blood sample

priest [pri:st] – n. a person who performs religious duties and ceremonies in a non-Christian religion

primitive [ˈprimitiv] – adj. belonging to an early stage of technical development; characterized by simplicity and (often) crudeness: primitive movies of the 1890s

principally [ˈprinsipli] – adv. for the most part

printer [ˈprintə] – n. (computer science) an output device that prints the results of data processing

priority [praiˈɔriti] – n. status established in order of importance or urgency: national independence takes priority over class struggle

prism [ˈ prizəm] – n. a polyhedron with two congruent and parallel faces (the bases) and whose lateral faces are parallelograms

privacy [ˈpraivəsi] – n. the quality of being secluded from the presence or view of others

probability [.prɔbəˈbiliti] – n. the quality of being probable; a probable event or the most probable event: for a while mutiny seemed a probability

probation [prəˈbeiʃən] – n. a trial period during which an offender has time to redeem himself or herself

probe [prəub] – n. an inquiry into unfamiliar or questionable activities: there was a congressional probe into the scandal

proceedings [prəˈsi:diŋz] – n. (law) the institution of a sequence of steps by which legal judgments are invoked

proclaim [prəˈkleim] – v. declare formally; declare someone to be something; of titles: He was proclaimed King

prodigy [ˈprɔdidʒi] – n. an unusually gifted or intelligent (young) person; someone whose talents excite wonder and admiration: she is a chess prodigy

producer [prəˈdju:sə] – n. someone who manufactures something

productive [prəˈdʌktiv] – adj. having the ability to produce or originate

productivity [.prɔdʌkˈtiviti] – n. (economics) the ratio of the quantity and quality of units produced to the labor per unit of time

profess [prəˈfes] – v. confess one’s faith in, or allegiance to: The terrorists professed allegiance to their country

proficiency [prəˈfiʃənsi] – n. the quality of having great facility and competence

proficient [prəˈfiʃənt] – adj. having or showing knowledge and skill and aptitude: a proficient engineer

profile [ˈprəufail] – n. an analysis (often in graphical form) representing the extent to which something exhibits various characteristics: a biochemical profile of blood

profitable [ˈprɔfitəbl] – adj. yielding material gain or profit: profitable speculation on the stock market

profound [prəˈfaund] – adj. showing intellectual penetration or emotional depth: the differences are profound

program [ˈprəugræm] – n. a series of steps to be carried out or goals to be accomplished

prohibition [prəuhiˈbiʃən] – n. a law forbidding the sale of alcoholic beverages: in 1920 the 18th amendment to the Constitution established prohibition in the US

projector [prəˈdʒektə] – n. an optical instrument that projects an enlarged image onto a screen

proliferate [prəˈlifəreit] – v. grow rapidly: Pizza parlors proliferate in this area

prolong [prəˈlɔŋ] – v. lengthen in time; cause to be or last longer: We prolonged our stay

promising [ˈprɔmisiŋ] – adj. showing possibility of achievement or excellence: a promising young man

promotion [prəˈməuʃən] – n. a message issued in behalf of some product or cause or idea or person or institution

promptly [ˈprɔmptli] – adv. with little or no delay: the rescue squad arrived promptly

prone [prəun] – adj. having a tendency (to); often used in combination: a child prone to mischief

prop [prɔp] – n. a support placed beneath or against something to keep it from shaking or falling

propaganda [,prɔpəˈgændə] – n. information that is spread for the purpose of promoting some cause

propagate [ˈprɔpəgeit] – v. transmit from one generation to the next: propagate these characteristics

propagation [.prɔpəˈgeiʃən] – n. the spreading of something (a belief or practice) into new regions

propel [prəˈpel] – v. cause to move forward with force: Steam propels this ship

propeller [prəˈpelə] – n. a mechanical device that rotates to push against air or water

proper [ˈprɔpə] – adj. having all the qualities typical of the thing specified: wanted a proper dinner; not just a snack

prophecy [ˈprɔfisi] – n. knowledge of the future (usually said to be obtained from a divine source)

prophet [ˈprɔfit] – n. an authoritative person who divines the future

proposition [.prɔpəˈziʃən] – n. (logic) a statement that affirms or denies something and is either true or false

propulsion [prəˈpʌlʃən] – n. a propelling force

prose [prəuz] – n. ordinary writing as distinguished from verse

prosecute [ˈprɔsikju:t] – v. bring a criminal action against (in a trial): The State of California prosecuted O.J. Simpson

prospective [prəˈspektiv] – adj. of or concerned with or related to the future: prospective earnings

prosper [ˈprɔspə] – v. make steady progress; be at the high point in one’s career or reach a high point in historical significance or importance

Protestant  – adj. of or relating to Protestants or Protestantism: Protestant churches

proton  – n. a stable particle with positive charge equal to the negative charge of an electron

prototype [ˈprəutətaip] – n. a standard or typical example: he is the prototype of good breeding

proverb [ˈprɔvə:b] – n. a condensed but memorable saying embodying some important fact of experience that is taken as true by many people

province [ˈprɔvins] – n. the territory occupied by one of the constituent administrative districts of a nation

provision [prəˈviʒən] – n. a stipulated condition: he accepted subject to one provision

provocative [prəˈvɔkətiv] – adj. serving or tending to provoke, excite, or stimulate; stimulating discussion or exciting controversy: a provocative remark

provoke [prəˈvəuk] – v. call forth (emotions, feelings, and responses)

proximity [prɔkˈsimiti] – n. the property of being close together

prudent [ˈpru:dənt] – adj. careful and sensible; marked by sound judgment: a prudent manager

prune [pru:n] – v. cultivate, tend, and cut back the growth of

pry [prai] – v. to move or force, especially in an effort to get something open: Raccoons managed to pry the lid off the garbage pail

psychiatrist [saiˈkaiətrist] – n. a physician who specializes in psychiatry

psychology [saiˈkɔlədʒi] – n. the science of mental life

publicity [pʌbˈlisiti] – n. a message issued in behalf of some product or cause or idea or person or institution

pudding [ˈpudiŋ] – n. any of various soft thick unsweetened baked dishes: corn pudding

puddle [ˈpʌdl] – v. subject to puddling or form by puddling: puddle iron

puff [pʌf] – n. a short light gust of air

pulley [ˈpuli] – n. a simple machine consisting of a wheel with a groove in which a rope can run to change the direction or point of application of a force applied to the rope

pulp [pʌlp] – n. any soft or soggy mass: he pounded it to a pulp

pumpkin [ˈpʌmpkin] – n. usually large pulpy deep-yellow round fruit of the squash family maturing in late summer or early autumn

punch [pʌntʃ] – n. (boxing) a blow with the fist

puppet [ˈpʌpit] – n. a person who is controlled by others and is used to perform unpleasant or dishonest tasks for someone else

puppy [ˈpʌpi] – n. a young dog

purge [pə:dʒ] – v. oust politically: Deng Xiao Ping was purged several times throughout his lifetime

purify [ˈpjuərifai] – v. make pure or free from sin or guilt

purity [ˈpjuəriti] – n. being undiluted or unmixed with extraneous material

pursuit [pəˈsju:t] – n. a search for an alternative that meets cognitive criteria: the pursuit of love

pyramid [ˈpirəmid] – v. enlarge one’s holdings on an exchange on a continued rise by using paper profits as margin to buy additional amounts

qualification [.kwɔlifiˈkeiʃən] – n. an attribute that must be met or complied with and that fits a person for something: her qualifications for the job are excellent

qualify [ˈkwɔlifai] – v. prove capable or fit; meet requirements

qualitative [ˈkwɔlitətiv] – adj. relating to or involving comparisons based on qualities

quantify [ˈkwɔntifai] – v. express as a number or measure or quantity: Can you quantify your results?

quantitative [ˈkwɔntitətiv] – adj. relating to the measurement of quantity: quantitative studies

quart [kwɔ:t] – n. a British imperial capacity measure (liquid or dry) equal to 2 pints or 1.136 liters

quarterly [ˈkwɔ:təli] – adv. in three month intervals: interest is compounded quarterly

quartz [kwɔ:ts] – n. colorless glass made of almost pure silica

quay [ki:] – n. wharf usually built parallel to the shoreline

queer [kwiə] – v. hinder or prevent (the efforts, plans, or desires) of

quench [kwentʃ] – v. satisfy (thirst): The cold water quenched his thirst

query [ˈkwiəri] – n. an instance of questioning

quest [kwest] – v. make a search (for): Things that die with their eyes open and questing

question [ˈkwestʃən] – n. the subject matter at issue: the question of disease merits serious discussion

questionable [ˈkwestʃənəb(ə)l] – adj. able to be refuted

questionnaire [.kwestʃənˈɛ] – n. a form containing a set of questions; submitted to people to gain statistical information

quilt [kwilt] – v. stitch or sew together: quilt the skirt

quiver [ˈkwivə] – n. an almost pleasurable sensation of fright

quota [ˈkwəutə] – n. a prescribed number: all the salesmen met their quota for the month

racket [ˈrækit] – n. a loud and disturbing noise

radial [ˈreidjəl] – adj. relating to or moving along or having the direction of a radius: radial velocity

radiant [ˈreidjənt] – adj. radiating or as if radiating light: a radiant sunrise

radiate [ˈreidieit] – v. send out rays or waves: The sun radiates heat

radiator  – n. heater consisting of a series of pipes for circulating steam or hot water to heat rooms or buildings

radical [ˈrædikəl,ˈrædikl] – n. (chemistry) two or more atoms bound together as a single unit and forming part of a molecule

radioactive [.reidiəuˈæktiv] – adj. exhibiting or caused by radioactivity: radioactive isotope

radius [ˈreidiəs] – n. the length of a line segment between the center and circumference of a circle or sphere

raffle [ˈræfəl] – n. a lottery in which the prizes are goods rather than money

raft [rɑ:ft] – n. (often followed by `of’) a large number or amount or extent

rage [reidʒ] – n. a feeling of intense anger: his face turned red with rage

ragged [ˈrægid] – adj. being or dressed in clothes that are worn or torn: clothes as ragged as a scarecrow’s

raid [reid] – v. search without warning, make a sudden surprise attack on: The police raided the crack house

raise [reiz] – v. cause to be heard or known; express or utter: raise a shout

raisin [ˈreizən] – n. dried grape

rake [reik] – v. sweep the length of: The gunfire raked the coast

rally [ˈræli] – n. a large gathering of people intended to arouse enthusiasm

ramble [ˈræmbl] – v. continue talking or writing in a desultory manner: This novel rambles on and jogs

ramp [ræmp] – v. behave violently, as if in state of a great anger

rampant [ˈræmpənt] – adj. unrestrained and violent: rampant aggression

ranch [ræntʃ, rɑ:ntʃ] – n. farm consisting of a large tract of land along with facilities needed to raise livestock (especially cattle)

random [ˈrændəm] – adj. lacking any definite plan or order or purpose; governed by or depending on chance: a random choice

range [reindʒ] – n. an area in which something acts or operates or has power or control:: the range of a supersonic jet

ranger [ˈreindʒə] – n. a member of the Texas state highway patrol; formerly a mounted lawman who maintained order on the frontier

ransom [ˈrænsəm] – n. money demanded for the return of a captured person

rap [ræp] – n. a reproach for some lapse or misdeed: it was a bum rap

rape [reip] – n. the act of despoiling a country in warfare

rapidity  – n. a rate that is rapid

rapture [ˈræptʃə] – n. a state of being carried away by overwhelming emotion: listening to sweet music in a perfect rapture

rascal [ˈrɑ:skəl] – n. a deceitful and unreliable scoundrel

rash [ræʃ] – n. any red eruption of the skin

rate [reit] – n. a magnitude or frequency relative to a time unit: they traveled at a rate of 55 miles per hour

ratify [ˈrætifai] – v. approve and express assent, responsibility, or obligation

rating [ˈreitiŋ] – n. an appraisal of the value of something

ration [ˈræʃən] – n. the food allowance for one day (especially for service personnel): the rations should be nutritionally balanced

