Complete TOEFL Vocabulary Words


Below are the complete list of TOEFL Vocabulary Words identified by VocabularyShop and grouped together in the Select function.  When choosing TOEFL word group in the Select function, these TOEFL vocabulary words will be displayed in the Source List for you to choose for your study.

You can download this list of TOEFL vocabulary words at the bottom of this page and use it to plan your study and set up your priority and strategy.  For example, you can put all words you already knew into the Known List, leaving only the new words you need to learn in the Source List.  You can then figure out how much work is needed to reach your goal and make your plan accordingly.  There are words more important than the others for the TOEFL test, and there are words much easier or more difficult for you as well.  Your plan should be based on your situation and the information from the official TOEFL website to enable you to reach your goal with maximum speed and efficiency.

In the TOEFL vocabulary words listed below, only the primary or the most popular definition is provided for each word.  You will see the complete dictionary definition and plenty of useful information of each word when you access the Dictionary Dialog in VocabularyShop.

 

abandon [əˈbændən] – v. forsake, leave behind: We abandoned the old car in the empty parking lot

abandonment [əˈbændənmənt] – n. the act of giving something up

abase [əˈbeis] – v. cause to feel shame; hurt the pride of

abash [əˈbæʃ] – v. cause to be embarrassed; cause to feel self-conscious

abate [əˈbeit] – v. make less active or intense

abbess [ˈæbis] – n. the superior of a group of nuns

abbey [ˈæbi] – n. a church associated with a monastery or convent

abbot [ˈæbət] – n. the superior of an abbey of monks

abbreviate [əˈbri:vieit] – v. reduce in scope while retaining essential elements

abbreviation [ə.bri:viˈeiʃən] – n. a shortened form of a word or phrase

abdicate [ˈæbdikeit] – v. give up, such as power, as of monarchs and emperors, or duties and obligations: The King abdicated when he married a divorcee

abdomen [ˈæbdəmen] – n. the region of the body of a vertebrate between the thorax and the pelvis

abduction [æbˈdʌkʃən] – n. (physiology) moving of a body part away from the central axis of the body

abed [əˈbed] – adv. in bed

aberration [æbəˈreiʃən] – n. a state or condition markedly different from the norm

abet [əˈbet] – v. assist or encourage, usually in some wrongdoing

abeyance [əˈbeiəns] – n. temporary cessation or suspension

abhorrence [əbˈhɔrəns] – n. hate coupled with disgust

abhorrent [əbˈhɔrənt] – adj. offensive to the mind: an abhorrent deed

abidance [əˈbaidəns] – n. acting according to certain accepted standards

abide [əˈbaid] – v. dwell

abiding [əˈbaidiŋ] – adj. unceasing: an abiding belief

ability [əˈbiliti] – n. the quality of being able to perform; a quality that permits or facilitates achievement or accomplishment

abject [ˈæbdʒekt] – adj. of the most contemptible kind: abject cowardice

abjure [əbˈdʒuə] – v. formally reject or disavow a formerly held belief, usually under pressure: She abjured her beliefs

ablaze [əˈbleiz] – adj. keenly excited (especially sexually) or indicating excitement: his face all ablaze with excitement

able-bodied  – adj. having a strong healthy body: every able-bodied young man served in the army

ablution [əˈblu:ʃən] – n. the ritual washing of a priest’s hands or of sacred vessels

abnegate [ˈæbnigeit] – v. deny oneself (something); restrain, especially from indulging in some pleasure

abnormal [æbˈnɔ:məl] – adj. not normal; not typical or usual or regular or conforming to a norm: abnormal powers of concentration

aboard [əˈbɔ:d] – adv. on first or second or third base: Their second homer with Bob Allison aboard

abode [əˈbəud] – n. any address at which you dwell more than temporarily

abolish [əˈbɔliʃ] – v. do away with: Slavery was abolished in the mid-19th century in America and in Russia

abolition [æbəˈliʃən] – n. the act of abolishing a system or practice or institution (especially abolishing slavery): the abolition of capital punishment

abolitionist [æbəˈliʃənist] – n. a reformer who favors abolishing slavery

abominable [əˈbɔminəbəl] – adj. unequivocally detestable: abominable treatment of prisoners

abominate [əˈbɔmineit] – v. find repugnant

abomination [əbɔmiˈneiʃən] – n. a person who is loathsome or disgusting

aboriginal [æbəˈridʒənəl] – adj. of or pertaining to members of the indigenous people of Australia

aborigine  – n. an indigenous person who was born in a particular place

abort [əˈbɔ:t] – v. terminate before completion: abort the mission

abortive [əˈbɔ:tiv] – adj. failing to accomplish an intended result: an abortive revolt

abound [əˈbaund] – v. be abundant or plentiful; exist in large quantities

aboveboard [əˈbʌvˈbɔ:d] – adj. without concealment or deception; honest: their business was open and aboveboard

abrade [əˈbreid] – v. wear away

abrasion [əˈbreiʒən] – n. erosion by friction

abrasive [əˈbreisiv] – adj. sharply disagreeable; rigorous: an abrasive character

abridge [əˈbridʒ] – v. reduce in scope while retaining essential elements

abridgment [əˈbridʒmənt] – n. a shortened version of a written work

abrogate [ˈæbrəgeit] – v. revoke formally

abrupt [əˈbrʌpt] – adj. marked by sudden changes in subject and sharp transitions: abrupt prose

abscess [ˈæbsis] – n. symptom consisting of a localized collection of pus surrounded by inflamed tissue

abscission [æbˈsiʒən] – n. shedding of flowers and leaves and fruit following formation of scar tissue in a plant

abscond [əbˈskɔnd] – v. run away; usually includes taking something or somebody along: the accountant absconded with the cash from the safe

absence [ˈæbsns] – n. failure to be present

absent [ˈæbsənt] – adj. not being in a specified place

absentee [.æbsənˈti:] – n. one that is absent or not in residence

absenteeism [æbsənˈti:iz(ə)m] – n. habitual absence from work

absolute [ˈæbsəlu:t] – adj. perfect or complete or pure: absolute loyalty

absolutely [ˈæbsəlu:tli] – adv. completely and without qualification; used informally as intensifiers: an absolutely magnificent painting

absolution [.æbsəˈlu:ʃən] – n. the condition of being formally forgiven by a priest in the sacrament of penance

absolve [əbˈzɔlv] – v. grant remission of a sin to: The priest absolved him and told him to say ten Hail Mary’s

absorb [əbˈsɔ:b] – v. become imbued: The liquids, light, and gases absorb

absorption [əbˈsɔ:pʃən] – n. (chemistry) a process in which one substance permeates another; a fluid permeates or is dissolved by a liquid or solid

abstain [əbˈstein] – v. refrain from voting

abstemious [əbˈsti:miəs] – adj. sparing in consumption of especially food and drink: the pleasures of the table, never of much consequence to one naturally abstemious

abstinence [ˈæbstinəns] – n. the trait of abstaining (especially from alcohol)

abstract [ˈæbstrækt] – v. make off with belongings of others

abstruse [əbˈstru:s] – adj. difficult to penetrate; incomprehensible to one of ordinary understanding or knowledge: the professor’s lectures were so abstruse that students tended to avoid them

absurd [əbˈsə:d] – adj. inconsistent with reason or logic or common sense: the absurd predicament of seeming to argue that virtue is highly desirable but intensely unpleasant

abundance [əˈbʌndəns] – n. the property of a more than adequate quantity or supply: an age of abundance

abundant [əˈbʌndənt] – adj. present in great quantity: an abundant supply of water

abundantly [əˈbʌndəntli] – adv. in an abundant manner: they were abundantly supplied with food

abuse [əˈbju:s,əˈbju:z] – v. treat badly: This boss abuses his workers

abusive [əˈbju:siv] – adj. expressing offensive reproach

abut [əˈbʌt] – v. lie adjacent to another or share a boundary

abyss [əˈbis] – n. a bottomless gulf or pit; any unfathomable (or apparently unfathomable) cavity or chasm or void extending below (often used figuratively)

acacia  – n. any of various spiny trees or shrubs of the genus Acacia

academic [.ækəˈdemik] – adj. hypothetical or theoretical and not expected to produce an immediate or practical result: an academic discussion

academician [ə.kædəˈmiʃən] – n. a scholar who is skilled in academic disputation

academy [əˈkædəmi] – n. a secondary school (usually private)

accede [ækˈsi:d] – v. yield to another’s wish or opinion

accelerate [ækˈseləreit] – v. move faster: The car accelerated

accelerated [əkˈseləreitid] – adj. speeded up, as of an academic course: in an accelerated program in school

acceleration [æk.seləˈreiʃən] – n. an increase in rate of change: modern science caused an acceleration of cultural change

accept [əkˈsept] – v. consider or hold as true: I cannot accept the dogma of this church

access [ˈækses] – n. the right to enter

accessibility [.ækəsesiˈbiliti] – n. the quality of being at hand when needed

accessible [əkˈsesəbl] – adj. capable of being reached: a town accessible by rail

accession [əkˈseʃən] – n. a process of increasing by addition (as to a collection or group): the art collection grew through accession

accessory [ækˈsesəri] – n. clothing that is worn or carried, but not part of your main clothing

accident [ˈæksidənt] – n. an unfortunate mishap; especially one causing damage or injury

accidental [.æksiˈdentl] – n. a musical notation that makes a note sharp or flat or natural although that is not part of the key signature

accidentally [.æksiˈdentəli] – adv. without advance planning: they met accidentally

acclaim [əˈkleim] – v. praise vociferously

accolade [ˈækəleid] – n. a tangible symbol signifying approval or distinction

accommodate [əˈkɔmədeit] – v. be agreeable or acceptable to

accommodating [əˈkɔmədeitiŋ] – adj. helpful in bringing about a harmonious adaptation: the warden was always accommodating in allowing visitors in

accompaniment [əˈkʌmpənimənt] – n. an event or situation that happens at the same time as or in connection with another

accompanist [əˈkʌmpənist] – n. a person who provides musical accompaniment (usually on a piano)

accompany [əˈkʌmpəni] – v. be present or associated with an event or entity

accomplice [əˈkʌmplis] – n. a person who joins with another in carrying out some plan (especially an unethical or illegal plan)

accomplish [əˈkɔmpliʃ] – v. put in effect

accomplishment [əˈkɔmpliʃmənt] – n. an ability that has been acquired by training

accord [əˈkɔ:d] – n. harmony of people’s opinions or actions or characters

accordion [əˈkɔ:djən] – n. a portable box-shaped free-reed instrument; the reeds are made to vibrate by air from the bellows controlled by the player

accost [əˈkɔst] – v. speak to someone

account [əˈkaunt] – n. a record or narrative description of past events: he gave an inaccurate account of the plot to kill the president

accountant [əˈkauntənt] – n. someone who maintains and audits business accounts

accounting [əˈkauntiŋ] – n. a convincing explanation that reveals basic causes: he was unable to give a clear accounting for his actions

accredit [əˈkredit] – v. grant credentials to

accumulate [əˈkju:mjuleit] – v. get or gather together

accumulation [əkju:mjʊˈleiʃ(ə)n] – n. an increase by natural growth or addition

accuracy [ˈækjurəsi] – n. the quality of being near to the true value: he was beginning to doubt the accuracy of his compass

accurate [ˈækjurit] – adj. (of ideas, images, representations, expressions) characterized by perfect conformity to fact or truth ; strictly correct

accursed [əˈkə:sid] – adj. under a curse

accusation [ækju(:)ˈzeiʃən] – n. a formal charge of wrongdoing brought against a person; the act of imputing blame or guilt

accusatory [əˈkju:zətəri] – adj. containing or expressing accusation: black accusatory looks

accuse [əˈkju:z] – v. blame for, make a claim of wrongdoing or misbehavior against

accustom [əˈkʌstəm] – v. make psychologically or physically used (to something)

acerbity [əˈsə:biti] – n. a sharp bitterness

acetate [ˈæsitit] – n. a salt or ester of acetic acid

ache [eik] – v. feel physical pain

achieve [əˈtʃi:v] – v. to gain with effort: she achieved her goal despite setbacks

achievement [əˈtʃi:vmənt] – n. the action of accomplishing something

achromatic [ækrəuˈmætik] – adj. having no hue

acid [ˈæsid] – adj. harsh or corrosive in tone: a barrage of acid comments

acidic [əˈsidik] – adj. being sour to the taste

acidify [əˈsidifai] – v. make sour or more sour

acidity [əˈsiditi] – n. the taste experience when something acidic is taken into the mouth

acknowledge [əkˈnɔlidʒ] – v. declare to be true or admit the existence or reality or truth of: She acknowledged that she might have forgotten

acknowledgment [əkˈnɔlidʒmənt] – n. a short note recognizing a source of information or of a quoted passage: the acknowledgments are usually printed at the front of a book

acme [ˈækmi] – n. the highest level or degree attainable; the highest stage of development: his landscapes were deemed the acme of beauty

acoustic [əˈku:stik] – n. a remedy for hearing loss or deafness

acquaint [əˈkweint] – v. cause to come to know personally: permit me to acquaint you with my son

acquaintance [əˈkweintəns] – n. personal knowledge or information about someone or something

acquainted [əˈkweintid] – adj. having fair knowledge of: they were acquainted

acquiesce [.ækwiˈes] – v. to agree or express agreement

acquiescence [ækwiˈesns] – n. acceptance without protest

acquire [əˈkwaiə] – v. come into the possession of something concrete or abstract: They acquired a new pet

acquisition [.ækwiˈziʃən] – n. the act of contracting or assuming or acquiring possession of something: the acquisition of wealth

acquit [əˈkwit] – v. pronounce not guilty of criminal charges

acquittal [əˈkwitl] – n. a judgment of not guilty

acquittance [əˈkwitəns] – n. a legal document evidencing the discharge of a debt or obligation

acre [ˈeikə] – n. a unit of area (4840 square yards) used in English-speaking countries

acreage [ˈeikəridʒ] – n. an area of ground used for some particular purpose (such as building or farming): he wanted some acreage to build on

acrid [ˈækrid] – adj. strong and sharp: the acrid smell of burning rubber

acrimonious [ækriˈməuniəs] – adj. marked by strong resentment or cynicism: an acrimonious dispute

acrimony [ˈækriməni] – n. a rough and bitter manner

acronym [ˈækrənim] – n. a word formed from the initial letters of the several words in the name

actionable [ˈækʃənəbl] – adj. affording grounds for legal action: slander is an actionable offense

activate [ˈæktiveit] – v. put in motion or move to act

actively [ˈæktivli] – adv. in an active manner: he participated actively in the war

actual [ˈæktjuəl] – adj. taking place in reality; not pretended or imitated: we saw the actual wedding on television

actuality [.æktjuˈæliti] – n. the state of actually existing objectively: a hope that progressed from possibility to actuality

actually [ˈæktʃuəli] – adv. used to imply that one would expect the fact to be the opposite of that stated; surprisingly: you may actually be doing the right thing by walking out

actuary [ˈæktjuəri] – n. someone versed in the collection and interpretation of numerical data (especially someone who uses statistics to calculate insurance premiums)

actuate [ˈæktjueit] – v. put in motion or move to act: actuate the circuits

acumen [əˈkjumən, əˈkju:mən] – n. a tapering point

acupuncture [ˈækjupʌŋktʃə(r)] – n. treatment of pain or disease by inserting the tips of needles at specific points on the skin

acute [əˈkju:t] – adj. having or experiencing a rapid onset and short but severe course: acute appendicitis

adage [ˈædidʒ] – n. a condensed but memorable saying embodying some important fact of experience that is taken as true by many people

adamant [ˈædəmənt] – n. very hard native crystalline carbon valued as a gem

adapt [əˈdæpt] – v. make fit for, or change to suit a new purpose

adaptable [əˈdæptəbl] – adj. capable of adapting (of becoming or being made suitable) to a particular situation or use: to succeed one must be adaptable

adaptation [.ædæpˈteiʃən] – n. a written work (as a novel) that has been recast in a new form: the play is an adaptation of a short novel

adaptive [əˈdæptiv] – adj. having a capacity for adaptation: the adaptive coloring of a chameleon

addendum [əˈdendəm] – n. textual matter that is added onto a publication; usually at the end

addict [əˈdikt] – v. to cause (someone or oneself) to become dependent (on something, especially a narcotic drug)

addictive [əˈdiktiv] – adj. causing or characterized by addiction: addictive drugs

additional [əˈdiʃənl] – adj. further or added: called for additional troops

additive [ˈæditiv] – adj. designating or involving an equation whose terms are of the first degree

addle [ˈædl] – v. mix up or confuse

adduce [əˈdju:s] – v. advance evidence for

adept [ˈædept] – n. someone who is dazzlingly skilled in any field

adequate [ˈædikwit] – adj. having the requisite qualities or resources to meet a task: she had adequate training

adhere [ədˈhiə] – v. be compatible or in accordance with: You must adhere to the rules

adherence [ədˈhiərəns] – n. faithful support for a cause or political party or religion: adherence to a fat-free diet

adherent [ədˈhiərənt] – n. someone who believes and helps to spread the doctrine of another

adhesion [ədˈhi:ʒən] – n. abnormal union of bodily tissues; most common in the abdomen

adhesive [ədˈhi:siv] – n. a substance that unites or bonds surfaces together

adieu [əˈdju:] – n. a farewell remark

adjacency [əˈdʒeisənsi] – n. the attribute of being so near as to be touching

adjacent [əˈdʒeisnt] – adj. nearest in space or position; immediately adjoining without intervening space: had adjacent rooms

adjoin [əˈdʒɔin] – v. be in direct physical contact with; make contact

adjudge [əˈdʒʌdʒ] – v. declare to be

adjunct [ˈædʒʌŋkt] – n. something added to another thing but not an essential part of it

adjuration [ædʒuəˈreiʃən] – n. a solemn and earnest appeal to someone to do something

adjust [əˈdʒʌst] – v. alter or regulate so as to achieve accuracy or conform to a standard

adjustment [əˈdʒʌstmənt] – n. the act of making something different (as e.g. the size of a garment)

adjutant [ˈædʒutənt] – n. an officer who acts as military assistant to a more senior officer

administer [ədˈministə] – v. perform (a church sacrament) ritually: administer the last unction

administration [əd.miniˈstreiʃən] – n. a method of tending to or managing the affairs of a some group of people (especially the group’s business affairs)

administrative [ədˈministrətiv] – adj. of or relating to or responsible for administration

administrator [ədˈministreitə] – n. someone who administers a business

admiration [.ædməˈreiʃən] – n. a feeling of delighted approval and liking

admire [ədˈmaiə] – v. look at with admiration

admissible [ədˈmisəbl] – adj. deserving to be admitted: admissible evidence

admit [ədˈmit] – v. allow to enter; grant entry to: We cannot admit non-members into our club building

admittance [ədˈmitəns] – n. the right to enter

admittedly [ədˈmitidli] – adv. as acknowledged

admonition [ædməˈniʃən] – n. cautionary advice about something imminent (especially imminent danger or other unpleasantness): a letter of admonition about the dangers of immorality

ado [əˈdu:] – n. a rapid active commotion

adobe [əˈdəubi] – n. sun-dried brick; used in hot dry climates

adolescence [.ædəʊˈlesəns] – n. the time period between the beginning of puberty and adulthood

adolescent [.ædəˈlesnt] – adj. being of the age 13 through 19

adopt [əˈdɔpt] – v. choose and follow; as of theories, ideas, policies, strategies or plans

adoption [əˈdɔpʃən] – n. the act of accepting with approval; favorable reception: its adoption by society

adoration [.ædəˈreiʃən] – n. a feeling of profound love and admiration

adorn [əˈdɔ:n] – v. make more attractive by adding ornament, colour, etc.

adornment [əˈdɔ:nmənt] – n. a decoration of color or interest that is added to relieve plainness

adrenaline  – n. a catecholamine secreted by the adrenal medulla in response to stress (trade name Adrenalin); stimulates autonomic nerve action

adroit [əˈdrɔit] – adj. quick or skillful or adept in action or thought: an exceptionally adroit pianist

adulterant [əˈdʌltərənt] – n. any substance that lessens the purity or effectiveness of a substance: it is necessary to remove the adulterants before use

adulterate [əˈdʌltəreit] – adj. mixed with impurities

adulteration [ə.dʌltəˈreiʃn] – n. the act of adulterating (especially the illicit substitution of one substance for another)

adumbrate [ˈædʌmbreit] – v. describe roughly or briefly or give the main points or summary of

advance [ədˈvɑ:ns] – v. move forward, also in the metaphorical sense

advanced [ədˈvɑ:nst] – adj. farther along in physical or mental development: the child’s skeletal age was classified as `advanced’

advancement [ədˈvɑ:nsmənt] – n. encouragement of the progress or growth or acceptance of something

advent [ˈædvent] – n. arrival that has been awaited (especially of something momentous): the advent of the computer

adventitious [ædvenˈtiʃəs] – adj. associated by chance and not an integral part: they had to decide whether his misconduct was adventitious or the result of a flaw in his character

adventure [ədˈventʃə] – v. take a risk in the hope of a favorable outcome

adventurer [ədˈventʃərə(r)] – n. a person who enjoys taking risks

adventurous [ədˈventʃərəs] – adj. willing to undertake or seeking out new and daring enterprises: adventurous pioneers

adversary [ˈædvəsəri] – n. someone who offers opposition

adverse [ˈædvə:s] – adj. contrary to your interests or welfare: adverse circumstances

adversely [ædˈvə:sli] – adv. in an adverse manner: she was adversely affected by the new regulations

adversity [ədˈvə:siti] – n. a state of misfortune or affliction: debt-ridden farmers struggling with adversity

advert [ˈædvə:t] – v. give heed (to)

advisory [ədˈvaizəri] – n. an announcement that usually advises or warns the public of some threat: a frost advisory

advocacy [ˈædvəkəsi] – n. active support of an idea or cause etc.; especially the act of pleading or arguing for something

advocate [ˈædvəkeit,ˈædvəkit] – n. a person who pleads for a cause or propounds an idea

aerial [ˈɛəriəl] – n. a pass to a receiver downfield from the passer

aerodynamics [.ɛərəudaiˈnæmiks] – n. the branch of mechanics that deals with the motion of gases (especially air) and their effects on bodies in the flow

aeronaut [ˈɛərənɔ:t] – n. someone who operates an aircraft

aeronautics [.eərəuˈnɔ:tiks] – n. the theory and practice of navigation through air or space

aesthetic [i:sˈθetik] – adj. concerning or characterized by an appreciation of beauty or good taste: the aesthetic faculties

affable [ˈæfəbəl] – adj. diffusing warmth and friendliness: an affable smile

affect [əˈfekt] – v. have an effect upon: Will the new rules affect me?

affectation [.æfekˈteiʃən] – n. a deliberate pretense or exaggerated display

affected [əˈfektid] – adj. acted upon; influenced

affection [əˈfekʃən] – n. a positive feeling of liking: he had trouble expressing the affection he felt

affectionate [əˈfekʃənit] – adj. having or displaying warmth or affection: affectionate children

affective [əˈfektiv] – adj. characterized by emotion

affiliate [əˈfilieit] – v. keep company with; hang out with: She affiliates with her colleagues

affinity [əˈfiniti] – n. (immunology) the attraction between an antigen and an antibody

affirm [əˈfə:m] – v. establish or strengthen as with new evidence or facts

affirmative [əˈfə:mətiv] – adj. expecting the best: an affirmative outlook

affix [əˈfiks,ˈæfiks] – v. attach to: affix the seal here

afflict [əˈflikt] – v. cause great unhappiness for; distress: she was afflicted by the death of her parents

affliction [əˈflikʃən] – n. a state of great suffering and distress due to adversity

affluence [ˈæfluəns] – n. abundant wealth

affluent [ˈæfluənt] – n. a branch that flows into the main stream

afford [əˈfɔ:d] – v. be able to spare or give up: I can’t afford to spend two hours with this person

affordable [əˈfɔ:dəbl] – adj. that you have the financial means for

affront [əˈfrʌnt] – n. a deliberately offensive act or something producing the effect of deliberate disrespect

afire [əˈfai] – adj. lighted up by or as by fire or flame: forests set ablaze (or afire) by lightning

afloat [əˈfləut] – adj. aimlessly drifting

afoot [əˈfut] – adj. traveling by foot: she was afoot when I saw her this morning

aforesaid [əˈfɔ:sed] – adj. being the one previously mentioned or spoken of

afresh [əˈfreʃ] – adv. again but in a new or different way: start afresh

afterthought [ˈɑ:ftəθɔ:t] – n. thinking again about a choice previously made

agenda [əˈdʒendə] – n. a temporally organized plan for matters to be attended to

agglomerate [əˈglɔməreit] – n. volcanic rock consisting of large fragments fused together

aggrandize [əˈgrændaiz] – v. add details to

aggravate [ˈægrəveit] – v. make worse: This drug aggravates the pain

aggravating [ˈægrəveitiŋ] – adj. making worse

aggravation [.ægrəˈveiʃən] – n. an exasperated feeling of annoyance

aggregate [ˈægrigeit,ˈægrigit] – n. the whole amount

aggregation [ægriˈgeiʃən] – n. several things grouped together or considered as a whole

aggress [əˈgres] – v. take the initiative and go on the offensive

aggression [əˈgreʃən] – n. a feeling of hostility that arouses thoughts of attack

aggressive [əˈgresiv] – adj. having or showing determination and energetic pursuit of your ends: an aggressive businessman

aggressiveness [əˈgresivnis] – n. the quality of being bold and enterprising

aggrieve [əˈgri:v] – v. infringe on the rights of

aghast [əˈgɑ:st] – adj. struck with fear, dread, or consternation

agile [ˈædʒail] – adj. moving quickly and lightly: sleek and agile as a gymnast

agility [əˈdʒiliti] – n. the gracefulness of a person or animal that is quick and nimble

agitate [ˈædʒiteit] – v. try to stir up public opinion

agitation [ædʒiˈteiʃən] – n. a mental state of extreme emotional disturbance

aglow [əˈgləu] – adj. softly bright or radiant: a house aglow with lights

agonize [ˈægənaiz] – v. suffer agony or anguish

agrarian [əˈgrɛəriən] – adj. relating to rural matters: an agrarian (or agricultural) society

agreeable [əˈgri:əbəl] – adj. conforming to your own liking or feelings or nature: Is the plan agreeable to you?

agriculture [ˈægrikʌltʃə] – n. a large-scale farming enterprise

aide [eid] – n. an officer who acts as military assistant to a more senior officer

aide-de-camp  – n. an officer who acts as military assistant to a more senior officer

ailment [ˈeilmənt] – n. an often persistent bodily disorder or disease; a cause for complaining

aim [eim] – v. point or cause to go (blows, weapons, or objects such as photographic equipment) towards: Please don’t aim at your little brother!

air [ɛə] – n. a mixture of gases (especially oxygen) required for breathing; the stuff that the wind consists of: air pollution

airborne [ˈɛəbɔ:n] – adj. moved or conveyed by or through air

aircraft [ˈɛəkrɑ:ft] – n. a vehicle that can fly

airtight [ˈeətait] – adj. having no weak points: an airtight defense

airy [ˈɛəri] – adj. not practical or realizable; speculative: airy theories about socioeconomic improvement

ajar [əˈdɜɑ:] – adj. slightly open: the door was ajar

akin [əˈkin] – adj. similar in quality or character: a feeling akin to terror

alabaster [ˈæləbɑ:stə] – n. a compact fine-textured, usually white gypsum used for carving

alacrity [əˈlækriti] – n. liveliness and eagerness: he accepted with alacrity

albino [ælˈbi:nəu] – n. a person with congenital albinism: white hair and milky skin; eyes are usually pink

album [ˈælbəm] – n. a book of blank pages with pockets or envelopes; for organizing photographs or stamp collections etc

alchemist  – n. one who was versed in the practice of alchemy and who sought an elixir of life and a panacea and an alkahest and the philosopher’s stone

alchemy [ˈælkəmi] – n. the way two individuals relate to each other: a mysterious alchemy brought them together

alcohol [ˈælkəhɔl] – n. any of a series of volatile hydroxyl compounds that are made from hydrocarbons by distillation

alcoholism [ˈælkəhɔlizəm] – n. an intense persistent desire to drink alcoholic beverages to excess

alcove [ˈælkəuv] – n. a small recess opening off a larger room

alder [ˈɔ:ldə] – n. north temperate shrubs or trees having toothed leaves and conelike fruit; bark is used in tanning and dyeing and the wood is rot-resistant

alderman [ˈɔ:ldəmən] – n. a member of a municipal legislative body (as a city council)

aldosterone  – n. a corticosteroid hormone that is secreted by the cortex of the adrenal gland; regulates salt (sodium and potassium) and water balance

alert [əˈlə:t] – n. condition of heightened watchfulness or preparation for action: bombers were put on alert during the crisis

alga  – n. primitive chlorophyll-containing mainly aquatic eukaryotic organisms lacking true stems and roots and leaves

algae [ˈældʒi:] – n. primitive chlorophyll-containing mainly aquatic eukaryotic organisms lacking true stems and roots and leaves

alias [ˈeiliəs] – n. a name that has been assumed temporarily

alien [ˈeiljən] – n. a person who comes from a foreign country; someone who does not owe allegiance to your country

alienable [ˈeiljənəbl] – adj. transferable to another owner

alienate [ˈeiljəneit] – v. arouse hostility or indifference in where there had formerly been love, affection, or friendliness: She alienated her friends when she became fanatically religious

alienation [.eiljəˈneiʃən] – n. separation resulting from hostility

alight [əˈlait] – v. to come to rest, settle

alignment [əˈlainmənt] – n. an organization of people (or countries) involved in a pact or treaty

alike [əˈlaik] – adv. equally: parents and teachers alike demanded reforms

aliment [ˈælimənt] – n. a source of materials to nourish the body

alimentation [.æləmə:n.teʃən] – n. a source of materials to nourish the body

alkali [ˈælkəlai] – n. any of various water-soluble compounds capable of turning litmus blue and reacting with an acid to form a salt and water

allay [əˈlei] – v. lessen the intensity of or calm

allegation [.æliˈgeiʃən] – n. (law) a formal accusation against somebody (often in a court of law): an allegation of malpractice

allege [əˈledʒ] – v. report or maintain: He alleged that he was the victim of a crime

allegory [ˈæligəri] – n. a short moral story (often with animal characters)

alleviate [əˈli:vieit] – v. provide physical relief, as from pain

alley [ˈæli] – n. a lane down which a bowling ball is rolled toward pins

alliance [əˈlaiəns] – n. a connection based on kinship or marriage or common interest: the shifting alliances within a large family

alliteration [ə.litəˈreiʃən] – n. use of the same consonant at the beginning of each stressed syllable in a line of verse

allocate [ˈæləkeit] – v. distribute according to a plan or set apart for a special purpose

allot [əˈlɔt] – v. give out

allotment [əˈlɔtmənt] – n. a share set aside for a specific purpose

alloy [əˈlɔi,ˈælɔi] – n. the state of impairing the quality or reducing the value of something

allude [əˈlu:d] – v. make a more or less disguised reference to: He alluded to the problem but did not mention it

allure [əˈljuə, əˈlur] – n. the power to entice or attract through personal charm

allusion [əˈlu:ʒən] – n. passing reference or indirect mention

allusive [əˈlu:siv] – adj. characterized by indirect references: allusive speech is characterized by allusions

alluvion [əˈlu:viən; əˈlju] – n. gradual formation of new land, by recession of the sea or deposit of sediment

ally [əˈlai] – n. a friendly nation

almanac [ˈɔ:lmənæk] – n. an annual publication including weather forecasts and other miscellaneous information arranged according to the calendar of a given year

aloft [əˈlɔft] – adv. at or on or to the masthead or upper rigging of a ship: climbed aloft to unfurl the sail

alone [əˈləun] – adj. isolated from others: could be alone in a crowded room

aloof [əˈlu:f] – adj. remote in manner: stood apart with aloof dignity

altar [ˈɔ:ltə] – n. the table in Christian churches where communion is given

alter [ˈɔ:ltə] – v. cause to change; make different; cause a transformation: The advent of the automobile may have altered the growth pattern of the city

alteration [.ɔ:ltəˈreiʃən] – n. an event that occurs when something passes from one state or phase to another

altercate [ˈɔ:ltəkeit] – v. have a disagreement over something

alternate [ɔ:lˈtə:nit,ˈɔ:ltə:neit] – v. go back and forth; swing back and forth between two states or conditions

alternately [ˈɔ:ltə:nitli] – adv. in an alternating sequence or position: They were deglycerolized by alternately centrifuging and mixing

alternation [.ɔ:ltə:ˈneiʃən] – n. successive change from one thing or state to another and back again: a trill is a rapid alternation between the two notes

alternative [ɔ:lˈtə:nətiv] – adj. serving or used in place of another: an alternative plan

altitude [ˈæltitju:d] – n. elevation especially above sea level or above the earth’s surface: the altitude gave her a headache

alto [ˈæltəu] – n. the lowest female singing voice

altruism [ˈæltruizəm] – n. the quality of unselfish concern for the welfare of others

altruist [ˈæltruist] – n. someone who makes charitable donations intended to increase human well-being

aluminium  – n. a silvery ductile metallic element found primarily in bauxite

aluminum [əˈlju:minəm] – n. a silvery ductile metallic element found primarily in bauxite

amalgam [əˈmælgəm] – n. a combination or blend of diverse things: his theory is an amalgam of earlier ideas

amalgamate [əˈmælgəmeit] – v. to bring or combine together or with something else

amateur [ˈæmətə:] – n. someone who pursues a study or sport as a pastime

amatory [ˈæmətəri] – adj. expressive of or exciting sexual love or romance: her amatory affairs

amaze [əˈmeiz] – v. affect with wonder: Your ability to speak six languages amazes me!

amazement [əˈmeizmənt] – n. the feeling that accompanies something extremely surprising

amazing [əˈmeiziŋ] – adj. surprising greatly: she does an amazing amount of work

ambiance  – n. a particular environment or surrounding influence

ambidextrous [.æmbiˈdekstrəs] – adj. equally skillful with each hand: an ambidextrous surgeon

ambience [ˈæmbiəns] – n. a particular environment or surrounding influence

ambiguity [.æmbiˈgju:iti] – n. an expression whose meaning cannot be determined from its context

ambiguous [æmˈbigjuəs] – adj. open to two or more interpretations; or of uncertain nature or significance; or (often) intended to mislead: the polling had a complex and equivocal (or ambiguous) message for potential female candidates

ambition [æmˈbiʃən] – n. a cherished desire: his ambition is to own his own business

ambitious [æmˈbiʃəs] – adj. having a strong desire for success or achievement

ambivalence [æmˈbiveiləns] – n. mixed feelings or emotions

ambivalent [æmˈbivələnt] – adj. uncertain or unable to decide about what course to follow: was ambivalent about having children

amble [ˈæmbl] – n. a leisurely walk (usually in some public place)

ambulance [ˈæmbjuləns] – n. a vehicle that takes people to and from hospitals

ambulate [ˈæmbjuleit] – v. walk about; not be bedridden or incapable of walking

ambush [ˈæmbuʃ] – v. wait in hiding to attack

ameliorate [əˈmi:ljəreit] – v. to make better

amenable [əˈmi:nəbəl] – adj. disposed or willing to comply: someone amenable to persuasion

amend [əˈmend] – v. to make better

amendment [əˈmendmənt] – n. a statement that is added to or revises or improves a proposal or document (a bill or constitution etc.)

amenity [əˈmi:niti] – n. pleasantness resulting from agreeable conditions

Americanism [əˈmerəkənizm] – n. loyalty to the United States and its institutions

amethyst [ˈæmiθist] – n. a transparent purple variety of quartz; used as a gemstone

amiable [ˈeimjəbl] – adj. disposed to please: an amiable villain with a cocky sidelong grin

amicable [ˈæmikəbəl] – adj. characterized by friendship and good will

amity [ˈæmiti] – n. a cordial disposition

ammonia  – n. a pungent gas compounded of nitrogen and hydrogen (NH3)

amnesia [æmˈni:ziə] – n. partial or total loss of memory

amnesty [ˈæmnəsti] – n. a period during which offenders are exempt from punishment

amorous [ˈæmərəs] – adj. inclined toward or displaying love: feeling amorous

amorphous [əˈmɔ:fəs] – adj. having no definite form or distinct shape: amorphous clouds of insects

amount [əˈmaunt] – n. a quantity of money: the amount he had in cash was insufficient

amour [əˈmuə] – n. a usually secretive or illicit sexual relationship

ampere [ˈæmpeə] – n. the basic unit of electric current adopted under the Systeme International d’Unites

ampersand [ˈæmpəsænd] – n. a punctuation mark (&) used to represent conjunction (and)

amphibious [æmˈfibiəs] – adj. relating to or characteristic of animals of the class Amphibia

amphitheater [ˈæmfiθi:ətə] – n. a sloping gallery with seats for spectators (as in an operating room or theater)

ample [ˈæmpl] – adj. more than enough in size or scope or capacity: had ample food for the party

amplification [.æmplifiˈkeiʃən] – n. addition of extra material or illustration or clarifying detail: a few remarks added in amplification and defense

amplify [ˈæmplifai] – v. increase in size, volume or significance

amplitude [ˈæmplitju:d] – n. (physics) the maximum displacement of a periodic wave

amputate [ˈæmpjuteit] – v. remove surgically: amputate limbs

amusement [əˈmju:zmənt] – n. a feeling of delight at being entertained

anachronism [əˈnækrənizəm] – n. something located at a time when it could not have existed or occurred

anagram [ˈænəgræm] – n. a word or phrase spelled by rearranging the letters of another word or phrase

analogous [əˈnæləgəs] – adj. similar or equivalent in some respects though otherwise dissimilar: brains and computers are often considered analogous

analogy [əˈnælədʒi] – n. an inference that if things agree in some respects they probably agree in others

analysis [əˈnæləsis] – n. an investigation of the component parts of a whole and their relations in making up the whole

analyst [ˈænəlist] – n. someone who is skilled at analyzing data

analyze [ˈænəlaiz] – v. make a mathematical, chemical, or grammatical analysis of; break down into components or essential features: analyze a specimen

anarchist [ˈænəkist] – n. an advocate of anarchism

anarchy [ˈænəki] – n. a state of lawlessness and disorder (usually resulting from a failure of government)

anathema [əˈnæθimə] – n. a detested person: he is an anathema to me

anatomy [əˈnætəmi] – n. the branch of morphology that deals with the structure of animals

ancestor [ˈænsistə] – n. someone from whom you are descended (but usually more remote than a grandparent)

ancestral [ænˈsestrəl] – adj. inherited or inheritable by established rules (usually legal rules) of descent: ancestral home

ancestry [ˈænsistri] – n. the descendants of one individual

anchor [ˈæŋkə] – n. a mechanical device that prevents a vessel from moving

ancillary [ænˈsiləri] – adj. furnishing added support: an ancillary pump

anecdotal [.ænekˈdəutl] – adj. characterized by or given to telling anecdotes: anecdotal conversation

anecdote [ˈænik.dəut] – n. short account of an incident (especially a biographical one)

anemia [əˈni:miə] – n. a deficiency of red blood cells

anemic [əˈni:mik] – adj. lacking vigor or energy: an anemic attempt to hit the baseball

anemometer [,æniˈmɔmitə] – n. a gauge for recording the speed and direction of wind

anesthesia [.ænisˈθi:ziə] – n. loss of bodily sensation with or without loss of consciousness

anesthetic [.ænəsˈθetik] – adj. relating to or producing insensibility

anew [əˈnju:] – adv. again but in a new or different way: wanted to write the story anew

angiotensin  – n. any of several vasoconstrictor substances (trade name Hypertensin) that cause narrowing of blood vessels

angular [ˈæŋgjulə] – adj. measured by an angle or by the rate of change of an angle: angular momentum

anhydrous [ænˈhaidrəs] – adj. without water; especially without water of crystallization

animadversion [ænəmædˈvə:ʃən] – n. harsh criticism or disapproval

animadvert [.ænimædˈvə:t] – v. express one’s opinion openly and without fear or hesitation

animalcule [,æniˈmælkju:l] – n. microscopic organism such as an amoeba or paramecium

animate [ˈæni.meit] – v. heighten or intensify

animated [ˈænimeitid] – adj. having life or vigor or spirit: an animated and expressive face

animating [ˈænəˈmetiŋ] – adj. giving spirit and vivacity

animosity [æniˈmɔsiti] – n. a feeling of ill will arousing active hostility

animus [ˈæniməs] – n. a feeling of ill will arousing active hostility

ankle [ˈæŋkl] – n. a gliding joint between the distal ends of the tibia and fibula and the proximal end of the talus

annalist [ˈænəlist] – n. a historian who writes annals

annals [ˈænəlz] – n. reports of the work of a society or learned body etc

annex [əˈneks] – v. take (territory) as if by conquest: Hitler annexed Lithuania

annihilate [əˈnaiəleit] – v. kill in large numbers

annotate [ˈænəteit] – v. add explanatory notes to or supply with critical comments: The scholar annotated the early edition of a famous novel

announce [əˈnauns] – v. give the names of: He announced the winners of the spelling bee

announcement [əˈnaunsmənt] – n. a formal public statement: the government made an announcement about changes in the drug war

announcer [əˈnaunsə] – n. someone who proclaims a message publicly

annoy [əˈnɔi] – v. cause annoyance in; disturb, especially by minor irritations

annoying [əˈnɔiiŋ] – adj. causing irritation or annoyance: tapping an annoying rhythm on his glass with his fork

annual [ˈænjuəl] – n. (botany) a plant that completes its entire life cycle within the space of a year

annually [ˈænjuəli] – adv. without missing a year: they travel to China annually

annuity [əˈnju:iti] – n. income from capital investment paid in a series of regular payments: his retirement fund was set up to be paid as an annuity

annunciation [ə,nʌnsiˈeiʃən] – n. (Christianity) the announcement to the Virgin Mary by the angel Gabriel of the incarnation of Christ

anode [ˈænəud] – n. a positively charged electrode by which electrons leave an electrical device

anomalous [əˈnɔmələs] – adj. deviating from the general or common order or type: advanced forms of life may be anomalous in the universe

anomaly [əˈnɔməli] – n. deviation from the normal or common order or form or rule

anonymous [əˈnɔniməs] – adj. having no known name or identity or known source: anonymous authors

antagonism [ænˈtægənizəm] – n. a state of deep-seated ill-will

antagonist [ænˈtægənist] – n. someone who offers opposition

Antarctic [ænˈtɑ:ktik] – adj. at or near the south pole

ante [ˈænti] – n. (poker) the initial contribution that each player makes to the pot

antecede [ˈæntiˈsi:d] – v. be earlier in time; go back further

antecedent [.æntəˈsi:dənt] – n. someone from whom you are descended (but usually more remote than a grandparent)

antechamber [ˈæntitʃeimbə] – n. a large entrance or reception room or area

antedate [ˈæntiˈdeit] – v. be earlier in time; go back further

antediluvian [.æntidiˈlu:viən] – n. any of the early patriarchs who lived prior to the Noachian deluge

antenatal [æntiˈneitl] – adj. occurring or existing before birth: antenatal care

anterior [ænˈtiəriə] – adj. of or near the head end or toward the front plane of a body

anteroom [ˈæntiru:m] – n. a large entrance or reception room or area

anthem [ˈænθəm] – n. a song of devotion or loyalty (as to a nation or school)

anthology [ænˈθɔlədʒi] – n. a collection of selected literary passages

anthracite [ˈænθrəsait] – n. a hard natural coal that burns slowly and gives intense heat

anthropologist [ænθrəˈpɔlədʒist] – n. a social scientist who specializes in anthropology

anthropology [ænθrəˈpɔlədʒi] – n. the social science that studies the origins and social relationships of human beings

antibiotic [.æntibaiˈɔtik] – n. a chemical substance derivable from a mold or bacterium that can kill microorganisms and cure bacterial infections: when antibiotics were first discovered they were called wonder drugs

antic [ˈæntik] – n. a ludicrous or grotesque act done for fun and amusement

Antichrist [ˈæntikraist] – n. (Christianity) the adversary of Christ (or Christianity) mentioned in the New Testament; the Antichrist will rule the world until overthrown by the Second Coming of Christ

anticipate [ænˈtisipeit] – v. regard something as probable or likely

anticipation [æn.tisiˈpeiʃən] – n. an expectation

anticlimax [æntiˈklaimæks] – n. a disappointing decline after a previous rise: the anticlimax of a brilliant career

anticyclone [ˈæntiˈsaikləun] – n. (meteorology) winds spiraling outward from a high pressure center; circling clockwise in the northern hemisphere and counterclockwise in the southern

antidote [ˈæntidəut] – n. a remedy that stops or controls the effects of a poison

antipathy [ænˈtipəθi] – n. a feeling of intense dislike

antiphon [ˈæntifən] – n. a verse or song to be chanted or sung in response

antiphony [æn`tifəni] – n. alternate (responsive) singing by a choir in two parts

antipode  – n. direct opposite: quiet: an antipode to focused busyness

antiquary [ˈæntikwəri] – n. an expert or collector of antiquities

antiquate [ˈæntikweit] – v. make obsolete or old-fashioned

antiquated [ˈæntikweitid] – adj. so extremely old as seeming to belong to an earlier period

antique [ænˈti:k] – adj. made in or typical of earlier times and valued for its age: the beautiful antique French furniture

antiquity [ænˈtikwiti] – n. the historic period preceding the Middle Ages in Europe

antiseptic [.æntiˈseptik] – adj. thoroughly clean and free of or destructive to disease-causing organisms: doctors in antiseptic green coats

antispasmodic [ˈæntispæzˈmɔdik] – n. a drug used to relieve or prevent spasms (especially of the smooth muscles)

antistrophe [ænˈtistrəfi] – n. the section of a choral ode answering a previous strophe in classical Greek drama; the second of two metrically corresponding sections in a poem

antithesis [ænˈtiθəsis] – n. exact opposite: his theory is the antithesis of mine

antitoxin [æntiˈtɔksin] – n. an antibody that can neutralize a specific toxin

antonym [ˈæntənim] – n. a word that expresses a meaning opposed to the meaning of another word, in which case the two words are antonyms of each other: to him the antonym of `gay’ was `depressed’

anxious [ˈæŋkʃəs] – adj. eagerly desirous: anxious to see the new show at the museum

apathetic [.æpəˈθetik] – adj. showing little or no emotion or animation: a woman who became active rather than apathetic as she grew older

apathy [ˈæpəθi] – n. an absence of emotion or enthusiasm

aperture [ˈæpətjuə] – n. a device that controls amount of light admitted

apex [ˈeipeks] – n. the highest point (of something)

aphorism [ˈæfərizəm] – n. a short pithy instructive saying

apiary [ˈeipiəri] – n. a shed containing a number of beehives

apogee [ˈæpədʒi:] – n. a final climactic stage

apologize [əˈpɔlədʒaiz] – v. acknowledge faults or shortcomings or failing: I apologized for being late

apology [əˈpɔlədʒi] – n. an expression of regret at having caused trouble for someone: he wrote a letter of apology to the hostess

apostasy [əˈpɔstəsi] – n. the act of abandoning a party for cause

apostate [əˈpɔsteit] – n. a disloyal person who betrays or deserts his cause or religion or political party or friend etc.