rational [ˈræʃənəl] – adj. consistent with or based on or using reason: rational behavior

rattle [ˈrætl] – n. a baby’s toy that makes percussive noises when shaken

rave [reiv] – v. participate in an all-night techno dance party

razor [ˈreizə] – n. edge tool used in shaving

reactor [ri(:)ˈæktə] – n. an electrical device used to introduce reactance into a circuit

readily [ˈredili] – adv. without much difficulty: these snakes can be identified readily

realistic [riəˈlistik] – adj. aware or expressing awareness of things as they really are: a realistic description

realization [.riəlaiˈzeiʃən] – n. coming to understand something clearly and distinctly: a growing realization of the risk involved

reap [ri:p] – v. gather, as of natural products

rear [riə] – n. the back of a military formation or procession: infantrymen were in the rear

reason [ˈri:zn] – n. a rational motive for a belief or action: the reason that war was declared

reassure [.ri:əˈʃuə] – v. give or restore confidence in; cause to feel sure or certain: I reassured him that we were safe

rebellion [riˈbeljən] – n. refusal to accept some authority or code or convention: each generation must have its own rebellion

rebuke [riˈbju:k] – n. an act or expression of criticism and censure: he had to take the rebuke with a smile on his face

recede [riˈsi:d] – v. pull back or move away or backward

receiver [riˈsi:və] – n. set that receives radio or tv signals

receptive [riˈseptiv] – adj. open to arguments, ideas, or change: receptive to reason and the logic of facts

recess [riˈses] – n. a state of abeyance or suspended business

recession [riˈseʃən] – n. a small concavity

recipe [ˈresipi] – n. directions for making something

recipient [riˈsipiənt] – n. a person who receives something

reciprocal [riˈsiprəkəl] – n. hybridization involving a pair of crosses that reverse the sexes associated with each genotype

recite [riˈsait] – v. repeat aloud from memory: she recited a poem

reckless [ˈreklis] – adj. marked by defiant disregard for danger or consequences: became the fiercest and most reckless of partisans

reckon [ˈrekən] – v. expect, believe, or suppose

reclaim [riˈkleim] – v. claim back

recognition [.rekəgˈniʃən] – n. the process of recognizing something or someone by remembering: a politician whose recall of names was as remarkable as his recognition of faces

recommendation [.rekəmenˈdeiʃən] – n. something that recommends (or expresses commendation of) a person or thing as worthy or desirable

reconcile [ˈrekənsail] – v. make (one thing) compatible with (another)

reconciliation [.rekənsiliˈeiʃən] – n. the reestablishing of cordial relations

recreation [.rekriˈeiʃən] – n. an activity that diverts or amuses or stimulates: for recreation he wrote poetry and solved crossword puzzles

recruit [riˈkru:t] – v. register formally as a participant or member: The party recruited many new members

rectangle [ˈrektæŋgl] – n. a parallelogram with four right angles

rectangular [rekˈtæŋgjulə] – adj. having four right angles: a rectangular figure twice as long as it is wide

rectify [ˈrektifai] – v. math: determine the length of: rectify a curve

recur [riˈkə:] – v. happen or occur again: This is a recurring story

recycle [ri:ˈsaikl] – v. cause to repeat a cycle

redeem [riˈdi:m] – v. save from sins

redundant [riˈdʌndənt] – adj. more than is needed, desired, or required: yet another book on heraldry might be thought redundant

reed [ri:d] – n. tall woody perennial grasses with hollow slender stems especially of the genera Arundo and Phragmites

reef [ri:f] – n. a submerged ridge of rock or coral near the surface of the water

reel [ri:l] – n. a roll of photographic film holding a series of frames to be projected by a movie projector

referee [.refəˈri:] – n. (sports) the chief official (as in boxing or American football) who is expected to ensure fair play

reference [ˈrefrəns] – n. a remark that calls attention to something or someone: the speaker made several references to his wife

refinery [riˈfainəri] – n. an industrial plant for purifying a crude substance

refrain [riˈfrein] – v. resist doing something: He refrained from hitting him back

refreshment [riˈfreʃmənt] – n. snacks and drinks served as a light meal

refuge [ˈrefju:dʒ] – n. a safe place

refugee [.refjuˈdʒi:] – n. an exile who flees for safety

refund [ˈri:fʌnd] – n. money returned to a payer

refute [riˈfju:t] – v. overthrow by argument, evidence, or proof: The speaker refuted his opponent’s arguments

regime [reiˈʒi:m] – n. the organization that is the governing authority of a political unit

regiment [ˈredʒimənt] – v. subject to rigid discipline, order, and systematization: regiment one’s children

regularity [.regjuˈlæriti] – n. a property of polygons: the property of having equal sides and equal angles

regulate [ˈregju.leit,ˈregjuleit] – v. fix or adjust the time, amount, degree, or rate of: regulate the temperature

regulation [.regjuˈleiʃən] – n. an authoritative rule

rehabilitate [.ri:həˈbiliteit] – v. help to readapt, as to a former state of health or good repute: The prisoner was successfully rehabilitated

rehearsal [riˈhə:sl] – n. a practice session in preparation for a public performance (as of a play or speech or concert): he missed too many rehearsals

reign [rein] – n. a period during which something or somebody is dominant or powerful: he was helpless under the reign of his egotism

rein [rein] – v. keep in check

reject [riˈdʒekt] – v. refuse to accept or acknowledge: I reject the idea of starting a war

rejoice [riˈdʒɔis] – v. feel happiness or joy

relay [riˈlei] – n. the act of passing something along from one person or group to another: the relay was successful

relegate [ˈreligeit] – v. refer to another person for decision or judgment: She likes to relegate difficult questions to her colleagues

relentless [riˈlentləs] – adj. not to be placated or appeased or moved by entreaty: relentless persecution

reliance [riˈlaiəns] – n. certainty based on past experience: he wrote the paper with considerable reliance on the work of other scientists

religion [riˈlidʒən] – n. a strong belief in a supernatural power or powers that control human destiny

relish [ˈreliʃ] – n. vigorous and enthusiastic enjoyment

remainder [riˈmeində] – n. something left after other parts have been taken away: there was no remainder

reminiscent [remiˈnis(ə)nt] – adj. serving to bring to mind

remnant [ˈremnənt] – n. a small part or portion that remains after the main part no longer exists

remorse [riˈmɔ:s] – n. a feeling of deep regret (usually for some misdeed)

Renaissance  – n. the revival of learning and culture

renounce [riˈnauns] – v. give up, such as power, as of monarchs and emperors, or duties and obligations

renovate [ˈrenə.veit] – v. restore to a previous or better condition: They renovated the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel

renown [riˈnaun] – n. the state or quality of being widely honored and acclaimed

repay [riˈpei] – v. pay back

repeal [riˈpi:l] – n. the act of abrogating; an official or legal cancellation

repel [riˈpel] – v. cause to move back by force or influence: repel the enemy

repercussion [.ri:pəˈkʌʃən] – n. a remote or indirect consequence of some action: his declaration had unforeseen repercussions

repertoire [ˈrepətwɑ:] – n. the entire range of skills or aptitudes or devices used in a particular field or occupation

replace [riˈpleis] – v. take the place or move into the position of: Smith replaced Miller as CEO after Miller left

replacement [riˈpleismənt] – n. the act of furnishing an equivalent person or thing in the place of another

report [riˈpɔ:t] – n. a written document describing the findings of some individual or group

representation [.reprizenˈteiʃən] – n. a presentation to the mind in the form of an idea or image

representative [repriˈzentətiv] – n. an advocate who represents someone else’s policy or purpose

repression [riˈpreʃən] – n. a state of forcible subjugation: the long repression of Christian sects

reprisal [riˈpraizəl] – n. a retaliatory action against an enemy in wartime

reproach [riˈprəutʃ] – n. a mild rebuke or criticism: words of reproach

reproduce [.ri:prəˈdju:s] – v. make a copy or equivalent of: reproduce the painting

reproduction [.ri:prəˈdʌkʃən] – n. the process of generating offspring

reptile [ˈreptail] – n. any cold-blooded vertebrate of the class Reptilia including tortoises, turtles, snakes, lizards, alligators, crocodiles, and extinct forms

republican [riˈpʌblikən] – n. a member of the Republican Party

requisite [ˈrekwizit] – n. anything indispensable: a place where the requisites of water fuel and fodder can be obtained

resemblance [riˈzembləns] – n. similarity in appearance or external or superficial details

resent [riˈzent] – v. feel bitter or indignant about: She resents being paid less than her co-workers

reservation [.rezəˈveiʃən] – n. a statement that limits or restricts some claim: he recommended her without any reservations

reside [riˈzaid] – v. make one’s home in a particular place or community: may parents reside in Florida

resident [ˈrezidənt] – n. someone who lives at a particular place for a prolonged period or who was born there

residential [.reziˈdenʃəl] – adj. of or relating to or connected with residence: a residential requirement for the doctorate

residual [riˈzidjuəl] – n. something left after other parts have been taken away

resign [riˈzain] – v. leave (a job, post, or position) voluntarily: The chairman resigned when he was found to have misappropriated funds

resignation [.rezigˈneiʃən] – n. acceptance of despair

resolute [ˈrezə.lu:t] – adj. firm in purpose or belief; characterized by firmness and determination: stood resolute against the enemy

resonance [ˈrezənəns] – n. an excited state of a stable particle causing a sharp maximum in the probability of absorption of electromagnetic radiation

respectable [risˈpektəbl] – adj. characterized by socially or conventionally acceptable morals: a respectable woman

response [riˈspɔns] – n. a result: this situation developed in response to events in Africa

responsible [riˈspɔnsəbl] – adj. being the agent or cause: determined who was the responsible party

restrain [riˈstrein] – v. keep under control; keep in check

resultant [riˈzʌltənt] – n. the final point in a process

resume [riˈzju:m] – v. take up or begin anew: We resumed the negotiations

retail [ˈri:teil] – n. the selling of goods to consumers; usually in small quantities and not for resale

retaliate [riˈtælieit] – v. take revenge for a perceived wrong

retard [riˈtɑ:d] – v. cause to move more slowly or operate at a slower rate: This drug will retard your heart rate

retention [riˈtenʃən] – n. the act of retaining something

retirement [riˈtaiəmənt] – n. withdrawal from your position or occupation

retort [riˈtɔ:t] – n. a quick reply to a question or remark (especially a witty or critical one)

retrieve [riˈtri:v] – v. get or find back; recover the use of

retrospect [ˈretrəu.spekt] – n. contemplation of things past: in retrospect

reunion [ri:ˈju:njən] – n. a party of former associates who have come together again

reveal [riˈvi:l] – v. make visible

revelation [.revəˈleiʃən] – n. the speech act of making something evident

revenge [riˈvendʒ] – n. action taken in return for an injury or offense

revenue [ˈrevinju:] – n. the entire amount of income before any deductions are made

revere [riˈviə] – n. a lapel on a woman’s garment; turned back to show the reverse side

reverse [riˈvə:s] – n. a relation of direct opposition: we thought Sue was older than Bill but just the reverse was true

revision [riˈviʒən] – n. the act of rewriting something

revive [riˈvaiv] – v. cause to regain consciousness: The doctors revived the comatose man

revoke [riˈvəuk] – v. fail to follow suit when able and required to do so

revolve [riˈvɔlv] – v. turn on or around an axis or a center: The Earth revolves around the Sun

rhetoric [ˈretərik] – n. using language effectively to please or persuade

rhyme [raim] – n. correspondence in the sounds of two or more lines (especially final sounds)

riddle [ˈridl] – v. pierce with many holes: The bullets riddled his body

ridicule [ˈridikju:l] – n. language or behavior intended to mock or humiliate

rig [rig] – n. a truck consisting of a tractor and trailer together

rigorous [ˈrigərəs] – adj. rigidly accurate; allowing no deviation from a standard: rigorous application of the law

rim [rim] – n. the shape of a raised edge of a more or less circular object

rinse [rins] – n. a liquid preparation used on wet hair to give it a tint

riot [ˈraiət] – n. a public act of violence by an unruly mob

rip [rip] – n. a dissolute man in fashionable society

ripple [ˈripl] – n. a small wave on the surface of a liquid

ritual [ˈritjuəl] – n. any customary observance or practice

rivalry [ˈraivəlri] – n. the act of competing as for profit or a prize

roam [rəum] – v. move about aimlessly or without any destination, often in search of food or employment: The gypsies roamed the woods

robe [rəub] – n. any loose flowing garment

robust [rəuˈbʌst] – adj. sturdy and strong in form, constitution, or construction: a robust body

roller [ˈrəulə] – n. a long heavy sea wave as it advances towards the shore

Roman [rɔmə] – adj. of or relating to or derived from Rome (especially ancient Rome): Roman architecture

romance [rəuˈmæns] – n. a relationship between two lovers

romantic [rəˈmæntik] – adj. belonging to or characteristic of Romanticism or the Romantic Movement in the arts: romantic poetry

rooster [ˈru:stə] – n. adult male chicken

rot [rɔt] – n. a state of decay usually accompanied by an offensive odor

rotary [ˈrəutəri] – n. a road junction at which traffic streams circularly around a central island: the accident blocked all traffic at the rotary

rotate [rəuˈteit] – v. turn on or around an axis or a center: The lamb roast rotates on a spit over the fire

rouge [ru:ʒ] – n. makeup consisting of a pink or red powder applied to the cheeks

roundabout [ˈraundəbaut] – n. a large, rotating machine with seats for children to ride or amusement

routine [ru:ˈti:n] – n. an unvarying or habitual method or procedure

row [rəu,rau] – n. an arrangement of objects or people side by side in a line: a row of chairs

royalty [ˈrɔiəlti] – n. payment to the holder of a patent or copyright or resource for the right to use their property

ruby [ˈru:bi] – n. a transparent deep red variety of corundum; used as a gemstone and in lasers

ruffle [ˈrʌfl] – v. stir up (water) so as to form ripples

rugby [ˈrʌgbi] – n. a form of football played with an oval ball

rule [ru:l] – n. a principle or condition that customarily governs behavior: it was his rule to take a walk before breakfast

rumble [ˈrʌmbl] – n. a loud low dull continuous noise

rummage [ˈrʌmidʒ] – n. a jumble of things to be given away

runway [ˈrʌnwei] – n. a bar or pair of parallel bars of rolled steel making the railway along which railroad cars or other vehicles can roll

rupture [ˈrʌptʃə] – n. state of being torn or burst open

rustle [ˈrʌsl] – v. make a dry crackling sound

rut [rʌt] – n. a groove or furrow (especially one in soft earth caused by wheels)

ruthless [ˈru:θlis] – adj. without mercy or pity: an act of ruthless ferocity

sabotage [ˈsæbətɑ:ʒ] – n. a deliberate act of destruction or disruption in which equipment is damaged

safeguard [ˈseifgɑ:d] – n. a precautionary measure warding off impending danger or damage or injury etc.: an insurance policy is a good safeguard

sag [sæg] – v. droop, sink, or settle from or as if from pressure or loss of tautness

saint [seint] – n. person of exceptional holiness

salmon [ˈsæmən] – n. a tributary of the Snake River in Idaho

salon [ˈsælɔn] – n. gallery where works of art can be displayed

saloon [səˈlu:n] – n. a room or establishment where alcoholic drinks are served over a counter

salute [səˈlu:t] – v. propose a toast to

salvage [ˈsælvidʒ] – n. property or goods saved from damage or destruction

salvation [sælˈveiʃən] – n. (theology) the act of delivering from sin or saving from evil

sanction [ˈsæŋkʃən] – n. formal and explicit approval

sandal [ˈsændl] – n. a shoe consisting of a sole fastened by straps to the foot

sandwich [ˈsændwitʃ] – v. insert or squeeze tightly between two people or objects: She was sandwiched in her airplane seat between two fat men

sane [sein] – adj. mentally healthy; free from mental disorder: appears to be completely sane

sanitation [sæniˈteiʃən] – n. the state of being clean and conducive to health

sarcastic [sɑ:ˈkæstik] – adj. expressing or expressive of ridicule that wounds

sardine [sɑ:ˈdi:n] – n. small fatty fish usually canned

satellite [ˈsætəlait] – n. man-made equipment that orbits around the earth or the moon

satire [ˈsætaiə] – n. witty language used to convey insults or scorn

satisfaction [.sætisˈfækʃən] – n. the contentment one feels when one has fulfilled a desire, need, or expectation: the chef tasted the sauce with great satisfaction

satisfactorily [sætisˈfæktərili] – adv. in a satisfactory manner

saturate [ˈsætʃəreit] – v. infuse or fill completely

saturation [.sætʃəˈreiʃən] – n. the act of soaking thoroughly with a liquid

Saturn [ˈsætə(:)n] – n. a giant planet that is surrounded by three planar concentric rings of ice particles; the 6th planet from the sun

sauce [sɔ:s] – v. dress (food) with a relish

saucepan [ˈsɔ:spæn] – n. a deep pan with a handle; used for stewing or boiling

savage [ˈsævidʒ] – adj. (of persons or their actions) able or disposed to inflict pain or suffering: a savage slap

savor [ˈseivə] – v. derive or receive pleasure from; get enjoyment from; take pleasure in

savour  – v. have flavor; taste of something

scan [skæn] – v. examine minutely or intensely: the surgeon scanned the X-ray

scandal [ˈskændl] – n. disgraceful gossip about the private lives of other people

scant [skænt] – v. work hastily or carelessly; deal with inadequately and superficially

scar [skɑ:] – n. a mark left (usually on the skin) by the healing of injured tissue

scarcity [ˈskɛəsiti] – n. a small and inadequate amount

scared [skeəd] – adj. made afraid: too shocked and scared to move

scarf [skɑ:f] – v. masturbate while strangling oneself

scarlet [ˈskɑ:lit] – n. a variable color that is vivid red but sometimes with an orange tinge

scent [sent] – n. a distinctive odor that is pleasant

sceptical  – adj. marked by or given to doubt

scheme [ski:m] – n. an elaborate and systematic plan of action

scholarship [ˈskɔləʃip] – n. financial aid provided to a student on the basis of academic merit

scoff [skɔf] – v. laugh at with contempt and derision

scoop [sku:p] – n. a hollow concave shape made by removing something

scope [skəup] – n. an area in which something acts or operates or has power or control:: within the scope of an investigation

scorch [skɔ:tʃ] – v. make very hot and dry: The heat scorched the countryside

scorn [skɔ:n] – n. lack of respect accompanied by a feeling of intense dislike

scour [ˈskauə] – v. examine minutely: The police scoured the country for the fugitive

scout [skaut] – n. a person employed to keep watch for some anticipated event

scowl [skaul] – n. a facial expression of dislike or displeasure

scramble [ˈskræmbl] – v. to move hurriedly: The friend scrambled after them

scrap [skræp] – n. a small fragment of something broken off from the whole

scratch [skrætʃ] – n. an abraded area where the skin is torn or worn off

screech [skri:tʃ] – n. a high-pitched noise resembling a human cry: he ducked at the screechings of shells

script [skript] – n. a written version of a play or other dramatic composition; used in preparing for a performance

scripture [ˈskriptʃə] – n. the sacred writings of the Christian religions

scrub [skrʌb] – v. clean with hard rubbing: She scrubbed his back

scrutiny [ˈskru:tini] – n. the act of examining something closely (as for mistakes)

sculpture [ˈskʌlptʃə] – n. a three-dimensional work of plastic art

seam [si:m] – n. joint consisting of a line formed by joining two pieces

seaport [ˈsi:pɔ:t] – n. a sheltered port where ships can take on or discharge cargo

seaside [ˈsi:.said] – n. the shore of a sea or ocean regarded as a resort

second [ˈsekənd] – n. 1/60 of a minute; the basic unit of time adopted under the Systeme International d’Unites

section [ˈsekʃən] – n. a self-contained part of a larger composition (written or musical): he always turns first to the business section

sector [ˈsektə] – n. a plane figure bounded by two radii and the included arc of a circle

sediment [ˈsedimənt] – n. matter that has been deposited by some natural process

seduce [siˈdju:s] – v. induce to have sex: Harry finally seduced Sally

seemingly [ˈsi:miŋli] – adv. from appearances alone: the child is seemingly healthy but the doctor is concerned

seethe [si:ð] – v. be noisy with activity

segment [ˈsegmənt] – n. one of several parts or pieces that fit with others to constitute a whole object: finished the final segment of the road

segregate [ˈsegrigeit] – v. divide from the main body or mass and collect: Many towns segregated into new counties

selection [siˈlekʃən] – n. an assortment of things from which a choice can be made: the store carried a large selection of shoes

seminar [ˈseminɑ:] – n. any meeting for an exchange of ideas

senator [ˈsenətə] – n. a member of a senate

sensation [senˈseiʃən] – n. an unelaborated elementary awareness of stimulation: a sensation of touch

senseless [ˈsenslis] – adj. not marked by the use of reason: a senseless act

sensible [ˈsensəbl] – adj. showing reason or sound judgment: a sensible choice

sensitivity [ˈsensiˈtiviti] – n. (physiology) responsiveness to external stimuli; the faculty of sensation: sensitivity to pain

sensor  – n. any device that receives a signal or stimulus (as heat or pressure or light or motion etc.) and responds to it in a distinctive manner

sentiment [ˈsentimənt] – n. tender, romantic, or nostalgic feeling or emotion

sentry [ˈsentri] – n. a person employed to keep watch for some anticipated event

sequence [ˈsi:kwəns] – n. serial arrangement in which things follow in logical order or a recurrent pattern: the sequence of names was alphabetical

serene [siˈri:n] – adj. not agitated; without losing self-possession: he remained serene in the midst of turbulence

sergeant [ˈsɑ:dʒənt] – n. any of several noncommissioned officer ranks in the Army or Air Force or Marines ranking above a corporal

serial [ˈsiəriəl] – adj. in regular succession without gaps: serial concerts

sermon [ˈsə:mən] – n. a moralistic rebuke

serpent [ˈsə:pənt] – n. limbless scaly elongate reptile; some are venomous

set [set] – v. put into a certain place or abstract location

setback [ˈsetbæk] – n. an unfortunate happening that hinders or impedes; something that is thwarting or frustrating

settlement [ˈsetlmənt] – n. a community of people smaller than a town

severe [siˈviə] – adj. intensely or extremely bad or unpleasant in degree or quality: severe pain

sexual [ˈseksjuəl] – adj. having or involving sex: sexual reproduction

shabby [ˈʃæbi] – adj. showing signs of wear and tear: shabby furniture

shack [ʃæk] – v. make one’s home in a particular place or community

shade [ʃeid] – n. relative darkness caused by light rays being intercepted by an opaque body: it is much cooler in the shade

shadowy [ˈʃædəui] – adj. lacking clarity or distinctness: shadowy figures in the gloom

shady [ˈʃeidi] – adj. (of businesses and businessmen) unscrupulous: a shady operation

shaft [ʃɑ:ft] – n. a line that forms the length of an arrow pointer

sham [ʃæm] – n. something that is a counterfeit; not what it seems to be

shame [ʃeim] – v. surpass or beat by a wide margin

shameful [ˈʃeimfəl] – adj. giving offense to moral sensibilities and injurious to reputation: the wicked rascally shameful conduct of the bankrupt

shampoo [ʃæmˈpu:] – n. cleansing agent consisting of soaps or detergents used for washing the hair

shark [ʃɑ:k] – n. a person who is ruthless and greedy and dishonest

sharply [ˈʃɑ:pli] – adv. in an aggressive manner: she was being sharply questioned

shatter [ˈʃætə] – v. break into many pieces: The wine glass shattered

shawl [ʃɔ:l] – n. cloak consisting of an oblong piece of cloth used to cover the head and shoulders