apostatize [əˈpɔstəˈtaiz] – v. abandon one’s beliefs or allegiances

apostle [əˈpɔsl] – n. an ardent early supporter of a cause or reform: an apostle of revolution

apothecary [əˈpɔθikeri] – n. a health professional trained in the art of preparing and dispensing drugs

apotheosis [ə.pɔθiˈəusis] – n. model of excellence or perfection of a kind; one having no equal

appall [əˈpɔ:l] – v. strike with disgust or revulsion

apparent [əˈpærənt] – adj. clearly revealed to the mind or the senses or judgment: the effects of the drought are apparent to anyone who sees the parched fields

apparition [.æpəˈriʃən] – n. a ghostly appearing figure: we were unprepared for the apparition that confronted us

appeal [əˈpi:l] – v. take a court case to a higher court for review: He was found guilty but appealed immediately

appease [əˈpi:z] – v. cause to be more favorably inclined; gain the good will of

appellate [əˈpelit] – adj. of or relating to or taking account of appeals (usually legal appeals): appellate court

appellation [.æpəˈleiʃən] – n. identifying word or words by which someone or something is called and classified or distinguished from others

append [əˈpend] – v. add to the very end: He appended a glossary to his novel where he used an invented language

appertain [æpəˈtein] – v. be a part or attribute of

appetite [ˈæpitait] – n. a feeling of craving something: an appetite for life

applaud [əˈplɔ:d] – v. clap one’s hands or shout after performances to indicate approval

appliance [əˈplaiəns] – n. a device or control that is very useful for a particular job

applicant [ˈæplikənt] – n. a person who requests or seeks something such as assistance or employment or admission

application [.æpliˈkeiʃən] – n. the act of bringing something to bear; using it for a particular purpose: he advocated the application of statistics to the problem

apply [əˈplai] – v. put into service; make work or employ for a particular purpose or for its inherent or natural purpose: I apply this rule to get good results

appoint [əˈpɔint] – v. create and charge with a task or function

appointment [əˈpɔintmənt] – n. the act of putting a person into a non-elective position: the appointment had to be approved by the whole committee

apportion [əˈpɔ:ʃən] – v. distribute according to a plan or set apart for a special purpose

apposite [ˈæpəzit] – adj. being of striking appropriateness and pertinence: the successful copywriter is a master of apposite and evocative verbal images

apposition [,æpəˈziʃən] – n. a grammatical relation between a word and a noun phrase that follows: `Rudolph the red-nosed reindeer’ is an example of apposition

appraisal [əˈpreizəl] – n. the classification of someone or something with respect to its worth

appraise [əˈpreiz] – v. evaluate or estimate the nature, quality, ability, extent, or significance of: I will have the family jewels appraised by a professional

appreciable [əˈpri:ʃəbl] – adj. enough to be estimated or measured: appreciable amounts of noxious wastes are dumped into the harbor

appreciate [əˈpri:ʃieit] – v. recognize with gratitude; be grateful for

appreciation [ə.pri:ʃiˈeiʃən] – n. understanding of the nature or meaning or quality or magnitude of something

apprehend [.æpriˈhend] – v. get the meaning of something

apprehensible [æpriˈhensəbl] – adj. capable of being apprehended or understood

apprehensive [.æpriˈhensiv] – adj. quick to understand: a kind and apprehensive friend

apprentice [əˈprentis] – n. works for an expert to learn a trade

approach [əˈprəutʃ] – n. ideas or actions intended to deal with a problem or situation: his approach to every problem is to draw up a list of pros and cons

approaching [əˈprəʊtʃiŋ] – n. the event of one object coming closer to another

appropriation [ə.prəupriˈeiʃən] – n. money set aside (as by a legislature) for a specific purpose

approval [əˈpru:vəl] – n. a feeling of liking something or someone good: although she fussed at them, she secretly viewed all her children with approval

approve [əˈpru:v] – v. give sanction to: I approve of his educational policies

approximate [əˈprɔksimit] – adj. not quite exact or correct: the approximate time was 10 o’clock

approximately [əˈprɔksimitli] – adv. (of quantities) imprecise but fairly close to correct: lasted approximately an hour

apt [æpt] – adj. (usually followed by `to’) naturally disposed toward: he is apt to ignore matters he considers unimportant

aptly [ˈæptli] – adv. with competence; in a competent capable manner

aquamarine [.ækwəməˈri:n] – n. a transparent variety of beryl that is blue green in color

aquarium [əˈkweəriəm] – n. a tank or pool or bowl filled with water for keeping live fish and underwater animals

aquatic [əˈkwætik] – adj. relating to or consisting of or being in water: an aquatic environment

aqueduct [ˈækwidʌkt] – n. a conduit that resembles a bridge but carries water over a valley

aqueous [ˈeikwiəs] – adj. similar to or containing or dissolved in water: aqueous solutions

arbiter [ˈɑ:bitə] – n. someone with the power to settle matters at will: she was the final arbiter on all matters of fashion

arbitrary [ˈɑ:bitrəri] – adj. based on or subject to individual discretion or preference or sometimes impulse or caprice: an arbitrary decision

arbitrate [ˈɑ:bitreit] – v. act between parties with a view to reconciling differences

arbor [ˈa:bə] – n. tree (as opposed to shrub)

arboreal [ɑ:ˈbɔ:riəl] – adj. of or relating to or formed by trees

arborescent  – adj. resembling a tree in form and branching structure: arborescent coral found off the coast of Bermuda

arboretum [.ɑ:bəˈri:təm] – n. a facility where trees and shrubs are cultivated for exhibition

arboriculture [ˈɑ:bərikʌltʃə] – n. the cultivation of tree for the production of timber

arc [ɑ:k] – n. electrical conduction through a gas in an applied electric field

arcade [a:ˈkeid] – n. a covered passageway with shops and stalls on either side

arch [ɑ:tʃ] – n. a curved shape in the vertical plane that spans an opening

archaeologist [.ɑ:kiəˈlɔdʒist] – n. an anthropologist who studies prehistoric people and their culture

archaeology [.ɑ:kiˈɔlədʒi] – n. the branch of anthropology that studies prehistoric people and their cultures

archaic [ɑ:ˈkei-ik] – adj. so extremely old as seeming to belong to an earlier period: archaic laws

archaism [ˈɑ:keiizm] – n. the use of an archaic expression

archangel [ˈɑ:keindʒəl] – n. an angel ranked above the highest rank in the celestial hierarchy

archbishop [ˈa:tʃˈbiʃəp] – n. a bishop of highest rank

archdeacon [ˈɑ:tʃˈdi:kən] – n. (Anglican Church) an ecclesiastical dignitary usually ranking just below a bishop

archetype [ˈɑ:kitaip] – n. something that serves as a model or a basis for making copies

archipelago [.ɑ:kiˈpeləgəu] – n. a group of many islands in a large body of water

architect [ˈɑ:kitekt] – n. someone who creates plans to be used in making something (such as buildings)

architectural [.ɑ:kiˈtektʃərəl] – adj. of or pertaining to the art and science of architecture: architectural history

architecture [ˈɑ:kitektʃə] – n. the discipline dealing with the principles of design and construction and ornamentation of fine buildings: architecture and eloquence are mixed arts whose end is sometimes beauty and sometimes use

arctic [ˈɑ:ktik] – n. the regions to the north of the Arctic Circle centered on the North Pole

ardent [ˈɑ:dənt] – adj. characterized by intense emotion: ardent love

ardor [ˈɑ:də] – n. a feeling of strong eagerness (usually in favor of a person or cause): they were imbued with a revolutionary ardor

arena [əˈri:nə] – n. a particular environment or walk of life

arid [ˈærid] – adj. lacking sufficient water or rainfall: an arid climate

aristocracy [.ærisˈtɔkrəsi] – n. a privileged class holding hereditary titles

aristocrat [ˈæristəkræt] – n. a member of the aristocracy

arithmetic [əˈriθmətik] – n. the branch of pure mathematics dealing with the theory of numerical calculations

armada [ɑ:ˈmɑ:də] – n. a large fleet

armature  – n. coil in which voltage is induced by motion through a magnetic field

armful [ˈairmful] – n. the quantity that can be contained in the arms

armistice [ˈɑ:mistis] – n. a state of peace agreed to between opponents so they can discuss peace terms

armor [ˈɑ:mə] – n. protective covering made of metal and used in combat

armory [ˈɑ:məri] – n. a collection of resources: he dipped into his intellectual armory to find an answer

armour  – n. protective covering made of metal and used in combat

arms [ɑ:mz] – n. weapons considered collectively

aroma [əˈrəumə] – n. any property detected by the olfactory system

aromatic [.ærəˈmætik] – adj. (chemistry) of or relating to or containing one or more benzene rings: an aromatic organic compound

arouse [əˈrauz] – v. call forth (emotions, feelings, and responses): arouse pity

arraign [əˈrein] – v. call before a court to answer an indictment

arrange [əˈreindʒ] – v. put into a proper or systematic order: arrange the books on the shelves in chronological order

arrangement [əˈreindʒmənt] – n. an orderly grouping (of things or persons) considered as a unit; the result of arranging: a flower arrangement

arranger  – n. a person who brings order and organization to an enterprise

arrant [ˈærənt] – adj. without qualification; used informally as (often pejorative) intensifiers: an arrant fool

array [əˈrei] – n. an impressive display: it was a bewildering array of books

arrival [əˈraivəl] – n. accomplishment of an objective

arrogance [ˈærəgəns] – n. overbearing pride evidenced by a superior manner toward inferiors

arrogant [ˈærəgənt] – adj. having or showing feelings of unwarranted importance out of overbearing pride: an arrogant official

arrogate [ˈærəugeit] – v. demand as being one’s due or property; assert one’s right or title to

arsenal [ˈɑ:sənl] – n. all the weapons and equipment that a country has

artful [ˈɑ:tful] – adj. not straightforward or candid; giving a false appearance of frankness

arthritis [ɑ:ˈθraitis] – n. inflammation of a joint or joints

Arthurian [ɑ:ˈθjuəriən] – adj. of or relating to King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table

article [ˈɑ:tikl] – n. nonfictional prose forming an independent part of a publication

articulate [ɑ:ˈtikjuleit] – v. provide with a joint

artifact  – n. a man-made object taken as a whole

artifice [ˈɑ:tifis] – n. a deceptive maneuver (especially to avoid capture)

artificial [.ɑ:tiˈfiʃəl] – adj. contrived by art rather than nature: artificial flowers

artisan [ˈɑ:ti.zæn] – n. a skilled worker who practices some trade or handicraft

artistry  – n. a superior skill that you can learn by study and practice and observation

artless [ˈɑ:tləs] – adj. characterized by an inability to mask your feelings; not devious

ascend [əˈsend] – v. travel up,: We ascended the mountain

ascendant [əˈsendənt] – n. position or state of being dominant or in control: that idea was in the ascendant

ascending [əˈsendiŋ] – n. the act of changing location in an upward direction

ascension [əˈsenʃən] – n. (Christianity) celebration of the Ascension of Christ into heaven; observed on the 40th day after Easter

ascent [əˈsent] – n. an upward slope or grade (as in a road)

ascetic [əˈsetik] – adj. practicing great self-denial: Be systematically ascetic…do…something for no other reason than that you would rather not do it

ascribe [əˈskraib] – v. attribute or credit to

asexual [æˈseksjuəl] – adj. not having or involving sex: an asexual spore

ashen [ˈæʃən] – adj. anemic looking from illness or emotion: a face turned ashen

askance [əˈskæns] – adv. with suspicion or disapproval: he looked askance at the offer

aspect [ˈæspekt] – n. a distinct feature or element in a problem

asperity [æˈsperiti] – n. something hard to endure: the asperity of northern winters

asperse [əsˈpə:s] – v. charge falsely or with malicious intent; attack the good name and reputation of someone

asphalt [ˈæsfælt] – n. a dark bituminous substance found in natural beds and as residue from petroleum distillation; consists mainly of hydrocarbons

aspirant [əˈspaiərənt] – n. an ambitious and aspiring young person: a lofty aspirant

aspiration [.æspəˈreiʃən] – n. a will to succeed

aspire [əsˈpaiə] – v. have an ambitious plan or a lofty goal

aspiring [əˈspaiəriŋ] – adj. desiring or striving for recognition or advancement

assassin [əˈsæsin] – n. a member of a secret order of Muslims (founded in the 12th century) who terrorized and killed Christian Crusaders

assassinate [əˈsæsineit] – v. murder; especially of socially prominent persons: Anwar Sadat was assassinated because many people did not like his peace politics with Israel

assassination [ə.sæsiˈneiʃən] – n. an attack intended to ruin someone’s reputation

assault [əˈsɔ:lt] – n. close fighting during the culmination of a military attack

assay [əˈsei] – n. an appraisal of the state of affairs: they made an assay of the contents

assemblage [əˈsemblidʒ] – n. a group of persons together in one place

assemble [əˈsembl] – v. create by putting components or members together

assembly [əˈsembli] – n. a group of machine parts that fit together to form a self-contained unit

assent [əˈsent] – n. agreement with a statement or proposal to do something: he gave his assent eagerly

assert [əˈsə:t] – v. state categorically

assess [əˈses] – v. evaluate or estimate the nature, quality, ability, extent, or significance of

assessment [əˈsesmənt] – n. the classification of someone or something with respect to its worth

assessor [əˈsesə] – n. an official who evaluates property for the purpose of taxing it

asset [ˈæset] – n. a useful or valuable quality

asseverate [əˈsevəreit] – v. state categorically

assignee [,æsiˈni:] – n. (law) the party to whom something is assigned (e.g., someone to whom a right or property is legally transferred)

assignment [əˈsainmənt] – n. the instrument by which a claim or right or interest or property is transferred from one person to another

assimilate [əˈsimileit] – v. take up mentally

assist [əˈsist] – v. work for or be a servant to: Is a salesperson assisting you?

assistance [əˈsistəns] – n. the activity of contributing to the fulfillment of a need or furtherance of an effort or purpose: could not walk without assistance

assistant [əˈsistənt] – n. a person who contributes to the fulfillment of a need or furtherance of an effort or purpose: my invaluable assistant

associate [əˈsəuʃieit] – n. a person who joins with others in some activity or endeavor: he had to consult his associate before continuing

association [ə.səusiˈeiʃən] – n. a formal organization of people or groups of people

assonance [ˈæsənəns] – n. the repetition of similar vowels in the stressed syllables of successive words

assorted [əˈsɔ:tid] – adj. of many different kinds purposefully arranged but lacking any uniformity: assorted sizes

assortment [əˈsɔ:tmənt] – n. a collection containing a variety of sorts of things: a great assortment of cars was on display

assume [əˈsju:m] – v. take to be the case or to be true; accept without verification or proof: I assume his train was late

assumption [əˈsʌmpʃən] – n. a hypothesis that is taken for granted: any society is built upon certain assumptions

assurance [əˈʃuərəns] – n. freedom from doubt; belief in yourself and your abilities: his assurance in his superiority did not make him popular

assure [əˈʃuə] – v. make certain of

assuredly [əˈʃuəridli] – adv. without a doubt: the grammar schools were assuredly not intended for the gentry alone

asteroid [ˈæstərɔid] – adj. shaped like a star

astonish [əsˈtɔniʃ] – v. affect with wonder

astound [əsˈtaund] – v. affect with wonder

astringent [əˈstrindʒənt] – adj. sour or bitter in taste

astronaut [ˈæstrənɔ:t] – n. a person trained to travel in a spacecraft: the Russians called their astronauts cosmonauts

astronomer [əˈstrɔnəmə] – n. a physicist who studies astronomy

astronomical [.æstrəˈnɔmikəl] – adj. inconceivably large

astronomy [əˈstrɔnəmi] – n. the branch of physics that studies celestial bodies and the universe as a whole

astute [əˈstju:t] – adj. marked by practical hardheaded intelligence: an astute tenant always reads the small print in a lease

asylum [əˈsailəm] – n. a shelter from danger or hardship

asymmetrical [.eisiˈmetrikəl] – adj. irregular in shape or outline: asymmetrical features

atheism [ˈeiθi-izəm] – n. the doctrine or belief that there is no God

atheist [ˈeiθiist] – n. someone who denies the existence of god

athirst [əˈθə:st] – adj. (usually followed by `for’) extremely desirous: athirst for knowledge

athlete [ˈæθli:t] – n. a person trained to compete in sports

athwart [əˈθwɔ:t] – adv. at right angles to the center line of a ship

atmosphere [ˈætməsfiə] – n. a particular environment or surrounding influence: there was an atmosphere of excitement

atom [ˈætəm] – n. (physics and chemistry) the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element

atomic [əˈtɔmik] – adj. of or relating to or comprising atoms: atomic structure

atomization [.ætəmaiˈzeiʃən] – n. separating something into fine particles

atomizer [ˈætəmaizə] – n. a dispenser that turns a liquid (such as perfume) into a fine mist

atone [əˈtəun] – v. make amends for

atonement [əˈtəunmənt] – n. compensation for a wrong

atrocious [əˈtrəuʃəs] – adj. shockingly brutal or cruel: murder is an atrocious crime

atrocity [əˈtrɔsiti] – n. the quality of being shockingly cruel and inhumane

atrophy [ˈætrəfi] – n. a decrease in size of an organ caused by disease or disuse

attach [əˈtætʃ] – v. create social or emotional ties

attache [əˈtæʃei] – n. a specialist assigned to the staff of a diplomatic mission

attached [əˈtætʃt] – adj. being joined in close association: all art schools whether independent or attached to universities

attachment [əˈtætʃmənt] – n. a feeling of affection for a person or an institution

attain [əˈtein] – v. to gain with effort

attainment [əˈteinmənt] – n. the act of achieving an aim: the attainment of independence

attempt [əˈtempt] – n. earnest and conscientious activity intended to do or accomplish something

attend [əˈtend] – v. be present at (meetings, church services, university), etc.: She attends class regularly

attendance [əˈtendəns] – n. the act of being present (at a meeting or event etc.)

attendant [əˈtendənt] – n. a person who is present and participates in a meeting

attention [əˈtenʃən] – n. the process whereby a person concentrates on some features of the environment to the (relative) exclusion of others

attest [əˈtest] – v. authenticate, affirm to be true, genuine, or correct, as in an official capacity: I attest this signature

attire [əˈtaiə] – n. clothing of a distinctive style or for a particular occasion: formal attire

attorney [əˈtə:ni] – n. a professional person authorized to practice law; conducts lawsuits or gives legal advice

attract [əˈtrækt] – v. direct toward itself or oneself by means of some psychological power or physical attributes: Her good looks attract the stares of many men

attraction [əˈtrækʃən] – n. an entertainment that is offered to the public

attractive [əˈtræktiv] – adj. pleasing to the eye or mind especially through beauty or charm: a remarkably attractive young man

auburn [ˈɔ:bən] – adj. (of hair) colored a moderate reddish-brown: auburn hair

audacious [ɔ:ˈdeiʃəs] – adj. invulnerable to fear or intimidation: audacious explorers

audible [ˈɔ:dibəl] – n. a football play is changed orally after both teams have assumed their positions at the line of scrimmage

audience [ˈɔ:diəns] – n. a gathering of spectators or listeners at a (usually public) performance: the audience applauded

audit [ˈɔ:dit] – n. an inspection of the accounting procedures and records by a trained accountant or CPA

audition [ɔ:ˈdiʃən] – n. a test of the suitability of a performer

auditorium [.ɔ:diˈtɔ:riəm] – n. the area of a theater or concert hall where the audience sits

auditory [ˈɔ:ditəri] – adj. of or relating to the process of hearing: auditory processing

auger [ˈɔ:gə] – n. a long flexible steel coil for dislodging stoppages in curved pipes

augment [ɔ:gˈment] – v. enlarge or increase: The recent speech of the president augmented tensions in the Near East

augur [ˈɔ:gə] – v. indicate by signs

Augustinian [,ɔ:gəsˈtiniən] – n. a Roman Catholic friar or monk belonging to one of the Augustinian monastic orders

aura [ˈɔ:rə] – n. an indication of radiant light drawn around the head of a saint

aural [ˈɔ:rəl] – adj. of or pertaining to hearing or the ear: an animal with a very sensitive aural apparatus

auricle [ˈɔ:rikl] – n. a small conical pouch projecting from the upper anterior part of each atrium of the heart

auricular [ɔ:ˈrikjulə] – adj. of or relating to near the ear

auriferous [ɔ:ˈrifərəs] – adj. containing gold: auriferous quartz veins

aurora [ɔ:ˈrɔ:rə] – n. the first light of day

auspice [ˈɔ:spis] – n. a favorable omen

auspicious [ɔ:ˈspiʃəs] – adj. auguring favorable circumstances and good luck: an auspicious beginning for the campaign

austere [ɔˈstiə] – adj. severely simple

austerity [ɔˈsteriti] – n. the trait of great self-denial (especially refraining from worldly pleasures)

autarchy [ˈɔ:tɑ:ki] – n. economic independence as a national policy

authentic [ɔ:ˈθentik] – adj. conforming to fact and therefore worthy of belief: an authentic account by an eyewitness

authenticate [ɔ:ˈθentikeit] – v. establish the authenticity of something

authority [əˈθɔ:riti] – n. the power or right to give orders or make decisions: he has the authority to issue warrants

authorization [.ɔ:θəraiˈzeiʃən] – n. a document giving an official instruction or command

authorize [ˈɔ:θəraiz] – v. give or delegate power or authority to: She authorized her assistant to sign the papers

autobiographical [.ɔ:təbaiəˈgræfikəl] – adj. relating to or in the style of an autobiography: they compiled an autobiographical history of the movement

autobiography [.ɔ:təbaiˈɔgrəfi] – n. a biography of yourself

autocracy [ɔ:ˈtɔkrəsi] – n. a political system governed by a single individual

autocrat [ˈɔ:təkræt] – n. a cruel and oppressive dictator

autocratic  – adj. offensively self-assured or given to exercising usually unwarranted power: an autocratic person

automated [ˈɔ:təmeitid] – adj. operated by automation: an automated stoker

automatic [.ɔ:təˈmætik] – adj. operating with minimal human intervention; independent of external control: automatic transmission

automaton [ɔ:ˈtɔmətən] – n. someone who acts or responds in a mechanical or apathetic way: only an automaton wouldn’t have noticed

automotive [ɔ:təˈməutiv] – adj. of or relating to motor vehicles: automotive supplies

autonomous [ɔ:ˈtɔnəməs] – adj. (of political bodies) not controlled by outside forces: an autonomous judiciary

autonomy [ɔ:ˈtɔnəmi] – n. immunity from arbitrary exercise of authority: political independence

autopsy [ˈɔ:tɔpsi] – n. an examination and dissection of a dead body to determine cause of death or the changes produced by disease

auxiliary [ɔ:gˈziljəri] – adj. functioning in a supporting capacity: the main library and its auxiliary branches

availability [ə.veiləˈbiliti] – n. the quality of being at hand when needed

available [əˈveiləbl] – adj. obtainable or accessible and ready for use or service: kept a fire extinguisher available

avalanche [ˈævəlɑ:nʃ] – n. a slide of large masses of snow and ice and mud down a mountain

avant-garde [.ævɔ:ŋ ˈgɑ:d] – adj. radically new or original: an avant-garde theater piece

avarice [ˈævəris] – n. reprehensible acquisitiveness; insatiable desire for wealth (personified as one of the deadly sins)

avenue [ˈævinju:] – n. a line of approach: they explored every avenue they could think of

aver [əˈvə:] – v. report or maintain

average [ˈævəridʒ] – adj. lacking special distinction, rank, or status; commonly encountered: average people

averse [əˈvə:s] – adj. (usually followed by `to’) strongly opposed: averse to taking risks

aversion [əˈvə:ʃən] – n. a feeling of intense dislike

avert [əˈvə:t] – v. prevent the occurrence of; prevent from happening: avert a strike

aviary [ˈeiviəri] – n. a building where birds are kept

aviation [.eiviˈeiʃən] – n. the aggregation of a country’s military aircraft

aviator [ˈeivieitə] – n. someone who operates an aircraft

avid [ˈævid] – adj. (often followed by `for’) ardently or excessively desirous: avid for adventure

avidity [əˈviditi] – n. a positive feeling of wanting to push ahead with something

avocation [.ævəˈkeiʃən] – n. an auxiliary activity

avocational  – adj. of or involved in an avocation

avoid [əˈvɔid] – v. stay clear from; keep away from; keep out of the way of someone or something: Her former friends now avoid her

avoidable [əˈvɔidəbl] – adj. capable of being avoided or warded off

avoidance [əˈvɔidəns] – n. deliberately avoiding; keeping away from or preventing from happening

avouch [əˈvautʃ] – v. admit openly and bluntly; make no bones about

avow [əˈvau] – v. to declare or affirm solemnly and formally as true

awaken [əˈweikən] – v. stop sleeping

aware [əˈwɛə] – adj. (sometimes followed by `of’) having or showing knowledge or understanding or realization or perception: was aware of his opponent’s hostility

awareness [əˈwɛənəs] – n. having knowledge of: he had no awareness of his mistakes

awe [ɔ:] – n. an overwhelming feeling of wonder or admiration: he stared over the edge with a feeling of awe

awkward [ˈɔ:kwəd] – adj. causing inconvenience: they arrived at an awkward time

awkwardly [ˈɔ:kwədli] – adv. in an awkward manner: he bent awkwardly

awry [əˈrai] – adj. turned or twisted toward one side: a…youth with a gorgeous red necktie all awry

axis [ˈæksis] – n. a straight line through a body or figure that satisfies certain conditions

azalea [əˈzeijə] – n. any of numerous ornamental shrubs grown for their showy flowers of various colors

azure [ˈæʒə, ˈæʒjuə] – n. a light shade of blue

baboon [bəˈbu:n] – n. large terrestrial monkeys having doglike muzzles

baby-sitter [ˈbebi.sitə] – n. a person engaged to care for children when the parents are not home

bachelor [ˈbætʃələ] – n. a man who has never been married

backbite [ˈbækbait] – v. say mean things

backbone [ˈbækbəun] – n. a central cohesive source of support and stability

backbreaking  – adj. characterized by effort to the point of exhaustion; especially physical effort

backdrop [ˈbækdrɔp] – n. scenery hung at back of stage

background [ˈbækgraund] – n. a person’s social heritage: previous experience or training: he is a lawyer with a sports background

backpack [ˈbækpæk] – n. a bag carried by a strap on your back or shoulder

bacteria [bækˈtiəriə] – n. (microbiology) single-celled or noncellular spherical or spiral or rod-shaped organisms lacking chlorophyll that reproduce by fission; important as pathogens and for biochemical properties; taxonomy is difficult; often considered to be plants

bacterium [bækˈtiəriəm] – n. (microbiology) single-celled or noncellular spherical or spiral or rod-shaped organisms lacking chlorophyll that reproduce by fission; important as pathogens and for biochemical properties; taxonomy is difficult; often considered to be plants

badger [ˈbædʒə] – n. a native or resident of Wisconsin

baffle [ˈbæfl] – v. be a mystery or bewildering to

bag [bæg] – n. a flexible container with a single opening: he stuffed his laundry into a large bag

baggage [ˈbægidʒ] – n. cases used to carry belongings when traveling

bailiff [ˈbeilif] – n. an officer of the court who is employed to execute writs and processes and make arrests etc.

baize [beiz] – n. a bright green fabric napped to resemble felt; used to cover gaming tables

balance [ˈbæləns] – n. a state of equilibrium

balanced [ˈbælənst] – adj. being in a state of proper equilibrium: the carefully balanced seesaw

bald [bɔ:ld] – adj. with no effort to conceal

bale [beil] – n. a large bundle bound for storage or transport

baleen  – n. a horny material from the upper jaws of certain whales; used as the ribs of fans or as stays in corsets

baleful [ˈbeilfəl] – adj. deadly or sinister: the Florida eagles have a fierce baleful look

ballad [ˈbæləd] – n. a narrative song with a recurrent refrain

ballet [ˈbælei] – n. a theatrical representation of a story that is performed to music by trained dancers

balloon [bəˈlu:n] – n. large tough nonrigid bag filled with gas or heated air

ballroom [ˈbɔ:lrum] – n. large room used mainly for dancing

balmy [ˈbɑ:mi] – adj. informal or slang terms for mentally irregular: it used to drive my husband balmy

balsam [ˈbɔ:lsəm] – n. any of various fragrant oleoresins used in medicines and perfumes

ban [bæn] – n. a decree that prohibits something

banal [bəˈnɑ:l] – adj. repeated too often; overfamiliar through overuse

band [bænd] – n. an unofficial association of people or groups

bandanna [bænˈdænə] – n. large and brightly colored handkerchief; often used as a neckerchief

baneful [ˈbeinfəl] – adj. exceedingly harmful

bang [bæŋ] – v. strike violently

banker [ˈbæŋkə] – n. the person in charge of the bank in a gambling game

bankrupt [ˈbæŋkrʌpt] – n. someone who has insufficient assets to cover their debts

bankruptcy [ˈbæŋkrəptsi] – n. a state of complete lack of some abstract property: spiritual bankruptcy

banner [ˈbænə] – n. long strip of cloth or paper used for decoration or advertising

banter [ˈbæntə] – n. light teasing repartee

bar [bɑ:] – n. a room or establishment where alcoholic drinks are served over a counter: he drowned his sorrows in whiskey at the bar

barb [bɑ:b] – n. an aggressive remark directed at a person like a missile and intended to have a telling effect

barbecue [ˈbɑ:bikju:] – n. a cookout in which food is cooked over an open fire; especially a whole animal carcass roasted on a spit

barber [ˈbɑ:bə] – n. United States composer (1910-1981)

barcarole [bɑ:kəˈrɔl] – n. a boating song sung by Venetian gondoliers

bare [bɛə] – adj. completely unclothed: bare bodies

barely [ˈbɛəli] – adv. only a very short time before: they could barely hear the speaker

barge [bɑ:dʒ] – v. push one’s way: she barged into the meeting room

baritone [ˈbærətəun] – n. a male singer

bark [bɑ:k] – v. speak in an unfriendly tone: She barked into the dictaphone

barn [bɑ:n] – n. an outlying farm building for storing grain or animal feed and housing farm animals

barograph [ˈbærəgræf] – n. a recording barometer; automatically records on paper the variations in atmospheric pressure

barometer [bəˈrɔmitə] – n. an instrument that measures atmospheric pressure

baroque [bəˈrɔk, bəˈrəuk] – n. elaborate and extensive ornamentation in decorative art and architecture that flourished in Europe in the 17th century

barrel [ˈbærəl] – n. a tube through which a bullet travels when a gun is fired

barrelful  – n. the quantity that a barrel (of any size) will hold

barren [ˈbærən] – adj. providing no shelter or sustenance: barren lands

barrenness [ˈbærənnis] – n. the state (usually of a woman) of having no children or being unable to have children

barricade [ˈbærikeid] – v. render unsuitable for passage: barricade the streets

barrier [ˈbæriə] – n. a structure or object that impedes free movement

barter [ˈbɑ:tə] – n. an equal exchange: we had no money so we had to live by barter

base [beis] – n. installation from which a military force initiates operations: the attack wiped out our forward bases

basement [ˈbeismənt] – n. the lowermost portion of a structure partly or wholly below ground level; often used for storage

basin [ˈbeisn] – n. a bowl-shaped vessel; usually used for holding food or liquids: she mixed the dough in a large basin

bask [bɑ:sk] – v. derive or receive pleasure from; get enjoyment from; take pleasure in: She relished her fame and basked in her glory

bass [beis] – n. the lowest part of the musical range

baste [beist] – v. cover with liquid before cooking: baste a roast

baton [ˈbætɔn] – n. a thin tapered rod used by a conductor to lead an orchestra or choir

battalion [bəˈtæljən] – n. an army unit usually consisting of a headquarters and three or more companies

batten [ˈbætn] – n. stuffing made of rolls or sheets of cotton wool or synthetic fiber

batter [ˈbætə] – v. strike against forcefully

bauble [ˈbɔ:bəl] – n. a mock scepter carried by a court jester

bawl [bɔ:l] – v. shout loudly and without restraint

beacon [ˈbi:kən] – n. a fire (usually on a hill or tower) that can be seen from a distance

bead [bi:d] – n. a small ball with a hole through the middle

beak [bi:k] – n. horny projecting mouth of a bird

beam [bi:m] – n. a signal transmitted along a narrow path; guides airplane pilots in darkness or bad weather

bean [bi:n] – n. any of various edible seeds of plants of the family Leguminosae used for food

bear [bɛə] – v. have: bear a resemblance

beard [biəd] – n. the hair growing on the lower part of a man’s face

beast [bi:st] – n. a living organism characterized by voluntary movement

beat [bi:t] – v. come out better in a competition, race, or conflict: Agassi beat Becker in the tennis championship

beatify [bi:ˈætifai] – v. fill with sublime emotion

beatitude [biˈætitju:d] – n. a state of supreme happiness

beau [bəu] – n. a man who is the lover of a girl or young woman

beaver [ˈbi:və] – n. a native or resident of Oregon

becalm [biˈkɑ:m] – v. make steady

beck [bek] – n. a beckoning gesture

bed [bed] – n. a piece of furniture that provides a place to sleep: he sat on the edge of the bed

bedaub [biˈdɔ:b] – v. spread or daub (a surface)

bedeck [biˈdek] – v. decorate

bedlam [ˈbedləm] – n. a state of extreme confusion and disorder

bedrock [ˈbedˈrɔk] – n. solid unweathered rock lying beneath surface deposits of soil

befog [biˈfɔg] – v. make less visible or unclear

befriend [biˈfrend] – v. become friends with

beg [beg] – v. call upon in supplication; entreat: I beg you to stop!

beget [biˈget] – v. make children

begrudge [biˈgrʌdʒ] – v. be envious of; set one’s heart on

beguile [biˈgail] – v. influence by slyness

behalf [biˈhɑ:f] – n. as the agent of or on someone’s part (usually expressed as: on behalf of

behave [biˈheiv] – v. behave well or properly: The children must learn to behave

behavior [biˈheivjə] – n. manner of acting or controlling yourself

belay [biˈlei] – v. turn a rope round an object or person in order to secure it or him

belie [biˈlai] – v. be in contradiction with

believe [biˈli:v] – v. accept as true; take to be true: I believed his report

belittle [biˈlitl] – v. cause to seem less serious; play down: Don’t belittle his influence

belle [bel] – n. a young woman who is the most charming and beautiful of several rivals: she was the belle of the ball

bellicose [ˈbelikəus] – adj. having or showing a ready disposition to fight: bellicose young officers

belligerent [biˈlidʒərənt] – adj. characteristic of an enemy or one eager to fight: a belligerent tone

bellows [ˈbeləuz] – n. a mechanical device that blows a strong current of air; used to make a fire burn more fiercely or to sound a musical instrument

beloved [biˈlʌvid] – adj. dearly loved

below [biˈləu] – adv. at a later place: see below

beluga  – n. valuable source of caviar and isinglass; found in Black and Caspian seas

bemoan [biˈməun] – v. regret strongly

bend [bend] – n. a circular segment of a curve: a bend in the road

beneath [biˈni:θ] – adv. in or to a place that is lower

benediction [beniˈdikʃən] – n. the act of praying for divine protection

benefactor [ˈbeni.fæktə] – n. a person who helps people or institutions (especially with financial help)

benefice [ˈbenifis] – n. an endowed church office giving income to its holder

beneficent [biˈnefisnt] – adj. doing or producing good: the most beneficent regime in history

beneficial [.beniˈfiʃəl] – adj. promoting or enhancing well-being: an arms limitation agreement beneficial to all countries

beneficiary [.beniˈfiʃəri] – n. the semantic role of the intended recipient who benefits from the happening denoted by the verb in the clause

benefit [ˈbenifit] – n. financial assistance in time of need

benevolence [biˈnevələns] – n. disposition to do good

benevolent [biˈnevələnt] – adj. intending or showing kindness: a benevolent society

benign [biˈnain] – adj. not dangerous to health; not recurrent or progressive (especially of a tumor)

benignant [biˈnignənt] – adj. pleasant and beneficial in nature or influence

benison [ˈbenizn] – n. a spoken blessing

bequeath [biˈkwi:ð] – v. leave or give by will after one’s death: My aunt bequeathed me all her jewelry

bequest [biˈkwest] – n. (law) a gift of personal property by will

bereave [bəˈri:v] – v. deprive through death

berth [bə:θ] – n. a job in an organization

beseech [biˈsi:tʃ] – v. ask for or request earnestly

beset [biˈset] – v. annoy continually or chronically

besides [biˈsaidz] – adv. making an additional point; anyway: I don’t want to go to a restaurant; besides, we can’t afford it

besiege [biˈsi:dʒ] – v. surround so as to force to give up: The Turks besieged Vienna

besmear [biˈsmiə] – v. spread or daub (a surface)

besmirch [biˈsmə:tʃ] – v. charge falsely or with malicious intent; attack the good name and reputation of someone

bespeak [biˈspi:k] – v. be a signal for or a symptom of

bestial [ˈbestjəl] – adj. resembling a beast; showing lack of human sensibility: a bestial nature

bestow [biˈstəu] – v. present: bestow an honor on someone

bestrew [biˈstru:] – v. cover by strewing

bestride [biˈstraid] – v. get up on the back of

bethink [biˈθiŋk] – v. cause oneself to consider something

betide [biˈtaid] – v. become of; happen to

betimes [biˈtaimz] – adv. in good time: he awoke betimes that morning

betoken [biˈtəukən] – v. be a signal for or a symptom of

betray [biˈtrei] – v. reveal unintentionally: Her smile betrayed her true feelings

betroth [biˈtrəuð] – v. give to in marriage

betrothal [biˈtrɔ:θəl] – n. a mutual promise to marry

bevel [ˈbevl] – n. two surfaces meeting at an angle different from 90 degrees

beverage [ˈbevəridʒ] – n. any liquid suitable for drinking: may I take your beverage order?