shear [ʃiə] – n. a large edge tool that cuts sheet metal by passing a blade through it

sheer [ʃiə] – adj. complete and without restriction or qualification; sometimes used informally as intensifiers: got the job through sheer persistence

shell [ʃel] – n. the material that forms the hard outer covering of many animals

shepherd [ˈʃepəd] – n. a clergyman who watches over a group of people

sheriff [ˈʃerif] – n. the principal law-enforcement officer in a county

shipbuilding [ˈʃipbildiŋ] – n. the construction of ships

shipment [ˈʃipmənt] – n. goods carried by a large vehicle

shipwreck [ˈʃiprek] – v. ruin utterly: You have shipwrecked my career

shipyard [ˈʃipjɑ:d] – n. a workplace where ships are built or repaired

shit [ʃit] – n. obscene terms for feces

shortage [ˈʃɔ:tidʒ] – n. the property of being an amount by which something is less than expected or required

shortcut [ˈʃɔ:tkʌt] – n. a route shorter than the usual one

shorten [ˈʃɔ:tn] – v. reduce in scope while retaining essential elements: The manuscript must be shortened

shorthand [ˈʃɔ:thænd] – n. a method of writing rapidly

shoulder [ˈʃəuldə] – n. the part of the body between the neck and the upper arm

shove [ʃʌv] – v. come into rough contact with while moving

shovel [ˈʃʌvl] – n. a hand tool for lifting loose material; consists of a curved container or scoop and a handle

shower [ˈʃauə] – n. a plumbing fixture that sprays water over you: they installed a shower in the bathroom

shred [ʃred] – n. a tiny or scarcely detectable amount

shrewd [ʃru:d] – adj. marked by practical hardheaded intelligence: he was too shrewd to go along with them on a road that could lead only to their overthrow

shrill [ʃril] – adj. having or emitting a high-pitched and sharp tone or tones: a shrill whistle

shrimp [ʃrimp] – n. disparaging terms for small people

shrine [ʃrain] – n. a place of worship hallowed by association with some sacred thing or person

shroud [ʃraud] – n. a line that suspends the harness from the canopy of a parachute

shrub [ʃrʌb] – n. a low woody perennial plant usually having several major stems

shrug [ʃrʌg] – n. a gesture involving the shoulders

shudder [ˈʃʌdə] – n. an almost pleasurable sensation of fright

shun [ʃʌn] – v. avoid and stay away from deliberately; stay clear of

shutter [ˈʃʌtə] – n. a mechanical device on a camera that opens and closes to control the time of a photographic exposure

shuttle [ˈʃʌtl] – n. badminton equipment consisting of a ball of cork or rubber with a crown of feathers

sideways [ˈsaidweiz] – adv. from the side; obliquely: a picture lit sideways

siege [si:dʒ] – n. the action of an armed force that surrounds a fortified place and isolates it while continuing to attack

sieve [siv] – v. examine in order to test suitability

sift [sift] – v. separate by passing through a sieve or other straining device to separate out coarser elements: sift the flour

sight [sait] – n. an instance of visual perception: the sight of his wife brought him back to reality

sign [sain] – n. a public display of a message: he posted signs in all the shop windows

significant [sigˈnifikənt] – adj. important in effect or meaning: a significant change in tax laws

signify [ˈsignifai] – v. denote or connote

silicon [ˈsilikən] – n. a tetravalent nonmetallic element; next to oxygen it is the most abundant element in the earth’s crust; occurs in clay and feldspar and granite and quartz and sand; used as a semiconductor in transistors

similarity [.simiˈlæriti] – n. the quality of being similar

simmer [ˈsimə] – n. temperature just below the boiling point: the stew remained at a simmer for hours

simple [ˈsimpl] – adj. having few parts; not complex or complicated or involved: a simple problem

simplicity [simˈplisiti] – n. a lack of penetration or subtlety: they took advantage of her simplicity

simulate [ˈsimjuleit] – v. reproduce someone’s behavior or looks

simultaneous [.saiməlˈteinjəs] – adj. occurring or operating at the same time

sin [sin] – n. estrangement from god

sincerity [sinˈseriti] – n. the quality of being open and truthful; not deceitful or hypocritical: his sincerity inspired belief

singular [ˈsiŋgjulə] – adj. unusual or striking: such poise is singular in one so young

sinister [ˈsinistə] – adj. threatening or foreshadowing evil or tragic developments: sinister storm clouds

sink [siŋk] – v. fall or descend to a lower place or level

sip [sip] – n. a small drink

siren [ˈsaiərin] – n. a sea nymph (part woman and part bird) supposed to lure sailors to destruction on the rocks where the nymphs lived

sitting [ˈsitiŋ] – n. (photography) the act of assuming a certain position (as for a photograph or portrait): he wanted his portrait painted but couldn’t spare time for the sitting

situated [ˈsitjueitid] – adj. situated in a particular spot or position: nicely situated on a quiet riverbank

situation [.sitjuˈeiʃən] – n. the general state of things; the combination of circumstances at a given time: the present international situation is dangerous

skeleton [ˈskelitn] – n. something reduced to its minimal form: the battalion was a mere skeleton of its former self

skeptical [ˈskeptikəl] – adj. denying or questioning the tenets of especially a religion: a skeptical approach to the nature of miracles

skip [skip] – v. bypass: He skipped a row in the text and so the sentence was incomprehensible

skull [skʌl] – n. the bony skeleton of the head of vertebrates

skyscraper [ˈskaiskreipə(r)] – n. a very tall building with many stories

slab [slæb] – n. block consisting of a thick piece of something

slack [slæk] – v. avoid responsibilities and work, be idle

slander [ˈslɑ:ndə] – n. words falsely spoken that damage the reputation of another

slang [slæŋ] – v. fool or hoax

slant [slɑ:nt] – v. lie obliquely: A scar slanted across his face

slap [slæp] – n. a blow from a flat object (as an open hand)

slash [slæʃ] – v. cut with sweeping strokes; as with an ax or machete

slate [sleit] – n. thin layers of rock used for roofing

slaughter [ˈslɔ:tə] – n. the killing of animals (as for food)

slave [sleiv] – n. a person who is owned by someone

slay [slei] – v. kill intentionally and with premeditation

slick [slik] – n. a magazine printed on good quality paper

slide [slaid] – n. a small flat rectangular piece of glass on which specimens can be mounted for microscopic study

slim [slim] – adj. small in quantity: a slim chance of winning

sling [sliŋ] – n. a highball with liquor and water with sugar and lemon or lime juice

slipper [ˈslipə] – n. a person who slips or slides because of loss of traction

slit [slit] – n. a long narrow opening

slogan [ˈsləugən] – n. a favorite saying of a sect or political group

slot [slɔt] – n. a position in a grammatical linguistic construction in which a variety of alternative units are interchangeable: he developed a version of slot grammar

slum [slʌm] – n. a district of a city marked by poverty and inferior living conditions

slumber [ˈslʌmbə] – n. a natural and periodic state of rest during which consciousness of the world is suspended: calm as a child in dreamless slumber

slump [slʌmp] – v. assume a drooping posture or carriage

slur [slə:] – v. play smoothly or legato: the pianist slurred the most beautiful passage in the sonata

sly [slai] – adj. marked by skill in deception: sly as a fox

smack [smæk] – n. a blow from a flat object (as an open hand)

smart [smɑ:t] – adj. showing mental alertness and calculation and resourcefulness

smash [smæʃ] – v. hit hard: He smashed a 3-run homer

smear [smiə] – n. slanderous defamation

smog [smɔg] – n. air pollution by a mixture of smoke and fog

smother [ˈsmʌðə] – v. envelop completely: smother the meat in gravy

smuggle [ˈsmʌgl] – v. import or export without paying customs duties: She smuggled cigarettes across the border

snack [snæk] – n. a light informal meal

snail [sneil] – n. freshwater or marine or terrestrial gastropod mollusk usually having an external enclosing spiral shell

snap [snæp] – n. the act of catching an object with the hands: the infielder’s snap and throw was a single motion

snarl [snɑ:l] – v. utter in an angry, sharp, or abrupt tone: The guard snarled at us

snatch [snætʃ] – n. a small fragment: overheard snatches of their conversation

sneak [sni:k] – v. to go stealthily or furtively: ..stead of sneaking around spying on the neighbor’s house

sneer [sniə] – n. a facial expression of contempt or scorn; the upper lip curls

sneeze [sni:z] – n. a symptom consisting of the involuntary expulsion of air from the nose

sniff [snif] – v. perceive by inhaling through the nose: sniff the perfume

snob [snɔb] – n. a person regarded as arrogant and annoying

snobbish [ˈsnɔbiʃ] – adj. befitting or characteristic of those who incline to social exclusiveness and who rebuff the advances of people considered inferior

snore [snɔ:, snɔə] – n. the act of snoring or producing a snoring sound

snort [snɔ:t] – v. indicate contempt by breathing noisily and forcefully through the nose: she snorted her disapproval of the proposed bridegroom

soar [sɔ:] – v. rise rapidly: the dollar soared against the yen

sob [sɔb] – n. a dyspneic condition

sober [ˈsəubə] – adj. not affected by a chemical substance (especially alcohol)

sociable [ˈsəuʃəbl] – adj. inclined to or conducive to companionship with others: a sociable occasion

sociology [.səusiˈɔlədʒi] – n. the study and classification of human societies

socket [ˈsɔkit] – n. a bony hollow into which a structure fits

sodium [ˈsəudjəm, -diəm] – n. a silvery soft waxy metallic element of the alkali metal group; occurs abundantly in natural compounds (especially in salt water); burns with a yellow flame and reacts violently in water; occurs in sea water and in the mineral halite (rock salt)

sofa [ˈsəufə] – n. an upholstered seat for more than one person

soften [ˈsɔ(:)fn] – v. lessen in force or effect: soften a shock

softness [ˈsɔftnis] – n. the property of giving little resistance to pressure and being easily cut or molded

software [ˈsɔftwɛə] – n. (computer science) written programs or procedures or rules and associated documentation pertaining to the operation of a computer system and that are stored in read/write memory: the market for software is expected to expand

solar [ˈsəulə] – adj. relating to or derived from the sun or utilizing the energies of the sun: solar eclipse

solicit [səˈlisit] – v. make amorous advances towards

solicitor [səˈlisitə] – n. a British lawyer who gives legal advice and prepares legal documents

solidarity [.sɔliˈdæriti] – n. a union of interests or purposes or sympathies among members of a group

solidify [səˈlidifai] – v. become solid

solitary [ˈsɔlitəri] – adj. of plants and animals; not growing or living in groups or colonies: solitary bees

solitude [ˈsɔlitju:d] – n. a state of social isolation

solo [ˈsəuləu] – n. any activity that is performed alone without assistance

soluble [ˈsɔljubl] – adj. (of a substance) capable of being dissolved in some solvent (usually water)

solvent [ˈsɔlvənt] – n. a statement that solves a problem or explains how to solve the problem

soothe [su:ð] – v. give moral or emotional strength to

sophisticated [səˈfistikeitid] – adj. having or appealing to those having worldly knowledge and refinement and savoir-faire: sophisticated young socialites

sorrowful [ˈsɔrəuful] – adj. experiencing or marked by or expressing sorrow especially that associated with irreparable loss: sorrowful widows

southwards  – adv. toward the south

souvenir [ˈsu:vəniə] – n. something of sentimental value

sovereign [ˈsɔvrin] – adj. (of political bodies) not controlled by outside forces: a sovereign state

soy [sɔi] – n. a source of oil; used for forage and soil improvement and as food

spacious [ˈspeiʃəs] – adj. very large in expanse or scope: a spacious view

spaghetti [spəˈgeti] – n. pasta in the form of long strings

span [spæn] – n. the complete duration of something: the job was finished in the span of an hour

sparkle [ˈspɑ:kl] – v. reflect brightly: Unquarried marble sparkled on the hillside

spatial [ˈspeiʃəl] – adj. pertaining to or involving or having the nature of space: the first dimension to concentrate on is the spatial one