bewilder [biˈwildə] – v. cause to be confused emotionally

beyond [biˈjɔnd] – adv. farther along in space or time or degree: through the valley and beyond

bias [ˈbaiəs] – n. a partiality that prevents objective consideration of an issue or situation

bibliography [.bibliˈɔgrəfi] – n. a list of writings with time and place of publication (such as the writings of a single author or the works referred to in preparing a document etc.)

bibliomania [bibliəuˈmeiniə] – n. preoccupation with the acquisition and possession of books

bibliophile [ˈbibliəufail] – n. someone who loves (and usually collects) books

bibulous [ˈbibjuləs] – adj. given to or marked by the consumption of alcohol: a bibulous fellow

bicameral [baiˈkæmərəl] – adj. composed of two legislative bodies

bide [baid] – v. dwell

biennial [baiˈeniəl] – adj. having a life cycle lasting two seasons: a biennial life cycle

bier [biə] – n. a coffin along with its stand: we followed the bier to the graveyard

bifocal  – adj. having two foci: bifocal eyeglasses

bigamy [ˈbigəmi] – n. having two spouses at the same time

bight [bait] – n. a loop in a rope

bigotry [ˈbigətri] – n. the intolerance and prejudice of a bigot

bilateral [baiˈlætərəl] – adj. having identical parts on each side of an axis

bilingual [baiˈliŋgwəl] – n. a person who speaks two languages fluently

bill [bil] – n. a statute in draft before it becomes law: they held a public hearing on the bill

billion [ˈbiljən] – n. a very large indefinite number (usually hyperbole)

biographer [baiˈɔgrəfə] – n. someone who writes an account of a person’s life

biographical  – adj. of or relating to or being biography: biographical data

biography [baiˈɔgrəfi] – n. an account of the series of events making up a person’s life

biologic  – adj. pertaining to biology or to life and living things

biological  – adj. of parents and children; related by blood: biological child

biologist [baiˈɔlədʒist] – n. (biology) a scientist who studies living organisms

biology [baiˈɔlədʒi] – n. the science that studies living organisms

biped [ˈbaiped] – n. an animal with two feet

birthright [ˈbə:θrait] – n. an inheritance coming by right of birth (especially by primogeniture)

bison [ˈbaisn] – n. any of several large humped bovids having shaggy manes and large heads and short horns

bitter [ˈbitə] – adj. marked by strong resentment or cynicism: bitter about the divorce

bitterness [ˈbitənis] – n. a rough and bitter manner

bituminous  – adj. resembling or containing bitumen: bituminous coal

bizarre [biˈzɑ:] – adj. conspicuously or grossly unconventional or unusual: restaurants of bizarre design–one like a hat, another like a rabbit

blackout  – n. a suspension of radio or tv broadcasting

blacksmith [ˈblæk.smiθ] – n. a smith who forges and shapes iron with a hammer and anvil

blame [bleim] – v. harass with constant criticism

bland [blænd] – adj. lacking taste or flavor or tang: a bland diet

blandishment [ˈblændiʃmənt] – n. flattery intended to persuade

blanket [ˈblæŋkit] – n. bedding that keeps a person warm in bed

blaspheme [blæsˈfi:m] – v. utter obscenities or profanities

blast [blɑ:st] – v. make a strident sound: She tended to blast when speaking into a microphone

blatant [ˈbleitənt] – adj. without any attempt at concealment; completely obvious: blatant disregard of the law

blaze [bleiz] – n. a strong flame that burns brightly: the blaze spread rapidly

blazing [ˈbleiziŋ] – adj. shining intensely: the blazing sun

blazon [ˈbleizn] – n. the official symbols of a family, state, etc.

bleach [bli:tʃ] – n. the whiteness that results from removing the color from something: a complete bleach usually requires several applications

bleak [bli:k] – adj. offering little or no hope: prospects were bleak

blemish [ˈblemiʃ] – v. mar or spoil the appearance of

blend [blend] – n. an occurrence of thorough mixing

bless [bles] – v. give a benediction to: The dying man blessed his son

blight [blait] – n. any plant disease resulting in withering without rotting

blink [bliŋk] – v. briefly shut the eyes: The TV announcer never seems to blink

blithe [ˈblaið] – adj. lacking or showing a lack of due concern: spoke with blithe ignorance of the true situation

blithesome [ˈblaiðsəm] – adj. carefree and happy and lighthearted: a merry blithesome nature

blizzard [ˈblizəd] – n. a storm with widespread snowfall accompanied by strong winds

block [blɔk] – v. render unsuitable for passage: block the way

blockade [blɔˈkeid] – v. hinder or prevent the progress or accomplishment of

bloom [blu:m] – n. the organic process of bearing flowers: you will stop all bloom if you let the flowers go to seed

blossom [ˈblɔsəm] – n. reproductive organ of angiosperm plants especially one having showy or colorful parts

blower  – n. a device that produces a current of air

blues [blu:z] – n. a state of depression: he had a bad case of the blues

bluff [blʌf] – n. a high steep bank (usually formed by river erosion)

blunt [blʌnt] – v. make less intense: blunted emotions

blush [blʌʃ] – n. a rosy color (especially in the cheeks) taken as a sign of good health

board [bɔ:d] – n. a committee having supervisory powers: the board has seven members

boarder [ˈbɔ:də] – n. a tenant in someone’s house

boardinghouse [ˈbɔ:diŋ.haus] – n. a private house that provides accommodations and meals for paying guests

boast [bəust] – v. show off

boastful [ˈbəustfəl] – adj. exhibiting self-importance

boatswain [ˈbəutswein] – n. a petty officer on a merchant ship who controls the work of other seamen

bodice [ˈbɔdis] – n. part of a dress above the waist

bodily [ˈbɔdili] – adj. affecting or characteristic of the body as opposed to the mind or spirit: bodily needs

bog [bɔg] – v. cause to slow down or get stuck: The vote would bog down the house

boisterous [ˈbɔistərəs] – adj. noisy and lacking in restraint or discipline: a boisterous crowd

bold [bəuld] – adj. fearless and daring: bold settlers on some foreign shore

bole [bəul] – n. a soft oily clay used as a pigment (especially a reddish brown pigment)

bolero [bəˈlɛərəu] – n. a short jacket; worn mostly by women

boll [bəul] – n. the rounded seed-bearing capsule of a cotton or flax plant

bolster [ˈbəulstə] – v. support and strengthen: bolster morale

bomb [bɔm] – n. an explosive device fused to explode under specific conditions

bombard [bɔmˈba:d] – v. cast, hurl, or throw repeatedly with some missile

bombardier [,bɔmbəˈdiə] – n. a noncommissioned officer in the British artillery

bombast [ˈbɔmbæst] – n. pompous or pretentious talk or writing

bombastic [bɔmˈbæstik] – adj. ostentatiously lofty in style

bonanza [bəuˈnænzə] – n. an especially rich vein of precious ore

bond [bɔnd] – n. an electrical force linking atoms

bony [ˈbəuni] – adj. very thin especially from disease or hunger or cold: emaciated bony hands

booklet [ˈbuklit] – n. a small book usually having a paper cover

boom [bu:m] – n. a deep prolonged loud noise

boon [bu:n] – n. a desirable state: a spanking breeze is a boon to sailors

boorish [ˈbuəriʃ] – adj. ill-mannered and coarse and contemptible in behavior or appearance: was boorish and insensitive

boost [bu:st] – v. increase

border [ˈbɔ:də] – n. a line that indicates a boundary

bore [bɔ:] – n. a high wave (often dangerous) caused by tidal flow (as by colliding tidal currents or in a narrow estuary)

bored  – adj. tired of the world: bored with life

boredom [ˈbɔ:dəm] – n. the feeling of being bored by something tedious

boring [ˈbɔ:riŋ] – n. the act of drilling

borough [ˈbʌrə] – n. one of the administrative divisions of a large city

bosom [ˈbuzəm] – n. the chest considered as the place where secret thoughts are kept: his bosom was bursting with the secret

botanical [bəˈtænikəl] – n. a drug made from part of a plant (as the bark or root or leaves)

botanist  – n. a biologist specializing in the study of plants

botanize [ˈbɔtənaiz] – v. collect and study plants

botany [ˈbɔtəni] – n. all the plant life in a particular region or period: the botany of China

boulder [ˈbəuldə] – n. a large smooth mass of rock detached from its place of origin

bounce [bauns] – v. spring back; spring away from an impact: The rubber ball bounced

bound [baund] – adj. confined by bonds: bound and gagged hostages

boundary [ˈbaundri] – n. the line or plane indicating the limit or extent of something

boundless [ˈbaundlis] – adj. seemingly boundless in amount, number, degree, or especially extent: children with boundless energy

bountiful [ˈbauntiful] – adj. given or giving freely: bountiful compliments

bouquet [bu:ˈkei] – n. an arrangement of flowers that is usually given as a present

bow [bəu,bau] – n. a knot with two loops and loose ends; used to tie shoelaces

bowdlerize  – v. edit by omitting or modifying parts considered indelicate: bowdlerize a novel

bowl [bəul] – n. a round vessel that is open at the top; used chiefly for holding food or liquids

bowler [ˈbəulər] – n. a cricketer who delivers the ball to the batsman in cricket

boycott [ˈbɔikɔt] – n. a group’s refusal to have commercial dealings with some organization in protest against its policies

brace [breis] – n. a support that steadies or strengthens something else: he wore a brace on his knee

brae [brei] – n. a slope or hillside

braggart [ˈbrægət] – n. a very boastful and talkative person

braid [breid] – n. trimming used to decorate clothes or curtains

brain [brein] – n. mental ability: he’s got plenty of brains but no common sense

branch [brɑ:ntʃ] – n. a division of some larger or more complex organization: a branch of Congress

brandish [ˈbrændiʃ] – v. move or swing back and forth

bravado [brəˈvɑ:dəu] – n. a swaggering show of courage

bravo [brɑ:vəu] – n. a cry of approval as from an audience at the end of great performance

brawl [brɔ:l] – n. an uproarious party

bray [brei] – v. reduce to small pieces or particles by pounding or abrading

braze [breiz] – v. solder together by using hard solder with a high melting point

brazier [ˈbreiʒə] – n. large metal container in which coal or charcoal is burned; warms people who must stay outside for long times

breach [bri:tʃ] – n. a failure to perform some promised act or obligation

breakdown [ˈbreikdaun] – n. the act of disrupting an established order so it fails to continue: his warning came after the breakdown of talks in London

breaker [ˈbreikə] – n. a quarry worker who splits off blocks of stone

breakthrough [ˈbreikθru:] – n. a productive insight

breakup [ˈbreikˈʌp] – n. the termination or disintegration of a relationship (between persons or nations)

breath [breθ] – n. the air that is inhaled and exhaled in respiration: his sour breath offended her

breathe [bri:ð] – v. draw air into, and expel out of, the lungs: I can breathe better when the air is clean

breathing [ˈbri:ðiŋ] – adj. passing or able to pass air in and out of the lungs normally; sometimes used in combination: the boy was disappointed to find only skeletons instead of living breathing dinosaurs

breathless [ˈbreθlis] – adj. tending to cause suspension of regular breathing: a breathless flight

breathtaking [ˈbreθ.teikiŋ] – adj. tending to cause suspension of regular breathing: breathtaking adventure

breech [bri:tʃ] – n. opening in the rear of the barrel of a gun where bullets can be loaded

breed [bri:d] – v. call forth

breeze [bri:z] – n. a slight wind (usually refreshing): the breeze was cooled by the lake

brethren [ˈbreðrən] – n. (plural) the lay members of a male religious order

brevity [ˈbreviti] – n. the use of brief expressions

brew [bru:] – v. sit or let sit in boiling water so as to extract the flavor: the tea is brewing

bric-a-brac  – n. miscellaneous curios

bridle [ˈbraidl] – v. anger or take offense: She bridled at his suggestion to elope

brigade [briˈgeid] – n. army unit smaller than a division

brigadier [brigəˈdiə] – n. a general officer ranking below a major general

brigand [ˈbrigənd] – n. an armed thief who is (usually) a member of a band

brighten [ˈbraitn] – v. become clear

brilliance [ˈbriljəns] – n. a light within the field of vision that is brighter than the brightness to which the eyes are adapted

brilliant [ˈbriljənt] – adj. of surpassing excellence: a brilliant performance

brilliantly [ˈbriljəntli] – adv. with brightness: the stars shone brilliantly

brim [brim] – n. the top edge of a vessel or other container

brimstone [ˈbrimstəun] – n. an old name for sulfur

brine [brain] – n. water containing salts

briny [ˈbraini] – n. any very large body of (salt) water

brisk [brisk] – adj. quick and energetic: a brisk walk in the park

briskly  – adv. in a brisk manner: she walked briskly in the cold air

briskness [ˈbrisknis] – n. liveliness and eagerness

bristle [ˈbrisl] – v. be in a state of movement or action: The garden bristled with toddlers

Briticism [ˈbritisizəm] – n. an expression that is used in Great Britain (especially as contrasted with American English)

brittle [ˈbritl] – adj. having little elasticity; hence easily cracked or fractured or snapped: brittle bones

broach [brəutʃ] – n. a decorative pin worn by women

broadcast [ˈbrɔ:dkɑ:st] – v. sow over a wide area, especially by hand: broadcast seeds

broaden [ˈbrɔ:dn] – v. extend in scope or range or area: broaden your horizon

brochure [brəuˈʃjuə] – n. a small book usually having a paper cover

brogan [ˈbrəugən] – n. a thick and heavy shoe

brogue [brəug] – n. a thick and heavy shoe

brokerage [ˈbrəukəridʒ] – n. the business of a broker; charges a fee to arrange a contract between two parties

bromine [ˈbrəumi:n] – n. a nonmetallic heavy volatile corrosive dark brown liquid element belonging to the halogens; found in sea water

bronchitis [brɔŋˈkaitis] – n. inflammation of the membranes lining the bronchial tubes

bronchus [ˈbrɔŋkəs] – n. either of the two main branches of the trachea

bronze [brɔnz] – v. get a tan, from wind or sun

brooch [bru:tʃ] – n. a decorative pin worn by women

brook [bruk] – n. a natural stream of water smaller than a river (and often a tributary of a river)

brotherhood [ˈbrʌðəhud] – n. the kinship relation between a male offspring and the siblings

browbeat [ˈbraubi:t] – v. be bossy towards

brown [braun] – n. an orange of low brightness and saturation

brownish [ˈbrauniʃ] – adj. of a color similar to that of wood or earth

bruise [bru:z] – v. injure the underlying soft tissue or bone of: I bruised my knee

brusque [bru:sk, brusk] – adj. marked by rude or peremptory shortness: try to cultivate a less brusque manner

brutal [ˈbru:tl] – adj. (of persons or their actions) able or disposed to inflict pain or suffering: brutal beatings

bubble [ˈbʌbl] – v. flow in an irregular current with a bubbling noise

buckle [ˈbʌkəl] – v. fold or collapse: His knees buckled

buckskin  – n. horse of a light yellowish dun color with dark mane and tail

bucolic [bju:ˈkɔlik] – n. a country person

bud [bʌd] – n. a partially opened flower

buddy [ˈbʌdi] – n. a close friend who accompanies his buddies in their activities

budget [ˈbʌdʒit] – n. a sum of money allocated for a particular purpose: the laboratory runs on a budget of a million a year

buffoon [bəˈfu:n] – n. a rude or vulgar fool

buffoonery [bə`fU:nəri] – n. acting like a clown or buffoon

buggy [ˈbʌgi] – adj. informal or slang terms for mentally irregular

bugle [ˈbju:gl] – n. a brass instrument without valves; used for military calls and fanfares

built-in  – adj. existing as an essential constituent or characteristic: the Ptolemaic system with its built-in concept of periodicity

bulb [bʌlb] – n. a modified bud consisting of a thickened globular underground stem serving as a reproductive structure

bulbous [ˈbʌlbəs] – adj. curving outward

bulge [bʌldʒ] – v. swell or protrude outwards: His stomach bulged after the huge meal

bulk [bʌlk] – n. the property resulting from being or relating to the greater in number of two parts; the main part: the bulk of the work is finished

bulky [ˈbʌlki] – adj. of large size for its weight

bulldoze  – v. flatten with or as if with a bulldozer

bulldozer  – n. large powerful tractor; a large blade in front flattens areas of ground

bullock [ˈbulək] – n. castrated bull

bully [ˈbuli] – n. a cruel and brutal fellow

bulrush [ˈbulrʌʃ] – n. tall rush with soft erect or arching stems found in Eurasia, Australia, New Zealand, and common in North America

bulwark [ˈbulwək] – n. an embankment built around a space for defensive purposes

bump [bʌmp] – v. knock against with force or violence: My car bumped into the tree

bumper [ˈbʌmpə] – n. a glass filled to the brim (especially as a toast): we quaffed a bumper of ale

bumptious [ˈbʌmpʃəs] – adj. offensively self-assertive

bunch [bʌntʃ] – n. a grouping of a number of similar things: a bunch of trees

bundle [ˈbʌndl] – v. gather or cause to gather into a cluster

bungle [ˈbʌŋgl] – v. make a mess of, destroy or ruin

buoyancy [ˈbɔiənsi] – n. cheerfulness that bubbles to the surface

buoyant [ˈbɔiənt] – adj. tending to float on a liquid or rise in air or gas: buoyant balloons

burdensome [ˈbə:dnsəm] – adj. not easily borne; wearing: the burdensome task of preparing the income tax return

bureau [ˈbjuərəu] – n. an administrative unit of government

bureaucracy [bjuəˈrɔkrəsi] – n. nonelective government officials

burgeon [ˈbə:dʒən] – v. grow and flourish: The burgeoning administration

burgess [ˈbə:dʒis] – n. English writer of satirical novels (1917-1993)

burgher [ˈbə:gə] – n. a citizen of an English borough

burial [ˈberiəl] – n. the ritual placing of a corpse in a grave

burning [ˈbə:niŋ] – n. pain that feels hot as if it were on fire

burnish [ˈbə:niʃ] – n. the property of being smooth and shiny

burrow [ˈbʌrəu] – n. a hole made by an animal, usually for shelter

bursar [ˈbə:sə] – n. the treasurer at a college or university

burst [bə:st] – v. come open suddenly and violently, as if from internal pressure: The bubble burst

bush [buʃ] – n. a low woody perennial plant usually having several major stems

bust [bʌst] – v. ruin completely: He busted my radio!

bustle [ˈbʌsəl] – n. a rapid active commotion

butt [bʌt] – n. thick end of the handle

butte [bju:t] – n. a hill that rises abruptly from the surrounding region; has a flat top and sloping sides

butter [ˈbʌtə] – n. an edible emulsion of fat globules made by churning milk or cream; for cooking and table use

butterfly [ˈbʌtəflai] – v. cut and spread open, as in preparation for cooking

buttress [ˈbʌtrəs] – v. make stronger or defensible: buttress your thesis

buzz [bʌz] – v. fly low: Planes buzzed the crowds in the square

buzzer [ˈbʌzə] – n. a signaling device that makes a buzzing sound

by-product [ˈbai.prɔdʌkt] – n. a secondary and sometimes unexpected consequence

cab [kæb] – n. a compartment at the front of a motor vehicle or locomotive where driver sits

cabal [kəˈbæl] – n. a clique (often secret) that seeks power usually through intrigue

cabbalah  – n. an esoteric or occult matter resembling the Kabbalah that is traditionally secret

cabin [ˈkæbin] – n. small room on a ship or boat where people sleep

cabinet [ˈkæbinit] – n. a piece of furniture resembling a cupboard with doors and shelves and drawers; for storage or display

cacophonous  – adj. having an unpleasant sound: as cacophonous as a henyard

cacophony [kəˈkɔfəni] – n. a loud harsh or strident noise

cactus [ˈkæktəs] – n. any succulent plant of the family Cactaceae native chiefly to arid regions of the New World and usually having spines

cadaverous [kəˈdævərəs] – adj. very thin especially from disease or hunger or cold

cadence [ˈkeidəns] – n. (prosody) the accent in a metrical foot of verse

cadenza [kəˈdenzə] – n. a brilliant solo passage occurring near the end of a piece of music

caitiff [ˈkeitif] – n. a cowardly and despicable person

cajole [kəˈdʒəul] – v. influence or urge by gentle urging, caressing, or flattering

calculable [ˈkælkjuləbl] – adj. capable of being calculated or estimated: a calculable risk

calculate [ˈkælkjuleit] – v. judge to be probable

calculation [.kælkjuˈleiʃən] – n. problem solving that involves numbers or quantities

calculator [ˈkælkju.leitə] – n. a small machine that is used for mathematical calculations

calculus [ˈkælkjuləs] – n. a hard lump produced by the concretion of mineral salts; found in hollow organs or ducts of the body

caliber [ˈkælibə] – n. a degree or grade of excellence or worth: an executive of low caliber

calibration [.kæliˈbreiʃən] – n. the act of checking or adjusting (by comparison with a standard) the accuracy of a measuring instrument: the thermometer needed calibration

callosity [kæˈlɔsiti] – n. an area of skin that is thick or hard from continual pressure or friction (as the sole of the foot)

callous [ˈkæləs] – adj. emotionally hardened: a callous indifference to suffering

callow [ˈkæləu] – adj. young and inexperienced

calm [kɑ:m] – v. make steady

calorie [ˈkæləri] – n. a unit of heat equal to the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water by one degree at one atmosphere pressure; used by nutritionists to characterize the energy-producing potential in food

calumniate [kəˈlʌmni-eit] – v. charge falsely or with malicious intent; attack the good name and reputation of someone

calumny [ˈkæləmni] – n. a false accusation of an offense or a malicious misrepresentation of someone’s words or actions

Calvary [ˈkælvəri] – n. a hill near Jerusalem where Jesus was crucified

Calvinism [ˈkælvinizəm] – n. the theological system of John Calvin and his followers emphasizing omnipotence of God and salvation by grace alone

Calvinist  – n. an adherent of the theological doctrines of John Calvin

cameo [kæmiəu] – n. engraving or carving in low relief on a stone (as in a brooch or ring)

camouflage [ˈkæmuflɑ:ʒ] – n. an outward semblance that misrepresents the true nature of something

campaign [kæmˈpein] – n. a race between candidates for elective office: I managed his campaign for governor

Canaanite [ˈkeinənait] – n. the extinct language of the Semitic people who occupied Canaan before the Israelite conquest

canal [kəˈnæl] – n. a bodily passage or tube lined with epithelial cells and conveying a secretion or other substance: the alimentary canal

canary [kəˈnɛəri] – n. someone acting as an informer or decoy for the police

cancel [ˈkænsl] – v. postpone indefinitely or annul something that was scheduled: cancel the dinner party

cancellation [kænsəˈleiʃən] – n. the speech act of revoking or annulling or making void

candid [ˈkændid] – adj. characterized by directness in manner or speech; without subtlety or evasion: I gave them my candid opinion

candidate [ˈkændidit] – n. a politician who is running for public office

candor [ˈkændə] – n. ability to make judgments free from discrimination or dishonesty

cane [kein] – n. a stick that people can lean on to help them walk

canine [ˈkeinain] – n. one of the four pointed conical teeth (two in each jaw) located between the incisors and the premolars

cannibalism [ˈkænibəlizɚm] – n. the practice of eating the flesh of your own kind

canoe [kəˈnu:] – n. small and light boat; pointed at both ends; propelled with a paddle

canopy [ˈkænəpi] – n. the transparent covering of an aircraft cockpit

cant [kænt] – n. stock phrases that have become nonsense through endless repetition

cantankerous [kænˈtæŋkərəs] – adj. stubbornly obstructive and unwilling to cooperate

cantata [kænˈtɑ:tə] – n. a musical composition for voices and orchestra based on a religious text

canter [ˈkæntə] – n. a smooth three-beat gait; between a trot and a gallop

canto [ˈkæntəu] – n. the highest part (usually the melody) in a piece of choral music

cantonment [kænˈtu:nmənt] – n. temporary living quarters specially built by the army for soldiers

canvas [ˈkænvəs] – n. a heavy, closely woven fabric (used for clothing or chairs or sails or tents)

canyon [ˈkænjən] – n. a ravine formed by a river in an area with little rainfall

capability [.keipəˈbiləti] – n. the susceptibility of something to a particular treatment: the capability of a metal to be fused

capable [ˈkeipəbl] – adj. possibly accepting or permitting: a passage capable of misinterpretation

capacious [kəˈpeiʃəs] – adj. large in capacity: she carried a capacious bag

capacity [kəˈpæsiti] – n. the susceptibility of something to a particular treatment

capillary [kəˈpiləri] – n. any of the minute blood vessels connecting arterioles with venules

capital [ˈkæpitl] – n. assets available for use in the production of further assets

capitulate [kəˈpitjuleit] – v. surrender under agreed conditions

caprice [kəˈpri:s] – n. a sudden desire

capricious [kəˈpriʃəs] – adj. changeable: a capricious summer breeze

capsize [kæpˈsaiz] – v. overturn accidentally: Don’t rock the boat or it will capsize!

captain [ˈkæptin] – n. an officer holding a rank below a major but above a lieutenant

caption [ˈkæpʃən] – n. translation of foreign dialogue of a movie or TV program; usually displayed at the bottom of the screen

captious [ˈkæpʃəs] – adj. tending to find and call attention to faults: a captious pedant

captivate [ˈkæptiveit] – v. attract; cause to be enamored

captivating  – adj. capturing interest as if by a spell: Roosevelt was a captivating speaker

captivity [kæpˈtiviti] – n. the state of being imprisoned: he was held in captivity until he died

carapace [ˈkærəpeis] – n. hard outer covering or case of certain organisms such as arthropods and turtles

carat [ˈkærət] – n. a unit of weight for precious stones = 200 mg

carbohydrate [ˈkɑ:bəuˈhaidreit] – n. an essential structural component of living cells and source of energy for animals; includes simple sugars with small molecules as well as macromolecular substances; are classified according to the number of monosaccharide groups they contain

carcass [ˈkɑ:kəs] – n. the dead body of an animal especially one slaughtered and dressed for food

cardiac [ˈkɑ:diæk] – adj. of or relating to the heart: cardiac arrest

cardinal [ˈkɑ:dinəl] – n. the number of elements in a mathematical set; denotes a quantity but not the order

career [kəˈriə] – n. the particular occupation for which you are trained

careerism [kəˈriərizəm] – n. the practice of advancing your career at the expense of your personal integrity

careful [ˈkɛəfəl] – adj. cautiously attentive: careful of her feelings

careless [ˈkɛəlis] – adj. effortless and unstudied: an impression of careless elegance

carelessly [ˈkɛəlisli] – adv. without care or concern: carelessly raised the children’s hopes without thinking of their possible disappointment

caress [kəˈres] – n. a gentle affectionate stroking (or something resembling it): he showered her with caresses

caret [ˈkærit] – n. a mark used by an author or editor to indicate where something is to be inserted into a text

cargo [ˈkɑ:gəu] – n. goods carried by a large vehicle

caribou [ˈkæribu:] – n. Arctic deer with large antlers in both sexes; called `reindeer’ in Eurasia and `caribou’ in North America

caricature [.kærikəˈtjuə] – n. a representation of a person that is exaggerated for comic effect

carnage [ˈkɑ:nidʒ] – n. the savage and excessive killing of many people

carnal [ˈkɑ:nəl] – adj. marked by the appetites and passions of the body: carnal knowledge

carnival [ˈkɑ:nivəl] – n. a festival marked by merrymaking and processions

carnivore [ˈkɑ:nivɔ:] – n. a terrestrial or aquatic flesh-eating mammal: terrestrial carnivores have four or five clawed digits on each limb

carnivorous [kɑ:ˈnivərəs] – adj. (used of plants as well as animals) feeding on animals: carnivorous plants are capable of trapping and digesting small animals especially insects

carouse [kəˈrauz] – n. revelry in drinking; a merry drinking party

carping [ˈkarpiŋ] – n. persistent petty and unjustified criticism

carrion [ˈkæriən] – n. the dead and rotting body of an animal; unfit for human food

cartilage [ˈkɑ:tilidʒ] – n. tough elastic tissue; mostly converted to bone in adults

cartoon [kɑ:ˈtu:n] – n. a humorous or satirical drawing published in a newspaper or magazine

cartridge [ˈkɑ:tridʒ] – n. ammunition consisting of a cylindrical casing containing an explosive charge and a bullet; fired from a rifle or handgun

carve [kɑ:v] – v. engrave or cut by chipping away at a surface: carve one’s name into the bark

carver [ˈkɑ:və] – n. makes decorative wooden panels

carving [ˈkɑ:viŋ] – n. a sculpture created by removing material (as wood or ivory or stone) in order to create a desired shape

cascade [kæˈskeid] – n. a small waterfall or series of small waterfalls

cassette [kəˈset] – n. a container that holds a magnetic tape used for recording or playing sound or video

cast [kɑ:st] – v. put or send forth: cast a spell

caste [kɑ:st] – n. social status or position conferred by a system based on class: lose caste by doing work beneath one’s station

castigate [ˈkæstigeit] – v. censure severely

casting [ˈkɑ:stiŋ] – n. object formed by a mold

cast-iron [ˈkɑ:stˈaiən] – adj. extremely robust

casual [ˈkæʒjuəl] – adj. marked by blithe unconcern: an ability to interest casual students

casualty [ˈkæʒjuəlti] – n. someone injured or killed or captured or missing in a military engagement

cataclysm [ˈkætəklizəm] – n. a sudden violent change in the earth’s surface

catalog [ˈkætəlɔ:g] – n. a book or pamphlet containing an enumeration of things: he found it in the Sears catalog

catalyst [ˈkætəlist] – n. (chemistry) a substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected

catalyze [ˈkætəlaiz] – v. change by catalysis or cause to catalyze

cataract [ˈkætərækt] – n. an eye disease that involves the clouding or opacification of the natural lens of the eye

catastrophe [kəˈtæstrəfi] – n. an event resulting in great loss and misfortune

categorize [ˈkætigəraiz] – v. place into or assign to a category: Children learn early on to categorize

category [ˈkætigəri] – n. a collection of things sharing a common attribute

cater [ˈkeitə] – v. give what is desired or needed, especially support, food or sustenance

caterpillar [ˈkætəpilə] – n. a wormlike and often brightly colored and hairy or spiny larva of a butterfly or moth

cathedral [kəˈθi:drəl] – n. any large and important church

cathode [ˈkæθəud] – n. a negatively charged electrode that is the source of electrons entering an electrical device

Catholicism [kəˈθɔlisizm] – n. the beliefs and practices of a Catholic Church

catholicity [,kæθəˈlisiti] – n. the beliefs and practices of a Catholic Church

cattle [ˈkætl] – n. domesticated bovine animals as a group regardless of sex or age: so many head of cattle

caucus [ˈkɔ:kəs] – n. a closed political meeting

causal [ˈkɔ:zəl] – adj. involving or constituting a cause; causing: a causal relationship between scarcity and higher prices

cause [kɔ:z] – n. events that provide the generative force that is the origin of something: they are trying to determine the cause of the crash

caustic [ˈkɔ:stik] – adj. harsh or corrosive in tone: caustic jokes about political assassination, talk-show hosts and medical ethics

cauterize [ˈkɔ:təraiz] – v. burn, sear, or freeze (tissue) using a hot iron or electric current or a caustic agent: The surgeon cauterized the wart

caution [ˈkɔ:ʃən] – n. a warning against certain acts

cautious [ˈkɔ:ʃəs] – adj. showing careful forethought: reserved and cautious; never making swift decisions

cautiously [ˈkɔ:ʃəsli] – adv. in a conservative manner

cavalry [ˈkævəlri] – n. troops trained to fight on horseback

cavern [ˈkævən] – n. any large dark enclosed space: his eyes were dark caverns

cavity [ˈkæviti] – n. a sizeable hole (usually in the ground)

cease [si:s] – v. put an end to a state or an activity

ceaseless [ˈsi:slis] – adj. uninterrupted in time and indefinitely long continuing: the ceaseless thunder of surf

cede [si:d] – v. give over; surrender or relinquish to the physical control of another

ceiling [ˈsi:liŋ] – n. the overhead upper surface of a covered space: he hated painting the ceiling

celebrate [ˈselibreit] – v. behave as expected during of holidays or rites: celebrate Christmas

celebrated [ˈselibreitid] – adj. widely known and esteemed: a celebrated musician

celebrity [siˈlebriti] – n. a widely known person: he was a baseball celebrity

celestial [siˈlestiəl] – adj. of or relating to the sky: celestial map

cell [sel] – n. any small compartment: the cells of a honeycomb

cellar [ˈselə] – n. the lowermost portion of a structure partly or wholly below ground level; often used for storage

cellist [ˈtʃelist] – n. someone who plays a violoncello

cello [ˈtʃeləʊ] – n. a large stringed instrument; seated player holds it upright while playing

cellular [ˈseljulə] – adj. relating to cells: cellular walls

censor [ˈsensə] – n. someone who censures or condemns

censorious [senˈsɔ:riəs] – adj. harshly critical or expressing censure: was censorious of petty failings

census [ˈsensəs] – n. a periodic count of the population

centenary [senˈti:nəri] – n. the 100th anniversary (or the celebration of it)

centennial [senˈtenjəl, -niəl] – n. the 100th anniversary (or the celebration of it)

centigrade [ˈsentigreid] – adj. of or relating to a temperature scale on which the freezing point of water is 0 degrees and the boiling point of water is 100 degrees

centiliter [ˈsentili:tər] – n. a metric unit of volume equal to one hundredth of a liter

centimeter [ˈsenti.mi:tə] – n. a metric unit of length equal to one hundredth of a meter

centralize  – v. make central: The Russian government centralized the distribution of food

centurion [senˈtjuriən] – n. (ancient Rome) the leader of 100 soldiers

cereal [ˈsiəriəl] – n. grass whose starchy grains are used as food: wheat; rice; rye; oats; maize; buckwheat; millet

ceremonial [.seriˈməunjəl] – n. a formal event performed on a special occasion

ceremonious [seriˈməunjəs] – adj. rigidly formal or bound by convention: their ceremonious greetings did not seem heartfelt

ceremony [ˈseriməni] – n. a formal event performed on a special occasion: a ceremony commemorating Pearl Harbor

cessation [seˈseiʃ(ə)n] – n. a stopping: a cessation of the thunder

cession [ˈseʃən] – n. the act of ceding

chafe [tʃeif] – v. become or make sore by or as if by rubbing

chagrin [ˈʃægrin] – n. strong feelings of embarrassment

chain [tʃein] – n. a series of things depending on each other as if linked together: the chain of command

chalk [tʃɔ:k] – n. a soft whitish calcite

challenge [ˈtʃælindʒ] – n. a demanding or stimulating situation: they reacted irrationally to the challenge of Russian power

challenging [ˈtʃælindʒiŋ] – adj. requiring full use of your abilities or resources: performed the most challenging task without a mistake

chamber [ˈtʃeimbə] – n. a natural or artificial enclosed space

chameleon [kəˈmi:liən] – n. a changeable or inconstant person

champion [ˈtʃæmpjən] – n. someone who has won first place in a competition

championship [ˈtʃæmpjənʃip] – n. a competition at which a champion is chosen

chancery [ˈtʃænsəri] – n. a court with jurisdiction in equity

channel [ˈtʃænl] – n. a path over which electrical signals can pass: a channel is typically what you rent from a telephone company

chaos [ˈkeiɔs] – n. a state of extreme confusion and disorder

chaotic [keiˈɔtik] – adj. lacking a visible order or organization

chaotically  – adv. in a wild and confused manner: the drugged man was talking chaotically

chapel [ˈtʃæpəl] – n. a place of worship that has its own altar

character [ˈkæriktə] – n. an imaginary person represented in a work of fiction (play or film or story): she is the main character in the novel

characteristic [.kæriktəˈristik] – n. a prominent attribute or aspect of something: generosity is one of his best characteristics

characterize [ˈkæriktəraiz] – v. be characteristic of: What characterizes a Venetian painting?

charcoal [ˈtʃɑ:kəul] – n. a carbonaceous material obtained by heating wood or other organic matter in the absence of air

charge [tʃɑ:dʒ] – v. to make a rush at or sudden attack upon, as in battle

charitable [ˈtʃæritəbl] – adj. full of love and generosity: charitable to the poor

charlatan [ˈʃɑ:lətn] – n. a flamboyant deceiver; one who attracts customers with tricks or jokes

charm [tʃɑ:m] – n. attractiveness that interests or pleases or stimulates

chart [tʃɑ:t] – v. plan in detail: Bush is charting a course to destroy Saddam Hussein

charter [ˈtʃɑ:tə] – v. hold under a lease or rental agreement; of goods and services

chase [tʃeis] – v. go after with the intent to catch: The policeman chased the mugger down the alley

chasm [ˈkæzəm] – n. a deep opening in the earth’s surface

chaste [tʃeist] – adj. morally pure (especially not having experienced sexual intercourse): a holy woman innocent and chaste

chasten [ˈtʃeisən] – v. censure severely

chastise [tʃæsˈtaiz] – v. censure severely: She chastised him for his insensitive remarks

chastity [ˈtʃæstiti] – n. abstaining from sexual relations (as because of religious vows)

chat [tʃæt] – n. an informal conversation

chateau [ˈʃɑ:təu] – n. an impressive country house (or castle) in France

chattel [ˈtʃætl] – n. personal as opposed to real property; any tangible movable property (furniture or domestic animals or a car etc)

chauvinist [ˈʃəuvinist] – n. a person with a prejudiced belief in the superiority of his or her own kind

check [tʃek] – v. examine so as to determine accuracy, quality, or condition: check the brakes

checkout [ˈtʃekaut] – n. the act of inspecting or verifying

checkup [ˈtʃek-ʌp] – n. a thorough physical examination; includes a variety of tests depending on the age and sex and health of the person

cheerless  – adj. causing sad feelings of gloom and inadequacy: something cheerless about the room

chef [ʃef] – n. a professional cook

cherish [ˈtʃeriʃ] – v. be fond of; be attached to

chicanery [ʃiˈkeinəri] – n. the use of tricks to deceive someone (usually to extract money from them)

Chicano  – n. a person of Mexican descent

chide [tʃaid] – v. censure severely or angrily

chief [tʃi:f] – n. a person who is in charge

chiffon [ˈʃifɔn] – n. a sheer fabric of silk or rayon

childcare  – n. a service involving care for other people’s children

chill [tʃil] – n. coldness due to a cold environment

chilli  – n. very hot and finely tapering pepper of special pungency

chilly [ˈtʃili] – adj. not characterized by emotion: a female form in marble–a chilly but ideal medium for depicting abstract virtues

chimpanzee [ˈtʃimpænˈzi:] – n. intelligent somewhat arboreal ape of equatorial African forests

chip [tʃip] – n. a small fragment of something broken off from the whole

chirp [tʃə:p] – v. make high-pitched sounds: the birds were chirping in the bushes

chisel [ˈtʃizəl] – v. engage in deceitful behavior; practice trickery or fraud: Who’s chiseling on the side?

chivalry [ˈʃivəlri] – n. courtesy towards women

chlorine  – n. a common nonmetallic element belonging to the halogens; best known as a heavy yellow irritating toxic gas; used to purify water and as a bleaching agent and disinfectant; occurs naturally only as a salt (as in sea water)

chlorophyll  – n. any of a group of green pigments found in photosynthetic organisms; there are four naturally occurring forms

choke [tʃəuk] – v. breathe with great difficulty, as when experiencing a strong emotion: She choked with emotion when she spoke about her deceased husband

cholera [ˈkɔlərə] – n. an acute intestinal infection caused by ingestion of contaminated water or food

choleric [ˈkɔlərik] – adj. easily moved to anger: men of the choleric type take to kicking and smashing

chondrite  – n. a rock of meteoric origin containing chondrules

chop [tʃɔp] – v. cut into pieces: chop meat

choppy [ˈtʃɔpi] – adj. marked by abrupt transitions: choppy prose

choral [ˈkɔ:rəl] – n. a stately Protestant (especially Lutheran) hymn tune

chord [kɔ:d] – n. a straight line connecting two points on a curve

chore [tʃɔ:] – n. a specific piece of work required to be done as a duty or for a specific fee: the farmer’s morning chores

choreograph [ˈkɔ(:)riəgrɑ:f] – v. compose a sequence of dance steps, often to music: Balanchine choreographed many pieces to Stravinsky’s music

choreographer [.kɔriˈɔgrəfə(r)] – n. someone who creates new dances

choreographic [.kɔriəˈgræfik] – adj. of or concerned with choreography

choreography [.kɔ(:)riˈɔgrəfi] – n. a show involving artistic dancing

chorus [ˈkɔ:rəs] – n. any utterance produced simultaneously by a group: a chorus of boos

Christ [kraist] – n. a teacher and prophet born in Bethlehem and active in Nazareth; his life and sermons form the basis for Christianity (circa 4 BC – AD 29)

christen [ˈkrisn] – v. administer baptism to

Christendom [ˈkrisndəm] – n. the collective body of Christians throughout the world and history (found predominantly in Europe and the Americas and Australia): for a thousand years the Roman Catholic Church was the principal church of Christendom

chromatic [krəuˈmætik] – adj. able to refract light without spectral color separation: chromatic lens

chromosphere  – n. a gaseous layer of the sun’s atmosphere (extending from the photosphere to the corona) that is visible during a total eclipse of the sun

chronic [ˈkrɔnik] – adj. being long-lasting and recurrent or characterized by long suffering: chronic indigestion

chronological [.krɔnəˈlɔdʒikəl] – adj. relating to or arranged according to temporal order: chronological age

chronology [krəˈnɔlədʒi] – n. an arrangement of events in time

chronometer [krəˈnɔmitə] – n. an accurate clock (especially used in navigation)

chubby [ˈtʃʌbi] – adj. sufficiently fat so as to have a pleasing fullness of figure: a chubby child

chuckle [ˈtʃʌkl] – n. a soft partly suppressed laugh

chum [tʃʌm] – n. a close friend who accompanies his buddies in their activities

chunk [tʃʌŋk] – n. a compact mass

churn  – v. stir (cream) vigorously in order to make butter

cider [ˈsaidə] – n. a beverage made from juice pressed from apples

cipher [ˈsaifə] – n. a message written in a secret code

circle [ˈsə:kl] – n. an unofficial association of people or groups

circuit [ˈsə:kit] – n. an electrical device that provides a path for electrical current to flow

circular [ˈsə:kjulə] – adj. describing a circle; moving in a circle: the circular motion of the wheel

circulate [ˈsə:kjuleit] – v. become widely known and passed on

circulation [.sə:kjuˈleiʃən] – n. the dissemination of copies of periodicals (as newspapers or magazines)

circumference [səˈkʌmfərəns] – n. the size of something as given by the distance around it

circumlocution [.sə:kəmləˈkju:ʃən] – n. a style that involves indirect ways of expressing things

circumnavigate [sə:kəmˈnævəgeit] – v. travel around, either by plane or ship

circumscribe [ˈsə:kəmskraib] – v. draw a line around

circumspect [ˈsə:kəmspekt] – adj. heedful of potential consequences: circumspect actions

circumstance [ˈsə:kəmstəns] – n. a condition that accompanies or influences some event or activity

circumvent [.sə:kəmˈvent] – v. surround so as to force to give up

citadel [ˈsitədəl] – n. a stronghold into which people could go for shelter during a battle

cite [sait] – v. make reference to

citizenship [ˈsitizɚnʃip] – n. conduct as a citizen: award for good citizenship

civic [ˈsivik] – adj. of or relating or belonging to a city: civic center

civil [ˈsivil] – adj. applying to ordinary citizens as contrasted with the military: civil authorities

civilian [siˈviljən] – n. a nonmilitary citizen

civility [siˈviliti] – n. formal or perfunctory politeness

civilization [.sivilaiˈzeiʃən] – n. the social process whereby societies achieve an advanced stage of development and organization

claim [kleim] – n. an assertion of a right (as to money or property): his claim asked for damages

claimant [ˈkleimənt] – n. someone who claims a benefit or right or title: claimants of unemployment compensation

clairvoyance [kleəˈvɔiəns] – n. apparent power to perceive things that are not present to the senses

clam [klæm] – n. a piece of paper money worth one dollar

clamor [ˈklæmə] – v. make loud demands: he clamored for justice and tolerance

clamorous [ˈklæmərəs] – adj. conspicuously and offensively loud; given to vehement outcry: a clamorous uproar

clan [klæn] – n. group of people related by blood or marriage

clandestine [klænˈdestin] – adj. conducted with or marked by hidden aims or methods: clandestine intelligence operations

clangor [ˈklæŋgə, -ŋə] – v. make a loud resonant noise: the alarm clangored throughout the building

clap [klæp] – v. put quickly or forcibly: The judge clapped him in jail

clarification [.klærifiˈkeiʃən] – n. an interpretation that removes obstacles to understanding: the professor’s clarification helped her to understand the textbook

clarify [ˈklærifai] – v. make clear and (more) comprehensible: clarify the mystery surrounding her death

clarion [ˈklæriən] – n. a medieval brass instrument with a clear shrill tone

clarity [ˈklæriti] – n. free from obscurity and easy to understand; the comprehensibility of clear expression

clash [klæʃ] – n. a loud resonant repeating noise

class [klɑ:s] – n. a collection of things sharing a common attribute: there are two classes of detergents

classic [ˈklæsik] – adj. of recognized authority or excellence: classical methods of navigation

classification [.klæsifiˈkeiʃən] – n. the act of distributing things into classes or categories of the same type

classify [ˈklæsifai] – v. declare unavailable, as for security reasons

clause [klɔ:z] – n. (grammar) an expression including a subject and predicate but not constituting a complete sentence

clavichord  – n. an early stringed instrument like a piano but with more delicate sound

claw [klɔ:] – n. sharp curved horny process on the toe of a bird or some mammals or reptiles

clay [klei] – n. a very fine-grained soil that is plastic when moist but hard when fired

clearance [ˈkliərəns] – n. vertical space available to allow easy passage under something

clear-cut  – adj. having had all the trees removed at one time: clear-cut hillsides are subject to erosion

cleave [kli:v] – v. separate or cut with a tool, such as a sharp instrument: cleave the bone

clemency [ˈklemənsi] – n. good weather with comfortable temperatures

clement [ˈklemənt] – adj. (of weather or climate) physically mild: clement weather

clergy [ˈklə:dʒi] – n. in Christianity, clergymen collectively (as distinguished from the laity)

clergyman [ˈklə:dʒimən] – n. a member of the clergy and a spiritual leader of the Christian Church

click [klik] – v. move or strike with a noise: he clicked on the light

client [ˈklaiənt] – n. a person who seeks the advice of a lawyer

cliff [klif] – n. a steep high face of rock: he stood on a high cliff overlooking the town

climate [ˈklaimit] – n. the weather in some location averaged over some long period of time: the dank climate of southern Wales

climatic [klaiˈmætik] – adj. of or relating to a climate: climatic changes

clinch [klintʃ] – v. secure or fasten by flattening the ends of nails or bolts: The girder was clinched into the wall

cling [kliŋ] – v. come or be in close contact with; stick or hold together and resist separation: The dress clings to her body

clinic [ˈklinik] – n. a medical establishment run by a group of medical specialists

clinical [ˈklinikəl] – adj. scientifically detached; unemotional: he spoke in the clipped clinical monotones typical of police testimony

clip [klip] – n. a metal frame or container holding cartridges; can be inserted into an automatic gun

clockwise [ˈklɔkwaiz] – adj. in the same direction as the rotating hands of a clock

clog [klɔg] – v. become or cause to become obstructed: The leaves clog our drains in the Fall

close-hauled  – adj. having the sails trimmed for sailing as close to the wind as possible

clothier [ˈkləuðiə] – n. a merchant who sells men’s clothing

clue [klu:] – n. a slight indication

clumsy [ˈklʌmzi] – adj. lacking grace in movement or posture: clumsy fingers

cluster [ˈklʌstə] – n. a grouping of a number of similar things: a cluster of admirers

clutch [klʌtʃ] – n. the act of grasping

clutter [ˈklʌtə] – n. a confused multitude of things

coach [kəutʃ] – n. (sports) someone in charge of training an athlete or a team

coagulant [kəʊˈægjʊlənt] – n. an agent that produces coagulation

coagulate [kəuˈægjuleit] – v. change from a liquid to a thickened or solid state: coagulated blood

coalesce [.kəuəˈles] – v. mix together different elements

coalescence [.kəuəˈlesns] – n. the union of diverse things into one body or form or group; the growing together of parts

coalition [.kəuəˈliʃən] – n. an organization of people (or countries) involved in a pact or treaty

coaming  – n. a raised framework around a hatchway on a ship to keep water out

coarse [kɔ:s] – adj. of textures that are rough to the touch or substances consisting of relatively large particles: coarse meal

coat [kəut] – n. a thin layer covering something: a second coat of paint

coax [kəuks] – n. a transmission line for high-frequency signals

coddle [ˈkɔdl] – v. treat with excessive indulgence: Let’s not mollycoddle our students!

code [kəud] – n. a set of rules or principles or laws (especially written ones)

codicil [ˈkəudisil] – n. a supplement to a will; a testamentary instrument intended to alter an already executed will

codify [ˈkɔdifai, ˈkəu-] – v. organize into a code or system, such as a body of law

coelenterate  – n. radially symmetrical animals having saclike bodies with only one opening and tentacles with stinging structures; they occur in polyp and medusa forms

coerce [kəuˈə:s] – v. to cause to do through pressure or necessity, by physical, moral or intellectual means :

coercion [kəuˈə:ʃən] – n. the act of compelling by force of authority

coercive [kəuˈə:siv] – adj. serving or intended to coerce: authority is directional instead of coercive

coexist [kəuigˈzist] – v. exist together

coffeepot [ˈkɑfipɔt] – n. tall pot in which coffee is brewed

cog [kɔg] – n. a subordinate who performs an important but routine function: he was a small cog in a large machine

cogent [ˈkəudʒənt] – adj. powerfully persuasive: a cogent argument

cognate [ˈkɔgneit] – adj. related in nature

cognitive [ˈkɔgnitiv] – adj. of or being or relating to or involving cognition: cognitive psychology

cognizance [ˈkɔgnizəns] – n. having knowledge of

cognizant [ˈkɔnizənt] – adj. (sometimes followed by `of’) having or showing knowledge or understanding or realization or perception

cohabit  – v. share living quarters; usually said of people who are not married and live together as a couple

cohere [kəuˈhiə] – v. come or be in close contact with; stick or hold together and resist separation: The sushi rice grains cohere

coherence [kəʊˈhiərəns] – n. logical and orderly and consistent relation of parts

coherent [kəuˈhiərənt] – adj. marked by an orderly, logical, and aesthetically consistent relation of parts: a coherent argument

cohesion [kəuˈhi:ʒən] – n. (botany) the process in some plants of parts growing together that are usually separate (such as petals)

cohesive [kəuˈhi:siv] – adj. cohering or tending to cohere; well integrated: a cohesive organization

coil [kɔil] – n. a round shape formed by a series of concentric circles (as formed by leaves or flower petals)

coin [kɔin] – v. make up: coin phrases or words

coinage [ˈkɔinidʒ] – n. a newly invented word or phrase

coincide [.kəuinˈsaid] – v. go with, fall together

coincidence [kəuˈinsidəns] – n. an event that might have been arranged although it was really accidental

coincident [kəuˈinsidənt] – adj. occurring or operating at the same time: a series of coincident events

collaborate [kəˈlæbə.reit] – v. work together on a common enterprise of project

collaboration [kə.læbəˈreiʃən] – n. act of working jointly: they worked either in collaboration or independently

collaborator  – n. someone who assists in a plot

collapse [kəˈlæps] – v. break down, literally or metaphorically: The wall collapsed

collarless  – adj. without a collar

collate [kəˈleit] – v. compare critically; of texts

colleague [ˈkɔli:g] – n. an associate that one works with

collection [kəˈlekʃən] – n. several things grouped together or considered as a whole

collective [kəˈlektiv] – adj. done by or characteristic of individuals acting together: the collective mind

collector [kəˈlektə] – n. a person who is employed to collect payments (as for rent or taxes)

collegian [kəˈli:dʒjən] – n. a student (or former student) at a college or university

collide [kəˈlaid] – v. be incompatible; be or come into conflict

collier [ˈkɔljə] – n. someone who works in a coal mine

collision [kəˈliʒən] – n. (physics) a brief event in which two or more bodies come together: the collision of the particles resulted in an exchange of energy and a change of direction

colloquial [kəˈləukwiəl] – adj. characteristic of informal spoken language or conversation: wrote her letters in a colloquial style

colloquialism [kəˈləʊkwiəliz(ə)m] – n. a colloquial expression; characteristic of spoken or written communication that seeks to imitate informal speech

colloquy [ˈkɔləkwi] – n. a conversation especially a formal one

collusion [kəˈlu:ʒən] – n. secret agreement

colonel [ˈkə:nl] – n. a commissioned military officer in the United States Army or Air Force or Marines who ranks above a lieutenant colonel and below a brigadier general

colonial [kəˈləunjəl] – adj. of animals who live in colonies, such as ants

colonize [ˈkɔlənaiz] – v. settle as colonists or establish a colony (in): The British colonized the East Coast

colony [ˈkɔləni] – n. a group of organisms of the same type living or growing together

colossal [kəˈlɔsəl] – adj. so great in size or force or extent as to elicit awe: colossal crumbling ruins of an ancient temple

colossus [kəˈlɔsəs] – n. someone or something that is abnormally large and powerful

colt [kəult] – n. a young male horse under the age of four

column [ˈkɔləm] – n. a line of units following one after another

combat [ˈkɑ:mbæt] – n. an engagement fought between two military forces

combination [.kɔmbiˈneiʃən] – n. a coordinated sequence of chess moves

combine [kəmˈbain] – v. put or add together: combine resources

combustible [kəmˈbʌstəbəl] – n. a substance that can be burned to provide heat or power

combustion [kəmˈbʌstʃən] – n. a process in which a substance reacts with oxygen to give heat and light

comedy [ˈkɔmidi] – n. light and humorous drama with a happy ending

comely [ˈkʌmli] – adj. according with custom or propriety: comely behavior

comestible [kəˈmestibl] – n. any substance that can be used as food

comet [ˈkɔmit] – n. (astronomy) a relatively small extraterrestrial body consisting of a frozen mass that travels around the sun in a highly elliptical orbit

cometary  – adj. of or relating to or resembling a comet

comic [ˈkɔmik] – adj. arousing or provoking laughter: a comic hat

comical [ˈkɔmik(ə)l] – adj. arousing or provoking laughter: a comical look of surprise

comity [ˈkɔmiti] – n. a state or atmosphere of harmony or mutual civility and respect

commander [kəˈmɑ:ndə] – n. someone in an official position of authority who can command or control others

commemorate [kəˈmeməreit] – v. mark by some ceremony or observation

comment [ˈkɔment] – n. a statement that expresses a personal opinion or belief or adds information: from time to time she contributed a personal comment on his account

commentary [ˈkɔməntəri] – n. a written explanation or criticism or illustration that is added to a book or other textual material

commentator [ˈkɔmenteitə] – n. a writer who reports and analyzes events of the day

commerce [ˈkɔmə:s] – n. transactions (sales and purchases) having the objective of supplying commodities (goods and services)

commercial [kəˈmə:ʃəl] – adj. of the kind or quality used in commerce; average or inferior: commercial grade of beef

commercialize [kəˈmə:ʃəlaiz] – v. exploit for maximal profit, usually by sacrificing quality

commingle [kəˈmiŋgl] – v. mix or blend: His book commingles sarcasm and sadness

commiserate [kəˈmizəreit] – v. to feel or express sympathy or compassion

commissariat [kɔmiˈsɛəriət] – n. a stock or supply of foods

commission [kəˈmiʃən] – n. a special group delegated to consider some matter

commissioner [kəˈmiʃənə] – n. a government administrator

commit [kəˈmit] – v. perform an act, usually with a negative connotation

commitment [kəˈmitmənt] – n. the trait of sincere and steadfast fixity of purpose: a man of energy and commitment

committal [kəˈmitl] – n. the official act of consigning a person to confinement (as in a prison or mental hospital)

committed [kəˈmitid] – adj. bound or obligated, as under a pledge to a particular cause, action, or attitude: committed church members

committee [kəˈmiti] – n. a special group delegated to consider some matter: a committee is a group that keeps minutes and loses hours

commodious [kəˈməudiəs] – adj. large and roomy (`convenient’ is archaic in this sense): a commodious harbor

commodity [kəˈmɔditi] – n. articles of commerce

commonplace [ˈkɔmənpleis] – adj. completely ordinary and unremarkable: air travel has now become commonplace

commonsense [.kɔmənˈsens] – adj. exhibiting native good judgment: commonsense scholarship on the foibles of a genius

commonwealth [ˈkɔmənwelθ] – n. a politically organized body of people under a single government

commotion [kəˈməuʃən] – n. a disorderly outburst or tumult

communal [ˈkɔmjunl] – adj. for or by a group rather than individuals: dipping each his bread into a communal dish of stew

communicate [kəˈmju:nikeit] – v. transmit information: Please communicate this message to all employees

communication [kə.mju:niˈkeiʃən] – n. something that is communicated by or to or between people or groups

community [kəˈmju:niti] – n. a group of people living in a particular local area: the team is drawn from all parts of the community

commute [kəˈmju:t] – v. exchange positions without a change in value: These operators commute with each other

commuter [kəˈmju:tə] – n. a passenger train that is ridden primarily by passengers who travel regularly from one place to another

compact [kəmˈpækt] – v. compress into a wad

compaction [kəmˈpækʃən] – n. an increase in the density of something

companion [kəmˈpænjən] – n. a traveler who accompanies you

company [ˈkʌmpəni] – n. an institution created to conduct business: he started the company in his garage

comparable [ˈkɔmpərəbl] – adj. conforming in every respect

comparative [kəmˈpærətiv] – adj. estimated by comparison; not absolute or complete

comparatively [kəmˈpærətivli] – adv. in a relative manner; by comparison to something else

comparison [kəmˈpærisn] – n. the act of examining resemblances: they made a comparison of noise levels

compass [ˈkʌmpəs] – n. navigational instrument for finding directions

compassion [kəmˈpæʃən] – n. a deep awareness of and sympathy for another’s suffering

compatible [kəmˈpætəbl] – adj. able to exist and perform in harmonious or agreeable combination: a compatible married couple

compel [kəmˈpel] – v. force somebody to do something: We compel all students to fill out this form

compendium [kəmˈpendiəm] – n. a publication containing a variety of works

compensate [ˈkɔmpenseit] – v. adjust for

compensation [.kɔmpenˈseiʃən] – n. something (such as money) given or received as payment or reparation (as for a service or loss or injury)

compete [kəmˈpi:t] – v. compete for something; engage in a contest; measure oneself against others

competence [ˈkɔmpitəns] – n. the quality of being adequately or well qualified physically and intellectually

competent [ˈkɔmpitənt] – adj. properly or sufficiently qualified or capable or efficient: a competent typist

competition [.kɔmpiˈtiʃən] – n. an occasion on which a winner is selected from among two or more contestants

competitive [kəmˈpetitiv] – adj. subscribing to capitalistic competition

competitiveness [kəmˈpetitivnis] – n. an aggressive willingness to compete

competitor [kəmˈpetitə] – n. the contestant you hope to defeat

compilation [.kɔmpiˈleiʃən] – n. the act of compiling (as into a single book or file or list)

compile [kəmˈpail] – v. get or gather together

complacence [kəmˈpleisəns] – n. the feeling you have when you are satisfied with yourself

complacent [kəmˈpleisənt] – adj. contented to a fault with oneself or one’s actions: he had become complacent after years of success

complain [kəmˈplein] – v. make a formal accusation; bring a formal charge: The plaintiff’s lawyer complained that he defendant had physically abused his client

complaint [kəmˈpleint] – n. (formerly) a loud cry (or repeated cries) of pain or rage or sorrow

complaisance [kəmˈpleizəns] – n. a disposition or tendency to yield to the will of others

complaisant [kəmˈpleizənt] – adj. showing a cheerful willingness to do favors for others: to close one’s eyes like a complaisant husband whose wife has taken a lover

complement [ˈkɔmplimənt] – n. a complete number or quantity: a full complement

complementary [kɔmpləˈmentəri] – adj. of words or propositions so related that each is the negation of the other: `male’ and `female’ are complementary terms

complex [ˈkɔmpleks] – n. a compound described in terms of the central atom to which other atoms are bound or coordinated

complexity [kəmˈpleksiti] – n. the quality of being intricate and compounded: he enjoyed the complexity of modern computers

compliant [kəmˈplaiənt] – adj. disposed or willing to comply: children compliant with the parental will

complicate [ˈkɔmplikeit] – v. make more complex, intricate, or richer

complicated [ˈkɔmplikeitid] – adj. difficult to analyze or understand: a complicated problem

complication [.kɔmpliˈkeiʃən] – n. a situation or condition that is complex or confused: her coming was a serious complication

complicity [kəmˈplisiti] – n. guilt as an accomplice in a crime or offense

compliment [ˈkɔmplimənt] – v. say something to someone that expresses praise: He complimented her on her last physics paper

complimentary [.kɔmpliˈment(ə)ri] – adj. costing nothing: complimentary tickets

comply [kəmˈplai] – v. act in accordance with someone’s rules, commands, or wishes: You must comply or else!

component [kəmˈpəunənt] – n. an abstract part of something: jealousy was a component of his character

comport [kəmˈpɔ:t] – v. behave well or properly

compose [kəmˈpəuz] – v. form the substance of: Greed and ambition composed his personality

composer [kɔmˈpəuzə] – n. someone who composes music as a profession

composition [.kɔmpəˈziʃən] – n. the spatial property resulting from the arrangement of parts in relation to each other and to the whole: harmonious composition is essential in a serious work of art

composure [kəmˈpəuʒə] – n. steadiness of mind under stress: he accepted their problems with composure and she with equanimity

compound [ˈkɔmpaund,kɔmˈpaund] – v. make more intense, stronger, or more marked

comprehend [.kɔmpriˈhend] – v. get the meaning of something: Do you comprehend the meaning of this letter?

comprehensible [.kɔmpriˈhensəbl] – adj. capable of being comprehended or understood: an idea comprehensible to the average mind

comprehension [.kɔmpriˈhenʃən] – n. an ability to understand the meaning or importance of something (or the knowledge acquired as a result): how you can do that is beyond my comprehension

comprehensive [.kɔmpriˈhensiv] – adj. including all or everything: comprehensive coverage

compress [ˈkɔmpres,kəmˈpres] – v. squeeze or press together: she compressed her lips

compressible [kəm`presəbl] – adj. capable of being easily compressed

compression [kəmˈpreʃ(ə)n] – n. an increase in the density of something

comprise [kəmˈpraiz] – v. include or contain; have as a component: A totally new idea is comprised in this paper

compromise [ˈkɔmprəmaiz] – v. settle by concession

compulsion [kəmˈpʌlʃ(ə)n] – n. an urge to do or say something that might be better left undone or unsaid: he felt a compulsion to babble on about the accident

compulsory [kəmˈpʌlsəri] – adj. required by rule: in most schools physical education is compulsory

compunction [kəmˈpʌŋkʃən] – n. a feeling of deep regret (usually for some misdeed)

computation [.kɔmpju(:)ˈteiʃ(ə)n] – n. the procedure of calculating; determining something by mathematical or logical methods

compute [kəmˈpju:t] – v. make a mathematical calculation or computation

concave [ˈkɔnˈkeiv] – adj. curving inward

conceal [kənˈsi:l] – v. prevent from being seen or discovered

concede [kənˈsi:d] – v. admit (to a wrongdoing)

conceit [kənˈsi:t] – n. feelings of excessive pride

conceive [kənˈsi:v] – v. have the idea for: He conceived of a robot that would help paralyzed patients

concentrated [ˈkɔnsentreitid] – adj. gathered together or made less diffuse: their concentrated efforts

concentration [.kɔnsenˈtreiʃən] – n. the strength of a solution; number of molecules of a substance in a given volume

concentric [kɔnˈsentrik] – adj. having a common center: concentric rings

concept [ˈkɔnsept] – n. an abstract or general idea inferred or derived from specific instances

conception [kənˈsepʃən] – n. an abstract or general idea inferred or derived from specific instances

conceptual [kənˈseptʃuəl, -tjuəl] – adj. being or characterized by concepts or their formation: conceptual discussions

concern [kənˈsə:n] – n. something that interests you because it is important or affects you: the safety of the ship is the captain’s concern

concert [ˈkɔnsət] – v. contrive (a plan) by mutual agreement

concerto [kənˈtʃə:təu] – n. a composition for orchestra and a soloist

concession [kənˈseʃən] – n. a contract granting the right to operate a subsidiary business: he got the beer concession at the ball park

conciliate [kənˈsilieit] – v. cause to be more favorably inclined; gain the good will of

concise [kənˈsais] – adj. expressing much in few words: a concise explanation

conciseness [kənˈsaisnis] – n. terseness and economy in writing and speaking achieved by expressing a great deal in just a few words

conclude [kənˈklu:d] – v. bring to a close: The committee concluded the meeting

conclusive [kənˈklu:siv] – adj. forming an end or termination; especially putting an end to doubt or question: conclusive proof

concoct [kənˈkɔkt] – v. prepare or cook by mixing ingredients: concoct a strange mixture

concomitant [kənˈkɔmitənt] – n. an event or situation that happens at the same time as or in connection with another

concord [ˈkɔŋkɔ:d] – n. capital of the state of New Hampshire; located in south central New Hampshire on the Merrimack river

concordance [kənˈkɔ:dəns] – n. agreement of opinions

concrete [ˈkɔnkri:t] – v. cover with cement: concrete the walls

concur [kənˈkə:] – v. be in accord; be in agreement

concurrence [kənˈkʌrəns] – n. agreement of results or opinions

concurrent [kənˈkʌrənt] – adj. occurring or operating at the same time

concussion [kənˈkʌʃən] – n. injury to the brain caused by a blow; usually resulting in loss of consciousness

condemn [kənˈdem] – v. express strong disapproval of: We condemn the racism in South Africa

condemnation [.kɔndemˈneiʃən] – n. an expression of strong disapproval; pronouncing as wrong or morally culpable: his uncompromising condemnation of racism

condensation [kɔndenˈseiʃən] – n. (psychoanalysis) an unconscious process whereby two ideas or images combine into a single symbol; especially in dreams

condense [kənˈdens] – v. make more concise: condense the contents of a book into a summary

condenser [kənˈdensə] – n. an electrical device characterized by its capacity to store an electric charge

condescend [.kɔndiˈsend] – v. do something that one considers to be below one’s dignity

condign [kənˈdain] – adj. fitting or appropriate and deserved; used especially of punishment: condign censure

condiment [ˈkɔndimənt] – n. a preparation (a sauce or relish or spice) to enhance flavor or enjoyment: mustard and ketchup are condiments

condition [kənˈdiʃən] – n. a state at a particular time: a condition (or state) of disrepair

conditioning [kənˈdiʃəniŋ] – n. a learning process in which an organism’s behavior becomes dependent on the occurrence of a stimulus in its environment

condole [kənˈdəul] – v. express one’s sympathetic grief, on the occasion of someone’s death: You must condole the widow

condolence [kənˈdəuləns] – n. an expression of sympathy with another’s grief: they sent their condolences

condone [kənˈdəun] – v. excuse, overlook, or make allowances for; be lenient with: She condoned her husband’s occasional infidelities

condor [ˈkɔndɔ:, ˈkɔndə] – n. the largest flying birds in the western hemisphere

conduce [kənˈdju:s] – v. be conducive to

conducive [kənˈdju:siv] – adj. tending to bring about; being partly responsible for: working conditions are not conducive to productivity

conduct [kənˈdʌkt] – v. direct the course of; manage or control: You cannot conduct business like this

conductivity [.kɔndʌkˈtiviti] – n. the transmission of heat or electricity or sound

conductor [kənˈdʌktə] – n. the person who leads a musical group

conduit [ˈkɔndit] – n. a passage (a pipe or tunnel) through which water or electric wires can pass: the computers were connected through a system of conduits

cone [kəun] – n. a shape whose base is a circle and whose sides taper up to a point

confectionery [kənˈfekʃənəri] – n. candy and other sweets considered collectively: the business decided to concentrate on confectionery and soft drinks

confederacy [kənˈfedərəsi] – n. the southern states that seceded from the United States in 1861

confederate [kənˈfedərit] – n. a supporter of the Confederate States of America

confer [kənˈfə:] – v. present: The university conferred a degree on its most famous former student, who never graduated

conferee [,kɔnfəˈri:] – n. a person on whom something is bestowed: six honorary were conferred; the conferees were…

conference [ˈkɔnfərəns] – n. a prearranged meeting for consultation or exchange of information or discussion (especially one with a formal agenda)

confess [kənˈfes] – v. admit (to a wrongdoing): She confessed that she had taken the money

confession [kənˈfeʃən] – n. an admission of misdeeds or faults

confessor [kənˈfesə] – n. someone who confesses (discloses information damaging to themselves)

confidant [kɔnfiˈdænt] – n. someone to whom private matters are confided

confide [kənˈfaid] – v. confer a trust upon

confidence [ˈkɔnfidəns] – n. freedom from doubt; belief in yourself and your abilities: after that failure he lost his confidence

confident [ˈkɔnfidənt] – adj. persuaded of; very sure: was confident he would win

configuration [kən.figjuˈreiʃən] – n. an arrangement of parts or elements: the outcome depends on the configuration of influences at the time

configure  – v. set up for a particular purpose: configure my new computer

confine [kənˈfain] – v. place limits on (extent or access)

confinement [kənˈfainmənt] – n. concluding state of pregnancy; from the onset of contractions to the birth of a child

confining [kənˈfainiŋ] – adj. restricting the scope or freedom of action

confirm [kənˈfə:m] – v. establish or strengthen as with new evidence or facts: his story confirmed my doubts

confirmation [.kɔnfəˈmeiʃən] – n. additional proof that something that was believed (some fact or hypothesis or theory) is correct: fossils provided further confirmation of the evolutionary theory

confiscate [ˈkɔnfiskeit] – v. take temporary possession of as a security, by legal authority: The police confiscated the stolen artwork

conflagration [.kɔnfləˈgreiʃən] – n. a very intense and uncontrolled fire

conflict [ˈkɔnflikt] – n. an open clash between two opposing groups (or individuals): the harder the conflict the more glorious the triumph

confluence [ˈkɔnfluəns] – n. a place where things merge or flow together (especially rivers): Pittsburgh is located at the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers

confluent [ˈkɔnfluənt] – n. a branch that flows into the main stream

conform [kənˈfɔ:m] – v. be similar, be in line with

conformable [kənˈfɔ:məbl] – adj. quick to comply: I have been to you a true and humble wife, at all times to your will conformable

conformance [kɔnˈfɔ:məns] – n. correspondence in form or appearance

conformation [,kɔnfɔ:ˈmeiʃən] – n. a symmetrical arrangement of the parts of a thing

conformity [kənˈfɔ:miti] – n. correspondence in form or appearance

confront [kənˈfrʌnt] – v. oppose, as in hostility or a competition: You must confront your opponent

confuse [kənˈfju:z] – v. mistake one thing for another

confusion [kənˈfju:ʒən] – n. disorder resulting from a failure to behave predictably: the army retreated in confusion

congeal [kənˈdʒi:l] – v. become gelatinous

congenial [kənˈdʒi:njəl] – adj. suitable to your needs: a congenial atmosphere to work in

congenital [kɔnˈdʒenitl] – adj. present at birth but not necessarily hereditary; acquired during fetal development

congest [kənˈdʒest] – v. become or cause to become obstructed

congestion [kənˈdʒestʃən] – n. excessive accumulation of blood or other fluid in a body part

conglomerate [kənˈglɔmərit] – n. a composite rock made up of particles of varying size

congratulation [kən.grætjuˈleiʃən] – n. the act of acknowledging that someone has an occasion for celebration

congregate [ˈkɔŋgrigeit] – v. come together, usually for a purpose: The crowds congregated in front of the Vatican on Christmas Eve

congress [ˈkɔŋgres] – n. the legislature of the United States government

congressional [kənˈgreʃə nəl] – adj. of or relating to congress: congressional hearing

congressman [ˈkɔŋgresmən] – n. a member of the United States House of Representatives

congruity [kənˈgruəti] – n. the quality of agreeing; being suitable and appropriate

conifer [ˈkəunifə] – n. any gymnospermous tree or shrub bearing cones

conjectural [kənˈdʒektʃərəl] – adj. based primarily on surmise rather than adequate evidence: theories about the extinction of dinosaurs are still highly conjectural

conjecture [kənˈdʒektʃə] – n. a message expressing an opinion based on incomplete evidence

conjoin [kənˈdʒɔin] – v. make contact or come together

conjugal [ˈkɔndʒugəl] – adj. of or relating to marriage or to the relationship between a wife and husband: conjugal visits

conjugate [ˈkɔndʒugeit] – adj. joined together especially in a pair or pairs

conjugation [kɔndʒuˈgeiʃən] – n. the state of being joined together

conjunction [kənˈdʒʌŋkʃən] – n. the temporal property of two things happening at the same time

conjure [ˈkʌndʒə] – v. summon into action or bring into existence, often as if by magic: he conjured wild birds in the air

connect [kəˈnekt] – v. be or become joined or united or linked: The two streets connect to become a highway

connection [kəˈnekʃən] – n. a relation between things or events (as in the case of one causing the other or sharing features with it): there was a connection between eating that pickle and having that nightmare

connivance [kəˈnaivəns] – n. agreement on a secret plot

connive [kəˈnaiv] – v. encourage or assent to illegally or criminally

connoisseur [.kɔniˈsə:] – n. an expert able to appreciate a field; especially in the fine arts

connote [kɔˈnəut] – v. express or state indirectly

connubial [kəˈnju:bjəl] – adj. of or relating to marriage or to the relationship between a wife and husband: connubial bliss

conquer [.kɔŋkə] – v. to put down by force or authority: conquer one’s desires

consanguineous [kɔnsæŋˈgwiniəs] – adj. related by blood

conscience [ˈkɔnʃəns] – n. motivation deriving logically from ethical or moral principles that govern a person’s thoughts and actions

conscientious [.kɔnʃiˈenʃəs] – adj. characterized by extreme care and great effort: conscientious application to the work at hand

conscious [ˈkɔnʃəs] – adj. intentionally conceived: a conscious effort to speak more slowly

consciously [ˈkɔnʃəsli] – adv. with awareness: she consciously played with the idea of inviting them

consciousness [ˈkɔnʃəsnəs] – n. an alert cognitive state in which you are aware of yourself and your situation: he lost consciousness

conscript [ˈkɔnskript] – n. someone who is drafted into military service

conscription  – n. compulsory military service

consecrate [ˈkɔnsikreit] – v. appoint to a clerical posts

consecutive [kənˈsekjutiv] – adj. one after the other

consensus [kənˈsensəs] – n. agreement in the judgment or opinion reached by a group as a whole: the lack of consensus reflected differences in theoretical positions

consent [kənˈsent] – n. permission to do something: he indicated his consent

consequence [ˈkɔnsikwəns] – n. a phenomenon that follows and is caused by some previous phenomenon: his decision had depressing consequences for business

consequent [ˈkɔnsikwənt] – adj. following or accompanying as a consequence: the period of tension and consequent need for military preparedness

consequently [ˈkɔnsikwəntli] – adv. (sentence connectors) because of the reason given: consequently, he didn’t do it

conservation [.kɔnsə:ˈveiʃən] – n. an occurrence of improvement by virtue of preventing loss or injury or other change

conservationist [.kənsəˈveiʃənist] – n. someone who works to protect the environment from destruction or pollution

conservatism [kənˈsə:vətizəm] – n. a political or theological orientation advocating the preservation of the best in society and opposing radical changes

conservative [kənˈsə:vətiv] – adj. resistant to change

conservatory [kənˈsə:vətəri] – n. the faculty and students of a school specializing in one of the fine arts

conserve [kənˈsə:v] – v. keep in safety and protect from harm, decay, loss, or destruction: children must be taught to conserve our national heritage

considerable [kənˈsidərəbl] – adj. large or relatively large in number or amount or extent or degree: a considerable quantity

considerably [kənˈsidərəbəli] – adv. to a great extent or degree: painting the room white made it seem considerably (or substantially) larger

considerate [kənˈsidərit] – adj. showing concern for the rights and feelings of others: friends considerate enough to leave us alone

consideration [kənsidəˈreiʃən] – n. the process of giving careful thought to something

consign [kənˈsain] – v. commit forever; commit irrevocably

consignee [kɔnsaiˈni:] – n. the person to whom merchandise is delivered over

consistency [kənˈsistənsi] – n. the property of holding together and retaining its shape: when the dough has enough consistency it is ready to bake

consistent [kənˈsistənt] – adj. capable of being reproduced

consistently [kənˈsistəntli] – adv. in a systematic or consistent manner

console [ˈkɔnsəul,kənˈsəul] – n. a small table fixed to a wall or designed to stand against a wall

consolidate [kənˈsɔlideit] – v. unite into one: The companies consolidated

consonance [ˈkɔnsənəns] – n. the property of sounding harmonious

consonant [ˈkɔnsənənt] – n. a speech sound that is not a vowel

consort [ˈkɔnsɔ:t] – v. keep company with; hang out with

consortium [kənˈsɔ:tjəm] – n. an association of companies for some definite purpose

conspicuous [kənˈspikjuəs] – adj. obvious to the eye or mind: a tower conspicuous at a great distance

conspiracy [kənˈspirəsi] – n. a secret agreement between two or more people to perform an unlawful act

conspirator [kənˈspirətə] – n. a member of a conspiracy

conspire [kənˈspaiə] – v. act in unison or agreement and in secret towards a deceitful or illegal purpose: The two companies conspired to cause the value of the stock to fall

constable [ˈkʌnstəbl] – n. a lawman with less authority and jurisdiction than a sheriff

constant [ˈkɔnstənt] – adj. unvarying in nature: maintained a constant temperature

constantly [ˈkɔnstəntli] – adv. without variation or change, in every case: constantly kind and gracious

constellation [kɔnstəˈleiʃən] – n. an arrangement of parts or elements

consternation [.kɔnstə(:)ˈneiʃən] – n. fear resulting from the awareness of danger

constituency [kənˈstitjuənsi] – n. the body of voters who elect a representative for their area

constituent [kənˈstitjuənt] – n. a member of a constituency; a citizen who is represented in a government by officials for whom he or she votes: needs continued support by constituents to be re-elected

constitute [ˈkɔnstitju:t] – v. form or compose: These constitute my entire belonging

constitution [.kɔnstiˈtju:ʃən] – n. law determining the fundamental political principles of a government

constitutional [.kɔnstiˈtju:ʃənəl] – adj. of benefit to or intended to benefit your physical makeup: constitutional walk

constrain [kənˈstrein] – v. hold back

constraint [kənˈstreint] – n. a device that retards something’s motion

constrict [kənˈstrikt] – v. squeeze or press together

construct [ˈkɔnstrʌkt,kənˈstrʌkt] – v. make by combining materials and parts: Some eccentric constructed an electric brassiere warmer

construction [kənˈstrʌkʃən] – n. a group of words that form a constituent of a sentence and are considered as a single unit: I concluded from his awkward constructions that he was a foreigner

construe [kənˈstru:] – v. make sense of; assign a meaning to

consul [ˈkɔnsəl] – n. a diplomat appointed by a government to protect its commercial interests and help its citizens in a foreign country

consulate [ˈkɔnsjulit] – n. diplomatic building that serves as the residence or workplace of a consul

consult [kənˈsʌlt] – v. get or ask advice from: They had to consult before arriving at a decision

consultant [kənˈsʌltənt] – n. an expert who gives advice

consume [kənˈsju:m] – v. eat immoderately

consumer [kənˈsju:mə] – n. a person who uses goods or services

consummate [kɔnˈsʌmit] – adj. having or revealing supreme mastery or skill: a consummate artist

consumption [kənˈsʌmpʃən] – n. the process of taking food into the body through the mouth (as by eating)

consumptive [kənˈsʌmptiv] – adj. afflicted with or associated with pulmonary tuberculosis: a consumptive patient

contact [ˈkɔntækt] – n. close interaction: they kept in daily contact

contagion [kənˈteidʒən] – n. an incident in which an infectious disease is transmitted

contagious [kənˈteidʒəs] – adj. easily diffused or spread as from one person to another: a contagious grin

contain [kənˈtein] – v. lessen the intensity of; temper; hold in restraint; hold or keep within limits

container [kənˈteinə] – n. any object that can be used to hold things (especially a large metal boxlike object of standardized dimensions that can be loaded from one form of transport to another)

contaminate [kənˈtæmineit] – v. make impure

contamination [kən.tæmiˈneiʃən] – n. a substance that contaminates

contemn [kənˈtem] – v. look down on with disdain

contemplate [ˈkɔntem.pleit] – v. look at thoughtfully; observe deep in thought: contemplate one’s navel

contemporaneous [kəntempəˈreinjəs] – adj. occurring in the same period of time: a rise in interest rates is often contemporaneous with an increase in inflation

contemporary [kənˈtempərəri] – adj. characteristic of the present: contemporary trends in design

contemptible [kənˈtemptəbəl] – adj. deserving of contempt or scorn

contemptuous [kənˈtemptjuəs] – adj. expressing extreme contempt

contend [kənˈtend] – v. maintain or assert: He contended that Communism had no future

contender [kənˈtendə(r)] – n. the contestant you hope to defeat

content [ˈkɔntent,kənˈtent] – n. everything that is included in a collection and that is held or included in something: he emptied the contents of his pockets

contention [kənˈtenʃən] – n. a point asserted as part of an argument

contest [ˈkɔntest,kənˈtest] – n. a struggle between rivals

context [ˈkɔntekst] – n. discourse that surrounds a language unit and helps to determine its interpretation

contiguity [.kɔntiˈgju:iti] – n. the attribute of being so near as to be touching

contiguous [kənˈtigjuəs] – adj. very close or connected in space or time: contiguous events

continence [ˈkɔntinəns] – n. the exercise of self constraint in sexual matters

continent [ˈkɔntinənt] – n. one of the large landmasses of the earth: there are seven continents

continental [.kɔntiˈnentl] – adj. of or pertaining to or typical of Europe

contingency [kənˈtindʒənsi] – n. a possible event or occurrence or result

contingent [kənˈtindʒənt] – adj. possible but not certain to occur: they had to plan for contingent expenses

continuance [kənˈtinjuəns] – n. the period of time during which something continues

continuation [kən.tinjuˈeiʃən] – n. a part added to a book or play that continues and extends it

continuity [.kɔntiˈnju:iti] – n. uninterrupted connection or union

continuous [kənˈtinjuəs] – adj. of a function or curve; extending without break or irregularity

continuum [kənˈtinjuəm] – n. a continuous nonspatial whole or extent or succession in which no part or portion is distinct or distinguishable from adjacent parts

contort [kənˈtɔ:t] – v. twist and press out of shape

contour [ˈkɔntuə] – n. a line drawn on a map connecting points of equal height

contraband [ˈkɔntrəbænd] – n. goods whose importation or exportation or possession is prohibited by law

contraction [kənˈtrækʃən] – n. (physiology) a shortening or tensing of a part or organ (especially of a muscle or muscle fiber)

contractor [kənˈtræktə(r)] – n. the bridge player in contract bridge who wins the bidding and can declare which suit is to be trumps

contradict [.kɔntrəˈdikt] – v. deny the truth of

contradiction [.kɔntrəˈdikʃən] – n. opposition between two conflicting forces or ideas

contradictory [.kɔntrəˈdiktəri] – adj. of words or propositions so related that both cannot be true and both cannot be false: `perfect’ and `imperfect’ are contradictory terms

contrary [ˈkɔntrəri] – adj. very opposed in nature or character or purpose: acts contrary to our code of ethics

contrast [ˈkɔntræst,kənˈtræst] – n. the opposition or dissimilarity of things that are compared: in contrast to

contravene [.kɔntrəˈvi:n] – v. go against, as of rules and laws

contribution [.kɔntriˈbju:ʃən] – n. the part played by a person in bringing about a result: I am proud of my contribution in advancing the project

contrite [ˈkɔntrait] – adj. feeling or expressing pain or sorrow for sins or offenses

contrivance [kənˈtraivəns] – n. a device or control that is very useful for a particular job

contrive [kənˈtraiv] – v. make or work out a plan for; devise: They contrived to murder their boss

control [kənˈtrəul] – n. power to direct or determine: under control

controller [kənˈtrəulə] – n. someone who maintains and audits business accounts

controversial [.kɔntrəˈvə:ʃəl] – adj. marked by or capable of arousing controversy: the issue of the death penalty is highly controversial

controversy [ˈkɔntrəvə:si] – n. a contentious speech act; a dispute where there is strong disagreement

controvert [ˈkɔntrəvə:t] – v. be resistant to

contumacious [.kɔntjuˈmeiʃəs] – adj. wilfully obstinate; stubbornly disobedient

contumacy [ˈkɔntjuməsi] – n. willful refusal to appear before a court or comply with a court order; can result in a finding of contempt of court

contusion [kənˈtju:ʒən] – n. an injury that doesn’t break the skin but results in some discoloration

convalesce [.kɔnvəˈles] – v. get over an illness or shock

convalescence [kənvəˈlesns] – n. gradual healing (through rest) after sickness or injury

convene [kənˈvi:n] – v. meet formally: The council convened last week

convenience [kənˈvi:njəns] – n. the state of being suitable or opportune: chairs arranged for his own convenience

convenient [kənˈvi:njənt] – adj. suited to your comfort or purpose or needs: a convenient excuse for not going

convention [kənˈvenʃən] – n. a large formal assembly: political convention

conventional [kənˈvenʃənl] – adj. following accepted customs and proprieties: conventional wisdom

conventionally [kənˈvenʃənəli] – adv. in a conventional manner: he usually behaves rather conventionally

converge [kənˈvə:dʒ] – v. be adjacent or come together: The lines converge at this point

convergent [kənˈvə:dʒənt] – adj. tending to come together from different directions

conversant [kənˈvə:sənt] – adj. (usually followed by `with’) well informed about or knowing thoroughly: conversant with business trends

conversation [.kɔnvəˈseiʃən] – n. the use of speech for informal exchange of views or ideas or information etc.