spear [spiə] – n. a long pointed rod used as a tool or weapon

speciality [.speʃiˈæliti] – n. a distinguishing trait

specialize [ˈspeʃəlaiz] – v. become more focus on an area of activity or field of study: She specializes in Near Eastern history

specialty [ˈspeʃəlti] – n. a distinguishing trait

species [ˈspi:ʃi:z] – n. (biology) taxonomic group whose members can interbreed

specifically [spiˈsifikəli] – adv. in distinction from others: a program specifically for teenagers

specification [.spesifiˈkeiʃən] – n. a detailed description of design criteria for a piece of work

specimen [ˈspesimən] – n. an example regarded as typical of its class

spectacle [ˈspektəkl] – n. something or someone seen (especially a notable or unusual sight): the tragic spectacle of cripples trying to escape

spectacular [spekˈtækjulə] – adj. sensational in appearance or thrilling in effect: a spectacular display of northern lights

spectator [spekˈteitə] – n. a close observer; someone who looks at something (such as an exhibition of some kind): the spectators applauded the performance

spectrum [ˈspektrəm] – n. an ordered array of the components of an emission or wave

speculate [ˈspekjuleit] – v. to believe especially on uncertain or tentative grounds

spherical [ˈsferikəl] – adj. having the shape of a sphere or ball: a spherical object

spice [spais] – n. aromatic substances of vegetable origin used as a preservative

spill [spil] – v. cause or allow (a liquid substance) to run or flow from a container: spill the milk

spinach [ˈspinitʃ] – n. southwestern Asian plant widely cultivated for its succulent edible dark green leaves

spine [spain] – n. any sharply pointed projection

spiral [ˈspairəl] – n. a plane curve traced by a point circling about the center but at increasing distances from the center

spite [spait] – n. feeling a need to see others suffer

splash [splæʃ] – v. cause (a liquid) to spatter about, especially with force: She splashed the water around her

split [split] – n. extending the legs at right angles to the trunk (one in front and the other in back)

spokesman [ˈspəuksmən] – n. a male spokesperson

sponge [spʌndʒ] – v. ask for and get free; be a parasite

spontaneous [spɔnˈteiniəs] – adj. happening or arising without apparent external cause: spontaneous laughter

spotlight [ˈspɔtlait] – n. a focus of public attention

spouse [spauz] – n. a person’s partner in marriage

sprinkle [ˈspriŋkl] – v. distribute loosely

sprout [spraut] – n. any new growth of a plant such as a new branch or a bud

spy [spai] – v. catch sight of

squad [skwɔd] – n. a smallest army unit

squadron [ˈskwɔdrən] – n. a cavalry unit consisting of two or more troops and headquarters and supporting arms

squash [skwɔʃ] – n. any of numerous annual trailing plants of the genus Cucurbita grown for their fleshy edible fruits

squat [skwɔt] – n. exercising by repeatedly assuming a crouching position with the knees bent; strengthens the leg muscles

squeak [skwi:k] – n. a short high-pitched noise: the squeak of shoes on powdery snow

squeeze [skwi:z] – v. to compress with violence, out of natural shape or condition: squeeze a lemon

squirrel [ˈskwirəl] – n. a kind of arboreal rodent having a long bushy tail

stab [stæb] – n. a sudden sharp feeling: she felt a stab of excitement

stabilise  – v. support or hold steady and make steadfast, with or as if with a brace

stability [stəˈbiliti] – n. the quality or attribute of being firm and steadfast

stabilize [ˈsteibilaiz] – v. make stable and keep from fluctuating or put into an equilibrium: The drug stabilized her blood pressure

stagger [ˈstægə] – v. walk as if unable to control one’s movements: The drunken man staggered into the room

stainless [ˈsteinlis] – n. steel containing chromium that makes it resistant to corrosion

staircase [ˈstɛəkeis] – n. a way of access (upward and downward) consisting of a set of steps

stairway  – n. a way of access (upward and downward) consisting of a set of steps

stalk [stɔ:k] – n. material consisting of seed coverings and small pieces of stem or leaves that have been separated from the seeds

stall [stɔ:l] – n. small area set off by walls for special use

stammer [ˈstæmə] – n. a speech disorder involving hesitations and involuntary repetitions of certain sounds

standardize [ˈstændədaiz] – v. evaluate by comparing with a standard

staple [ˈsteipl] – n. a natural fiber (raw cotton, wool, hemp, flax) that can be twisted to form yarn: staple fibers vary widely in length

starch [stɑ:tʃ] – n. a complex carbohydrate found chiefly in seeds, fruits, tubers, roots and stem pith of plants, notably in corn, potatoes, wheat, and rice; an important foodstuff and used otherwise especially in adhesives and as fillers and stiffeners for paper and textiles

stark [stɑ:k] – adj. devoid of any qualifications or disguise or adornment: facing the stark reality of the deadline

start [stɑ:t] – v. take the first step or steps in carrying out an action: Who will start?

startle [ˈstɑ:tl] – v. to stimulate to action: ..startled him awake

statesman [ˈsteitsmən] – n. a man who is a respected leader in national or international affairs

stationary [ˈsteiʃənəri] – adj. standing still: the car remained stationary with the engine running

stationery [ˈsteiʃ(ə)nəri] – n. paper cut to an appropriate size for writing letters; usually with matching envelopes

statistics [stəˈtistiks] – n. a branch of applied mathematics concerned with the collection and interpretation of quantitative data and the use of probability theory to estimate population parameters

stature [ˈstætʃə] – n. high level of respect gained by impressive development or achievement: a man of great stature

statute [ˈstætju:t] – n. an act passed by a legislative body

statutory [ˈstætʃutəri] – adj. prescribed or authorized by or punishable under a statute: statutory restrictions

steady [ˈstedi] – adj. not subject to change or variation especially in behavior: a steady beat

steak [steik] – n. a slice of meat cut from the fleshy part of an animal or large fish

steal [sti:l] – v. take without the owner’s consent

stem [stem] – n. a slender or elongated structure that supports a plant or fungus or a plant part or plant organ

stepfather [ˈstep.fɑ:ðə] – n. the husband of your mother by a subsequent marriage

stepmother [ˈstep.mʌðə] – n. the wife of your father by a subsequent marriage

stereo [ˈsteriəu] – n. reproducer in which two microphones feed two or more loudspeakers to give a three-dimensional effect to the sound

stereotype [ˈsteriətaip] – n. a conventional or formulaic conception or image: regional stereotypes have been part of America since its founding

sterling [ˈstə:liŋ] – adj. highest in quality

stern [stə:n] – adj. not to be placated or appeased or moved by entreaty: the stern demands of parenthood

stew [stju:] – v. be in a huff; be silent or sullen

steward [ˈstju:əd] – n. someone who manages property or other affairs for someone else

stiff [stif] – adj. not moving or operating freely: a stiff hinge

stiffness  – n. the physical property of being inflexible and hard to bend

stifle [ˈstaifl] – v. conceal or hide

stigma [ˈstigmə] – n. a symbol of disgrace or infamy

stillness [ˈstilnis] – n. (poetic) tranquil silence

stimulus [ˈstimjuləs] – n. any stimulating information or event; acts to arouse action

sting [stiŋ] – v. saddle with something disagreeable or disadvantageous

stink [stiŋk] – v. be extremely bad in quality or in one’s performance: This term paper stinks!

stitch [stitʃ] – n. a link or loop or knot made by an implement in knitting, crocheting, embroidery, or sewing

stone [stəun] – n. a lump or mass of hard consolidated mineral matter

stool [stu:l] – n. a simple seat without a back or arms

storage  – n. a depository for goods

storm [stɔ:m] – v. behave violently, as if in state of a great anger

stout [staut] – adj. dependable: stout hearts

straighten [ˈstreitn] – v. make straight

straightforward [streitˈfɔ:wəd] – adj. free from ambiguity: a straightforward set of instructions

strait [streit] – n. a narrow channel of the sea joining two larger bodies of water

strand [strænd] – n. line consisting of a complex of fibers or filaments that are twisted together to form a thread or a rope or a cable

strange [streindʒ] – adj. being definitely out of the ordinary and unexpected; slightly odd or even a bit weird: a strange exaltation that was indefinable

strangle [ˈstræŋgl] – v. kill by squeezing the throat of so as to cut off the air: he tried to strangle his opponent

strategic [strəˈti:dʒik] – adj. highly important to or an integral part of a strategy or plan of action especially in war: a strategic chess move

strawberry [ˈstrɔ:bəri] – n. sweet fleshy red fruit

stray [strei] – v. move about aimlessly or without any destination, often in search of food or employment

streak [stri:k] – n. an unbroken series of events: had a streak of bad luck

streamline [ˈstri:mlain] – v. contour economically or efficiently

strength [streŋθ] – n. the property of being physically or mentally strong: fatigue sapped his strength

strenuous [ˈstrenjuəs] – adj. characterized by or performed with much energy or force: strenuous exercise

stride [straid] – n. a step in walking or running

strife [straif] – n. lack of agreement or harmony

striking [ˈstraikiŋ] – n. the physical coming together of two or more things

strip [strip] – v. take away possessions from someone: The Nazis stripped the Jews of all their assets

strive [straiv] – v. attempt by employing effort

stroll [strəul] – n. a leisurely walk (usually in some public place)

stubborn [ˈstʌbən] – adj. tenaciously unwilling or marked by tenacious unwillingness to yield

studio [ˈstju:diəu] – n. workplace for the teaching or practice of an art: she ran a dance studio

stuffy [ˈstʌfi] – adj. lacking fresh air: hot and stuffy and the air was blue with smoke

stumble [ˈstʌmbl] – v. walk unsteadily: The drunk man stumbled about

stump [stʌmp] – n. the base part of a tree that remains standing after the tree has been felled

stun [stʌn] – v. make senseless or dizzy by or as if by a blow: stun fish

stunt [stʌnt] – n. a difficult or unusual or dangerous feat; usually done to gain attention

sturdy [ˈstə:di] – adj. having rugged physical strength; inured to fatigue or hardships: sturdy young athletes

stylish [ˈstailiʃ] – adj. having elegance or taste or refinement in manners or dress: a little less posh but every bit as stylish as Lord Peter Wimsey

sub [sʌb] – n. a large sandwich made of a long crusty roll split lengthwise and filled with meats and cheese (and tomato and onion and lettuce and condiments); different names are used in different sections of the United States

subdivide [ˈsʌbdiˈvaid] – v. divide into smaller and smaller pieces: This apartment cannot be subdivided any further!

subdue [sʌbˈdju:] – v. put down by force or intimidation

subject [ˈsʌbdʒekt] – n. something (a person or object or scene) selected by an artist or photographer for graphic representation: a moving picture of a train is more dramatic than a still picture of the same subject

subjective [səbˈdʒektiv] – adj. taking place within the mind and modified by individual bias: a subjective judgment

sublime [səˈblaim] – adj. inspiring awe: the sublime beauty of the night

submarine [ˈsʌbməri:n] – v. move forward or under in a sliding motion: The child was injured when he submarined under the safety belt of the car

subordinate [səˈbɔ:dineit] – adj. lower in rank or importance

subscribe [səbˈskraib] – v. offer to buy, as of stocks and shares: The broker subscribed 500 shares

subscript  – n. a character or symbol set or printed or written beneath or slightly below and to the side of another character

subscription [səbˈskripʃən] – n. a payment for consecutive issues of a newspaper or magazine for a given period of time

subsequent [ˈsʌbsikwənt] – adj. following in time or order: subsequent developments

subsequently [ˈsʌbsikwəntli] – adv. happening at a time subsequent to a reference time: he apologized subsequently

subside [səbˈsaid] – v. wear off or die down: The pain subsided

subsidiary [səbˈsidjəri] – n. an assistant subject to the authority or control of another

subsidise  – v. support through subsidies

subsidize [ˈsʌbsidaiz] – v. secure the assistance of by granting a subsidy, as of nations or military forces

subsidy [ˈsʌbsidi] – n. a grant paid by a government to an enterprise that benefits the public: a subsidy for research in artificial intelligence

substance [ˈsʌbstəns] – n. the real physical matter of which a person or thing consists: DNA is the substance of our genes

substantial [səbˈstænʃəl] – adj. fairly large: won by a substantial margin

subtle [ˈsʌtl] – adj. difficult to detect or grasp by the mind or analyze: his whole attitude had undergone a subtle change

succession [səkˈseʃən] – n. a following of one thing after another in time

successor [səkˈsesə] – n. a person who follows next in order: he was President Lincoln’s successor

sue [su:] – n. French writer whose novels described the sordid side of city life (1804-1857)

suffice [səˈfais] – v. be sufficient; be adequate, either in quality or quantity: A ‘B’ grade doesn’t suffice to get me into medical school

suicide [ˈsu:ə.said] – n. the act of killing yourself: it is a crime to commit suicide

suit [sju:t] – n. a comprehensive term for any proceeding in a court of law whereby an individual seeks a legal remedy: the family brought suit against the landlord

suitcase [ˈsu:tkeis] – n. a portable rectangular container for carrying clothes

suite [swi:t] – n. a musical composition of several movements only loosely connected

sulfur [ˈsʌlfə] – v. treat with sulphur in order to preserve

sullen [ˈsʌlən] – adj. showing a brooding ill humor: a sullen crowd

sulphur [ˈsʌlfə] – n. an abundant tasteless odorless multivalent nonmetallic element; best known in yellow crystals; occurs in many sulphide and sulphate minerals and even in native form (especially in volcanic regions)

summary [ˈsʌməri] – adj. performed speedily and without formality: a summary execution

summit [ˈsʌmit] – n. the highest level or degree attainable; the highest stage of development: the summit of his ambition

summon [ˈsʌmən] – v. call in an official matter, such as to attend court

sunflower [ˈsʌnflauə] – n. any plant of the genus Helianthus having large flower heads with dark disk florets and showy yellow rays

superb [sjuˈpə:b] – adj. of surpassing excellence: a superb actor

superficial [.su:pəˈfiʃəl] – adj. concerned with or comprehending only what is apparent or obvious; not deep or penetrating emotionally or intellectually: superficial similarities

superfluous [su:ˈpə:fluəs, sju:-] – adj. serving no useful purpose; having no excuse for being

superintendent [.sju:pərinˈtendənt] – n. a person who directs and manages an organization

superiority [sju.piəriˈɔriti] – n. the quality of being at a competitive advantage

supersonic [ˈsju:pəˈsɔnik] – adj. (of speed) greater than the speed of sound in a given medium (especially air): a supersonic bomber flies so fast that it must release its bombs while the target is still over the horizon

superstition [.sju:pəˈstiʃən] – n. an irrational belief arising from ignorance or fear

supervise [ˈsju:pəvaiz] – v. watch and direct

supplement [ˈsʌpliment] – n. textual matter that is added onto a publication; usually at the end

supplementary [.sʌpliˈmentəri] – adj. functioning in a supporting capacity

support [səˈpɔ:t] – n. aiding the cause or policy or interests of: the president no longer has the support of his own party

suppress [səˈpres] – v. to put down by force or authority: suppress a nascent uprising

surge [sə:dʒ] – v. rise and move, as in waves or billows: The army surged forward

surgeon [ˈsə:dʒən] – n. a physician who specializes in surgery

surname [ˈsə:neim] – n. the name used to identify the members of a family (as distinguished from each member’s given name)

surpass [səˈpɑ:s] – v. distinguish oneself

surplus [ˈsə:pləs] – n. a quantity much larger than is needed

survival [səˈvaivəl] – n. a natural process resulting in the evolution of organisms best adapted to the environment

susceptible [səˈseptəbl] – adj. (often followed by `of’ or `to’) yielding readily to or capable of: susceptible to colds

suspense [səsˈpens] – n. apprehension about what is going to happen

suspension [səˈspenʃən] – n. a time interval during which there is a temporary cessation of something

suspicious [səsˈpiʃəs] – adj. openly distrustful and unwilling to confide

swamp [swɔmp] – n. low land that is seasonally flooded; has more woody plants than a marsh and better drainage than a bog

swap [swɔp] – v. exchange or give (something) in exchange for

swarm [swɔ:m] – n. a moving crowd

sweeten [ˈswi:tn] – v. make sweeter, more pleasant, or more agreeable: sweeten a deal

sweetness [ˈswi:tnis] – n. the taste experience when sugar dissolves in the mouth

swell [swel] – v. increase in size, magnitude, number, or intensity: The music swelled to a crescendo

swerve [swə:v] – n. the act of turning aside suddenly

switch [switʃ] – n. an event in which one thing is substituted for another

syllable [ˈsiləbl] – n. a unit of spoken language larger than a phoneme: the word `pocket’ has two syllables

symmetrical [siˈmetrikəl] – adj. having similarity in size, shape, and relative position of corresponding parts

symmetry [ˈsimitri] – n. balance among the parts of something

symphony [ˈsimfəni] – n. a large orchestra; can perform symphonies: we heard the Vienna symphony

symposium [simˈpəuziəm] – n. a meeting or conference for the public discussion of some topic especially one in which the participants form an audience and make presentations

symptom [ˈsimptəm] – n. anything that accompanies X and is regarded as an indication of X’s existence

syndicate [ˈsindikit] – n. a loose affiliation of gangsters in charge of organized criminal activities

syndrome [ˈsindrəum] – n. a complex of concurrent things: every word has a syndrome of meanings

synonym [ˈsinənim] – n. two words that can be interchanged in a context are said to be synonymous relative to that context

synthesis [ˈsinθisis] – n. the process of producing a chemical compound (usually by the union of simpler chemical compounds)

systematic [.sistiˈmætik] – adj. characterized by order and planning: the investigation was very systematic

systematically [sistəˈmætikəli] – adv. in a systematic or consistent manner: they systematically excluded women

tablet [ˈtæblit] – n. a number of sheets of paper fastened together along one edge

tabulate [ˈtæbjuleit] – v. shape or cut with a flat surface

tack [tæk] – n. the heading or position of a vessel relative to the trim of its sails

tackle [ˈtækl] – n. the person who plays that position on a football team: the right tackle is a straight A student

tact [tækt] – n. consideration in dealing with others and avoiding giving offense

tactic [ˈtæktik] – n. a plan for attaining a particular goal

tactics [ˈtæktiks] – n. the branch of military science dealing with detailed maneuvers to achieve objectives set by strategy

tan [tæn] – n. a browning of the skin resulting from exposure to the rays of the sun

tangible [ˈtændʒəbəl] – adj. perceptible by the senses especially the sense of touch: skin with a tangible roughness

tangle [ˈtæŋgl] – v. force into some kind of situation, condition, or course of action

tanker [ˈtæŋkə] – n. a cargo ship designed to carry crude oil in bulk

tape [teip] – n. a long thin piece of cloth or paper as used for binding or fastening: he used a piece of tape for a belt

taper [ˈteipə] – n. a convex shape that narrows toward a point

tar [tɑ:] – n. a man who serves as a sailor

tariff [ˈtærif] – n. a government tax on imports or exports

tart [tɑ:t] – n. a woman who engages in sexual intercourse for money

tavern [ˈtævə(:)n] – n. a building with a bar that is licensed to sell alcoholic drinks

team [ti:m] – n. a cooperative unit (especially in sports)

tease [ti:z] – v. annoy persistently: The children teased the boy because of his stammer

teem [ti:m] – v. move in large numbers

televise [ˈtelivaiz] – v. broadcast via television: The Royal wedding was televised

telex [ˈteleks] – n. a character printer connected to a telegraph that operates like a typewriter

temperament [ˈtempərəmənt] – n. your usual mood

temperate [ˈtempərit] – adj. (of weather or climate) free from extremes; mild; or characteristic of such weather or climate: a temperate region

tempo [ˈtempəu] – n. (music) the speed at which a composition is to be played

tempt [tempt] – v. dispose or incline or entice to: We were tempted by the delicious-looking food

tenant [ˈtenənt] – n. someone who pays rent to use land or a building or a car that is owned by someone else: the landlord can evict a tenant who doesn’t pay the rent

tensile [ˈtensail] – adj. capable of being shaped or bent or drawn out: made of highly tensile steel alloy

tentative [ˈtentətiv] – adj. under terms not final or fully worked out or agreed upon: just a tentative schedule

tenure [ˈtenjuə] – n. the term during which some position is held

terminal [ˈtə:minl] – adj. of or relating to or situated at the ends of a delivery route: freight pickup is a terminal service

terminate [ˈtə:mineit] – v. bring to an end or halt: The attack on Poland terminated the relatively peaceful period after WW I

terminology [.tə:miˈnɔlədʒi] – n. a system of words used to name things in a particular discipline: legal terminology

terrace [ˈterəs] – n. usually paved outdoor area adjoining a residence

terrain [teˈrein] – n. a piece of ground having specific characteristics or military potential: they decided to attack across the rocky terrain

terrific [təˈrifik] – adj. very great or intense: a terrific noise

terrify [ˈterifai] – v. fill with terror; frighten greatly

terrorist [ˈterərist] – n. a radical who employs terror as a political weapon; usually organizes with other terrorists in small cells; often uses religion as a cover for terrorist activities

testify [ˈtestifai] – v. provide evidence for

testimony [ˈtestiməni] – n. a solemn statement made under oath

texture [ˈtekstʃə] – n. the feel of a surface or a fabric: the wall had a smooth texture

Thanksgiving [θæŋksˈgiviŋ] – n. fourth Thursday in November in the United States; second Monday in October in Canada; commemorates a feast held in 1621 by the Pilgrims and the Wampanoag

thatch [θætʃ] – n. plant stalks used as roofing material

thaw [θɔ:] – n. warm weather following a freeze; snow and ice melt: they welcomed the spring thaw

theatre [ˈθiətə] – n. the art of writing and producing plays

theft [θeft] – n. the act of taking something from someone unlawfully

theme [θi:m] – n. a unifying idea that is a recurrent element in literary or artistic work: it was the usual `boy gets girl’ theme

theorem  – n. a proposition deducible from basic postulates

theory [ˈθiəri] – n. a tentative insight into the natural world; a concept that is not yet verified but that if true would explain certain facts or phenomena: a scientific hypothesis that survives experimental testing becomes a scientific theory

therapy [ˈθerəpi] – n. (medicine) the act of caring for someone (as by medication or remedial training etc.): heat therapy gave the best relief

thereafter [ðɛəˈæftə] – adv. from that time on: thereafter he never called again

therein [ðɛərˈin] – adv. (formal) in or into that thing or place: they can read therein what our plans are

thereof [ðɛərˈɔv, -ˈɔf] – adv. of or concerning this or that: a problem and the solution thereof

thermal [ˈθə:məl,ˈθə:ml] – adj. relating to or associated with heat: thermal movements of molecules

thesis [ˈθi:sis] – n. an unproved statement put forward as a premise in an argument

thicken [ˈθikən] – v. become thick or thicker: The sauce thickened

thigh [θai] – n. the part of the leg between the hip and the knee

thirst [θə:st] – n. a physiological need to drink

thorn [θɔ:n] – n. something that causes irritation and annoyance: he’s a thorn in my flesh

thorough [ˈθʌrə] – adj. painstakingly careful and accurate: our accountant is thorough

thoughtless [ˈθɔ:tlis] – adj. without care or thought for others: the thoughtless saying of a great princess on being informed that the people had no bread; `Let them eat cake’

thrash [θræʃ] – v. move or stir about violently: The feverish patient thrashed around in his bed

thresh  – v. move or stir about violently

threshold [ˈθreʃhəuld] – n. the starting point for a new state or experience: on the threshold of manhood

thrift [θrift] – n. any of numerous sun-loving low-growing evergreens of the genus Armeria having round heads of pink or white flowers

thrifty [ˈθrifti] – adj. careful and diligent in the use of resources

thrill [θril] – v. feel sudden intense sensation or emotion: he was thrilled by the speed and the roar of the engine