conversational [.kɔnvəˈseiʃənl] – adj. characteristic of informal spoken language or conversation: the broken syntax and casual enunciation of conversational English

converse [kənˈvə:s] – adj. of words so related that one reverses the relation denoted by the other: `parental’ and `filial’ are converse terms

conversion [kənˈvə:ʃən] – n. an event that results in a transformation

convert [ˈkɔnvə:t,kənˈvə:t] – v. change from one system to another or to a new plan or policy: We converted from 220 to 110 Volt

converter [kənˈvɜ:tə(r)] – n. a device for changing one substance or form or state into another

convertible [kənˈvə:təbl] – n. a car that has top that can be folded or removed

convex [ˈkɔnˈveks] – adj. curving or bulging outward

convey [kənˈvei] – v. make known; pass on, of information: She conveyed the message to me

conveyance [kənˈveiəns] – n. document effecting a property transfer

convict [ˈkɔnvikt,kənˈvikt] – n. a person serving a sentence in a jail or prison

conviction [kənˈvikʃən] – n. an unshakable belief in something without need for proof or evidence

convince [kənˈvins] – v. make (someone) agree, understand, or realize the truth or validity of something: He had finally convinced several customers of the advantages of his product

convinced [kənˈvinst] – adj. persuaded of; very sure: were convinced that it would be to their advantage to join

convincing [kənˈvinsiŋ] – adj. causing one to believe the truth of something: a convincing story

convivial [kənˈviviəl] – adj. occupied with or fond of the pleasures of good company: a convivial atmosphere at the reunion

convoke [kənˈvəuk] – v. call together

convolution [kɔnvəˈlu:ʃən] – n. the shape of something rotating rapidly

convolve [kənˈvɔlv] – v. curl, wind, or twist together

convoy [ˈkɔnvɔi] – n. a procession of land vehicles traveling together

convulse [kənˈvʌls] – v. be overcome with laughter

convulsion [kənˈvʌlʃən] – n. a sudden uncontrollable attack: convulsions of laughter

coop [ku:p] – n. a farm building for housing poultry

cooperate [kəuˈɔpəreit] – v. work together on a common enterprise of project

cooperation [kəu.ɔpəˈreiʃən] – n. joint operation or action: their cooperation with us was essential for the success of our mission

cooperative [kəuˈɔpərətiv] – adj. involving the joint activity of two or more: a cooperative effort

coordinate [kəuˈɔ:dneit] – v. bring order and organization to

coordinated  – adj. operating as a unit: a coordinated program

coordination [kəu.ɔ:diˈneiʃən] – n. the skillful and effective interaction of movements

copious [ˈkəupiəs] – adj. large in number or quantity (especially of discourse): she took copious notes

copper [ˈkɔpə] – n. uncomplimentary terms for a policeman

copy [ˈkɔpi] – n. a thing made to be similar or identical to another thing: she made a copy of the designer dress

coquette [kəuˈket, kɔˈket] – n. a seductive woman who uses her sex appeal to exploit men

coral [ˈkɔrəl] – n. a variable color averaging a deep pink

cord [kɔ:d] – n. a line made of twisted fibers or threads: the bundle was tied with a cord

core [kɔ:] – n. a small group of indispensable persons or things: five periodicals make up the core of their publishing program

corn [kɔ:n] – n. a hard thickening of the skin (especially on the top or sides of the toes) caused by the pressure of ill-fitting shoes

cornet [ˈkɔ:nit] – n. a brass musical instrument with a brilliant tone; has a narrow tube and a flared bell and is played by means of valves

cornice [ˈkɔ:nis] – n. a decorative framework to conceal curtain fixtures at the top of a window casing

cornucopia [.kɔ:njuˈkəupiə] – n. a goat’s horn filled with grain and flowers and fruit symbolizing prosperity

corollary [ˈkɑ:ələri] – n. a practical consequence that follows naturally: blind jealousy is a frequent corollary of passionate love

corona [kəˈrəunə] – n. the outermost region of the sun’s atmosphere; visible as a white halo during a solar eclipse

coronation [.kɔrəˈneiʃən] – n. the ceremony of installing a new monarch

coronet [ˈkɔrənit] – n. a small crown; usually indicates a high rank but below that of sovereign

corporal [ˈkɔ:pərəl] – adj. affecting or characteristic of the body as opposed to the mind or spirit: a corporal defect

corporate [ˈkɔ:pərit] – adj. possessing or existing in bodily form: `corporate’ is an archaic term

corporeal [kɔ:ˈpɔ:riəl] – adj. having material or physical form or substance: that which is created is of necessity corporeal and visible and tangible

corps [kɔ:] – n. an army unit usually consisting of two or more divisions and their support

corpse [kɔ:ps] – n. the dead body of a human being: the end of the police search was the discovery of a corpse

corpulent [ˈkɔ:pjulənt] – adj. excessively fat

corpuscle [ˈkɔ:pəsəl] – n. (nontechnical usage) a tiny piece of anything

corral [kɔˈrɑ:l] – v. collect or gather: corralling votes for an election

correlate [ˈkɔ:rə.leit] – v. to bear a reciprocal or mutual relation: Do these facts correlate?

correlative [kəˈrelətiv] – adj. mutually related

correspond [.kɔrisˈpɔnd] – v. be compatible, similar or consistent; coincide in their characteristics

correspondence [.kɔriˈspɔndəns] – n. communication by the exchange of letters

corresponding [.kɔriˈspɔndiŋ] – adj. accompanying: all rights carry with them corresponding responsibilities

correspondingly  – adv. in a corresponding manner: the temperature decreases correspondingly

corridor [ˈkɔridɔ:] – n. an enclosed passageway; rooms usually open onto it

corrigible [ˈkɔridʒəbl] – adj. capable of being corrected or set right: a corrigible defect

corroborate [kəˈrɔbəreit] – v. establish or strengthen as with new evidence or facts

corrode [kəˈrəud] – v. cause to deteriorate due to the action of water, air, or an acid: The acid corroded the metal

corrosion [kəˈrəuʒən] – n. a state of deterioration in metals caused by oxidation or chemical action

corrosive [kəˈrəusiv] – adj. of a substance, especially a strong acid; capable of destroying or eating away by chemical action

corruption [kəˈrʌpʃən] – n. lack of integrity or honesty (especially susceptibility to bribery); use of a position of trust for dishonest gain

corset  – n. a woman’s close-fitting foundation garment

cosmetic [kɔzˈmetik] – adj. serving an esthetic rather than a useful purpose: cosmetic fenders on cars

cosmic [ˈkɔzmik] – adj. inconceivably extended in space or time

cosmogony [kɔzˈmɔgəni] – n. the branch of astrophysics that studies the origin and evolution and structure of the universe

cosmography [ˈkɔzˈmɔgrəfi] – n. a representation of the earth or the heavens: the cosmography of Ptolemy

cosmology [kɔzˈmɔlədʒi] – n. the metaphysical study of the origin and nature of the universe

cosmopolitan [.kɔzməˈpɔlitən] – adj. growing or occurring in many parts of the world: a cosmopolitan herb

cosmos [ˈkɔzmɔs] – n. everything that exists anywhere

costume [ˈkɔstju:m] – n. the attire worn in a play or at a fancy dress ball: he won the prize for best costume

coterie [ˈkəutəri] – n. an exclusive circle of people with a common purpose

cottonwood [ˈkɔtənwʊd] – n. American basswood of the Allegheny region

council [ˈkaunsil] – n. a body serving in an administrative capacity: student council

counsel [ˈkaunsəl] – n. a lawyer who pleads cases in court

counselor [ˈkaunsələ] – n. someone who gives advice about problems

countenance [ˈkauntinəns] – n. the appearance conveyed by a person’s face: a pleasant countenance

counteract [.kauntəˈrækt] – v. act in opposition to

counterbalance [ˈkauntə.bæləns] – n. a weight that balances another weight

counterclockwise [.kauntəˈklɔkwaiz] – adj. in the direction opposite to the rotation of the hands of a clock

counterfeit [ˈkauntəfit] – n. a copy that is represented as the original

counterpart [ˈkauntəpɑ:t] – n. a person or thing having the same function or characteristics as another

countervail [ˈkauntəveil] – v. oppose and mitigate the effects of by contrary actions

countless [ˈkaʊtlis] – adj. too numerous to be counted: countless hours

countryman [ˈkʌntrimən] – n. a man who lives in the country and has country ways

couple [ˈkʌpl] – n. a pair who associate with one another: the engaged couple

courageous [kəˈreidʒəs] – adj. possessing or displaying courage; able to face and deal with danger or fear without flinching: a frank courageous heart…triumphed over pain

courier [ˈkuriə] – n. a person who carries a message

course [kɔ:s] – n. education imparted in a series of lessons or meetings: he took a course in basket weaving

courser [ˈkɔ:sə] – n. a huntsman who hunts small animals with fast dogs that use sight rather than scent to follow their prey

court [kɔ:t] – n. an assembly (including one or more judges) to conduct judicial business

courteously [ˈkə:tiəsli] – adv. in a polite manner

courtesy [ˈkə:tisi] – n. a courteous or respectful or considerate remark

courthouse [ˈkɔ:thaus] – n. a government building that houses the offices of a county government

courtly [ˈkɔ:tli] – adj. refined or imposing in manner or appearance; befitting a royal court: a courtly gentleman

courtship [ˈkɔ:tʃip] – n. a man’s courting of a woman; seeking the affections of a woman (usually with the hope of marriage): its was a brief and intense courtship

cove [kəuv] – n. a small inlet

covenant [ˈkʌvənənt] – n. a signed written agreement between two or more parties (nations) to perform some action

cover [ˈkʌvə] – v. span an interval of distance, space or time: The period covered the turn of the century

coverage [ˈkʌvəridʒ] – n. the total amount and type of insurance carried

covert [kʌvət] – n. a flock of coots

covetous [ˈkʌvitəs] – adj. showing extreme cupidity; painfully desirous of another’s advantages: he was never covetous before he met her

covey [ˈkʌvi] – n. a small collection of people

cowboy [ˈkaʊbɔi] – n. a hired hand who tends cattle and performs other duties on horseback

cower [ˈkauə] – v. crouch or curl up

cowhand [ˈkaʊhænd] – n. a hired hand who tends cattle and performs other duties on horseback

coxswain [ˈkɔkswein] – n. the helmsman of a ship’s boat or a racing crew

cozy [ˈkəuzi] – adj. having or fostering a warm or friendly and informal atmosphere: had a cozy chat

crab [kræb] – n. a quarrelsome grouch

crack [kræk] – v. make a very sharp explosive sound: His gun cracked

craft [krɑ:ft] – n. the skilled practice of a practical occupation

crag [kræg] – n. a steep rugged rock or cliff

cram [kræm] – v. put something somewhere so that the space is completely filled: cram books into the suitcase

cranium [ˈkreinjəm] – n. the part of the skull that encloses the brain

crash [kræʃ] – v. fall or come down violently: The branch crashed down on my car

crass [kræs] – adj. (of persons) so unrefined as to be lacking in discrimination and sensibility

crater [ˈkreitə] – n. a bowl-shaped geological formation at the top of a volcano

craven [ˈkreivən] – n. an abject coward

crawl [krɔ:l] – v. move slowly; in the case of people or animals with the body near the ground: The crocodile was crawling along the riverbed

crayon [ˈkreiən] – n. writing implement consisting of a colored stick of composition wax used for writing and drawing

craze [kreiz] – n. an interest followed with exaggerated zeal

crazy [ˈkreizi] – adj. affected with madness or insanity

creak [kri:k] – n. a squeaking sound: the creak of the floorboards gave him away

creamery [ˈkri:məri] – n. a workplace where dairy products (butter and cheese etc.) are produced or sold

creature [ˈkri:tʃə] – n. a living organism characterized by voluntary movement

credence [ˈkri:dəns] – n. the mental attitude that something is believable and should be accepted as true: he gave credence to the gossip

credentials [kriˈdenʃəlz] – n. a document attesting to the truth of certain stated facts

credible [ˈkredəbəl] – adj. capable of being believed: completely credible testimony

credit [ˈkredit] – n. approval: he was given credit for his work

creditable [ˈkreditəbəl] – adj. worthy of often limited commendation: the student’s effort on the essay–though not outstanding–was creditable

creditor [ˈkreditə] – n. a person to whom money is owed by a debtor; someone to whom an obligation exists

credulous [ˈkredjuləs] – adj. disposed to believe on little evidence: the gimmick would convince none but the most credulous

creed [kri:d] – n. any system of principles or beliefs

creek [kri:k] – n. a natural stream of water smaller than a river (and often a tributary of a river): the creek dried up every summer

creep [kri:p] – n. someone unpleasantly strange or eccentric

crematory [ˈkremətəri] – n. a furnace where a corpse can be burned and reduced to ashes

crevasse [kriˈvæs] – n. a deep fissure

crevice [ˈkrevis] – n. a long narrow depression in a surface

crew [kru:] – n. an organized group of workmen

crimson [ˈkrimzn] – adj. characterized by violence or bloodshed: writes of crimson deeds and barbaric days

cringe [krindʒ] – v. draw back, as with fear or pain

cripple [ˈkripl] – v. deprive of strength or efficiency; make useless or worthless: This measure crippled our efforts

crippling [ˈkripliŋ] – adj. that cripples or disables or incapacitates: a crippling injury

crisp [krisp] – adj. (of something seen or heard) clearly defined: the crisp snap of dry leaves underfoot

crisscross [ˈkriskrɔs] – v. cross in a pattern, often random

criterion [kraiˈtiəriən] – n. a basis for comparison; a reference point against which other things can be evaluated

critic [ˈkritik] – n. a person who is professionally engaged in the analysis and interpretation of works of art

critical [ˈkritikəl] – adj. marked by a tendency to find and call attention to errors and flaws: a critical attitude

critique [kriˈti:k] – n. a serious examination and judgment of something

crockery [ˈkrɔkəri] – n. tableware (eating and serving dishes) collectively

cross [krɔs] – v. meet at a point

crossbones [ˈkrɔsbəʊnz] – n. two crossed bones (or a representation of two crossed bones) used as a symbol danger or death

crosscut [ˈkrɔskʌt] – n. a diagonal path

crossing [ˈkrɔsiŋ] – n. a shallow area in a stream that can be forded

crow [krəu] – n. black birds having a raucous call

crowbar  – n. a heavy iron lever with one end forged into a wedge

crucial [ˈkru:ʃəl] – adj. of extreme importance; vital to the resolution of a crisis: a crucial moment in his career

crucible [ˈkru:sibl] – n. a vessel made of material that does not melt easily; used for high temperature chemical reactions

crude [kru:d] – adj. not carefully or expertly made: managed to make a crude splint

crudely  – adv. in a crude and unskilled manner

crumble [ˈkrʌmbl] – v. fall apart: the building crumbled after the explosion

crumple [ˈkrʌmpəl] – v. fall apart

crunch [krʌntʃ] – v. press or grind with a crushing noise

crusade [kru:ˈseid] – n. a series of actions advancing a principle or tending toward a particular end

crush [krʌʃ] – v. come down on or keep down by unjust use of one’s authority

crust [krʌst] – n. the outer layer of the Earth

crustacean [krʌsˈteiʃjən] – n. any mainly aquatic arthropod usually having a segmented body and chitinous exoskeleton

crustaceous [krʌ`steiʃjəs] – adj. of or belonging to the class Crustacea

cryptic [ˈkriptik] – adj. of an obscure nature: the new insurance policy is written without cryptic or mysterious terms

cryptogram [ˈkriptəgræm] – n. a piece of writing in code or cipher

crystal [ˈkristl] – n. a solid formed by the solidification of a chemical and having a highly regular atomic structure

crystalline [ˈkristəlain] – adj. distinctly or sharply outlined: crystalline sharpness of outline

crystallization [ˈkristəlaiˈzeiʃən] – n. the formation of crystals

crystallize [ˈkristəlaiz] – v. cause to take on a definite and clear shape: He tried to crystallize his thoughts

Cuban [ˈkju:bən] – n. a native or inhabitant of Cuba

cube [kju:b] – n. a hexahedron with six equal squares as faces

cubic [ˈkju:bik] – adj. having three dimensions

cubism [ˈkju:bizm] – n. an artistic movement in France beginning in 1907 that featured surfaces of geometrical planes

cucumber [ˈkju:kəmbə] – n. a melon vine of the genus Cucumis; cultivated from earliest times for its cylindrical green fruit

cudgel [ˈkʌdʒəl] – n. a club that is used as a weapon

cue [kju:] – n. an actor’s line that immediately precedes and serves as a reminder for some action or speech

cuisine [kwiˈzi:n] – n. the practice or manner of preparing food or the food so prepared

culinary [ˈkʌlinəri] – adj. of or relating to or used in cooking

cull [kʌl] – v. remove something that has been rejected: cull the sick members of the herd

culminate [ˈkʌlmineit] – v. end, especially to reach a final or climactic stage: The meeting culminated in a tearful embrace

culmination [.kʌlmiˈneiʃən] – n. a final climactic stage: their achievements stand as a culmination of centuries of development

culpable [ˈkʌlpəbəl] – adj. deserving blame or censure as being wrong or evil or injurious: culpable negligence

culprit [ˈkʌlprit] – n. someone who perpetrates wrongdoing

cultivate [ˈkʌltiveit] – v. foster the growth of

cultivation [.kʌltiˈveiʃən] – n. socialization through training and education to develop one’s mind or manners: her cultivation was remarkable

culture [ˈkʌltʃə] – n. a particular society at a particular time and place

culvert [ˈkʌlvət] – n. a transverse and totally enclosed drain under a road or railway

cumbersome [ˈkʌmbəsəm] – adj. difficult to handle or use especially because of size or weight: a cumbersome piece of machinery

cumbrous  – adj. difficult to handle or use especially because of size or weight: cumbrous protective clothing

cupboard [ˈkʌbəd] – n. a small room (or recess) or cabinet used for storage space

cupidity [kjuˈpiditi] – n. extreme greed for material wealth

curable [ˈkjurəbl] – adj. curing or healing is possible: curable diseases

curator [kjuəˈreitə] – n. the custodian of a collection (as a museum or library)

curb [kə:b] – n. a horse’s bit with an attached chain or strap to check the horse

curio [ˈkjuəriəu] – n. something unusual — perhaps worthy of collecting

curiosity [.kjuəriˈɔsiti] – n. a state in which you want to learn more about something

curious [ˈkjuəriəs] – adj. beyond or deviating from the usual or expected: a curious hybrid accent

currency [ˈkʌrənsi] – n. the metal or paper medium of exchange that is presently used

current [ˈkʌrənt] – n. a flow of electricity through a conductor: the current was measured in amperes

currently [ˈkʌrəntli] – adv. at this time or period; now: currently they live in Connecticut

curriculum [kəˈrikjuləm] – n. an integrated course of academic studies

cursive [ˈkə:siv] – adj. having successive letter joined together: cursive script

cursory [ˈkə:səri] – adj. hasty and without attention to detail; not thorough: a casual (or cursory) inspection failed to reveal the house’s structural flaws

curt [kə:t] – adj. marked by rude or peremptory shortness: a curt reply

curtail [kə:ˈteil] – v. place restrictions on: curtail drinking in school

curtsy [ˈkə:tsi] – v. bend the knees in a gesture of respectful greeting

cushion [ˈkuʃən] – n. a mechanical damper; absorbs energy of sudden impulses

custodian [kʌˈstəudiən] – n. one having charge of buildings or grounds or animals

custom [ˈkʌstəm] – n. accepted or habitual practice

customarily [ˈkʌstəmərəli;.kʌstəˈmerəli] – adv. by custom; according to common practice

customer [ˈkʌstəmə] – n. someone who pays for goods or services

customs [ˈkʌstəmz] – n. money collected under a tariff

cuticle [ˈkju:tikl] – n. the dead skin at the base of a fingernail or toenail

cyan  – n. a primary subtractive color for light; has a blue-green color

cycle [ˈsaikl] – n. an interval during which a recurring sequence of events occurs: the never-ending cycle of the seasons

cycloid [ˈsaiklɔid] – n. a line generated by a point on a circle rolling along a straight line

cyclone [ˈsaikləun] – n. a violent rotating windstorm

cygnet [ˈsignit] – n. a young swan

cylinder [ˈsilində] – n. a surface generated by rotating a parallel line around a fixed line

cylindrical  – adj. having the form of a cylinder

cynical [ˈsinikəl] – adj. believing the worst of human nature and motives; having a sneering disbelief in e.g. selflessness of others

cynicism [ˈsinisizəm] – n. a cynical feeling of distrust

cynosure [ˈsinəzjuə] – n. something that provides guidance (as Polaris guides mariners): let faith be your cynosure to walk by

dagger [ˈdægə] – n. a short knife with a pointed blade used for piercing or stabbing

daisy [ˈdeizi] – n. any of numerous composite plants having flower heads with well-developed ray flowers usually arranged in a single whorl

dam [dæm] – n. a barrier constructed to contain the flow of water or to keep out the sea

damp [dæmp] – v. deaden (a sound or noise), especially by wrapping

dampen [ˈdæmpən] – v. smother or suppress

dangerous [ˈdeindʒərəs] – adj. causing fear or anxiety by threatening great harm: a dangerous operation

dangle [ˈdæŋgəl] – v. hang freely: the ornaments dangled from the tree

dank [dæŋk] – adj. unpleasantly cool and humid: a dank cellar

daring [ˈdɛəriŋ] – n. a challenge to do something dangerous or foolhardy

dart [dɑ:t] – n. a small narrow pointed missile that is thrown or shot

Darwinism [ˈdɑ:winizəm] – n. a theory of organic evolution claiming that new species arise and are perpetuated by natural selection

dash [dæʃ] – n. distinctive and stylish elegance: he wooed her with the confident dash of a cavalry officer

dastard [ˈdæstəd] – n. a despicable coward

data [ˈdeitə] – n. a collection of facts from which conclusions may be drawn: statistical data

date [deit] – n. the specified day of the month: what is the date today?

dated [ˈdeitid] – adj. marked by features of the immediate and usually discounted past

datum [ˈdeitəm] – n. an item of factual information derived from measurement or research

dauntless [ˈdɔ:ntlis] – adj. invulnerable to fear or intimidation

dawdle [ˈdɔ:dl] – v. take one’s time; proceed slowly

dawn [dɔ:n] – n. the earliest period: the dawn of civilization

dazzle [ˈdæzl] – v. to cause someone to lose clear vision, especially from intense light: She was dazzled by the bright headlights

dazzling [ˈdæzliŋ] – adj. amazingly impressive; suggestive of the flashing of lightning: the skater’s dazzling virtuosic leaps

dazzlingly  – adv. in a manner or to a degree that dazzles the beholder

deadly [ˈdedli] – adj. causing or capable of causing death: a deadly enemy

deal [di:l] – v. act on verbally or in some form of artistic expression: This book deals with incest

dealer [ˈdi:lə] – n. someone who purchases and maintains an inventory of goods to be sold

dean [di:n] – n. an administrator in charge of a division of a university or college

dearth [də:θ] – n. an acute insufficiency

debase [diˈbeis] – v. corrupt morally or by intemperance or sensuality

debatable [diˈbeitəbl] – adj. open to argument or debate

debate [diˈbeit] – v. argue with one another: We debated the question of abortion

debauch [diˈbɔ:tʃ] – n. a wild gathering involving excessive drinking and promiscuity

debilitate [diˈbiliteit] – v. make weak

debonair [.debəˈneə] – adj. having a sophisticated charm: a debonair gentleman

debris [ˈdebri:] – n. the remains of something that has been destroyed or broken up

debt [det] – n. the state of owing something (especially money): he is badly in debt

debtor [ˈdetə] – n. a person who owes a creditor; someone who has the obligation of paying a debt

debut [ˈdeibju:] – v. present for the first time to the public: The band debuts a new song or two each month

decade [ˈdekeid] – n. a period of 10 years

decadence [ˈdekədəns] – n. the state of being degenerate in mental or moral qualities

decadent [ˈdekədənt] – adj. marked by excessive self-indulgence and moral decay: a decadent life of excessive money and no sense of responsibility

decagon [ˈdekəgɔn] – n. a polygon with 10 sides and 10 angles

decagram [ˈdekəgræm] – n. 10 grams

decaliter  – n. a metric unit of volume or capacity equal to 10 liters

decalogue  – n. the biblical commandments of Moses

decameter [ˈdekəmi:tər] – n. a metric unit of length equal to ten meters

decamp [diˈkæmp] – v. leave a camp: The hikers decamped before dawn

decapitate [diˈkæpiteit] – v. cut the head of

decapod [ˈdekəpɔd] – n. crustaceans characteristically having five pairs of locomotor appendages each joined to a segment of the thorax

decasyllabic  – adj. having or characterized by or consisting of ten syllables

decay [diˈkei] – n. the process of gradually becoming inferior

deceit [diˈsi:t] – n. the quality of being fraudulent

deceitful [diˈsi:tfʊl] – adj. intended to deceive: deceitful advertising

deceive [diˈsi:v] – v. be false to; be dishonest with

decency [ˈdi:snsi] – n. the quality of conforming to standards of propriety and morality

decent [ˈdi:snt] – adj. socially or conventionally correct; refined or virtuous: from a decent family

deception [diˈsepʃən] – n. a misleading falsehood

deceptive [diˈseptiv] – adj. causing one to believe what is not true or fail to believe what is true: deceptive calm

deciduous [diˈsidjuəs] – adj. (of plants and shrubs) shedding foliage at the end of the growing season

decimal [ˈdesiməl] – n. a proper fraction whose denominator is a power of 10

decimate [ˈdesimeit] – v. kill one in every ten, as of mutineers in Roman armies

decipher [diˈsaifə] – v. convert code into ordinary language

decisive [diˈsaisiv] – adj. determining or having the power to determine an outcome: cast the decisive vote

deck [dek] – n. any of various platforms built into a vessel

declamation [.dekləˈmeiʃən] – n. vehement oratory

declamatory [diˈklæmətəri] – adj. ostentatiously lofty in style

declaration [.dekləˈreiʃən] – n. a statement that is emphatic and explicit (spoken or written)

declarative [diˈklærətiv] – adj. relating to the use of or having the nature of a declaration

declare [diˈklɛə] – v. state emphatically and authoritatively: He declared that he needed more money to carry out the task he was charged with

declension [diˈklenʃən] – n. the inflection of nouns and pronouns and adjectives in Indo-European languages

decline [diˈklain] – v. grow worse

declivity [diˈkliviti] – n. a downward slope or bend

decompose [.di:kəmˈpəuz] – v. separate (substances) into constituent elements or parts

decomposition [.di:kɔmpəˈziʃən] – n. the analysis of a vector field

decor  – n. decoration consisting of the layout and furnishings of a livable interior

decorate [ˈdekəreit] – v. make more attractive by adding ornament, colour, etc.

decoration [.dekəˈreiʃən] – n. something used to beautify

decorative [ˈdekərətiv] – adj. serving an esthetic rather than a useful purpose: the buildings were utilitarian rather than decorative

decorous [ˈdekərəs] – adj. characterized by propriety and dignity and good taste in manners and conduct: the tete-a-tete was decorous in the extreme

decoy [ˈdi:kɔi] – n. a beguiler who leads someone into danger (usually as part of a plot)

decrease [ˈdi:kri:s,di:ˈkri:s] – n. a change downward: there was a decrease in his temperature as the fever subsided

decrepit [diˈkrepit] – adj. worn and broken down by hard use: a decrepit bus…its seats held together with friction tape

decry [diˈkrai] – v. express strong disapproval of

dedicate [ˈdedikeit] – v. give entirely to a specific person, activity, or cause

dedication [dediˈkeiʃən] – n. complete and wholehearted fidelity

deduce [diˈdju:s] – v. conclude by reasoning; in logic

deed [di:d] – n. something that people do or cause to happen

deem [di:m] – v. keep in mind or convey as a conviction or view

deface [diˈfeis] – v. mar or spoil the appearance of: scars defaced her cheeks

defalcate [diˈfælkeit] – v. appropriate (as property entrusted to one’s care) fraudulently to one’s own use

defamation [difəˈmeiʃən] – n. a false accusation of an offense or a malicious misrepresentation of someone’s words or actions

defame [diˈfeim] – v. charge falsely or with malicious intent; attack the good name and reputation of someone: The journalists have defamed me!

default [diˈfɔ:lt] – n. loss due to not showing up: he lost the game by default

defecate [ˈdefikeit] – v. have a bowel movement

defect [diˈfekt] – n. an imperfection in a bodily system: visual defects

defection [diˈfekʃən] – n. withdrawing support or help despite allegiance or responsibility

defective [diˈfektiv] – adj. markedly subnormal in structure or function or intelligence or behavior: defective speech

defend [diˈfend] – v. be on the defensive; act against an attack

defendant [diˈfendənt] – n. a person or institution against whom an action is brought in a court of law; the person being sued or accused

defense [diˈfens] – n. (military) military action or resources protecting a country against potential enemies: they died in the defense of Stalingrad

defensible [diˈfensəbl] – adj. capable of being defended

defensive [diˈfensiv] – adj. attempting to justify or defend in speech or writing

defer [diˈfə:] – v. hold back to a later time

deference [ˈdefərəns] – n. a courteous expression (by word or deed) of esteem or regard: his deference to her wishes was very flattering

deferential [.difəˈrenʃəl] – adj. showing deference

defiant [diˈfaiənt] – adj. boldly resisting authority or an opposing force: brought up to be aggressive and defiant

deficiency [diˈfiʃənsi] – n. the state of needing something that is absent or unavailable: water is the critical deficiency in desert regions

deficient [diˈfiʃənt] – adj. inadequate in amount or degree: a deficient education

deficit [ˈdefisit] – n. the property of being an amount by which something is less than expected or required: new blood vessels bud out from the already dilated vascular bed to make up the nutritional deficit

defile [diˈfail] – v. place under suspicion or cast doubt upon

define [diˈfain] – v. determine the essential quality of

definite [ˈdefinit] – adj. known for certain: it is definite that they have won

definitely [ˈdefinitli] – adv. without question and beyond doubt

definition [.defiˈniʃən] – n. a concise explanation of the meaning of a word or phrase or symbol

definitive [diˈfinitiv] – adj. of recognized authority or excellence: the definitive work on Greece

deflect [diˈflekt] – v. prevent the occurrence of; prevent from happening

deforestation  – n. the state of being clear of trees

deform [di:ˈfɔ:m] – v. make formless: the heat deformed the plastic sculpture

deformation [.di:fɔ:ˈmeiʃən] – n. a change for the worse

deformity [diˈfɔ:miti] – n. an affliction in which some part of the body is misshapen or malformed

defraud [diˈfrɔ:d] – v. deprive of by deceit: She defrauded the customers who trusted her

defray [diˈfrei] – v. bear the expenses of

defrost [di(:)ˈfrɔst] – v. make or become free of frost or ice

deft [deft] – adj. skillful in physical movements; especially of the hands: a deft waiter

defunct [diˈfʌŋkt] – adj. no longer in force or use; inactive: a defunct law

degeneracy [diˈdʒenərəsi] – n. moral perversion; impairment of virtue and moral principles: moral degeneracy followed intellectual degeneration

degenerate [diˈdʒenəreit] – n. a person whose behavior deviates from what is acceptable especially in sexual behavior

degradation [.degrəˈdeiʃən] – n. changing to a lower state (a less respected state)

degrade [diˈgreid] – v. reduce the level of land, as by erosion

dehydrate [di:ˈhaidreit] – v. preserve by removing all water and liquids from: carry dehydrated food on your camping trip

dehydration [.di:haiˈdreiʃən] – n. dryness resulting from the removal of water

deify [ˈdi:ifai] – v. consider as a god or godlike: These young men deify financial success

deign [dein] – v. do something that one considers to be below one’s dignity

deism  – n. the form of theological rationalism that believes in God on the basis of reason without reference to revelation

deity [ˈdi:iti] – n. any supernatural being worshipped as controlling some part of the world or some aspect of life or who is the personification of a force

deject [diˈdʒekt] – v. lower someone’s spirits; make downhearted

dejection [diˈdʒekʃən] – n. a state of melancholy depression

delay [diˈlei] – v. act later than planned, scheduled, or required: Don’t delay your application to graduate school or else it won’t be considered

delectable [diˈlektəbəl] – adj. extremely pleasing to the sense of taste

delectation [.di:lekˈteiʃən] – n. a feeling of extreme pleasure or satisfaction

delegate [ˈdeligeit,ˈdeligit] – v. transfer power to someone

delete [diˈli:t] – v. remove or make invisible: Please delete my name from your list

deleterious [.deliˈtiəriəs] – adj. harmful to living things: deleterious chemical additives

deliberate [diˈlibərit] – v. think about carefully; weigh

deliberately [diˈlibərətli] – adv. with intention; in an intentional manner

delicacy [ˈdelikəsi] – n. something considered choice to eat

delicate [ˈdelikit] – adj. exquisitely fine and subtle and pleasing; susceptible to injury: a delicate violin passage

delicious [diˈliʃəs] – adj. greatly pleasing or entertaining: a delicious joke

delineate [diˈlinieit] – v. show the form or outline of

delineation [diˈliniˈeʃən] – n. a graphic or vivid verbal description

delinquent [diˈliŋkwənt] – adj. guilty of a misdeed: delinquent minors

deliquesce [deliˈkwes] – v. melt away in the process of decay: The fungi eventually deliquesced

delirious [diˈliriəs] – adj. marked by uncontrolled excitement or emotion: a crowd of delirious baseball fans

delirium [diˈliriəm] – n. state of violent mental agitation

deliver [diˈlivə] – v. to surrender someone or something to another: the guard delivered the criminal to the police

delta [ˈdeltə] – n. a low triangular area of alluvial deposits where a river divides before entering a larger body of water: the Mississippi River delta

delude [diˈlu:d] – v. be false to; be dishonest with

deluge [ˈdelju:dʒ] – n. an overwhelming number or amount

delusion [diˈlu:ʒən] – n. (psychology) an erroneous belief that is held in the face of evidence to the contrary

demagnetize [di:ˈmægnitaiz] – v. erase (a magnetic storage device)

demagogue [ˈdeməgɔg] – n. a political leader who seeks support by appealing to popular passions and prejudices

demeanor [diˈmi:nə] – n. (behavioral attributes) the way a person behaves toward other people

demented [diˈmentid] – adj. affected with madness or insanity

demerit [di:ˈmerit] – n. a mark against a person for misconduct or failure; usually given in school or armed forces: ten demerits and he loses his privileges

demise [diˈmaiz] – n. the time when something ends

demobilize [di:ˈməʊbilaiz] – v. release from military service or remove from the active list of military service

democracy [diˈmɔkrəsi] – n. the political orientation of those who favor government by the people or by their elected representatives

democratic [.deməˈkrætik] – adj. belong to or relating to the Democratic Party

demolish [diˈmɔliʃ] – v. destroy completely: the wrecking ball demolished the building

demolition [.deməˈliʃən] – n. an event (or the result of an event) that completely destroys something

demonstrable [ˈdemənstrəbl] – adj. capable of being demonstrated or proved: a demonstrable lack of concern for the general welfare

demonstrate [ˈdemənstreit] – v. give an exhibition of to an interested audience

demonstration [.demənsˈtreiʃən] – n. a show or display; the act of presenting something to sight or view: he gave the customer a demonstration

demonstrative [diˈmɔnstrətiv] – adj. given to or marked by the open expression of emotion: an affectionate and demonstrative family

demonstrator [ˈdemənstreitə] – n. someone who demonstrates an article to a prospective buyer

demulcent [diˈmʌlsənt] – n. a medication (in the form of an oil or salve etc.) that soothes inflamed or injured skin

demur [diˈmə:] – v. take exception to: he demurred at my suggestion to work on Saturday

demure [diˈmjuə] – adj. affectedly modest or shy especially in a playful or provocative way

demurrage [diˈmʌridʒ] – n. detention of a ship or freight car or other cargo beyond its scheduled time of departure

den [den] – n. the habitation of wild animals

dendroid  – adj. resembling a tree in form and branching structure

denizen [ˈdenizən] – n. a person who inhabits a particular place

denominate [diˈnɔmineit] – v. assign a name or title to

denomination [di.nɔmiˈneiʃən] – n. a group of religious congregations having its own organization and a distinctive faith

denominator [diˈnamənetə] – n. the divisor of a fraction

denote [diˈnəut] – v. be a sign or indication of: Her smile denoted that she agreed

denouement [deiˈnu:mɑŋ] – n. the outcome of a complex sequence of events

denounce [diˈnauns] – v. speak out against: He denounced the Nazis

dense [dens] – adj. having high relative density or specific gravity: dense as lead

density [ˈdensiti] – n. the amount per unit size

dent [dent] – n. an appreciable consequence (especially a lessening): it made a dent in my bank account

dental [ˈdentl] – adj. of or relating to the teeth: dental floss

dentifrice [ˈdentifris] – n. a substance for cleaning the teeth; applied with a toothbrush

dentist [ˈdentist] – n. a person qualified to practice dentistry

dentistry [ˈdentistri] – n. the branch of medicine dealing with the anatomy and development and diseases of the teeth

denude [diˈnju:d] – v. lay bare: denude a forest

denunciation [dinʌnsiˈeiʃən] – n. a public act of denouncing

deny [diˈnai] – v. refuse to accept or believe

depart [diˈpɑ:t] – v. move away from a place into another direction: The train departs at noon