throb [θrɔb] – v. pulsate or pound with abnormal force: my head is throbbing

throne [θrəun] – n. the chair of state for a monarch, bishop, etc.: the king sat on his throne

throng [θrɔŋ] – n. a large gathering of people

through [θru:] – adv. from beginning to end: read this book through

thump [θʌmp] – v. move rhythmically

tick [tik] – n. a metallic tapping sound: he counted the ticks of the clock

ticket [ˈtikit] – n. a commercial document showing that the holder is entitled to something (as to ride on public transportation or to enter a public entertainment)

tickle [ˈtikl] – v. touch (a body part) lightly so as to excite the surface nerves and cause uneasiness, laughter, or spasmodic movements

tighten [ˈtaitən] – v. become tight or tighter: The rope tightened

tightly [ˈtaitli] – adv. securely fixed or fastened: the window was tightly sealed

tile [tail] – n. a flat thin rectangular slab (as of fired clay or rubber or linoleum) used to cover surfaces

tilt [tilt] – n. a contentious speech act; a dispute where there is strong disagreement

timber [ˈtimbə] – n. the wood of trees cut and prepared for use as building material

timely [ˈtaimli] – adj. done or happening at the appropriate or proper time: a timely warning

timid [ˈtimid] – adj. showing fear and lack of confidence

tinge [tindʒ] – n. a slight but appreciable amount

tingle [ˈtiŋgəl] – n. an almost pleasurable sensation of fright

tiresome [ˈtaiəsəm] – adj. so lacking in interest as to cause mental weariness: the tiresome chirping of a cricket

toad [təud] – n. any of various tailless stout-bodied amphibians with long hind limbs for leaping; semiaquatic and terrestrial species

toil [tɔil] – n. productive work (especially physical work done for wages)

token [ˈtəukən] – n. an individual instance of a type of symbol: the word`error’ contains three tokens of `r’

tolerant [ˈtɔlərənt] – adj. showing respect for the rights or opinions or practices of others

toll [təul] – n. a fee levied for the use of roads or bridges (used for maintenance)

tomb [tu:m] – n. a place for the burial of a corpse (especially beneath the ground and marked by a tombstone)

tone [tʌn] – n. the quality of a person’s voice: he began in a conversational tone

topical [ˈtɔpikəl] – adj. pertaining to the surface of a body part: a drug for topical (or local) application

topple [ˈtɔpəl] – v. fall down, as if collapsing

torment [ˈtɔ:ment,tɔ:ˈment] – n. unbearable physical pain

tornado [tɔ:ˈneidəu] – n. a purified and potent form of cocaine that is smoked rather than snorted; highly addictive

torpedo [tɔ:ˈpi:dəu] – n. a professional killer who uses a gun

torque [tɔ:k] – n. a twisting force

torrent [ˈtɔrənt] – n. a heavy rain

toss [tɔs] – v. lightly throw to see which side comes up

tournament [ˈtuənəmənt] – n. a sporting competition in which contestants play a series of games to decide the winner

tow [təu] – n. the act of hauling something (as a vehicle) by means of a hitch or rope: the truck gave him a tow to the garage

tower [ˈtauə] – n. a structure taller than its diameter; can stand alone or be attached to a larger building

toxic [ˈtɔksik] – adj. of or relating to or caused by a toxin or poison: suffering from exposure to toxic substances

track [træk] – n. evidence pointing to a possible solution

tract [trækt] – n. an extended area of land

trade [treid] – n. the commercial exchange (buying and selling on domestic or international markets) of goods and services: Venice was an important center of trade with the East

trademark [ˈtreidmɑ:k] – n. a distinctive characteristic or attribute

trader [ˈtreidə] – n. someone who purchases and maintains an inventory of goods to be sold

tradesman [ˈtreidzmən] – n. a merchant who owns or manages a shop

tragic [ˈtrædʒik] – adj. very sad; especially involving grief or death or destruction: a tragic face

trait [treit] – n. a distinguishing feature of your personal nature

tram [træm] – n. a four-wheeled wagon that runs on tracks in a mine: a tramcar carries coal out of a coal mine

tramp [træmp] – n. a disreputable vagrant: a homeless tramp

trample [ˈtræmpl] – v. tread or stomp heavily or roughly: The soldiers trampled across the fields

tranquil [ˈtræŋkwil] – adj. (of a body of water) free from disturbance by heavy waves: a lake of tranquil blue water reflecting a tranquil blue sky

transaction [trænˈzækʃən] – n. the act of transacting within or between groups (as carrying on commercial activities): no transactions are possible without him

transcend [trænˈsend] – v. be greater in scope or size than some standard

transcript [ˈtrænskript] – n. a reproduction of a written record (e.g. of a legal or school record)

transform [trænsˈfɔ:m] – v. change or alter in form, appearance, or nature: This experience transformed her completely

transient [ˈtrænʃənt,ˈtrænziənt] – n. one who stays for only a short time: transient laborers

transistor [trænˈzistə] – n. a semiconductor device capable of amplification

transit [ˈtrænsit] – v. make a passage or journey from one place to another

transition [trænˈziʃən] – n. the act of passing from one state or place to the next

transmission [trænsˈmiʃən] – n. communication by means of transmitted signals

transmitter [trænzˈmitə] – n. any agent (person or animal or microorganism) that carries and transmits a disease: aphids are transmitters of plant diseases

transplant [trænsˈplɑ:nt] – v. lift and reset in another soil or situation

transverse [ˈtrænzvə:s] – adj. extending or lying across; in a crosswise direction; at right angles to the long axis: from the transverse hall the stairway ascends gracefully

traverse [ˈtrævə(:)s] – n. a horizontal beam that extends across something

treachery [ˈtretʃəri] – n. betrayal of a trust

tread [tred] – v. put down or press the foot, place the foot: For fools rush in where angels fear to tread

treason [ˈtri:zn] – n. a crime that undermines the offender’s government

treasurer [ˈtreʒərə] – n. an officer charged with receiving and disbursing funds

treasury [ˈtreʒəri] – n. the funds of a government or institution or individual

trek [trek] – n. a journey by ox wagon (especially an organized migration by a group of settlers)

trench [trentʃ] – v. impinge or infringe upon: This matter entrenches on other domains

triangular [traiˈæŋgjulə] – adj. having three sides

tribe [traib] – n. a social division of (usually preliterate) people

tribute [ˈtribju:t] – n. something given or done as an expression of esteem

trickle [ˈtrikl] – n. flowing in drops; the formation and falling of drops of liquid

trifle [ˈtraifl] – n. a cold pudding made of layers of sponge cake spread with fruit or jelly; may be decorated with nuts, cream, or chocolate

trigger [ˈtrigə] – n. lever that activates the firing mechanism of a gun

triple [ˈtripl] – n. a base hit at which the batter stops safely at third base

triumphant [traiˈʌmfənt] – adj. experiencing triumph

trivial [ˈtriviəl] – adj. (informal) small and of little importance

trolley [ˈtrɔli] – n. a wheeled vehicle that runs on rails and is propelled by electricity

troop [tru:p] – n. a group of soldiers

trophy [ˈtrəufi] – n. an award for success in war or hunting

tropic [ˈtrɔpik] – n. either of two parallels of latitude about 23.5 degrees to the north and south of the equator representing the points farthest north and south at which the sun can shine directly overhead and constituting the boundaries of the Torrid Zone or tropics

tropical [ˈtrɔpikəl] – adj. of or relating to the tropics, or either tropic: tropical year

trot [trɔt] – n. a slow pace of running

troublesome [ˈtrʌblsəm] – adj. difficult to deal with: a troublesome infection

trudge [trʌdʒ] – n. a long difficult walk

trustee [trʌsˈti:] – n. members of a governing board

tub [tʌb] – n. a relatively large open container that you fill with water and use to wash the body

tuberculosis [tju.bə:kjuˈləusis] – n. infection transmitted by inhalation or ingestion of tubercle bacilli and manifested in fever and small lesions (usually in the lungs but in various other parts of the body in acute stages)

tuck [tʌk] – n. eatables (especially sweets)

tug [tʌg] – v. pull hard: The prisoner tugged at the chains

tuition [tju:ˈiʃən] – n. a fee paid for instruction (especially for higher education): tuition and room and board were more than $25,000

tulip [ˈtju:lip] – n. any of numerous perennial bulbous herbs having linear or broadly lanceolate leaves and usually a single showy flower

tumble [ˈtʌmbl] – v. fall down, as if collapsing: The tower of the World Trade Center tumbled after the plane hit it

tumor [ˈtju:mə] – n. an abnormal new mass of tissue that serves no purpose

tumour  – n. an abnormal new mass of tissue that serves no purpose

tuna [ˈtju:nə] – n. tropical American prickly pear of Jamaica

turbulent [ˈtə:bjulənt] – adj. characterized by unrest or disorder or insubordination: a turbulent and unruly childhood

turkey [ˈtə:ki] – n. large gallinaceous bird with fan-shaped tail; widely domesticated for food

turmoil [ˈtə:mɔil] – n. a violent disturbance

turnover [ˈtə:n.əuvə] – n. the ratio of the number of workers that had to be replaced in a given time period to the average number of workers

turtle [ˈtə:tl] – n. a sweater or jersey with a high close-fitting collar

tutor [ˈtju:tə] – v. act as a guardian to someone

twig [twig] – v. understand, usually after some initial difficulty

twilight [ˈtwailait] – n. the time of day immediately following sunset: he loved the twilight

twist [twist] – n. an unforeseen development

twitch [twitʃ] – v. make an uncontrolled, short, jerky motion: his face is twitching

typhoon [taiˈfu:n] – n. a tropical cyclone occurring in the western Pacific or Indian oceans

tyranny [ˈtirəni] – n. dominance through threat of punishment and violence

tyrant [ˈtaiərənt] – n. a cruel and oppressive dictator

ultimate [ˈʌltimit] – adj. furthest or highest in degree or order; utmost or extreme: the ultimate achievement

ultrasonic [ˈʌltrəˈsɔnik] – adj. having frequencies above those of audible sound

ultraviolet [ˈʌltrəˈvaiəlit] – adj. having or employing wavelengths shorter than light but longer than X-rays; lying outside the visible spectrum at its violet end: ultraviolet radiation

unanimous [juˈnæniməs] – adj. in complete agreement: a unanimous decision

uncertain [ʌnˈsə:tn] – adj. lacking or indicating lack of confidence or assurance: uncertain of his convictions

underestimate [ˈʌndərˈestimeit] – v. assign too low a value to: Don’t underestimate the value of this heirloom-you may sell it at a good price

underlie [.ʌndəˈlai] – v. be or form the base for

underline [.ʌndəˈlain] – v. give extra weight to (a communication)

underlying [.ʌndəˈlaiiŋ] – adj. in the nature of something though not readily apparent: an underlying meaning

undermine [.ʌndəˈmain] – v. destroy property or hinder normal operations

undertake [.ʌndəˈteik] – v. enter upon an activity or enterprise

undertaking [.ʌndəˈteikiŋ] – n. the trade of a funeral director

underwear [ˈʌndəwɛə] – n. undergarment worn next to the skin and under the outer garments

undesirable [.ʌndiˈzaiərəbəl] – adj. not wanted: undesirable impurities in steel

undress [ʌnˈdres] – v. remove (someone’s or one’s own) clothes: The nurse quickly undressed the accident victim

uneasy [ʌnˈi:zi] – adj. lacking a sense of security or affording no ease or reassurance: farmers were uneasy until rain finally came

unemployment [ˈʌnimˈplɔimənt] – n. the state of being unemployed or not having a job: unemployment is a serious social evil

unfit [ˈʌnˈfit] – adj. below the required standards for a purpose: an unfit parent

unfold [ʌnˈfəuld] – v. develop or come to a promising stage

uniformly [ˈju:nifɔ:mli] – adv. in a uniform manner: a uniformly bright surface

unify [ˈju:nifai] – v. become one

unique [ju:ˈni:k] – adj. radically distinctive and without equal: Bach was unique in his handling of counterpoint