departure [diˈpɑ:tʃə] – n. a variation that deviates from the standard or norm

dependable [diˈpendəbl] – adj. worthy of reliance or trust: a dependable worker

dependence [diˈpendəns] – n. the state of relying on or being controlled by someone or something else

dependent [diˈpendənt] – adj. relying on or requiring a person or thing for support, supply, or what is needed: dependent children

depict [diˈpikt] – v. show in, or as in, a picture: This scene depicts country life

deplete [diˈpli:t] – v. use up (resources or materials)

deplorable [diˈplɔ:rəbl] – adj. bad; unfortunate: my finances were in a deplorable state

deplore [diˈplɔ:] – v. express strong disapproval of: We deplore the government’s treatment of political prisoners

deponent [diˈpəunənt] – n. a person who testifies or gives a deposition

depopulate [di:ˈpɔpjuleit] – v. reduce in population: The epidemic depopulated the countryside

deport [diˈpɔ:t] – v. behave in a certain manner

deportment [diˈpɔ:tmənt] – n. (behavioral attributes) the way a person behaves toward other people

depose [diˈpəuz] – v. force to leave (an office)

deposit [diˈpɔzit] – n. the phenomenon of sediment or gravel accumulating

deposition [.depəˈziʃən, di:-] – n. (law) a pretrial interrogation of a witness; usually conducted in a lawyer’s office

depositor [diˈpɔzitə] – n. a person who has deposited money in a bank or similar institution

depository [diˈpɔzitəuri] – n. a facility where things can be deposited for storage or safekeeping

depot [ˈdepəu; ˈdi:-] – n. station where transport vehicles load or unload passengers or goods

deprave [diˈpreiv] – v. corrupt morally or by intemperance or sensuality

depraved  – adj. deviating from what is considered moral or right or proper or good: depraved criminals

deprecate [ˈdeprikeit] – v. express strong disapproval of; deplore

depreciate [diˈpri:ʃieit] – v. belittle

depreciation [di.pri:ʃiˈeiʃən] – n. a decrease in price or value: depreciation of the dollar against the yen

depredation [depriˈdeiʃ(ə)n] – n. an act of plundering and pillaging and marauding

depress [diˈpres] – v. lower someone’s spirits; make downhearted: These news depressed her

depression [diˈpreʃən] – n. a mental state characterized by a pessimistic sense of inadequacy and a despondent lack of activity

deprivation [.depriˈveiʃən] – n. a state of extreme poverty

deprive [diˈpraiv] – v. take away possessions from someone

depth [depθ] – n. the extent downward or backward or inward: the depth of the water

derange [diˈreindʒ] – v. throw into great confusion or disorder

derelict [ˈderilikt] – adj. worn and broken down by hard use

deride [diˈraid] – v. treat or speak of with contempt: He derided his student’s attempt to solve the biggest problem in mathematics

derision [diˈriʒən] – n. contemptuous laughter

derivation [deriˈveiʃən] – n. (historical linguistics) an explanation of the historical origins of a word or phrase

derivative [diˈrivətiv] – n. the result of mathematical differentiation; the instantaneous change of one quantity relative to another; df(x)/dx

derive [diˈraiv] – v. reason by deduction; establish by deduction

dermatology [.də:məˈtɔlədʒi] – n. the branch of medicine dealing with the skin and its diseases

derrick [ˈderik] – n. a framework erected over an oil well to allow drill tubes to be raised and lowered

desalinate  – v. remove salt from: desalinate water

desalination [di:.sæliˈneiʃən] – n. the removal of salt (especially from sea water)

descend [diˈsend] – v. move downward and lower, but not necessarily all the way

descendant [diˈsendənt] – adj. going or coming down

descent [diˈsent] – n. a movement downward

descry [diˈskrai] – v. catch sight of

desert [ˈdezət,diˈzə:t] – v. leave someone who needs or counts on you; leave in the lurch: The mother deserted her children

deserve [diˈzə:v] – v. be worthy or deserving: You deserve a promotion after all the hard work you have done

desiccant [ˈdesikənt] – n. a substance that promotes drying (e.g., calcium oxide absorbs water and is used to remove moisture)

designate [ˈdezigneit] – v. assign a name or title to

designation [.dezigˈneiʃən] – n. identifying word or words by which someone or something is called and classified or distinguished from others

desirable [diˈzaiərəbl] – adj. worth having or seeking or achieving: a desirable job

desire [diˈzaiə] – n. the feeling that accompanies an unsatisfied state

desirous [diˈzaiərəs] – adj. having or expressing desire for something: desirous of high office

desist [diˈsist, diˈzist] – v. choose not to consume

desolate [ˈdesəleit,ˈdesəlit] – v. leave someone who needs or counts on you; leave in the lurch

despair [diˈspɛə] – n. a state in which all hope is lost or absent: in the depths of despair

despatch  – n. an official report (usually sent in haste)

desperado [despəˈrɑ:dəu] – n. a bold outlaw (especially on the American frontier)

desperate [ˈdespərit] – adj. arising from or marked by despair or loss of hope: a desperate cry for help

desperately [ˈdespəritli] – adv. with great urgency: the soil desperately needed potash

despicable [diˈspikəbəl] – adj. morally reprehensible: would do something as despicable as murder

despite [diˈspait] – n. lack of respect accompanied by a feeling of intense dislike: the despite in which outsiders were held is legendary

despoil [disˈpɔil] – v. steal goods; take as spoils

despond [diˈspɔnd] – v. lose confidence or hope; become dejected: The supporters of the Presidential candidate desponded when they learned the early results of the election

despondent [diˈspɔndənt] – adj. without or almost without hope: despondent about his failure

despot [ˈdespɔt] – n. a cruel and oppressive dictator

despotism [ˈdespətizəm] – n. dominance through threat of punishment and violence

dessert [diˈzə:t] – n. a dish served as the last course of a meal

destination [.destiˈneiʃən] – n. the place designated as the end (as of a race or journey): he was nearly exhausted as their destination came into view

destine [ˈdestin] – v. decree or designate beforehand: She was destined to become a great pianist

destined [ˈdestind] – adj. headed or intending to head in a certain direction; often used as a combining form as in `college-bound students’: a flight destined for New York

destitute [ˈdestitju:t] – adj. poor enough to need help from others

destroy [disˈtrɔi] – v. do away with, cause the destruction or undoing of: The fire destroyed the house

destruction [diˈstrʌkʃən] – n. the termination of something by causing so much damage to it that it cannot be repaired or no longer exists

destructive [diˈstrʌktiv] – adj. causing destruction or much damage: a policy that is destructive to the economy

desultory [ˈdesəltəri] – adj. marked by lack of definite plan or regularity or purpose; jumping from one thing to another: desultory thoughts

detach [diˈtætʃ] – v. separate (a small unit) from a larger, especially for a special assignment: detach a regiment

detain [diˈtein] – v. deprive of freedom; take into confinement

detect [diˈtekt] – v. discover or determine the existence, presence, or fact of: She detected high levels of lead in her drinking water

detectable [diˈtektəbl] – adj. easily seen or detected: a detectable note of sarcasm

detective [diˈtektiv] – n. a police officer who investigates crimes

deter [diˈtə:] – v. try to prevent; show opposition to

detergent [diˈtə:dʒənt] – n. a surface-active chemical widely used in industry and laundering

deteriorate [diˈtiəriəreit] – v. become worse or disintegrate: His mind deteriorated

determinant [diˈtə:minənt] – n. the site on the surface of an antigen molecule to which an antibody attaches itself

determinate [diˈtə:minit] – adj. not continuing to grow indefinitely at the apex: determinate growth

determination [di.tə:miˈneiʃən] – n. the quality of being determined to do or achieve something; firmness of purpose: his determination showed in his every movement

determine [diˈtə:min] – v. establish after a calculation, investigation, experiment, survey, or study

deterrent [diˈterənt] – n. something immaterial that interferes with or delays action or progress

detest [diˈtest] – v. dislike intensely; feel antipathy or aversion towards: She detests politicians

dethrone [diˈθrəun] – v. remove a monarch from the throne: If the King does not abdicate, he will have to be dethroned

detract [diˈtrækt] – v. take away a part from; diminish: His bad manners detract from his good character

detraction [diˈtrækʃən] – n. a petty disparagement

detriment [ˈdetrimənt] – n. a damage or loss

detrimental [.detriˈmentl] – adj. (sometimes followed by `to’) causing harm or injury

devastate [ˈdevəsteit] – v. cause extensive destruction or ruin utterly

devastating [ˈdevəsteitiŋ] – adj. making light of: a devastating portrait of human folly

devastation [.devəsˈteiʃən] – n. the state of being decayed or destroyed

deviate [ˈdi:vieit] – v. turn aside; turn away from

device [diˈvais] – n. an instrumentality invented for a particular purpose: the device is small enough to wear on your wrist

devilry [ˈdevlri] – n. wicked and cruel behavior

devious [ˈdi:viəs] – adj. indirect in departing from the accepted or proper way; misleading: used devious means to achieve success

devise [diˈvaiz] – v. come up with (an idea, plan, explanation, theory, or principle) after a mental effort

devoid [diˈvɔid] – adj. completely wanting or lacking: the sentence was devoid of meaning

devote [diˈvəut] – v. give entirely to a specific person, activity, or cause

devotion [diˈvəuʃən] – n. feelings of ardent love: their devotion to each other was beautiful

devour [diˈvauə] – v. destroy completely: Fire had devoured our home

devout [diˈvaut] – adj. deeply religious

dexterity [dekˈsteriti] – n. adroitness in using the hands

dexterous [ˈdekstərəs] – adj. skillful in physical movements; especially of the hands: dexterous of hand and inventive of mind

diacritical [daiəˈkritikəl] – adj. capable of distinguishing

diagnose [ˈdaiəgnəuz] – v. subject to a medical analysis

diagnosis [.daiəgˈnəusis] – n. identifying the nature or cause of some phenomenon

diagonal [daiˈægənl] – n. (geometry) a straight line connecting any two vertices of a polygon that are not adjacent

diagonally [daiˈægənəli] – adv. in a diagonal manner: she lives diagonally across the street from us

diagram [ˈdaiəgræm] – n. a drawing intended to explain how something works; a drawing showing the relation between the parts

dial [ˈdaiəl] – n. the face of a timepiece; graduated to show the hours

dialect [ˈdaiəlekt] – n. the usage or vocabulary that is characteristic of a specific group of people: the immigrants spoke an odd dialect of English

dialectician [,daiəlekˈtiʃən] – n. a logician skilled in dialectic

dialogue [ˈdaiəlɔg] – n. a conversation between two persons

diameter [daiˈæmitə] – n. the length of a straight line passing through the center of a circle and connecting two points on the circumference

diaphanous [daiˈæfənəs] – adj. so thin as to transmit light: a hat with a diaphanous veil

diatomic [,daiəˈtɔmik] – adj. of or relating to a molecule made up of two atoms: a diatomic molecule

diatribe [ˈdaiətraib] – n. thunderous verbal attack

Dictaphone  – n. a tape recorder that records and reproduces dictation

dictate [ˈdikteit,dikˈteit] – v. issue commands or orders for

diction [ˈdikʃən] – n. the articulation of speech regarded from the point of view of its intelligibility to the audience

dictum [ˈdiktəm] – n. an authoritative declaration

didactic [diˈdæktik] – adj. instructive (especially excessively)

diet [ˈdaiət] – n. a prescribed selection of foods

dietary [ˈdaiətəri] – n. a regulated daily food allowance

dieter [ˈdaiətə] – n. a person who diets

dietetics [.daiəˈtetiks] – n. the scientific study of food preparation and intake

dietitian [.daiəˈtiʃən] – n. a specialist in the study of nutrition

difference [ˈdifərəns] – n. the quality of being unlike or dissimilar: there are many differences between jazz and rock

differentia [,difəˈrenʃiə] – n. distinguishing characteristics (especially in different species of a genus)

differential [.difəˈrenʃəl] – n. a quality that differentiates between similar things

differentiate [.difəˈrenʃi.eit] – v. be a distinctive feature, attribute, or trait; sometimes in a very positive sense

diffidence [ˈdifədəns] – n. lack of self-confidence

diffident [ˈdifidənt] – adj. showing modest reserve: she was diffident when offering a comment on the professor’s lecture

diffuse [diˈfju:s,diˈfju:z] – v. move outward

diffusion [diˈfju:ʒən] – n. the spread of social institutions (and myths and skills) from one society to another

digest [daiˈdʒest] – v. convert food into absorbable substances: I cannot digest milk products

digestion [daiˈdʒestʃən] – n. the process of decomposing organic matter (as in sewage) by bacteria or by chemical action or heat

digestive [diˈdʒestiv, dai] – n. any substance that promotes digestion

dignify [ˈdignifai] – v. raise the status of: I shall not dignify this insensitive remark with an answer

dignitary [ˈdignitəri] – n. an important or influential (and often overbearing) person

dignity [ˈdigniti] – n. the quality of being worthy of esteem or respect: it was beneath his dignity to cheat

digraph [ˈdaigrɑ:f] – n. two successive letters (especially two letters used to represent a single sound: `sh’ in `shoe’)

digress [daiˈgres] – v. wander from a direct or straight course

digression [daiˈgreʃən] – n. a message that departs from the main subject

dilate [daiˈleit] – v. become wider: His pupils were dilated

dilatory [ˈdilətəri] – adj. wasting time

dilemma [diˈlemə] – n. state of uncertainty or perplexity especially as requiring a choice between equally unfavorable options

dilettante [.diliˈtænti] – n. an amateur who engages in an activity without serious intentions and who pretends to have knowledge

diligence [ˈdilidʒəns] – n. conscientiousness in paying proper attention to a task; giving the degree of care required in a given situation

diligent [ˈdilidʒənt] – adj. quietly and steadily persevering especially in detail or exactness: a diligent (or patient) worker

diligently [ˈdilidʒəntli] – adv. with diligence; in a diligent manner: we may diligently observe the Lord’s supper on the first day of the week, diligently preach the gospel, or minister to the saint

dilute [daiˈlju:t] – v. lessen the strength or flavor of a solution or mixture

dilution [daiˈlju:ʃən. diˈl] – n. weakening (reducing the concentration) by the addition of water or a thinner

dim [dim] – v. switch (a car’s headlights) from a higher to a lower beam

dime [daim] – n. a United States coin worth one tenth of a dollar

dimension [diˈmenʃən] – n. the magnitude of something in a particular direction (especially length or width or height)

dimensional [diˈmenʃənəl] – adj. having dimension–the quality or character or stature proper to a person: never matures as a dimensional character; he is pasty, bland, faceless

diminish [diˈminiʃ] – v. decrease in size, extent, or range

diminution [dimiˈnju:ʃən] – n. change toward something smaller or lower

diminutive [diˈminjutiv] – n. a word that is formed with a suffix (such as -let or -kin) to indicate smallness

dimly [ˈdimli] – adv. with a dim light: a dimly lit room

dingy [ˈdindʒi] – adj. thickly covered with ingrained dirt or soot: dingy linen

dinosaur [ˈdainəsɔ:] – n. any of numerous extinct terrestrial reptiles of the Mesozoic era

dioxide [daiˈɔksaid] – n. an oxide containing two atoms of oxygen in the molecule

diphthong [ˈdifθɔŋ] – n. a vowel sound that starts near the articulatory position for one vowel and moves toward the position for another

diplomacy [diˈpləuməsi] – n. negotiation between nations

diplomat [ˈdipləmæt] – n. an official engaged in international negotiations

diplomatic [.dipləˈmætik] – adj. using or marked by tact in dealing with sensitive matters or people: the hostess averted a confrontation with a diplomatic chenage of subject

diplomatist [diˈpləumətist] – n. an official engaged in international negotiations

direct [diˈrekt] – v. command with authority: He directed the children to do their homework

directive [diˈrektiv, daiˈrektiv] – n. a pronouncement encouraging or banning some activity: the boss loves to send us directives

dirt [də:t] – n. the state of being covered with unclean things

disadvantage [.disədˈvæntidʒ] – n. the quality of having an inferior or less favorable position

disagree [.disəˈgri:] – v. be of different opinions: She disagrees with her husband on many questions

disallow [ˈdisəˈlau, dis-] – v. command against

disappear [.disəˈpiə] – v. get lost, as without warning or explanation: He disappeared without a trace

disappoint [.disəˈpɔint] – v. fail to meet the hopes or expectations of

disappointment [.disəˈpɔintmənt] – n. a feeling of dissatisfaction that results when your expectations are not realized: his hopes were so high he was doomed to disappointment

disapproval [.disəˈpru:vəl] – n. a feeling of disliking something or what someone is doing

disapprove [.disəˈpru:v] – v. consider bad or wrong

disarm [disˈɑ:m] – v. remove offensive capability from

disarrange [.disəˈreindʒ] – v. destroy the arrangement or order of: My son disarranged the papers on my desk

disaster [diˈzɑ:stə] – n. a state of extreme (usually irremediable) ruin and misfortune: his policies were a disaster

disastrous [diˈzɑ:strəs] – adj. (of events) having extremely unfortunate or dire consequences; bringing ruin: the battle was a disastrous end to a disastrous campaign

disavow [disəˈvau] – v. refuse to acknowledge; disclaim knowledge of; responsibility for, or association with: Her husband disavowed her after 30 years of marriage and six children

disband [disˈbænd] – v. cause to break up or cease to function: the principal disbanded the political student organization

disburden [disˈbə:dn] – v. take the burden off; remove the burden from

disburse [disˈbə:s] – v. expend, as from a fund

discard [ˈdiskɑ:d,disˈkɑ:d] – n. (cards) the act of throwing out a useless card or of failing to follow suit

discern [diˈzə:n] – v. detect with the senses

discernible [diˈsɜ:nəbl, -ˈzɜ:-] – adj. perceptible by the senses or intellect: things happen in the earth and sky with no discernible cause

discerning [diˈsɜ:niŋ] – adj. having or revealing keen insight and good judgment: a discerning critic

discharge [disˈtʃɑ:dʒ] – v. complete or carry out: discharge one’s duties

disciple [diˈsaipl] – n. someone who believes and helps to spread the doctrine of another

disciplinary [ˈdisiplinəri] – adj. relating to a specific field of academic study: economics in its modern disciplinary sense

discipline [ˈdisiplin] – n. a branch of knowledge: in what discipline is his doctorate?

disciplined [ˈdisiplind] – adj. obeying the rules

disclaim [disˈkleim] – v. renounce a legal claim or title to

discolor [disˈkʌlə] – v. lose color or turn colorless: The painting discolored

discomfit [disˈkʌmfit] – v. cause to lose one’s composure

discomfort [disˈkʌmfət] – n. the state of being tense and feeling pain

discompose [.diskəmˈpəuz] – v. cause to lose one’s composure

disconcert [.diskənˈsə:t] – v. cause to feel embarrassment

disconnect [.diskəˈnekt] – v. pull the plug of (electrical appliances) and render inoperable

disconsolate [disˈkɔnsəlit] – adj. sad beyond comforting; incapable of being consoled

discontent [ˈdiskənˈtent] – n. a longing for something better than the present situation

discontinuance [,diskənˈtinjuəns] – n. the act of discontinuing or breaking off; an interruption (temporary or permanent)

discord [ˈdiskɔ:d] – n. lack of agreement or harmony

discountenance [disˈkauntinəns] – v. look with disfavor on: The republic soon discountenanced its few friends

discourage [disˈkʌridʒ] – v. try to prevent; show opposition to: We should discourage this practice among our youth

discouraging [disˈkʌridʒiŋ] – adj. depriving of confidence or hope or enthusiasm and hence often deterring action: where never is heard a discouraging word

discourse [disˈkɔ:s, ˈdiskɔ:s] – n. extended verbal expression in speech or writing

discover [disˈkʌvə] – v. get to know or become aware of, usually accidentally

discredit [disˈkredit] – v. cause to be distrusted or disbelieved: The paper discredited the politician with its nasty commentary

discreet [diˈskri:t] – adj. marked by prudence or modesty and wise self-restraint: his trusted discreet aide

discrepant [dis`krepənt] – adj. not compatible with other facts

discrete [diˈskri:t] – adj. constituting a separate entity or part: a government with three discrete divisions

discretion [diˈskreʃən] – n. freedom to act or judge on one’s own

discriminate [diˈskrimineit] – v. recognize or perceive the difference

discursive [diˈskə:siv] – adj. proceeding to a conclusion by reason or argument rather than intuition

discussion [diˈskʌʃən] – n. an extended communication (often interactive) dealing with some particular topic: the book contains an excellent discussion of modal logic

disenfranchise [ˈdisinˈfræntʃaiz] – v. deprive of voting rights

disengage [ˈdisinˈgeidʒ] – v. release from something that holds fast, connects, or entangles: I want to disengage myself from his influence

disfavor [ˈdisˈfeivə] – n. the state of being out of favor: he is in disfavor with the king

disfigure [disˈfigə] – v. mar or spoil the appearance of: The vandals disfigured the statue

disgrace [disˈgreis] – v. bring shame or dishonor upon

disguise [disˈgaiz] – n. an outward semblance that misrepresents the true nature of something: the theatrical notion of disguise is always associated with catastrophe in his stories

disgust [disˈgʌst] – v. fill with distaste: This spoilt food disgusts me

dishabille [disæˈbi:l] – n. the state of being carelessly or partially dressed

dishonest [disˈɔnist] – adj. deceptive or fraudulent; disposed to cheat or defraud or deceive

disillusion [.disiˈlu:ʒən] – n. freeing from false belief or illusions

disinfect [disinˈfekt] – v. destroy microorganisms or pathogens by cleansing: disinfect a wound

disinfectant [disinˈfekt(ə)nt] – n. an agent (as heat or radiation or a chemical) that destroys microorganisms that might carry disease

disinherit [ˈdisinˈherit] – v. prevent deliberately (as by making a will) from inheriting

disintegrate [disˈintigreit] – v. break into parts or components or lose cohesion or unity: The material disintegrated

disinterest  – n. tolerance attributable to a lack of involvement

disjunctive [disˈdʒʌŋktiv] – adj. serving or tending to divide or separate

dislocate [ˈdisləkeit] – v. move out of position: dislocate joints

dismal [ˈdizməl] – adj. causing dejection: the first dismal dispiriting days of November

dismay [disˈmei] – n. the feeling of despair in the face of obstacles

dismember [disˈmembə] – v. separate the limbs from the body: the tiger dismembered the tourist

dismemberment  – n. the removal of limbs; being cut to pieces

dismiss [disˈmis] – v. bar from attention or consideration: She dismissed his advances

dismissal [disˈmisəl] – n. a judgment disposing of the matter without a trial

dismount [ˈdisˈmaunt] – v. alight from (a horse)

disobedience [disəˈbi:diəns] – n. the failure to obey

disobedient [disəˈbi:diənt] – adj. not obeying or complying with commands of those in authority: disobedient children

disorganize [disˈɔ:gənaiz] – v. remove the organization from

disown [disˈəun] – v. prevent deliberately (as by making a will) from inheriting

disparage [diˈspæridʒ] – v. express a negative opinion of: She disparaged her student’s efforts

disparity [disˈpæriti] – n. inequality or difference in some respect

dispassionate [disˈpæʃənit] – adj. unaffected by strong emotion or prejudice: a journalist should be a dispassionate reporter of fact

dispatch [diˈspætʃ] – v. send away towards a designated goal

dispel [disˈpel] – v. force to go away; used both with concrete and metaphoric meanings: dispel doubts

dispensation [dispenˈseiʃən] – n. an exemption from some rule or obligation

dispense [disˈpens] – v. administer or bestow, as in small portions: the machine dispenses soft drinks

dispersal [disˈpə:səl] – n. the act of dispersing or diffusing something

disperse [disˈpə:s] – v. distribute loosely

displace [disˈpleis] – v. cause to move, usually with force or pressure: the refugees were displaced by the war

displacement [disˈpleismənt] – n. act of taking the place of another especially using underhanded tactics

display [diˈsplei] – n. something intended to communicate a particular impression: made a display of strength

disposal [diˈspəuzəl] – n. the power to use something or someone: used all the resources at his disposal

disposed [diˈspəʊzd] – adj. having made preparations

disposition [.dispəˈziʃən] – n. your usual mood: he has a happy disposition

dispossess [dispəˈzes] – v. deprive of the possession of real estate

disproportionate [.disprəˈpɔ:ʃənit] – adj. out of proportion

disputant [ˈdispjutənt] – n. a person who disputes; who is good at or enjoys controversy

disputation [dispjuˈteiʃən] – n. the formal presentation of a stated proposition and the opposition to it (usually followed by a vote)

dispute [diˈspju:t] – n. a disagreement or argument about something important: he had a dispute with his wife

disqualify [disˈkwɔlifai] – v. make unfit or unsuitable

disquiet [disˈkwaiət] – n. a feeling of mild anxiety about possible developments

disregard [.disriˈgɑ:d] – v. refuse to acknowledge

disreputable [disˈrepjutəbəl] – adj. lacking respectability in character or behavior or appearance

disrepute [ˈdisriˈpju:t] – n. the state of being held in low esteem: because of the scandal the school has fallen into disrepute

disrespect [ˈdisrisˈpekt] – n. an expression of lack of respect

disrobe [disˈrəub] – v. get undressed

disrupt [disˈrʌpt] – v. make a break in

dissatisfy [disˈsætisfai] – v. fail to satisfy

dissect [diˈsekt] – v. cut open or cut apart: dissect the bodies for analysis

dissection [diˈsekʃən] – n. cutting so as to separate into pieces

disseminate [diˈsemineit] – v. cause to become widely known

dissension [diˈsenʃən] – n. disagreement among those expected to cooperate

dissent [diˈsent] – n. (law) the difference of one judge’s opinion from that of the majority: he expressed his dissent in a contrary opinion

dissenter [diˈsentə(r)] – n. a person who dissents from some established policy

dissentient [diˈsenʃiənt] – adj. (of Catholics) refusing to attend services of the Church of England

dissenting [diˈsentiŋ] – adj. disagreeing, especially with a majority

dissentious [diˈsenʃəs] – adj. dissenting (especially dissenting with the majority opinion)

dissertation [.disəˈteiʃən] – n. a treatise advancing a new point of view resulting from research; usually a requirement for an advanced academic degree

disservice [disˈsə:vis] – n. an act intended to help that turns out badly: he did them a disservice

dissever [disˈsevə] – v. separate into parts or portions

dissimilar [diˈsimilə] – adj. not similar: a group of very dissimilar people

dissipate [ˈdisipeit] – v. to cause to separate and go in different directions

dissipated [ˈdisipeitid] – adj. unrestrained by convention or morality: deplorably dissipated and degraded

dissipation [disiˈpeiʃən] – n. breaking up and scattering by dispersion: the dissipation of the mist

dissolute [ˈdisəlu:t] – adj. unrestrained by convention or morality

dissolution [.disəˈlu:ʃən] – n. separation into component parts

dissolve [diˈzɔlv] – v. become weaker

dissonance [ˈdisənəns] – n. a conflict of people’s opinions or actions or characters

dissonant [ˈdisənənt] – adj. lacking in harmony

dissuade [diˈsweid] – v. turn away from by persuasion: Negative campaigning will only dissuade people

dissuasion [diˈsweiʒən] – n. persuading not to do or believe something; talking someone out of a belief or an intended course of action

distance [ˈdistəns] – n. the property created by the space between two objects or points

distant [ˈdistənt] – adj. far apart in relevance or relationship or kinship: a distant cousin

distasteful [disˈteistful] – adj. not pleasing in odor or taste

distemper [disˈtempə] – n. any of various infectious viral diseases of animals

distend [diˈstend] – v. become wider

distensible [disˈtensəbl] – adj. capable of being distended; able to stretch and expand: the stomach is a distensible organ

distill [disˈtil] – v. undergo condensation; change from a gaseous to a liquid state and fall in drops: The acid distills at a specific temperature

distillation [.distiˈleiʃən] – n. the process of purifying a liquid by boiling it and condensing its vapors

distiller [disˈtilə] – n. someone who distills alcoholic liquors

distinct [diˈstiŋkt] – adj. (often followed by `from’) not alike; different in nature or quality: plants of several distinct types

distinction [diˈstiŋkʃən] – n. high status importance owing to marked superiority

distinctive [disˈtiŋktiv] – adj. capable of being classified

distinctively [disˈtiŋktivli] – adv. in an identifiably distinctive manner: the distinctively conservative district of the county

distinctly [diˈstiŋktli] – adv. in a distinct and distinguishable manner: the subtleties of this distinctly British occasion

distinguish [diˈstiŋgwiʃ] – v. mark as different: We distinguish several kinds of maple

distort [disˈtɔ:t] – v. make false by mutilation or addition; as of a message or story

distortion [disˈtɔ:ʃən] – n. a change for the worse

distract [diˈstrækt] – v. draw someone’s attention away from something: The thief distracted the bystanders

distrain [disˈtrein] – v. confiscate by distress

distraught [diˈstrɔ:t] – adj. deeply agitated especially from emotion: distraught with grief

distress [diˈstres] – n. psychological suffering: the death of his wife caused him great distress

distribute [diˈstribjut] – v. administer or bestow, as in small portions

distribution [.distriˈbju:ʃən] – n. (statistics) an arrangement of values of a variable showing their observed or theoretical frequency of occurrence

district [ˈdistrikt] – n. a region marked off for administrative or other purposes

distrust [disˈtrʌst] – n. doubt about someone’s honesty

disturb [disˈtə:b] – v. move deeply

disturbance [disˈtə:bəns] – n. activity that is a malfunction, intrusion, or interruption: he looked around for the source of the disturbance

disunion [ˈdisˈju:njən] – n. the termination or destruction of union

disunite [ˈdisju:ˈnait] – v. part; cease or break association with

disyllable [diˈsiləbl] – n. a word having two syllables

ditch [ditʃ] – v. forsake: ditch a lover

diurnal [daiˈə:nəl] – adj. of or belonging to or active during the day: diurnal animals are active during the day

dive [daiv] – n. a headlong plunge into water

diver [ˈdaivə] – n. someone who works underwater

diverge [daiˈvə:dʒ] – v. move or draw apart: The two paths diverge here

divergence [daiˈvɜ:dʒəns,di-] – n. the act of moving away in different direction from a common point: an angle is formed by the divergence of two straight lines

divergent [daiˈvə:dʒənt] – adj. tending to move apart in different directions

diverse [daiˈvə:s] – adj. many and different: a person of diverse talents

diversification [daivə:sifiˈkeiʃən] – n. the act of introducing variety (especially in investments or in the variety of goods and services offered): my broker recommended a greater diversification of my investments

diversified [daiˈvə:sifaid] – adj. having variety of character or form or components; or having increased variety: a diversified musical program ranging from classical to modern

diversify [daiˈvə:sifai] – v. spread into new habitats and produce variety or variegate

diversion [daiˈvə:ʒən] – n. a turning aside (of your course or attention or concern): a diversion from the main highway

diversity [daiˈvə:siti] – n. noticeable heterogeneity: a diversity of possibilities

divert [daiˈvə:t] – v. turn aside; turn away from

diverting  – adj. providing enjoyment; pleasantly entertaining: a diverting story

divest [daiˈvest] – v. take away possessions from someone

divide [diˈvaid] – v. separate into parts or portions: divide the cake into three equal parts

divination [diviˈneiʃən] – n. successful conjecture by unusual insight or good luck

divinity [diˈviniti] – n. the quality of being divine: ancient Egyptians believed in the divinity of the Pharaohs

divisible [diˈvizəbl] – adj. capable of being or liable to be divided or separated: even numbers are divisible by two

division [diˈviʒən] – n. an army unit large enough to sustain combat: two infantry divisions were held in reserve

divisor [diˈvaizə] – n. the number by which a dividend is divided

divorce [diˈvɔ:s] – v. part; cease or break association with

divulge [daiˈvʌldʒ,di-] – v. make known to the public information that was previously known only to a few people or that was meant to be kept a secret

dizziness [ˈdizinis] – n. a reeling sensation; a feeling that you are about to fall

dizzy [ˈdizi] – adj. having or causing a whirling sensation; liable to falling: had a dizzy spell

docile [ˈdəusail] – adj. willing to be taught or led or supervised or directed: the docile masses of an enslaved nation

docket [ˈdɔkit] – n. (law) the calendar of a court; the list of cases to be tried or a summary of the court’s activities

doctrine [ˈdɔktrin] – n. a belief (or system of beliefs) accepted as authoritative by some group or school

documentary [.dɔkjuˈmentəri] – adj. relating to or consisting of or derived from documents

documentation [.dɔkjumenˈteiʃən] – n. program listings or technical manuals describing the operation and use of programs

dodge [dɔdʒ] – n. an elaborate or deceitful scheme contrived to deceive or evade

doe [dəu] – n. the federal department responsible for maintaining a national energy policy of the United States; created in 1977

dogged [ˈdɔgid] – adj. stubbornly unyielding: dogged persistence

doggedly [ˈdɔgidli] – adv. with obstinate determination: he pursued her doggedly

dogma [ˈdɔgmə] – n. a religious doctrine that is proclaimed as true without proof

dogmatic [dɔgˈmætik] – adj. characterized by assertion of unproved or unprovable principles

dogmatize [ˈdɔgmətaiz] – v. speak dogmatically

doleful [ˈdəulful] – adj. filled with or evoking sadness: the child’s doleful expression

doll [dɔl] – n. a small replica of a person; used as a toy

dolor [ˈdəulə] – n. (poetry) painful grief

dolorous [ˈdɔlərəs] – adj. showing sorrow

dolphin [ˈdɔlfin] – n. large slender food and game fish widely distributed in warm seas (especially around Hawaii)

domain [dəˈmein] – n. a particular environment or walk of life

domestic [dəˈmestik] – adj. of concern to or concerning the internal affairs of a nation: domestic issues such as tax rate and highway construction

domesticate [dəˈmestikeit] – v. adapt (a wild plant or unclaimed land) to the environment: domesticate oats

domesticated [dəˈmestikeitid] – adj. accustomed to home life: some men think it unmanly to be domesticated; others find gratification in it

domesticity [.dəumesˈtisiti] – n. domestic activities or life: making a hobby of domesticity

domicile [ˈdɔmisail] – n. housing that someone is living in

dominance [ˈdɔminəns] – n. superior development of one side of the body

dominant [ˈdɔminənt] – adj. exercising influence or control: television plays a dominant role in molding public opinion

dominate [ˈdɔmineit] – v. be larger in number, quantity, power, status or importance: Hispanics predominate in this neighborhood

domination [ˈdɔmiˈneiʃən] – n. power to dominate or defeat

domineer [dɔmiˈniə] – v. rule or exercise power over (somebody) in a cruel and autocratic manner

don [dɔn] – n. a Spanish gentleman or nobleman

donate [ˈdəuneit] – v. give to a charity or good cause: I donated blood to the Red Cross for the victims of the earthquake

donation [dəuˈneiʃən] – n. a voluntary gift (as of money or service or ideas) made to some worthwhile cause

donee  – n. the recipient of funds or other benefits

donor [ˈdəunə] – n. person who makes a gift of property

dormant [ˈdɔ:mənt] – adj. in a condition of biological rest or suspended animation: dormant buds

dormitory [ˈdɔ:mitri] – n. a college or university building containing living quarters for students

dorsal [ˈdɔ:s(ə)l] – adj. belonging to or on or near the back or upper surface of an animal or organ or part: the dorsal fin is the vertical fin on the back of a fish and certain marine mammals

dot [dɔt] – n. a very small circular shape: draw lines between the dots

doublet [ˈdʌblit] – n. a man’s close-fitting jacket; worn during the Renaissance

doubly [ˈdʌbli] – adv. in a twofold manner: he was doubly wrong

doubt [daut] – n. the state of being unsure of something

doubtful [ˈdautfəl] – adj. fraught with uncertainty or doubt: they were doubtful that the cord would hold

downcast [ˈdaunkɑ:st] – adj. filled with melancholy and despondency: downcast after his defeat

downtown [.daunˈtaun] – n. the central area or commercial center of a town or city: the heart of Birmingham’s downtown

dowry [ˈdauri] – n. money or property brought by a woman to her husband at marriage

doze [dəuz] – n. a light fitful sleep

drachma [ˈdrækmə] – n. a unit of apothecary weight equal to an eighth of an ounce or to 60 grains

draft [dræft] – n. a current of air (usually coming into a chimney or room or vehicle)

drag [dræg] – v. pull, as against a resistance: He dragged the big suitcase behind him

dragnet [`drægnet] – n. a system of coordinated measures for apprehending (criminals or other individuals): caught in the police dragnet

dragonfly [ˈdrægənflai] – n. slender-bodied non-stinging insect having iridescent wings that are outspread at rest; adults and nymphs feed on mosquitoes etc.

dragoon [drəˈgu:n] – v. compel by coercion, threats, or crude means

drain [drein] – n. emptying something accomplished by allowing liquid to run out of it

drainage [ˈdreinidʒ] – n. emptying something accomplished by allowing liquid to run out of it

drama [ˈdrɑ:mə] – n. an episode that is turbulent or highly emotional

dramatic [drəˈmætik] – adj. sensational in appearance or thrilling in effect: a dramatic sunset

dramatically [drəˈmætikəli] – adv. in a very impressive manner: your performance will improve dramatically

dramatist [ˈdræmətist] – n. someone who writes plays

dramatize [ˈdræmətaiz] – v. represent something in a dramatic manner: These events dramatize the lack of social responsibility among today’s youth

drape  – v. arrange in a particular way: drape a cloth

drastic [ˈdræstik] – adj. forceful and extreme and rigorous: drastic measures

draw [drɔ:] – v. cause to move by pulling: draw a wagon

drawback [ˈdrɔ:bæk] – n. the quality of being a hindrance: he pointed out all the drawbacks to my plan

drawer [ˈdrɔ:ə] – n. a boxlike container in a piece of furniture; made so as to slide in and out

drawing [ˈdrɔ:iŋ] – n. a representation of forms or objects on a surface by means of lines: drawings of abstract forms

dread [dred] – n. fearful expectation or anticipation

dreadful [ˈdredful] – adj. exceptionally bad or displeasing: dreadful manners

dreadfully [ˈdredfʊli] – adv. in a dreadful manner

dreary [ˈdriəri] – adj. lacking in liveliness or charm or surprise: a series of dreary dinner parties

drift [drift] – v. be in motion due to some air or water current: the boat drifted on the lake

driftwood [ˈdriftwʊd] – n. wood that is floating or that has been washed ashore

drill [dril] – v. make a hole, especially with a pointed power or hand tool: don’t drill here, there’s a gas pipe

drip [drip] – n. the sound of a liquid falling drop by drop: the constant sound of dripping irritated him

dripstone [ˈdripstəʊn] – n. the form of calcium carbonate found in stalactites and stalagmites

drizzle [ˈdrizl] – v. rain lightly: When it drizzles in summer, hiking can be pleasant

droplet  – n. a tiny drop

drought [draut] – n. a shortage of rainfall: farmers most affected by the drought hope that there may yet be sufficient rain early in the growing season

drowsy [ˈdrauzi] – adj. half asleep: made drowsy by the long ride

drub [drʌb] – v. beat thoroughly and conclusively in a competition or fight

drudgery [ˈdrʌdʒəri] – n. hard monotonous routine work

drugstore [drʌgˈstɔ:] – n. a retail shop where medicine and other articles are sold

dubious [ˈdju:biəs] – adj. fraught with uncertainty or doubt: dubious about agreeing to go

duckling [ˈdʌkliŋ] – n. young duck

duct  – n. a bodily passage or tube lined with epithelial cells and conveying a secretion or other substance: the tear duct was obstructed

ductile [ˈdʌktail] – adj. easily influenced

ductless  – adj. not having a duct: ductless glands

due [dju:] – adj. owed and payable immediately or on demand: payment is due

duet [dju:ˈet] – n. two items of the same kind

duke [dju:k] – n. a British peer of the highest rank

dull [dʌl] – adj. lacking in liveliness or animation: he was so dull at parties

dumb [dʌm] – adj. slow to learn or understand; lacking intellectual acuity: dumb officials make some really dumb decisions

dump [dʌmp] – v. throw away as refuse: No dumping in these woods!