universally [ju:niˈvɜ:səli] – adv. everywhere: people universally agree on this

unleash [ʌnˈli:ʃ] – v. release or vent: unleash one’s anger

unlimited [ʌnˈlimitid] – adj. having no limits in range or scope: to start with a theory of unlimited freedom is to end up with unlimited despotism

unlock [ˈʌnˈlɔk] – v. open the lock of: unlock the door

unpaid [ˈʌnˈpeid] – adj. not paid: unpaid wages

unreasonable [ʌnˈri:znəbl] – adj. not reasonable; not showing good judgment

untie [ˈʌnˈtai] – v. undo the ties of: They untied the prisoner

update [ʌpˈdeit] – v. modernize or bring up to date: We updated the kitchen in the old house

upgrade [ˈʌpgreid] – n. an upward slope or grade (as in a road)

uphold [ʌpˈhəuld] – v. keep or maintain in unaltered condition; cause to remain or last

uprising [ʌpˈraiziŋ] – n. organized opposition to authority; a conflict in which one faction tries to wrest control from another

uproar [ˈʌprɔ:] – n. a state of commotion and noise and confusion

uranium [juəˈreiniəm] – n. a heavy toxic silvery-white radioactive metallic element; occurs in many isotopes; used for nuclear fuels and nuclear weapons

urge [ə:dʒ] – v. force or impel in an indicated direction: I urged him to finish his studies

urine [ˈjuərin] – n. liquid excretory product: there was blood in his urine

usage [ˈju:sidʒ] – n. the act of using

usher [ˈʌʃə] – n. Irish prelate who deduced from the Bible that Creation occurred in the year 4004 BC (1581-1656)

utensil [ju:ˈtensl] – n. an implement for practical use (especially in a household)

utilization [.ju:tilaiˈzeiʃən] – n. the act of using: skilled in the utilization of computers

vaccinate [ˈvæksineit] – v. perform vaccinations or produce immunity in by inoculation: We vaccinate against scarlet fever

validity [væˈliditi] – n. the quality of having legal force or effectiveness

valuable [ˈvæljuəbl] – adj. having worth or merit or value: a valuable friend

value [ˈvælju:] – n. a numerical quantity measured or assigned or computed: the value assigned was 16 milliseconds

valve [vælv] – n. a structure in a hollow organ (like the heart) with a flap to insure one-way flow of fluid through it

varnish [ˈvɑ:niʃ] – n. a coating that provides a hard, lustrous, transparent finish to a surface

vase [veis] – n. an open jar of glass or porcelain used as an ornament or to hold flowers

vault [vɔ:lt] – n. a burial chamber (usually underground)

vector  – n. a variable quantity that can be resolved into components

vegetation [.vedʒiˈteiʃən] – n. all the plant life in a particular region or period: Pleistocene vegetation

veil [veil] – n. a membranous covering attached to the immature fruiting body of certain mushrooms

vein [vein] – n. a distinctive style or manner: he continued in this vein for several minutes

velocity [viˈlɔsiti] – n. distance travelled per unit time

velvet [ˈvelvit] – adj. smooth and soft to sight or hearing or touch or taste

vengeance [ˈvendʒəns] – n. the act of taking revenge (harming someone in retaliation for something harmful that they have done) especially in the next life: For vengeance I would do nothing. This nation is too great to look for mere revenge

vent [vent] – n. a hole for the escape of gas or air

ventilate [ˈventileit] – v. expose to cool or cold air so as to cool or freshen

Venus [ˈvi:nəs] – n. goddess of love; counterpart of Greek Aphrodite

verbal [ˈvə:bəl] – adj. communicated in the form of words: verbal imagery

verdict [ˈvə:dikt] – n. (law) the findings of a jury on issues of fact submitted to it for decision; can be used in formulating a judgment

verge [və:dʒ] – n. a region marking a boundary

versatile [ˈvə:sətail] – adj. having great diversity or variety: his vast and versatile erudition

verse [və:s] – n. literature in metrical form

version [ˈvə:ʃən] – n. an interpretation of a matter from a particular viewpoint: his version of the fight was different from mine

vest [vest] – v. provide with power and authority: They vested the council with special rights

veto [ˈvi:təu] – n. a vote that blocks a decision

vicinity [viˈsiniti] – n. a surrounding or nearby region: the plane crashed in the vicinity of Asheville

vicious [ˈviʃəs] – adj. (of persons or their actions) able or disposed to inflict pain or suffering: vicious kicks

video [ˈvidiəu] – n. the visible part of a television transmission

vigorous [ˈvigərəs] – adj. characterized by forceful and energetic action or activity: a vigorous hiker

vigour  – n. forceful exertion

vile [vail] – adj. morally reprehensible: the vile development of slavery appalled them

villa [ˈvilə] – n. Mexican revolutionary leader (1877-1923)

villain [ˈvilən] – n. a wicked or evil person; someone who does evil deliberately

vine [vain] – n. a plant with a weak stem that derives support from climbing, twining, or creeping along a surface

violate [ˈvaiəleit] – v. act in disregard of laws, rules, contracts, or promises: violate the basic laws or human civilization

violation [.vaiəˈleiʃən] – n. a crime less serious than a felony

violent [ˈvaiələnt] – adj. acting with or marked by or resulting from great force or energy or emotional intensity: a violent attack

virgin [ˈvə:dʒin] – n. a person who has never had sex

virtual [ˈvə:tjuəl] – adj. being actually such in almost every respect: the once elegant temple lay in virtual ruin

virus [ˈvaiərəs] – n. a harmful or corrupting agency: bigotry is a virus that must not be allowed to spread

visa [ˈvi:zə] – v. approve officially: The list of speakers must be visaed

viscous [ˈviskəs] – adj. having a relatively high resistance to flow

vision [ˈviʒən] – n. a vivid mental image: he had a vision of his own death

visit [ˈvizit] – v. go to see a place, as for entertainment

visualise  – v. view the outline of by means of an X-ray

visualize [ˈviʒuəlaiz] – v. imagine; conceive of; see in one’s mind

vital [ˈvaitl] – adj. urgently needed; absolutely necessary: vital for a healthy society

vitamin [ˈvaitəmin] – n. any of a group of organic substances essential in small quantities to normal metabolism

vocabulary [vəˈkæbjuləri] – n. a listing of the words used in some enterprise

vocal [ˈvəukəl] – adj. relating to or designed for or using the singing voice: vocal technique

vocation [vəuˈkeiʃən] – n. the particular occupation for which you are trained

vocational [vəuˈkeiʃənəl] – adj. of or relating to a vocation or occupation; especially providing or undergoing training in special skills: vocational school

vogue [vəug] – n. the popular taste at a given time: leather is the latest vogue

void [vɔid] – v. declare invalid: void a plea

volatile [ˈvɔlətail] – adj. evaporating readily at normal temperatures and pressures: volatile oils

volley [ˈvɔli] – v. hit before it touches the ground: volley the tennis ball

volunteer [.vɔlənˈtiə] – n. (military) a person who freely enlists for service

vomit [ˈvɔmit] – n. the reflex act of ejecting the contents of the stomach through the mouth

vow [vaʊ] – n. a solemn pledge (to oneself or to another or to a deity) to do something or to behave in a certain manner: they took vows of poverty

vowel [ˈvauəl] – n. a speech sound made with the vocal tract open

vulgar [ˈvʌlgə] – adj. lacking refinement or cultivation or taste: appealing to the vulgar taste for violence

vulnerable [ˈvʌlnərəbl] – adj. susceptible to attack: a vulnerable bridge

wade [weid] – n. English tennis player who won many women’s singles titles (born in 1945)

wag [wæg] – n. a witty amusing person who makes jokes

waggon  – n. any of various kinds of wheeled vehicles drawn by an animal or a tractor

wail [weil] – v. emit long loud cries: wail in self-pity

waitress [ˈweitris] – n. a woman waiter

wallet [ˈwɔlit] – n. a pocket-size case for holding papers and paper money

walnut [ˈwɔ:lnət] – n. any of various trees of the genus Juglans

ward [wɔ:d] – n. a person who is under the protection or in the custody of another

warden [ˈwɔ:dn] – n. the chief official in charge of a prison

wardrobe [ˈwɔ:drəub] – n. a tall piece of furniture that provides storage space for clothes; has a door and rails or hooks for hanging clothes

ware [wɛə] – n. commodities offered for sale

warehouse [ˈwɛəhaus] – n. a storehouse for goods and merchandise

warfare [ˈwɔ:fɛə] – n. the waging of armed conflict against an enemy

warp [wɔ:p] – n. a shape distorted by twisting or folding

warrant [ˈwɔ:rənt] – n. a writ from a court commanding police to perform specified acts

warranty [ˈwɔrənti] – n. a written assurance that some product or service will be provided or will meet certain specifications

warrior [ˈwɔriə] – n. someone engaged in or experienced in warfare

wary [ˈweəri, ˈweri] – adj. openly distrustful and unwilling to confide

wasp [wɔsp] – n. a white person of Anglo-Saxon ancestry who belongs to a Protestant denomination

wasteful [ˈweistfəl] – adj. inefficient in use of time and effort and materials: a clumsy and wasteful process

watchful [ˈwɔtʃfəl] – adj. engaged in or accustomed to close observation

watershed [ˈwɔ:təʃed] – n. a ridge of land that separates two adjacent river systems

watertight [ˈwɔ:tətait] – adj. without flaws or loopholes: a watertight alibi

watery [ˈwɔ:təri] – adj. wet with secreted or exuded moisture such as sweat or tears

watt [wɔt] – n. Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry (1736-1819)

waver [ˈweivə] – v. pause or hold back in uncertainty or unwillingness

way [wei] – n. how something is done or how it happens: a lonely way of life

wayward [ˈweiwəd] – adj. resistant to guidance or discipline: wayward behavior

weary [ˈwiəri] – v. exhaust or get tired through overuse or great strain or stress

weaver [ˈwi:və] – n. finch-like African and Asian colonial birds noted for their elaborately woven nests

web [web] – n. an intricate trap that entangles or ensnares its victim

wedge [wedʒ] – n. any shape that is triangular in cross section

weird [wiəd] – adj. suggesting the operation of supernatural influences: the three weird sisters

whale [weil] – n. a very large person; impressive in size or qualities

wharf [(h)wɔ:f] – n. a platform built out from the shore into the water and supported by piles; provides access to ships and boats

whereabouts [ˈ(h)wɛərəˈbauts] – n. the general location where something is: I questioned him about his whereabouts on the night of the crime

whirl [wə:l] – v. turn in a twisting or spinning motion

whisk [wisk] – v. move somewhere quickly: The President was whisked away in his limo

whisker [ˈhwiskə] – n. a very small distance or space: they lost the election by a whisker

whisky [ˈwiski] – n. a liquor made from fermented mash of grain

whisper [ˈwispə] – n. speaking softly without vibration of the vocal cords

white [wait] – n. a member of the Caucasoid race

whitewash [ˈwaitwɔʃ] – n. a defeat in which the losing person or team fails to score

wholesome [ˈhəulsəm] – adj. conducive to or characteristic of physical or moral well-being: wholesome attitude

widely [ˈwaidli] – adv. to a great degree: her work is widely known

wield [wi:ld] – v. have and exercise: wield power and authority

wig [wig] – n. hairpiece covering the head and made of real or synthetic hair

willow [ˈwiləu] – n. any of numerous deciduous trees and shrubs of the genus Salix

wind [waind,wind] – n. a tendency or force that influences events: the winds of change

winding [ˈwaindiŋ] – adj. marked by repeated turns and bends: winding roads are full of surprises

windmill [ˈwindmil] – n. generator that extracts usable energy from winds

windy [ˈwindi] – adj. not practical or realizable; speculative

wink [wiŋk] – v. gleam or glow intermittently

wisdom [ˈwizdəm] – n. accumulated knowledge or erudition or enlightenment