dun [dʌn] – v. treat cruelly

dunce [dʌns] – n. a stupid person; these words are used to express a low opinion of someone’s intelligence

dungeon [ˈdʌndʒən] – n. the main tower within the walls of a medieval castle or fortress

duplex [ˈdju:pleks] – n. a house with two units sharing a common wall

duplicate [ˈdju:plikit] – v. make or do or perform again

duplicity [dju:ˈplisiti] – n. a fraudulent or duplicitous representation

durable [ˈdjuərəbl] – adj. existing for a long time: hopes for a durable peace

durance [ˈdjurəns] – n. imprisonment (especially for a long time)

duration [djuˈreiʃən] – n. the period of time during which something continues

duteous [ˈdju:tjəs] – adj. willingly obedient out of a sense of duty and respect: Patient Griselda was a chaste and duteous wife

dutiable [ˈdju:tjəbl] – adj. subject to import tax: dutiable imports

dutiful [ˈdju:tiful] – adj. willingly obedient out of a sense of duty and respect: a dutiful child

dwarf [dwɔ:f] – n. a person who is markedly small

dwell [dwel] – v. think moodily or anxiously about something

dweller [ˈdwelə(r)] – n. a person who inhabits a particular place

dwelling [ˈdweliŋ] – n. housing that someone is living in: he built a modest dwelling near the pond

dwindle [ˈdwindl] – v. become smaller or lose substance: Her savings dwindled down

dye [dai] – n. a usually soluble substance for staining or coloring e.g. fabrics or hair

dynamic [daiˈnæmik] – adj. characterized by action or forcefulness or force of personality: a dynamic market

dynamics [daiˈnæmiks] – n. the branch of mechanics concerned with the forces that cause motions of bodies

dyne [dain] – n. a unit of force equal to the force that imparts an acceleration of 1 cm/sec/sec to a mass of 1 gram

eager [ˈi:gə] – n. a high wave (often dangerous) caused by tidal flow (as by colliding tidal currents or in a narrow estuary)

eagle [ˈi:gl] – n. any of various large keen-sighted diurnal birds of prey noted for their broad wings and strong soaring flight

earnest [ˈə:nist] – adj. characterized by a firm and humorless belief in the validity of your opinions: both sides were deeply in earnest, even passionate

earnestness  – n. the trait of being serious

earthenware [ˈə:θənwɛə] – n. ceramic ware made of porous clay fired at low heat

earthquake [ˈə:θkweik] – n. a disturbance that is extremely disruptive: selling the company caused an earthquake among the employees

eatable [ˈi:təbl] – n. any substance that can be used as food

ebullient [iˈbʌliənt] – adj. joyously unrestrained

eccentric [ikˈsentrik] – n. a person with an unusual or odd personality

eccentricity [eksenˈtrisiti] – n. strange and unconventional behavior

ecclesiastic [i.kli:ziˈæstik] – n. a clergyman or other person in religious orders

eclat [eˈkla] – n. enthusiastic approval: they gave him more eclat than he really deserved

eclecticism [eˈklektisizəm] – n. making decisions on the basis of what seems best instead of following some single doctrine or style

eclipse [iˈklips] – v. be greater in significance than

ecological [.ekəˈlɔdʒikəl] – adj. characterized by the interdependence of living organisms in an environment: an ecological disaster

ecologist [iˈkɔlədʒist] – n. a biologist who studies the relation between organisms and their environment

ecology [i:ˈkɔlədʒi] – n. the environment as it relates to living organisms: it changed the ecology of the island

economical [.i:kəˈnɔmikəl] – adj. using the minimum of time or resources necessary for effectiveness: a modern economical heating system

economics [.i:kəˈnɔmiks] – n. the branch of social science that deals with the production and distribution and consumption of goods and services and their management

economize [i(:)ˈkɔnəmaiz] – v. use cautiously and frugally: I try to economize my spare time

ecosystem [i:kəˈsistəm] – n. a system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their physical environment

ecstasy [ˈekstəsi] – n. a state of being carried away by overwhelming emotion

ecstatic [ikˈstætik,ek-] – adj. feeling great rapture or delight

edentate [i:ˈdenteit] – n. primitive terrestrial mammal with few if any teeth; of tropical Central America and South America

edge [edʒ] – n. the boundary of a surface

edible [ˈedibl] – n. any substance that can be used as food

edict [ˈi:dikt] – n. a formal or authoritative proclamation

edifice [ˈedifis] – n. a structure that has a roof and walls and stands more or less permanently in one place: it was an imposing edifice

edify [ˈedifai] – v. make understand

edition [iˈdiʃən] – n. the form in which a text (especially a printed book) is published

editorial [.ediˈtɔ:riəl] – adj. of or relating to an article stating opinions or giving perspectives: editorial column

educated [ˈedju:keitid] – adj. characterized by full comprehension of the problem involved: an educated guess

education [.edjukeiʃn] – n. knowledge acquired by learning and instruction: it was clear that he had a very broad education

educe [iˈdju:s] – v. develop or evolve from a latent or potential state

eerily  – adv. in an unnatural eery manner: it was eerily quiet in the chapel

efface [iˈfeis] – v. remove completely from recognition or memory: efface the memory of the time in the camps

effect [iˈfekt] – n. a phenomenon that follows and is caused by some previous phenomenon: the magnetic effect was greater when the rod was lengthwise

effective [iˈfektiv] – adj. producing or capable of producing an intended result or having a striking effect: an air-cooled motor was more effective than a witch’s broomstick for rapid long-distance transportation

effectiveness [iˈfektivnis] – n. capacity to produce strong physiological or chemical effects

effectual [iˈfektʃuəl] – adj. having legal efficacy or force

effectuate [iˈfektjueit] – v. produce

effeminacy [iˈfeminəsi] – n. the trait of being effeminate (derogatory of a man): the students associated science with masculinity and arts with effeminacy

effeminate [iˈfeminit] – adj. having unsuitable feminine qualities

effervesce [.efəˈves] – v. become bubbly or frothy or foaming

effete [iˈfi:t] – adj. marked by excessive self-indulgence and moral decay: a group of effete self-professed intellectuals

efficacious [efiˈkeiʃəs] – adj. marked by qualities giving the power to produce an intended effect: written propaganda is less efficacious than the habits and prejudices…of the readers

efficacy [ˈefikəsi] – n. capacity or power to produce a desired effect: concern about the safety and efficacy of the vaccine

efficiency [iˈfiʃənsi] – n. the ratio of the output to the input of any system

efficient [iˈfiʃənt] – adj. being effective without wasting time or effort or expense: an efficient production manager

effigy [ˈefidʒi] – n. a representation of a person (especially in the form of sculpture): the coin bears an effigy of Lincoln

effloresce [eflɔ:ˈres] – v. come into or as if into flower: These manifestations effloresced in the past

efflorescence [eflɔ:ˈresns] – n. the period of greatest prosperity or productivity

effluent [ˈefluənt] – n. water mixed with waste matter

effluvium [eˈflu:viəm] – n. a foul-smelling outflow or vapor (especially a gaseous waste)

effrontery [eˈfrʌntəri] – n. audacious (even arrogant) behavior that you have no right to

effulgence [iˈfʌldʒəns] – n. the quality of being bright and sending out rays of light

effuse [iˈfju:z] – v. pour out: effused brine

effusion [iˈfju:ʒən] – n. an unrestrained expression of emotion

eggshell [ˈegʃel] – n. the exterior covering of a bird’s egg

egoism [ˈi:gəuizəm] – n. (ethics) the theory that the pursuit of your own welfare in the basis of morality

egoist [ˈegəuist] – n. a conceited and self-centered person

egotism [ˈegəutizm] – n. an exaggerated opinion of your own importance

egotist [ˈegəutist] – n. a conceited and self-centered person

egotistic  – adj. characteristic of those having an inflated idea of their own importance

egregious [iˈgri:dʒəs] – adj. conspicuously and outrageously bad or reprehensible: an egregious lie

egress [ˈi:gres] – n. (astronomy) the reappearance of a celestial body after an eclipse

ejaculate [iˈdʒækjuleit] – v. utter impulsively

eject [iˈdʒekt] – v. put out or expel from a place

elaborate [iˈlæbəreit] – v. add details, as to an account or idea; clarify the meaning of and discourse in a learned way, usually in writing: She elaborated on the main ideas in her dissertation

elaborately [iˈlæbərətli] – adv. with elaboration: it was elaborately spelled out

elapse [iˈlæps] – v. pass by: three years elapsed

elasticity [ilæsˈtisiti] – n. the tendency of a body to return to its original shape after it has been stretched or compressed

elation [iˈleiʃən] – n. an exhilarating psychological state of pride and optimism; an absence of depression

election [iˈlekʃən] – n. the act of selecting someone or something; the exercise of deliberate choice: her election of medicine as a profession

electrocardiogram  – n. a graphical recording of the cardiac cycle produced by an electrocardiograph

electroencephalogram  – n. a graphical record of electrical activity of the brain; produced by an electroencephalograph

electrolysis [ilekˈtrɔlisis] – n. removing superfluous or unwanted hair by passing an electric current through the hair root

electromagnetic [ilektrəʊˈmægnitik] – adj. pertaining to or exhibiting magnetism produced by electric charge in motion: electromagnetic energy

electron [iˈlektrɔn] – n. an elementary particle with negative charge

elegance [ˈeligəns] – n. a refined quality of gracefulness and good taste: she conveys an aura of elegance and gentility

elegant [ˈeligənt] – adj. refined and tasteful in appearance or behavior or style: elegant handwriting

elegy [ˈelidʒi] – n. a mournful poem; a lament for the dead

element [ˈelimənt] – n. an abstract part of something: the grammatical elements of a sentence

elementary [.eləˈmentəri] – adj. easy and not involved or complicated: an elementary problem in statistics

elevate [ˈeliveit] – v. give a promotion to or assign to a higher position

elevation [.eliˈveiʃən] – n. the event of something being raised upward: an elevation of the temperature in the afternoon

elevator [ˈeliveitə] – n. the airfoil on the tailplane of an aircraft that makes it ascend or descend

elicit [iˈlisit] – v. deduce (a principle) or construe (a meaning)

eligible [ˈelidʒəbl] – adj. qualified for or allowed or worthy of being chosen: eligible to run for office

eliminate [iˈlimineit] – v. terminate, end, or take out: Let’s eliminate the course on Akkadian hieroglyphics

elimination [i.limiˈneiʃən] – n. the act of removing or getting rid of something

elite [eiˈli:t] – n. a group or class of persons enjoying superior intellectual or social or economic status

elixir [iˈliksə] – n. hypothetical substance that the alchemists believed to be capable of changing base metals into gold

Elizabethan [ilizəˈbi:θən] – n. a person who lived during the reign of Elizabeth I: William Shakespeare was an Elizabethan

elliptical [iˈliptikəl] – adj. rounded like an egg

elocution [.eləˈkju:ʃən] – n. an expert manner of speaking involving control of voice and gesture

elongate [ˈi:lɔŋgeit] – adj. (of a leaf shape) long and narrow

eloquence [ˈeləkwəns] – n. powerful and effective language: his eloquence attracted a large congregation

eloquent [ˈeləkwənt] – adj. expressing yourself readily, clearly, effectively

elucidate [iˈlu:sideit] – v. make clear and (more) comprehensible

elude [iˈlu:d] – v. escape, either physically or mentally: The thief eluded the police

elusion [iˈlu:ʒən] – n. the act of avoiding capture (especially by cunning)

elusive [iˈlju:siv] – adj. difficult to describe: a haunting elusive odor

emaciate [iˈmeiʃieit] – v. cause to grow thin or weak: The treatment emaciated him

emanate [ˈeməneit] – v. proceed or issue forth, as from a source: Water emanates from this hole in the ground

emancipate [iˈmænsipeit] – v. give equal rights to; of women and minorities

emancipation [i.mænsiˈpeiʃən] – n. freeing someone from the control of another; especially a parent’s relinquishing authority and control over a minor child

embalm [imˈbɑ:m] – v. preserve a dead body

embargo [emˈbɑ:gəu] – v. ban the publication of (documents), as for security or copyright reasons: embargoed publications

embark [imˈbɑ:k] – v. go on board

embarrass [imˈbærəs] – v. hinder or prevent the progress or accomplishment of

embed [imˈbed] – v. fix or set securely or deeply

embellish [imˈbeliʃ] – v. add details to

embellishment [imˈbeliʃmənt] – n. elaboration of an interpretation by the use of decorative (sometimes fictitious) detail: the mystery has been heightened by many embellishments in subsequent retellings

embezzle [imˈbezl] – v. appropriate (as property entrusted to one’s care) fraudulently to one’s own use: The accountant embezzled thousands of dollars while working for the wealthy family

embitter [imˈbitə] – v. cause to be bitter or resentful: These injustices embittered her even more

emblazon [imˈbleizn] – v. decorate with colors

emblem [ˈembləm] – n. special design or visual object representing a quality, type, group, etc.

embody [imˈbɔdi] – v. represent in bodily form

embolden [imˈbəuldən] – v. give encouragement to

embolism [ˈembəlizəm] – n. an insertion into a calendar

emboss [imˈbɔs] – v. raise in a relief: embossed stationery

embrace [imˈbreis] – n. the act of clasping another person in the arms (as in greeting or affection)

embroider [imˈbrɔidə] – v. decorate with needlework

embroidery [imˈbrɔidəri] – n. elaboration of an interpretation by the use of decorative (sometimes fictitious) detail

embroil [imˈbrɔil] – v. force into some kind of situation, condition, or course of action

embryo [ˈembriəu] – n. (botany) a minute rudimentary plant contained within a seed or an archegonium

embryology  – n. the branch of biology that studies the formation and early development of living organisms

embryonic [.embriˈɔnik] – adj. of an organism prior to birth or hatching: in the embryonic stage

emend [iˈmend] – v. make improvements or corrections to: the text was emended in the second edition

emerge [iˈmə:dʒ] – v. come out into view, as from concealment: Suddenly, the proprietor emerged from his office

emergence [iˈmə:dʒəns] – n. the gradual beginning or coming forth: figurines presage the emergence of sculpture in Greece

emergent [iˈmə:dʒənt] – adj. occurring unexpectedly and requiring urgent action: emergent repair of an aorta

emeritus [iˈmeritəs] – n. a professor or minister who is retired from assigned duties

emigrant [ˈemigrənt] – n. someone who leaves one country to settle in another

emigrate [ˈemigreit] – v. leave one’s country of residence for a new one: Many people had to emigrate during the Nazi period

eminence [ˈeminəns] – n. high status importance owing to marked superiority: a scholar of great eminence

eminent [ˈeminənt] – adj. standing above others in quality or position: eminent members of the community

emissary [ˈemisəri] – n. someone sent on a mission to represent the interests of someone else

emission [iˈmiʃən] – n. the act of emitting; causing to flow forth

emit [iˈmit] – v. expel (gases or odors)

emolument [iˈmɔljumənt] – n. compensation received by virtue of holding an office or having employment (usually in the form of wages or fees): a clause in the U.S. constitution prevents sitting legislators from receiving emoluments from their own votes

emotion [iˈməuʃən] – n. any strong feeling

emotional [iˈməuʃənl] – adj. of more than usual emotion: his behavior was highly emotional

emphasis [ˈemfəsis] – n. special importance or significance: the red light gave the central figure increased emphasis

emphasize [ˈemfəsaiz] – v. to stress, single out as important: Dr. Jones emphasizes exercise in addition to a change in diet

emphatic [imˈfætik] – adj. sudden and strong: an emphatic no

empire [ˈempaiə] – n. a group of countries under a single authority: the British created a great empire

employ [imˈplɔi] – v. engage or hire for work: How many people has she employed?

employee [.emplɔiˈi:] – n. a worker who is hired to perform a job

employer [imˈplɔiə] – n. a person or firm that employs workers

emporium [emˈpɔ:riəm] – n. a large retail store organized into departments offering a variety of merchandise; commonly part of a retail chain

empower [imˈpauə] – v. give or delegate power or authority to

empty [ˈempti] – v. remove

emulate [ˈemjuleit] – v. strive to equal or match, especially by imitating

enact [iˈnækt] – v. order by virtue of superior authority; decree: the legislature enacted this law in 1985

enactment [iˈnæktm(ə)nt] – n. the passing of a law by a legislative body

enamor [iˈnæmə] – v. attract; cause to be enamored

encamp [inˈkæmp] – v. live in or as if in a tent

encase [inˈkeis] – v. enclose in, or as if in, a case: my feet were encased in mud

enchantment [inˈtʃɑ:ntmənt] – n. a feeling of great liking for something wonderful and unusual

encircle [inˈsə:kl] – v. form a circle around: encircle the errors

enclose [inˈkləuz] – v. close in: darkness enclosed him

enclosure [inˈkləuʒə] – n. the act of enclosing something inside something else

encomium [inˈkəumiəm] – n. a formal expression of praise

encompass [inˈkʌmpəs] – v. include in scope; include as part of something broader; have as one’s sphere or territory: This group encompasses a wide range of people from different backgrounds

encore [ˈɔŋkɔ:] – n. an extra or repeated performance; usually given in response to audience demand

encounter [inˈkauntə] – v. come together

encourage [inˈkʌridʒ] – v. contribute to the progress or growth of

encroach [inˈkrəutʃ] – v. advance beyond the usual limit

encroachment [inˈkrəutʃmənt] – n. any entry into an area not previously occupied

encumber [inˈkʌmbə] – v. hold back

encyclical [enˈsiklikəl] – n. a letter from the pope sent to all Roman Catholic bishops throughout the world

encyclopedia [en.saikləuˈpi:diə] – n. a reference work (often in several volumes) containing articles on various topics (often arranged in alphabetical order) dealing with the entire range of human knowledge or with some particular specialty

endanger [inˈdeindʒə] – v. pose a threat to; present a danger to: The pollution is endangering the crops

endear [inˈdiə] – v. make attractive or lovable: This behavior endeared her to me

endeavor [inˈdevə] – n. a purposeful or industrious undertaking (especially one that requires effort or boldness)

endemic [enˈdemik,in-] – adj. native to or confined to a certain region: the islands have a number of interesting endemic species

endless [ˈendlis] – adj. tiresomely long; seemingly without end: endless debates

endlessly [ˈendləsli] – adv. (spatial sense) without bounds: the Nubian desert seemed to stretch out before them endlessly

endocrine  – adj. of or belonging to endocrine glands or their secretions: endocrine system

endocrinology  – n. the branch of medicine dealing with the endocrine glands and their secretions

endorse [inˈdɔ:s] – v. be behind; approve of

endothermic  – adj. (of a chemical reaction or compound) occurring or formed with absorption of heat

endotoxin [.endəuˈtɔksin] – n. a toxin that is confined inside the microorganisms and is released only when the microorganisms are broken down or die

endow [inˈdau] – v. give qualities or abilities to

endowment [inˈdaumənt] – n. natural abilities or qualities

endue [inˈdju:] – v. give qualities or abilities to

endurable [inˈdjurəbl] – adj. capable of being borne though unpleasant

endurance [inˈdjuərəns] – n. the power to withstand hardship or stress: the marathon tests a runner’s endurance

endure [inˈdjuə] – v. put up with something or somebody unpleasant: The new secretary had to endure a lot of unprofessional remarks

enduring [inˈdjuəriŋ] – adj. unceasing

energetic [.enəˈdʒetik] – adj. working hard to promote an enterprise

energize [ˈenədʒaiz] – v. raise to a higher energy level

enervate [ˈenəveit] – v. weaken mentally or morally

enfeeble [inˈfi:bl] – v. make weak

enforce [inˈfɔ:s] – v. ensure observance of laws and rules

enfranchise [inˈfræntʃaiz] – v. grant freedom to; as from slavery or servitude: Slaves were enfranchised in the mid-19th century

engage [inˈgeidʒ] – v. carry out or participate in an activity; be involved in: They engaged in a discussion

engaging [inˈgeidʒiŋ] – adj. attracting or delighting: an engaging frankness

engender [inˈdʒendə] – v. call forth

engrave [inˈgreiv] – v. carve, cut, or etch into a material or surface: engrave a pen

engraving [inˈgreiviŋ] – n. a block or plate or other hard surface that has been engraved

engross [inˈgrəus] – v. devote (oneself) fully to

enhance [inˈhɑ:ns] – v. increase: This will enhance your enjoyment

enigma [iˈnigmə] – n. something that baffles understanding and cannot be explained

enjoin [inˈdʒɔin] – v. issue an injunction

enkindle [inˈkindl] – v. cause to start burning

enlargement [inˈlɑ:dʒmənt] – n. the act of increasing (something) in size or volume or quantity or scope

enlighten [inˈlaitn] – v. make understand: Can you enlighten me–I don’t understand this proposal

enlightenment [inˈlaitnmənt] – n. education that results in understanding and the spread of knowledge

enlist [inˈlist] – v. join the military

enmity [ˈenmiti] – n. a state of deep-seated ill-will

ennoble [iˈnəubl] – v. confer dignity or honor upon

ennui [ɔnˈwi:] – n. the feeling of being bored by something tedious

enormity [iˈnɔ:məti] – n. the quality of being outrageous

enormous [iˈnɔ:məs] – adj. extraordinarily large in size or extent or amount or power or degree: an enormous boulder

enrage [inˈreidʒ] – v. put into a rage; make violently angry

enrapture [inˈræptʃə] – v. hold spellbound

enrich [inˈritʃ] – v. make better or improve in quality: The experience enriched her understanding

enroll [inˈroul] – v. register formally as a participant or member

ensemble [ɑ:nˈsɑ:mbəl] – n. a group of musicians playing or singing together: a string ensemble

enshrine [inˈʃrain] – v. enclose in a shrine: the saint’s bones were enshrined in the cathedral

ensnare [inˈsneə] – v. take or catch as if in a snare or trap

ensue [inˈsju:] – v. issue or terminate (in a specified way, state, etc.); end

ensure [inˈʃuə] – v. make certain of: This nest egg will ensure a nice retirement for us

entail [inˈteil] – v. have as a logical consequence

entangle [inˈtæŋgəl] – v. entrap

entanglement [inˈtæŋglmənt] – n. an intricate trap that entangles or ensnares its victim

enterprise [ˈentəpraiz] – n. a purposeful or industrious undertaking (especially one that requires effort or boldness): he had doubts about the whole enterprise

enterprising [ˈentəpraiziŋ] – adj. marked by imagination, initiative, and readiness to undertake new projects: an enterprising foreign policy

entertain [.entəˈtein] – v. take into consideration, have in view: He entertained the notion of moving to South America

entertainer [entəˈteinə(r)] – n. a person who tries to please or amuse

entertainment [.entəˈteinmənt] – n. an activity that is diverting and that holds the attention

enthrall [inˈθrɔ:l] – v. hold spellbound

enthrone [inˈθrəun] – v. provide with power and authority

enthuse [inˈθju:z] – v. utter with enthusiasm

enthusiasm [inˈθju:ziæzəm] – n. a feeling of excitement

enthusiastic [in.θju:ziˈæstik] – adj. having or showing great excitement and interest: enthusiastic crowds filled the streets

enthusiastically [in.θju:ziˈæstikəli] – adv. in a lavish or enthusiastic manner

entice [inˈtais] – v. provoke someone to do something through (often false or exaggerated) promises or persuasion

entirety [inˈtaiəti] – n. the state of being total and complete: he read the article in its entirety

entitle [inˈtaitl] – v. give the right to: The Freedom of Information Act entitles you to request your FBI file

entitled [inˈtaitld] – adj. qualified for by right according to law: we are all entitled to equal protection under the law

entity [ˈentiti] – n. that which is perceived or known or inferred to have its own distinct existence (living or nonliving)

entomology [.entəˈmɔlədʒi] – n. the branch of zoology that studies insects

entrails [ˈentreilz] – n. internal organs collectively (especially those in the abdominal cavity)

entrap [inˈtræp] – v. take or catch as if in a snare or trap

entreat [inˈtri:t] – v. ask for or request earnestly

entreaty [inˈtri:ti] – n. earnest or urgent request: an entreaty to stop the fighting

entree [ˈɔntrei] – n. the principal dish of a meal

entrench [inˈtrentʃ] – v. fix firmly or securely

entrepreneur [.ɔntrəprəˈnə:] – n. someone who organizes a business venture and assumes the risk for it

entry [ˈentri] – n. an item inserted in a written record

entwine [inˈtwain] – v. tie or link together

enumerate [iˈnju:məreit] – v. specify individually: She enumerated the many obstacles she had encountered

envelop [inˈveləp] – v. enclose or enfold completely with or as if with a covering: Fog enveloped the house

envelope [ˈenviləup] – n. a flat (usually rectangular) container for a letter, thin package, etc.

envision [inˈviʒən] – v. imagine; conceive of; see in one’s mind

enzyme [ˈenzaim] – n. any of several complex proteins that are produced by cells and act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions

Eocene  – n. from 58 million to 40 million years ago; presence of modern mammals

eohippus  – n. earliest horse; extinct primitive dog-sized four-toed Eocene animal

ephemeral [iˈfemərəl] – n. anything short-lived, as an insect that lives only for a day in its winged form

epic [ˈepik] – adj. very imposing or impressive; surpassing the ordinary (especially in size or scale): an epic voyage

epicure [ˈepikjuə] – n. a person devoted to refined sensuous enjoyment (especially good food and drink)

Epicurean  – adj. of Epicurus or epicureanism: Epicurean philosophy

epicycle [ˈepisaikl] – n. a circle that rolls around (inside or outside) another circle; generates an epicycloid or hypocycloid

epicycloid [,epiˈsaiklɔid] – n. a line generated by a point on a circle rolling around another circle

epidemic [.epiˈdemik] – n. a widespread outbreak of an infectious disease; many people are infected at the same time

epidermis [.epiˈdə:mis] – n. the outer layer of the skin covering the exterior body surface of vertebrates

epigram [ˈepigræm] – n. a witty saying

epilogue [ˈepilɔg] – n. a short speech (often in verse) addressed directly to the audience by an actor at the end of a play

epiphany [iˈpifəni] – n. a divine manifestation

episode [ˈepisəud] – n. a happening that is distinctive in a series of related events

epitaph [ˈepitɑ:f] – n. an inscription on a tombstone or monument in memory of the person buried there

epithet [ˈepiθet] – n. a defamatory or abusive word or phrase

epitome [iˈpitəmi] – n. a standard or typical example

epizootic [,epizəuˈɔtik] – adj. (of animals) epidemic among animals of a single kind within a particular region: an epizootic disease

epoch [ˈi:pɔk] – n. a period marked by distinctive character or reckoned from a fixed point or event

equal [ˈi:kwəl] – v. be identical or equivalent to: One dollar equals 1,000 rubles these days!

equality [i:ˈkwɔliti] – n. the quality of being the same in quantity or measure or value or status

equalize [ˈi:kwəlaiz] – v. make equal, uniform, corresponding, or matching: let’s equalize the duties among all employees in this office

equanimity [.i:kwəˈnimiti] – n. steadiness of mind under stress: he accepted their problems with composure and she with equanimity

equate [iˈkweit] – v. be equivalent or parallel, in mathematics

equator [iˈkweitə] – n. an imaginary line around the Earth forming the great circle that is equidistant from the north and south poles: the equator is the boundary between the northern and southern hemispheres

equestrian [iˈkwestriən] – adj. of or relating to or composed of knights

equilibrium [.i:kwiˈlibriəm] – n. a stable situation in which forces cancel one another

equipment [iˈkwipmənt] – n. an instrumentality needed for an undertaking or to perform a service

equitable [ˈekwitəbəl] – adj. fair to all parties as dictated by reason and conscience: equitable treatment of all citizens

equity [ˈekwiti] – n. the difference between the market value of a property and the claims held against it

equivalence [iˈkwivələns] – n. essential equality and interchangeability

equivalent [iˈkwivələnt] – n. a person or thing equal to another in value or measure or force or effect or significance etc: send two dollars or the equivalent in stamps

equivocal [iˈkwivəkəl] – adj. open to two or more interpretations; or of uncertain nature or significance; or (often) intended to mislead: an equivocal statement

equivocate [iˈkwivəkeit] – v. be deliberately ambiguous or unclear in order to mislead or withhold information

era [ˈiərə] – n. a period marked by distinctive character or reckoned from a fixed point or event

eradicate [iˈrædikeit] – v. kill in large numbers

erect [iˈrekt] – v. cause to rise up

erode [iˈrəud] – v. become ground down or deteriorate: Her confidence eroded

erosion [iˈrəuʒən] – n. (geology) the mechanical process of wearing or grinding something down (as by particles washing over it)

err [ə:] – v. to make a mistake or be incorrect

errant [ˈerənt] – adj. straying from the right course or from accepted standards: errant youngsters

erratic [iˈrætik] – adj. liable to sudden unpredictable change: erratic behavior

erroneous [iˈrəuniəs] – adj. containing or characterized by error: erroneous conclusions

error [ˈerə] – n. a wrong action attributable to bad judgment or ignorance or inattention: she was quick to point out my errors

erudite [ˈerudait] – adj. having or showing profound knowledge: an erudite professor

erudition [.eru:ˈdiʃən] – n. profound scholarly knowledge

erupt [iˈrʌpt] – v. start abruptly

eruption [iˈrʌpʃən] – n. the sudden occurrence of a violent discharge of steam and volcanic material

escalate [ˈeskəleit] – v. increase in extent or intensity: The Allies escalated the bombing

escalator [ˈeskəleitə] – n. a stairway whose steps move continuously on a circulating belt

escape [isˈkeip] – n. an inclination to retreat from unpleasant realities through diversion or fantasy: romantic novels were her escape from the stress of daily life

escapist [iˈskeipist] – n. a person who escapes into a world of fantasy

eschew [isˈtʃu:] – v. avoid and stay away from deliberately; stay clear of

esoteric [.esəˈterik] – adj. confined to and understandable by only an enlightened inner circle: a compilation of esoteric philosophical theories

espy [iˈspai] – v. catch sight of

esquire [isˈkwaiə] – n. (Middle Ages) an attendant and shield bearer to a knight; a candidate for knighthood

essence [ˈesns] – n. the choicest or most essential or most vital part of some idea or experience

essential [iˈsenʃəl] – adj. absolutely necessary; vitally necessary: essential tools and materials

establish [iˈstæbliʃ] – v. set up or found

estate [isˈteit] – n. everything you own; all of your assets (whether real property or personal property) and liabilities

estimable [ˈestiməbəl] – adj. deserving of respect or high regard

estimate [ˈestimeit] – n. an approximate calculation of quantity or degree or worth: an estimate of what it would cost

estrange [iˈstreindʒ] – v. remove from customary environment or associations: years of boarding school estranged the child from her home

estuary [ˈestʃuəri] – n. the wide part of a river where it nears the sea; fresh and salt water mix

etch [etʃ] – v. cause to stand out or be clearly defined or visible: a face etched with pain

eternal [iˈtə:nəl] – adj. continuing forever or indefinitely: eternal truths

ethically [ˈeθikli] – adv. in an ethical manner; from an ethical point of view; according to ethics: he behaved ethically

ethics [ˈeθiks] – n. motivation based on ideas of right and wrong

ethnic [ˈeθnik] – adj. denoting or deriving from or distinctive of the ways of living built up by a group of people: influenced by ethnic and cultural ties

etiquette [ˈetiket] – n. rules governing socially acceptable behavior

eugenic [ju:ˈdʒenik] – adj. pertaining to or causing improvement in the offspring produced

eulogize [ˈjulədʒaiz] – v. praise formally and eloquently: The dead woman was eulogized at the funeral

eulogy [ˈju:lədʒi] – n. a formal expression of praise for someone who has died recently

euphemism [ˈju:fimizəm] – n. an inoffensive or indirect expression that is substituted for one that is considered offensive or too harsh

euphonious [ju:ˈfəuniəs] – adj. having a pleasant sound: a euphonious trill of silver laughter

euphony [ˈju:fəni] – n. any agreeable (pleasing and harmonious) sounds

eureka [juəˈri:kə] – n. an alloy of copper and nickel with high electrical resistance and a low temperature coefficient; used as resistance wire

evade [iˈveid] – v. avoid or try to avoid fulfilling, answering, or performing (duties, questions, or issues): They tend to evade their responsibilities

evaluate [iˈvæljueit] – v. form a critical opinion of: How do you evaluate this grant proposal?

evanesce [i:vəˈnes] – v. disappear gradually

evanescent [.evəˈnesənt] – adj. tending to vanish like vapor: evanescent beauty

evangelical [ˈi:vænˈdʒelikl, ˈevən-] – adj. of or pertaining to or in keeping with the Christian gospel especially as in the first 4 books of the New Testament

evangelist [iˈvændʒilist] – n. a preacher of the Christian gospel

evaporate [iˈvæpəreit] – v. lose or cause to lose liquid by vaporization leaving a more concentrated residue: evaporate milk

evaporation [i.væpəˈreiʃən] – n. the process of becoming a vapor

evasion [iˈveiʒən] – n. a statement that is not literally false but that cleverly avoids an unpleasant truth

eventful [iˈventful, -fəl] – adj. having important issues or results: an eventful decision

eventual [iˈventjuəl] – adj. expected to follow in the indefinite future from causes already operating: hope of eventual (or ultimate) rescue

eventually [iˈventjuəli] – adv. after an unspecified period of time or an especially long delay

evergreen [ˈevəgri:n] – n. a plant having foliage that persists and remains green throughout the year

everlasting [.evəˈlɑ:stiŋ] – adj. continuing forever or indefinitely: life everlasting

evert  – n. United States tennis player who won women’s singles titles in the United States and at Wimbledon (born in 1954)

evict [iˈvikt] – v. expel or eject without recourse to legal process: The landlord wanted to evict the tenants so he banged on the pipes every morning at 3 a.m.

evidence [ˈevidəns] – n. your basis for belief or disbelief; knowledge on which to base belief: the evidence that smoking causes lung cancer is very compelling

evident [ˈevidənt] – adj. clearly revealed to the mind or the senses or judgment: evident hostility

evidential [,eviˈdenʃəl] – adj. serving as or based on evidence: evidential signs of a forced entry

evince [iˈvins] – v. give expression to

eviscerate [iˈvisəreit] – v. surgically remove a part of a structure or an organ

evoke [iˈvəuk] – v. call forth (emotions, feelings, and responses): evoke sympathy

evolution [.i:vəˈlu:ʃən] – n. a process in which something passes by degrees to a different stage (especially a more advanced or mature stage): the evolution of Greek civilization

evolutionary [.i:vəˈlu:ʃənəri] – adj. of or relating to or produced by evolution: evolutionary biology

evolve [iˈvɔlv] – v. work out

exacerbate [igˈzæsəbeit] – v. make worse

exact [igˈzækt] – v. claim as due or just

exaggerate [igˈzædʒəreit] – v. to enlarge beyond bounds or the truth: tended to romanticize and exaggerate this `gracious Old South’ imagery

exaggeration [ig.zædʒəˈreiʃən] – n. the act of making something more noticeable than usual: the dance involved a deliberate exaggeration of his awkwardness

exalt [igˈzɔ:lt, eg-] – v. praise, glorify, or honor

exalted [igˈzɔ:ltid] – adj. of high moral or intellectual value; elevated in nature or style: an exalted ideal

exasperate [igˈzɑ:spəreit] – v. make furious

excavate [ˈekskəveit] – v. recover through digging: Schliemann excavated Troy

excavation [.ekskəˈveiʃən] – n. the act of digging: there’s an interesting excavation going on near Princeton

exceed [ikˈsi:d] – v. be greater in scope or size than some standard: Their loyalty exceeds their national bonds

exceedingly [ikˈsi:diŋli] – adv. to an extreme degree

excel [ikˈsel] – v. distinguish oneself: She excelled in math

excellence [ˈeksələns] – n. an outstanding feature; something in which something or someone excels: a center of manufacturing excellence

excellency  – n. a title used to address dignitaries (such as ambassadors or governors); usually preceded by `Your’ or `His’ or `Her’

excellent [ˈeksələnt] – adj. very good;of the highest quality: made an excellent speech

exception [ikˈsepʃən] – n. a deliberate act of omission: with the exception of the children, everyone was told the news

exceptionable [ikˈsepʃənəbəl] – adj. liable to objection or debate; used of something one might take exception to: a thoroughly unpleasant highly exceptionable piece of writing

exceptional [ikˈsepʃənl] – adj. far beyond what is usual in magnitude or degree: an exceptional memory

exceptionally [ikˈsepʃənəli] – adv. to an exceptional degree: it worked exceptionally well

excerpt [ˈeksə:pt,ekˈsə:pt] – n. a passage selected from a larger work: he presented excerpts from William James’ philosophical writings

excess [ikˈses] – n. a quantity much larger than is needed

excessive [ikˈsesiv] – adj. beyond normal limits: excessive charges

exchange [iksˈtʃeindʒ] – n. chemical process in which one atom or ion or group changes places with another

excitable [ikˈsaitəbəl] – adj. capable of responding to stimuli

excitation [,eksiˈteiʃən] – n. the state of being emotionally aroused and worked up

excite [ikˈsait] – v. arouse or elicit a feeling

excitement [ikˈsaitmənt] – n. the feeling of lively and cheerful joy: he could hardly conceal his excitement when she agreed

exciting [ikˈsaitiŋ] – adj. stimulating interest and discussion: an exciting novel

exclaim [iksˈkleim] – v. utter aloud; often with surprise, horror, or joy: `I won!’ he exclaimed

exclamation [.ekskləˈmeiʃən] – n. an abrupt excited utterance: she gave an exclamation of delight

exclude [iksˈklu:d] – v. prevent from being included or considered or accepted: The bad results were excluded from the report

exclusion [iksˈklu:ʒən] – n. the state of being excommunicated

exclusive [iksˈklu:siv] – adj. not divided or shared with others: they have exclusive use of the machine

exclusively [ikˈsklu:sivli] – adv. without any others being included or involved: he works for Mr. Smith exclusively

excrescence [iksˈkresns] – n. something that bulges out or is protuberant or projects from its surroundings: the bony excrescence between its horns

excretion [eksˈkri:ʃən] – n. the bodily process of discharging waste matter

excruciate [iksˈkru:ʃieit] – v. torment emotionally or mentally

exculpate [ˈekskʌlpeit] – v. pronounce not guilty of criminal charges

excursion [iksˈkə:ʃən] – n. a journey taken for pleasure: many summer excursions to the shore

excuse [iksˈkju:z] – v. grant exemption or release to: Please excuse me from this class

execrable [ˈeksikrəbəl] – adj. of very poor quality or condition

execration [eksiˈkreiʃən] – n. hate coupled with disgust

execute [ˈeksikju:t] – v. kill as a means of socially sanctioned punishment: In some states, criminals are executed

execution [.eksiˈkju:ʃən] – n. putting a condemned person to death

executive [igˈzekjutiv] – n. a person responsible for the administration of a business

executor [igˈzekjutə] – n. a person appointed by a testator to carry out the terms of the will

exegesis [.eksiˈdʒi:sis] – n. an explanation or critical interpretation (especially of the Bible)

exemplar [igˈzemplə] – n. something to be imitated: an exemplar of success

exemplary [igˈzempləri] – adj. worthy of imitation: exemplary behavior

exemplify [igˈzemplifai] – v. be characteristic of

exempt [igˈzempt] – adj. (of goods or funds) not subject to taxation: income exempt from taxation

exemption [igˈzempʃən] – n. immunity from an obligation or duty

exert [igˈzə:t] – v. put to use: exert one’s power or influence

exertion [igˈzə:ʃən] – n. use of physical or mental energy; hard work: they managed only with great exertion

exhale [eksˈheil, egˈzeil] – v. expel air

exhaust [igˈzɔ:st] – v. wear out completely: This kind of work exhausts me

exhausting [igˈzɔ:stiŋ] – adj. having a debilitating effect: an exhausting job in the hot sun

exhaustion [igˈzɔ:stʃən] – n. extreme fatigue

exhaustive [igˈzɔ:stiv] – adj. performed comprehensively and completely: an exhaustive study

exhibit [igˈzibit] – v. show an attribute, property, knowledge, or skill: he exhibits a great talent

exhibition [.eksiˈbiʃən] – n. a collection of things (goods or works of art etc.) for public display

exhilarate [igˈziləreit] – v. fill with sublime emotion

exhilarating [igˈziləreitiŋ] – adj. making lively and cheerful: the exhilarating effect of mountain air

exhume [igˈzju:m,eksˈhju:m] – v. dig up for reburial or for medical investigation; of dead bodies

exigency [ˈeksidʒənsi] – n. a pressing or urgent situation: the health-care exigency

exigent [ˈeksidʒənt] – adj. demanding attention: regarded literary questions as exigent and momentous

existence [igˈzistəns] – n. everything that exists anywhere: the biggest tree in existence

exit [ˈeksit] – n. an opening that permits escape or release

exocrine  – n. a gland that secretes externally through a duct

exodus [ˈeksədəs] – n. a journey by a large group to escape from a hostile environment

exonerate [igˈzɔnəreit] – v. pronounce not guilty of criminal charges

exorbitance [igˈzɔ:bitəns] – n. excessive excess

exorbitant [igˈzɔ:bitənt] – adj. greatly exceeding bounds of reason or moderation: exorbitant rent

exorcise [ˈeksɔ:saiz] – v. expel through adjuration or prayers: exorcise evil spirits

exotic [egˈzɔtik] – adj. being or from or characteristic of another place or part of the world: exotic plants in a greenhouse

expand [iksˈpænd] – v. extend in one or more directions: The dough expands

expanse [iksˈpæns] – n. a wide scope

expansion [iksˈpænʃən] – n. the act of increasing (something) in size or volume or quantity or scope

expatiate [ikˈspeiʃieit] – v. add details, as to an account or idea; clarify the meaning of and discourse in a learned way, usually in writing

expatriate [ekˈspætrieit] – v. expel from a country

expect [iksˈpekt] – v. regard something as probable or likely: The meteorologists are expecting rain for tomorrow

expectancy [ikˈspektənsi] – n. something expected (as on the basis of a norm): an indicator of expectancy in development

expectorate [eksˈpektəreit] – v. clear out the chest and lungs: This drug expectorates quickly

expediency [ikˈspi:diənsi] – n. the quality of being suited to the end in view

expedient [iksˈpi:diənt] – adj. serving to promote your interest: was merciful only when mercy was expedient

expedite [ˈekspidait] – v. speed up the progress of; facilitate: This should expedite the process

expedition [.ekspiˈdiʃən] – n. a military campaign designed to achieve a specific objective in a foreign country

expeditious [.ekspiˈdiʃəs] – adj. marked by speed and efficiency

expel [iksˈpel] – v. force to leave or move out: He was expelled from his native country

expend [iksˈpend] – v. use up, consume fully: The legislature expended its time on school questions

expenditure [iksˈpenditʃə] – n. money paid out; an amount spent

expense [iksˈpens] – n. a detriment or sacrifice: at the expense of

expertise [.ekspə:ˈti:z] – n. skillfulness by virtue of possessing special knowledge

expiate [ˈekspieit] – v. make amends for: expiate one’s sins

expire [iksˈpaiə] – v. lose validity: My passports expired last month

explicate [ˈeksplikeit] – v. make plain and comprehensible

explicit [iksˈplisit] – adj. precisely and clearly expressed or readily observable; leaving nothing to implication: explicit instructions

explode [iksˈpləud] – v. cause to burst with a violent release of energy: We exploded the nuclear bomb

exploitation [.eksplɔiˈteiʃən] – n. the act of making some area of land or water more profitable or productive or useful: the exploitation of copper deposits

exploration [.eksplɔ:ˈreiʃən] – n. to travel for the purpose of discovery

explore [iksˈplɔ:] – v. inquire into

explorer [iksˈplɔ:rə, eks-] – n. someone who travels into little known regions (especially for some scientific purpose)

explosion [iksˈpləuʒən] – n. a violent release of energy caused by a chemical or nuclear reaction

explosive [iksˈpləusiv] – adj. liable to lead to sudden change or violence: an explosive issue

exponential [.ekspəuˈnenʃəl] – n. a function in which an independent variable appears as an exponent

export [ˈekspɔ:t,eksˈpɔ:t] – v. sell or transfer abroad: we export less than we import and have a negative trade balance

exposed  – adj. with no protection or shield: the exposed northeast frontier

exposition [.ekspəˈziʃən] – n. a systematic interpretation or explanation (usually written) of a specific topic

expository [iksˈpɔzi,təri] – adj. serving to expound or set forth: clean expository writing

expostulate [ikˈspɔstʃuleit] – v. reason with (somebody) for the purpose of dissuasion

exposure [iksˈpəuʒə] – n. vulnerability to the elements; to the action of heat or cold or wind or rain: exposure to the weather

expound [ikˈspaund] – v. add details, as to an account or idea; clarify the meaning of and discourse in a learned way, usually in writing

express [iksˈpres] – v. articulate; either verbally or with a cry, shout, or noise: She expressed her anger

expressive [iksˈpresiv] – adj. characterized by expression: a very expressive face

expressly [iksˈpresli] – adv. with specific intentions; for the express purpose: she needs the money expressly for her patients

expulsion [ikˈspʌlʃən] – n. the act of forcing out someone or something: the child’s expulsion from school

expurgate [ˈekspəgeit] – v. edit by omitting or modifying parts considered indelicate

exquisite [ˈekskwizit] – adj. intense or sharp: suffered exquisite pain

extant [ikˈstænt] – adj. still in existence; not extinct or destroyed or lost: extant manuscripts

extemporaneous [ik.stempəˈreiniəs] – adj. with little or no preparation or forethought: an extemporaneous piano recital

extempore [eksˈtempəri] – adj. with little or no preparation or forethought: an extempore skit

extend [iksˈtend] – v. span an interval of distance, space or time: The war extended over five years

extensible [iksˈtensəbl] – adj. capable of being protruded or stretched or opened out: an extensible measuring rule

extension [iksˈtenʃən] – n. a mutually agreed delay in the date set for the completion of a job or payment of a debt: they applied for an extension of the loan

extensive [iksˈtensiv] – adj. broad in scope or content

extensively [ikˈstensivli] – adv. in a widespread way: oxidation ponds are extensively used for sewage treatment in the Midwest

extensor [iksˈtensə] – n. a skeletal muscle whose contraction extends or stretches a body part

extent [iksˈtent] – n. the distance or area or volume over which something extends: the vast extent of the desert

extenuate [ikˈstenjueit] – v. lessen or to try to lessen the seriousness or extent of: The circumstances extenuate the crime

exterior [eksˈtiəriə] – n. the region that is outside of something

exterminate [ikˈstə:mineit] – v. kill en masse; kill on a large scale; kill many: Hitler wanted to exterminate the Jews, Gypsies, Communists, and homosexuals of Europe

external [eksˈtə:nl] – adj. happening or arising or located outside or beyond some limits or especially surface: the external auditory canal

externally  – adv. on or from the outside: the candidate needs to be externally evaluated

extinct [iksˈtiŋkt] – adj. no longer in existence; lost or especially having died out leaving no living representatives: an extinct species of fish

extinction [iksˈtiŋkʃən] – n. no longer in existence: the extinction of a species

extinguish [iksˈtiŋgwiʃ] – v. put an end to; kill

extirpate [ˈekstə:peit] – v. destroy completely, as if down to the roots

extol [iksˈtɔl] – v. praise, glorify, or honor: extol the virtues of one’s children

extort [ikˈstɔ:t] – v. obtain through intimidation

extortion [ikˈstɔ:ʃən] – n. an exorbitant charge

extra [ˈekstrə] – n. a minor actor in crowd scenes

extract [ˈekstrækt,iksˈtrækt] – v. remove, usually with some force or effort; also used in an abstract sense: extract a bad tooth

extradite [ˈekstrədait] – v. hand over to the authorities of another country: They extradited the fugitive to his native country so he could be tried there

extradition [ekstrəˈdiʃən] – n. the surrender of an accused or convicted person by one state or country to another (usually under the provisions of a statute or treaty)

extrajudicial [,ekstrədʒu:ˈdiʃəl] – adj. beyond the usual course of legal proceedings; legally unwarranted: an extrajudicial penalty

extraneous [ikˈstreiniəs] – adj. not pertinent to the matter under consideration: an issue extraneous to the debate

extraordinary [iksˈtrɔ:dnri] – adj. beyond what is ordinary or usual; highly unusual or exceptional or remarkable: extraordinary authority

extravagance [ikˈstrævəgəns] – n. the quality of exceeding the appropriate limits of decorum or probability or truth: we were surprised by the extravagance of his description

extravagant [iksˈtrævəgənt] – adj. unrestrained, especially with regard to feelings: extravagant praise

extremist  – n. a person who holds extreme views

extremity [iksˈtremiti] – n. an external body part that projects from the body

extricate [ˈekstrikeit] – v. release from entanglement of difficulty: I cannot extricate myself from this task

extrude [ikˈstru:d] – v. form or shape by forcing through an opening: extrude steel

exuberance [igˈzju:bərəns] – n. joyful enthusiasm

exuberant [igˈzju:bərənt] – adj. joyously unrestrained

exude [igˈzju:d] – v. release (a liquid) in drops or small quantities: exude sweat through the pores

exultant [igˈzʌltənt] – adj. joyful and proud especially because of triumph or success

exultation [egzʌlˈteiʃən] – n. a feeling of extreme joy

eyelid [ˈailid] – n. either of two folds of skin that can be moved to cover or open the eye

eyewitness [ˈaiwitnis] – n. a spectator who can describe what happened

fable [ˈfeibl] – n. a deliberately false or improbable account

fabric [ˈfæbrik] – n. artifact made by weaving or felting or knitting or crocheting natural or synthetic fibers: the fabric in the curtains was light and semitransparent

fabricate [ˈfæbrikeit] – v. put together out of artificial or natural components or parts: the company fabricates plastic chairs

fabulous [ˈfæbjuləs] – adj. extremely pleasing: a fabulous vacation

facade [fəˈsɑ:d] – n. a showy misrepresentation intended to conceal something unpleasant

face [feis] – n. the front of the human head from the forehead to the chin and ear to ear: he washed his face

facelift [ˈfeislift] – n. a renovation that improves the outward appearance (as of a building) but usually does not involve major changes: give your home a facelift

facet [ˈfæsit] – n. a distinct feature or element in a problem: he studied every facet of the question

facetious [fəˈsi:ʃəs] – adj. cleverly amusing in tone: facetious remarks

facial [ˈfeiʃəl] – n. care for the face that usually involves cleansing and massage and the application of cosmetic creams

facile [ˈfæsail] – adj. arrived at without due care or effort; lacking depth: too facile a solution for so complex a problem

facilitate [fəˈsiliteit] – v. make easier: you could facilitate the process by sharing your knowledge

facilitation [fə.siliˈteiʃən] – n. the condition of being made easy (or easier): social facilitation is an adaptive condition

facility [fəˈsiliti] – n. a building or place that provides a particular service or is used for a particular industry: the assembly plant is an enormous facility

facsimile [fækˈsimili] – n. an exact copy or reproduction

faction [ˈfækʃən] – n. a clique (often secret) that seeks power usually through intrigue

factious [ˈfækʃəs] – adj. dissenting (especially dissenting with the majority opinion)

factitious [fækˈtiʃəs] – adj. not produced by natural forces: brokers created a factitious demand for stocks

factor [ˈfæktə] – n. anything that contributes causally to a result: a number of factors determined the outcome

factual [ˈfæktjuəl] – adj. of or relating to or characterized by facts: factual considerations

faculty [ˈfækəlti] – n. one of the inherent cognitive or perceptual powers of the mind

fade [feid] – v. become less clearly visible or distinguishable; disappear gradually or seemingly: The scene begins to fade

fagot [ˈfægət] – v. fasten together rods of iron in order to heat or weld them

Fahrenheit [ˈfærənhait] – adj. of or relating to a temperature scale proposed by the inventor of the mercury thermometer: water freezes at 32 degrees Fahrenheit under normal conditions

faint [feint] – adj. deficient in magnitude; barely perceptible; lacking clarity or brightness or loudness etc: a faint outline

faintly  – adv. to a faint degree or weakly perceived: between him and the dim light a form was outlined faintly

fair [fɛə] – adj. free from favoritism or self-interest or bias or deception; conforming with established standards or rules: a fair referee

fairly [ˈfɛəli] – adv. to a moderately sufficient extent or degree: he is fairly clever with computers

faithful [ˈfeiθfəl] – adj. steadfast in affection or allegiance: years of faithful service

faithfulness [ˈfeiθfəlnis] – n. the quality of being faithful

fake [feik] – n. something that is a counterfeit; not what it seems to be

falcon [ˈfælkən] – n. diurnal birds of prey having long pointed powerful wings adapted for swift flight

falconer [ˈfɔ:lkənə(r)] – n. a person who breeds and trains hawks and who follows the sport of falconry

fall [fɔ:l] – v. move downward and lower, but not necessarily all the way: The barometer is falling

fallacious [fəˈleiʃəs] – adj. intended to deceive: fallacious testimony

fallacy [ˈfæləsi] – n. a misconception resulting from incorrect reasoning

fallible [ˈfæləbəl] – adj. likely to fail or make errors: everyone is fallible to some degree

fallow [ˈfæləu] – adj. left unplowed and unseeded during a growing season: fallow farmland

falter [ˈfɔ:ltə] – v. be unsure or weak: Their enthusiasm is faltering

fame [feim] – n. the state or quality of being widely honored and acclaimed

famed  – adj. widely known and esteemed: a famed scientist

famine [ˈfæmin] – n. an acute insufficiency

famish [ˈfæmiʃ] – v. be hungry; go without food

fanatic [fəˈnætik] – n. a person motivated by irrational enthusiasm (as for a cause): A fanatic is one who can’t change his mind and won’t change the subject

fanatical [fəˈnætikəl] – adj. marked by excessive enthusiasm for and intense devotion to a cause or idea

fanaticism [fəˈnætisizəm] – n. excessive intolerance of opposing views

fancier [ˈfænsiə] – n. a person having a strong liking for something

fanciful [ˈfænsiful] – adj. not based on fact; unreal: the falsehood about some fanciful secret treaties

fancy [ˈfænsi] – n. something many people believe that is false

fantastic [fænˈtæstik] – adj. ludicrously odd: fantastic Halloween costumes

fantasy [ˈfæntəsi] – n. imagination unrestricted by reality: a schoolgirl fantasy

farce [fɑ:s] – n. a comedy characterized by broad satire and improbable situations

farm [fɑ:m] – v. collect fees or profits

fascinate [ˈfæsineit] – v. cause to be interested or curious

fascinating [ˈfæsineitiŋ] – adj. capable of arousing and holding the attention: a fascinating story

fascination [fæsiˈneiʃ(ə)n] – n. the state of being intensely interested (as by awe or terror)

fashion [ˈfæʃən] – n. how something is done or how it happens: in an abrasive fashion

fashionable [ˈfæʃənəbl] – adj. having elegance or taste or refinement in manners or dress

fasten [ˈfæsn] – v. cause to be firmly attached: fasten the lock onto the door

fastidious [fæˈstidiəs] – adj. giving careful attention to detail; hard to please; excessively concerned with cleanliness: a fastidious and incisive intellect

fatal [ˈfeitl] – adj. bringing death

fatalism [ˈfeitəlizəm] – n. a submissive mental attitude resulting from acceptance of the doctrine that everything that happens is predetermined and inevitable

fate [feit] – n. an event (or a course of events) that will inevitably happen in the future

fateful [ˈfeitful] – adj. having momentous consequences; of decisive importance: that fateful meeting of the U.N. when…it declared war on North Korea

fathom [ˈfæðəm] – n. a linear unit of measurement (equal to 6 feet) for water depth

fatigue [fəˈti:g] – n. temporary loss of strength and energy resulting from hard physical or mental work: he was hospitalized for extreme fatigue

fatuous [ˈfætʃuəs] – adj. devoid of intelligence

faucet [ˈfɔ:sit] – n. a regulator for controlling the flow of a liquid from a reservoir

fault [fɔ:lt] – n. a wrong action attributable to bad judgment or ignorance or inattention: I could understand his English in spite of his grammatical faults

faulty [ˈfɔ:lti] – adj. having a defect

faun [fɔ:n] – n. ancient Italian deity in human shape, with horns, pointed ears and a goat’s tail; equivalent to Greek satyr

fauna [ˈfɔ:nə] – n. all the animal life in a particular region or period: the fauna of China

favor [ˈfeivə] – n. an act of gracious kindness

favorable [ˈfeivərəbl] – adj. encouraging or approving or pleasing: a favorable reply

favored [ˈfeivəd] – adj. preferred above all others and treated with partiality: the favored child

fawn [fɔ:n] – v. show submission or fear

fealty [ˈfi:əlti] – n. the loyalty that citizens owe to their country (or subjects to their sovereign)

fear [fiə] – v. be afraid or scared of; be frightened of: I fear the winters in Moscow

fearsome  – adj. causing fear or dread or terror

feasible [ˈfi:zəbl] – adj. capable of being done with means at hand and circumstances as they are

feat [fi:t] – n. a notable achievement: he performed a great feat

feathery  – adj. characterized by a covering of feathers: the feathery congregation of jays

feature [fi:tʃə] – n. a prominent attribute or aspect of something: the map showed roads and other features

fecundity [fiˈkʌndəti] – n. the intellectual productivity of a creative imagination

federal [ˈfedərəl] – adj. national; especially in reference to the government of the United States as distinct from that of its member units: federal courts

federate [ˈfedərit] – v. enter into a league for a common purpose: The republics federated to become the Soviet Union

feeble [fi:bl] – adj. pathetically lacking in force or effectiveness: a feeble excuse

feed [fi:d] – v. provide as food

feeder [ˈfi:də] – n. an animal being fattened or suitable for fattening

feign [fein] – v. make believe with the intent to deceive: He feigned that he was ill

feint [feint] – n. any distracting or deceptive maneuver (as a mock attack)

felicitate [fiˈlisiteit] – v. express congratulations

felicity [fiˈlisiti] – n. pleasing and appropriate manner or style (especially manner or style of expression)

fell [fel] – n. the dressed skin of an animal (especially a large animal)

fellowship [ˈfeləuʃip] – n. an association of people who share common beliefs or activities: the church welcomed new members into its fellowship

felon [ˈfelən] – n. someone who has committed a crime or has been legally convicted of a crime

felonious [fiˈləunjəs] – adj. involving or being or having the nature of a crime: felonious intent

felony [ˈfeləni] – n. a serious crime (such as murder or arson)

female [ˈfi:meil] – adj. being the sex (of plant or animal) that produces fertilizable gametes (ova) from which offspring develop: a female heir

feminine [ˈfeminin] – adj. associated with women and not with men: feminine intuition

feminism [ˈfeminizəm] – n. a doctrine that advocates equal rights for women

feminist [ˈfeminist] – n. a supporter of feminism

fencing [ˈfensiŋ] – n. a barrier that serves to enclose an area

fend [fend] – v. try to manage without help: The youngsters had to fend for themselves after their parents died

fender [ˈfendə] – n. a barrier that surrounds the wheels of a vehicle to block splashing water or mud: in Britain they call a fender a wing

ferment [fəˈment] – v. be in an agitated or excited state: The Middle East is fermenting

fermentation [.fə:menˈteiʃən] – n. a state of agitation or turbulent change or development

ferocious [fəˈrəuʃəs] – adj. marked by extreme and violent energy: a ferocious beating

ferocity [fəˈrɔsiti] – n. the property of being wild or turbulent

ferret [ˈferit] – v. hound or harry relentlessly

ferromagnetic [.ferəʊmægˈnetik] – adj. relating to or demonstrating ferromagnetism

ferry [ˈferi] – v. transport from one place to another

fertile [ˈfə:tail] – adj. capable of reproducing

fertilize [ˈfɜ:tilaiz] – v. make fertile or productive: The course fertilized her imagination

fertilizer [ˈfə:tilaizə] – n. any substance such as manure or a mixture of nitrates used to make soil more fertile

fervent [ˈfə:vənt] – adj. characterized by intense emotion: a fervent desire to change society

fervid [ˈfə:vid] – adj. characterized by intense emotion

fervor [ˈfə:və] – n. feelings of great warmth and intensity

festal [ˈfestl] – adj. offering fun and gaiety: a festive (or festal) occasion

fester [ˈfestə] – n. a sore that has become inflamed and formed pus

festival [ˈfestəvəl] – n. a day or period of time set aside for feasting and celebration

festive [ˈfestiv] – adj. offering fun and gaiety: a festive (or festal) occasion

festoon  – n. a curtain of fabric draped and bound at intervals to form graceful curves

fete [feit] – n. an elaborate party (often outdoors)

fetish [ˈfetiʃ] – n. a charm superstitiously believed to embody magical powers

fetter [ˈfetə] – n. a shackle for the ankles or feet

fetus [ˈfi:təs] – n. an unborn or unhatched vertebrate in the later stages of development showing the main recognizable features of the mature animal

feud [fju:d] – n. a bitter quarrel between two parties

feudal [ˈfju:dl] – adj. of or relating to or characteristic of feudalism

feudalism [ˈfju:dəlizəm] – n. the social system that developed in Europe in the 8th century; vassals were protected by lords who they had to serve in war

feverish [ˈfi:vəriʃ] – adj. marked by intense agitation or emotion: worked at a feverish pace

fez [fez] – n. a city in north central Morocco; religious center

fiasco [fiˈæskəu] – n. a sudden and violent collapse

fiber [ˈfaibə] – n. a slender and greatly elongated substance capable of being spun into yarn

fibre  – n. a slender and greatly elongated substance capable of being spun into yarn

fickle [ˈfikəl] – adj. marked by erratic changeableness in affections or attachments: fickle friends

fiction [ˈfikʃən] – n. a literary work based on the imagination and not necessarily on fact

fictional [ˈfikʃənəl] – adj. formed or conceived by the imagination: a fictional character

fictitious [fikˈtiʃəs] – adj. formed or conceived by the imagination

fidelity [fiˈdeliti] – n. accuracy with which an electronic system reproduces the sound or image of its input signal

fiducial [fiˈdju:ʃəl] – adj. relating to or of the nature of a legal trust (i.e. the holding of something in trust for another): fiducial power

fief [fi:f] – n. a piece of land held under the feudal system

field [fi:ld] – n. a piece of land cleared of trees and usually enclosed: he planted a field of wheat

fieldstone  – n. stone that occurs naturally in fields; often used as building material

fieldwork  – n. a temporary fortification built by troops in the field

fierce [fiəs] – adj. marked by extreme and violent energy: fierce fighting

figment [ˈfigmənt] – n. a contrived or fantastic idea: a figment of the imagination

figure [ˈfigə] – n. a diagram or picture illustrating textual material

figurehead [ˈfigəhed] – n. a person used as a cover for some questionable activity

filch [ˈfiltʃ] – v. make off with belongings of others

file [fail] – v. record in a public office or in a court of law: file for divorce

filibuster [ˈfilibʌstə] – n. a legislator who gives long speeches in an effort to delay or obstruct legislation that he (or she) opposes

film [film] – n. a form of entertainment that enacts a story by sound and a sequence of images giving the illusion of continuous movement: the film was shot on location

filmy  – adj. so thin as to transmit light: filmy wings of a moth

filter [ˈfiltə] – v. pass through

fin [fin] – n. the cardinal number that is the sum of four and one

finale [fiˈnɑ:li] – n. the closing section of a musical composition

finality [faiˈnæliti] – n. the quality of being final or definitely settled: the finality of death

finance [faiˈnæns] – n. the commercial activity of providing funds and capital

financial [faiˈnænʃəl] – adj. involving financial matters

financier [faiˈnænsiə] – n. a person skilled in large scale financial transactions

financing [faiˈnænsiŋ] – n. the act of financing

finch [fintʃ] – n. any of numerous small songbirds with short stout bills adapted for crushing seeds

finery [ˈfainəri] – n. elaborate or showy attire and accessories

finesse [fiˈnes] – n. subtly skillful handling of a situation

fingertip [ˈfiŋgətip] – n. the end (tip) of a finger

finite [ˈfainait] – adj. bounded or limited in magnitude or spatial or temporal extent

fir [fə:] – n. any of various evergreen trees of the genus Abies; chiefly of upland areas

fireproof [ˈfaiəpru:f] – v. make resistant to fire

firm [fə:m] – adj. not soft or yielding to pressure: a firm mattress

fiscal [ˈfiskəl] – adj. involving financial matters: fiscal responsibility

fishmonger [ˈfiʃmʌŋgər] – n. someone who sells fish

fishy [ˈfiʃi] – adj. not as expected: there was something fishy about the accident

fissure [ˈfiʃə] – n. a long narrow depression in a surface

fitful [ˈfitfəl] – adj. occurring in spells and often abruptly: fitful bursts of energy

fitness [ˈfitnis] – n. the quality of being suitable: they had to prove their fitness for the position

fittingly [ˈfitiŋli] – adv. in an appropriate manner

fix [fiks] – v. restore by replacing a part or putting together what is torn or broken

fixture [ˈfikstʃə] – n. an object firmly fixed in place (especially in a household)

flabby [ˈflæbi] – adj. out of condition; not strong or robust; incapable of exertion or endurance: flabby around the middle

flaccid [ˈflæksid] – adj. drooping without elasticity; wanting in stiffness: a flaccid penis

flag [flæg] – n. emblem usually consisting of a rectangular piece of cloth of distinctive design

flagellum  – n. a whip used to inflict punishment (often used for pedantic humor)

flagrant [ˈfleigrənt] – adj. conspicuously and outrageously bad or reprehensible: flagrant violation of human rights

flair [flɛə] – n. a natural talent: he has a flair for mathematics

flake [fleik] – n. a crystal of snow

flamboyant [flæmˈbɔiənt] – adj. marked by ostentation but often tasteless

flannel [ˈflænl] – n. a soft light woolen fabric; used for clothing

flare [flɛə] – n. a shape that spreads outward: the skirt had a wide flare

flash [flæʃ] – n. a sudden intense burst of radiant energy

flashlight [ˈflæʃlait] – n. a small portable battery-powered electric lamp

flashy [ˈflæʃi] – adj. tastelessly showy: a flashy ring

flatcar [ˈflætkɑ:(r)] – n. freight car without permanent sides or roof

flatten [ˈflætn] – v. become flat or flatter: The landscape flattened

flatulence [ˈflætjuləns] – n. a state of excessive gas in the alimentary canal

flaunt [flɔ:nt] – n. the act of displaying something ostentatiously: his behavior was an outrageous flaunt

flavor [ˈfleivə] – n. the general atmosphere of a place or situation and the effect that it has on people

flaw [flɔ:] – n. an imperfection in an object or machine: a flaw caused the crystal to shatter

flay [flei] – v. strip the skin off

flea [fli:] – n. any wingless bloodsucking parasitic insect noted for ability to leap

fleck [flek] – n. a small fragment of something broken off from the whole

fledgling [ˈfledʒliŋ] – n. any new participant in some activity

flee [fli:] – v. run away quickly

fleer  – n. contempt expressed by mockery in looks or words

fleeting [ˈfli:tiŋ] – adj. lasting for a markedly brief time: a fleeting glance

flexibility [.fleksəˈbiliti] – n. the quality of being adaptable or variable: he enjoyed the flexibility of his working arrangement

flexible [ˈfleksəbl] – adj. capable of being changed: flexible schedules

flicker [ˈflikə] – n. a momentary flash of light

flimsy [ˈflimzi] – adj. lacking solidity or strength: a flimsy table

flint [flint] – n. a hard kind of stone; a form of silica more opaque than chalcedony

flippant [ˈflipənt] – adj. showing inappropriate levity

float [fləut] – v. be in motion due to some air or water current

flock [flɔk] – n. a church congregation guided by a pastor

floe [fləu] – n. a flat mass of ice (smaller than an ice field) floating at sea

flood [flʌd] – n. an overwhelming number or amount: a flood of requests

floodplain [ˈflʌdplein] – n. a low plain adjacent to a river that is formed chiefly of river sediment and is subject to flooding

flora [ˈflɔ:rə] – n. all the plant life in a particular region or period: the flora of southern California

floral [ˈflɔ:rəl] – adj. relating to or associated with flowers: floral organs

florid [ˈflɔrid] – adj. elaborately or excessively ornamented: the senator’s florid speech

florist [ˈflɔ:rist] – n. someone who grows and deals in flowers: the florist made up an attractive bouquet

flounder [ˈflaundə] – n. flesh of any of various American and European flatfish

flourish [ˈflʌriʃ] – n. a showy gesture: she entered with a great flourish

flout [flaut] – v. treat with contemptuous disregard: flout the rules

flow [fləu] – n. the motion characteristic of fluids (liquids or gases)

flu [flu:] – n. an acute febrile highly contagious viral disease

fluctuate [ˈflʌktjueit] – v. move or sway in a rising and falling or wavelike pattern

fluctuation [.flʌktjuˈeiʃən] – n. a wave motion: the fluctuations of the sea

flue [flu:] – n. organ pipe whose tone is produced by air passing across the sharp edge of a fissure or lip

fluent [ˈflu:ənt] – adj. smooth and unconstrained in movement

fluffy [ˈflʌfi] – adj. like down or as soft as down

fluid [ˈflu:id] – adj. subject to change; variable: a fluid situation fraught with uncertainty

fluorescent [fluəˈresənt] – adj. emitting light during exposure to radiation from an external source

fluorine  – n. a nonmetallic univalent element belonging to the halogens; usually a yellow irritating toxic flammable gas; a powerful oxidizing agent; recovered from fluorite or cryolite or fluorapatite

fluster [ˈflʌstə] – v. cause to be nervous or upset

flute [flu:t] – n. a tall narrow wineglass

flux [flʌks] – n. a flow or discharge

flyspeck [ˈflaispek] – n. a tiny dark speck made by the excrement of a fly

focus [ˈfəukəs] – n. the concentration of attention or energy on something: the focus of activity shifted to molecular biology

foe [fəu] – n. a personal enemy: they had been political foes for years

fog [fɔg] – n. droplets of water vapor suspended in the air near the ground

fogged [fɔgd] – adj. obscured by fog: he could barely see through the fogged window

foggy [ˈfɔgi] – adj. stunned or confused and slow to react (as from blows or drunkenness or exhaustion)

foghorn [ˈfɔghɔ:n] – n. a loud low warning signal that can be heard by fogbound ships

foible [ˈfɔibəl] – n. a behavioral attribute that is distinctive and peculiar to an individual

foist [fɔist] – v. to force onto another: He foisted his work on me

fold [fəuld] – n. a group of people who adhere to a common faith and habitually attend a given church

foliage [ˈfəuliidʒ] – n. the main organ of photosynthesis and transpiration in higher plants

folio [ˈfəuliəu] – n. the system of numbering pages

folklore [ˈfəʊklɔ:(r)] – n. the unwritten lore (stories and proverbs and riddles and songs) of a culture

folly [ˈfɔli] – n. the trait of acting stupidly or rashly

foment [fəuˈment] – v. try to stir up public opinion

fondle [ˈfɔndl] – v. touch or stroke lightly in a loving or endearing manner: They fondled in the back seat of the taxi

foolery [ˈfu:ləri] – n. foolish or senseless behavior

foolish [ˈfu:liʃ] – adj. devoid of good sense or judgment: foolish remarks

footnote [ˈfʊtnəʊt] – n. a printed note placed below the text on a printed page

footpath [ˈfʊtpɑ:θ] – n. a trodden path

footprint  – n. a mark of a foot or shoe on a surface: the police made casts of the footprints in the soft earth outside the window

foppish [ˈfɔpiʃ] – adj. affecting extreme elegance in dress and manner

forage [ˈfɔridʒ] – n. the act of searching for food and provisions

foray [ˈfɔrei] – n. a sudden short attack

forbear  – v. refrain from doing

forbearance [fɔ:ˈbeərəns] – n. good-natured tolerance of delay or incompetence

forbid [fəˈbid] – v. command against: I forbid you to call me late at night

forbidden [fəˈbidn] – adj. excluded from use or mention: forbidden fruit

forbidding [fəˈbidiŋ] – adj. harshly uninviting or formidable in manner or appearance: a forbidding scowl

forcible [ˈfɔ:səbəl] – adj. impelled by physical force especially against resistance: forcible entry

ford [fɔ:d] – n. United States film maker (1896-1973)

forebear [ˈfɔ:bɛə] – n. a person from whom you are descended

forebode [fɔ:ˈbəud] – v. make a prediction about; tell in advance

forecast [ˈfɔ:kɑ:st] – v. predict in advance

forecastle [ˈfəuksl] – n. living quarters consisting of a superstructure in the bow of a merchant ship where the crew is housed

foreclose [fɔ:ˈkləuz] – v. keep from happening or arising; make impossible

forecourt [ˈfɔ:kɔ:t] – n. the outer or front court of a building or of a group of buildings

forefather [ˈfɔ:.fɑ:ðə] – n. the founder of a family: keep the faith of our forefathers

forefront [ˈfɔ:frʌnt] – n. the part in the front or nearest the viewer: he was in the forefront

forego [fɔ:ˈgəu] – v. be earlier in time; go back further

foreground [ˈfɔ:graund] – n. the part of a scene that is near the viewer

forehead [ˈfɔ:hed] – n. the part of the face above the eyes

foreign [ˈfɔrin] – adj. of concern to or concerning the affairs of other nations (other than your own): foreign trade

foreigner [ˈfɔ:rinə] – n. someone who is excluded from or is not a member of a group

foreman [ˈfɔ:mən] – n. a person who exercises control over workers: if you want to leave early you have to ask the foreman

foremost [ˈfɔ:məust] – adj. ranking above all others: the foremost figure among marine artists

forensic [fəˈrensik] – adj. of, relating to, or used in public debate or argument

foreordain [.fɔ:rɔ:ˈdein] – v. foreordain by divine will or decree

forerunner [ˈfɔ:.rʌnə] – n. a person who goes before or announces the coming of another

foresail [ˈfɔ:seil] – n. the lowest sail on the foremast of a square-rigged vessel

foresee [fɔ:ˈsi:] – v. picture to oneself; imagine possible

foreshadow [fɔ:ˈʃædəu] – v. indicate by signs

foreshore [ˈfɔ:ʃɔ:] – n. the part of the seashore between the highwater mark and the low-water mark

foresight [ˈfɔ:sait] – n. providence by virtue of planning prudently for the future

forestall [fɔ:ˈstɔ:l] – v. keep from happening or arising; make impossible

foretell [fɔ:ˈtel] – v. make a prediction about; tell in advance

forethought [ˈfɔ:θɔ:t] – n. planning or plotting in advance of acting

forfeit [ˈfɔ:fit] – n. something that is lost or surrendered as a penalty

forfend  – v. prevent the occurrence of; prevent from happening

forge [fɔ:dʒ] – v. create by hammering: forge a pair of tongues

forgery [ˈfɔ:dʒəri] – n. a copy that is represented as the original

forgo [fɔ:ˈgəu] – v. do without or cease to hold or adhere to

formal [ˈfɔ:məl] – adj. characteristic of or befitting a person in authority: formal duties

formalize  – v. declare or make legally valid

format [ˈfɔ:mæt] – v. determine the arrangement of (data) for storage and display (in computer science)

formation [fɔ:ˈmeiʃən] – n. an arrangement of people or things acting as a unit: a defensive formation

formative [ˈfɔ:mətiv] – adj. capable of forming new cells and tissues: a formative zone in developing bone

former [ˈfɔ:mə] – adj. referring to the first of two things or persons mentioned (or the earlier one or ones of several): the novel was made into a film in 1943 and again in 1967; I prefer the former version to the latter one

formerly [ˈfɔ:məli] – adv. at a previous time

formidable [ˈfɔ:midəbl] – adj. extremely impressive in strength or excellence: a formidable opponent

formula [ˈfɔ:mjulə] – n. a group of symbols that make a mathematical statement

formulate [ˈfɔ:mjuleit] – v. elaborate, as of theories and hypotheses

forswear [fɔ:ˈsweə] – v. formally reject or disavow a formerly held belief, usually under pressure

fort [fɔ:t] – n. a fortified military post where troops are stationed

forte [ˈfɔ:ti, ˈfɔ:tei] – n. an asset of special worth or utility: cooking is his forte

forth [fɔ:θ] – adv. forward in time or order or degree: from that time forth

forthright [ˈfɔ:θrait] – adj. characterized by directness in manner or speech; without subtlety or evasion: forthright criticism

fortify [ˈfɔ:tifai] – v. make strong or stronger

fortitude [ˈfɔ:titju:d] – n. strength of mind that enables one to endure adversity with courage

fortress [ˈfɔ:tris] – n. a fortified defensive structure

fortuitous [fɔ:ˈtju(:)itəs] – adj. having no cause or apparent cause: fortuitous encounters–strange accidents of fortune

fortunate [ˈfɔ:tʃənit] – adj. supremely favored

fortune [ˈfɔ:tʃən] – n. an unknown and unpredictable phenomenon that causes an event to result one way rather than another

fossil [ˈfɔsl] – n. someone whose style is out of fashion

fossilize [ˈfɔsilaiz] – v. become mentally inflexible

foster [ˈfɔstə] – v. promote the growth of

foul [faul] – adj. highly offensive; arousing aversion or disgust

foundation [faunˈdeiʃən] – n. the basis on which something is grounded: there is little foundation for his objections

founder [ˈfaundə] – v. fail utterly; collapse: The project foundered

foursome  – n. the cardinal number that is the sum of three and one

fracas [ˈfreikəs] – n. noisy quarrel

fraction [ˈfrækʃən] – n. a small part or item forming a piece of a whole

fractious [ˈfrækʃəs] – adj. stubbornly resistant to authority or control: a fractious animal that would not submit to the harness

fracture [ˈfræktʃə] – v. violate or abuse: This writer really fractures the language

fragile [ˈfrædʒail] – adj. easily broken or damaged or destroyed: fragile porcelain plates

fragility [frəˈdʒiliti] – n. quality of being easily damaged or destroyed

fragment [ˈfrægmənt] – n. a piece broken off or cut off of something else: a fragment of rock

fragrance [ˈfreigrəns] – n. a distinctive odor that is pleasant

fragrant [ˈfreigrənt] – adj. pleasant-smelling

frailty [ˈfreilti] – n. the state of being weak in health or body (especially from old age)

frame [freim] – n. a single one of a series of still transparent pictures forming a cinema, television or video film

framework [ˈfreimwə:k] – n. a hypothetical description of a complex entity or process

frank [fræŋk] – n. a member of the ancient Germanic peoples who spread from the Rhine into the Roman Empire in the 4th century

frankincense [ˈfræŋkinsens] – n. an aromatic gum resin obtained from various Arabian or East African trees; formerly valued for worship and for embalming and fumigation

frantic [ˈfræntik] – adj. excessively agitated; distraught with fear or other violent emotion: frantic with anger and frustration

fraternal [frəˈtə:nəl] – adj. (of twins) derived from two separate fertilized ova: fraternal twins are biovular

fraudulence [ˈfrɔ:djuləns] – n. the quality of being fraudulent

fraudulent [ˈfrɔ:djulənt] – adj. intended to deceive: a fraudulent scheme to escape paying taxes

fray [frei] – v. wear away by rubbing: The friction frayed the sleeve

free [fri:] – v. relieve from

freemason [ˈfri:meisn] – n. a member of a widespread secret fraternal order pledged to mutual assistance and brotherly love

freethinker [ˈfri:ˈθiŋkə] – n. a person who believes that God created the universe and then abandoned it

freight [freit] – n. goods carried by a large vehicle

freighter [ˈfreitə] – n. a cargo ship

frenetic [friˈnetik] – adj. excessively agitated; distraught with fear or other violent emotion: frenetic screams followed the accident

frenzy [ˈfrenzi] – n. state of violent mental agitation

frequency [ˈfri:kwənsi] – n. the number of occurrences within a given time period: the frequency of modulation was 40 cycles per second

frequent [ˈfri:kwənt] – v. do one’s shopping at; do business with; be a customer or client of

fresco [ˈfreskəu] – n. a mural done with watercolors on wet plaster

freshly [ˈfreʃli] – adv. very recently: a freshly cleaned floor

freshness [ˈfreʃnis] – n. originality by virtue of being refreshingly novel

freshwater  – n. water that is not salty

fret [fret] – v. worry unnecessarily or excessively

fretful [ˈfretfəl] – adj. nervous and unable to relax: a constant fretful stamping of hooves

friction [ˈfrikʃən] – n. a state of conflict between persons

frightful [ˈfraitful] – adj. provoking horror: a frightful crime of decapitation

frigid [ˈfridʒid] – adj. sexually unresponsive: a frigid woman

fringe [frindʒ] – n. the outside boundary or surface of something

frisky [ˈfriski] – adj. playful like a lively kitten

fritter [ˈfritə] – n. small quantity of fried batter containing fruit or meat or vegetables

frivolity [friˈvɔliti] – n. something of little value or significance

frivolous [ˈfrivələs] – adj. not serious in content or attitude or behavior: a frivolous novel

frizz [friz] – n. the condition of being formed into small tight curls: her hair was in a frizz

frizzle [ˈfrizl] – v. fry something until it curls and becomes crisp

frolicsome [ˈfrɔliksəm] – adj. given to merry frolicking: frolicsome students celebrated their graduation with parties and practical jokes

frontier [ˈfrʌntjə] – n. a wilderness at the edge of a settled area of a country: the individualism of the frontier in Andrew Jackson’s day

frost [frɔst] – n. ice crystals forming a white deposit (especially on objects outside)

frown [fraun] – n. a facial expression of dislike or displeasure

frowzy [ˈfrauzi] – adj. negligent of neatness especially in dress and person; habitually dirty and unkempt: filled the door with her frowzy bulk

frugal [ˈfru:gəl] – adj. avoiding waste: a frugal farmer

frugality [fru(:)ˈgæliti] – n. prudence in avoiding waste

fruitful [ˈfru:tfəl] – adj. productive or conducive to producing in abundance: be fruitful and multiply

fruitfulness [ˈfru:tfulnis] – n. the quality of something that causes or assists healthy growth

fruition [fru:ˈiʃən] – n. enjoyment derived from use or possession

fruitless [ˈfru:tlis] – adj. unproductive of success: a fruitless search

fruitlessly [ˈfru:tlisli] – adv. in an unproductive manner

frustrate [frʌsˈtreit] – v. hinder or prevent (the efforts, plans, or desires) of: What ultimately frustrated every challenger was Ruth’s amazing September surge

frustrating [frʌˈstreitiŋ] – adj. discouraging by hindering

frustration [frʌsˈtreiʃən] – n. the feeling that accompanies an experience of being thwarted in attaining your goals

fuddled [ˈfʌdld] – adj. very drunk

fuel [ˈfjuəl] – v. provide with a combustible substance that provides energy: fuel aircraft, ships, and cars

fugacious [fju:ˈgeiʃəs] – adj. lasting a very short time: fugacious blossoms

fulcrum [ˈfulkrəm] – n. the pivot about which a lever turns

fulfil  – v. put in effect

fulminate [ˈfulmineit] – v. criticize severely: He fulminated against the Republicans’ plan to cut Medicare

fulsome [ˈfulsəm] – adj. unpleasantly and excessively suave or ingratiating in manner or speech: gave him a fulsome introduction

fume [fju:m] – v. emit a cloud of fine particles

fumigate [ˈfju:migeit] – v. treat with fumes, expose to fumes, especially with the aim of disinfecting or eradicating pests

function [ˈfʌŋkʃən] – n. what something is used for: the function of an auger is to bore holes

functional [ˈfʌŋkʃənl] – adj. involving or affecting function rather than physiology: functional deafness

functionary [ˈfʌŋkʃənəri] – n. a worker who holds or is invested with an office

functioning [ˈfʌŋkʃəniŋ] – adj. performing or able to perform its regular function: a functioning flashlight

fund [fʌnd] – v. convert (short-term floating debt) into long-term debt that bears fixed interest and is represented by bonds

fundamental [.fʌndəˈmentl] – adj. serving as an essential component: an example that was fundamental to the argument

funding [ˈfʌndiŋ] – n. financial resources provided to make some project possible

funereal [fjuˈniəriəl] – adj. suited to or suggestive of a grave or burial: funereal gloom

fungi [ˈfʌndʒai, ˈfʌŋgai] – n. the taxonomic kingdom including yeast, molds, smuts, mushrooms, and toadstools; distinct from the green plants

fungible [ˈfʌndʒibl] – n. a commodity that is freely interchangeable with another in satisfying an obligation

fungous [ˈfʌŋgəs] – adj. of or relating to fungi

fungus [ˈfʌŋgəs] – n. an organism of the kingdom Fungi lacking chlorophyll and feeding on organic matter; ranging from unicellular or multicellular organisms to spore-bearing syncytia

funnel [ˈfʌnəl] – n. a conical shape with a wider and a narrower opening at the two ends

fur [fə:] – n. the dressed hairy coat of a mammal

furbish [ˈfə:biʃ] – v. polish and make shiny

furious [ˈfjuəriəs] – adj. marked by extreme and violent energy: a furious battle

furlong [ˈfə:lɔŋ] – n. a unit of length equal to 220 yards

furlough [ˈfə:ləu] – v. dismiss, usually for economic reasons

furnace [ˈfə:nis] – n. an enclosed chamber in which heat is produced to heat buildings, destroy refuse, smelt or refine ores, etc.

furnish [ˈfə:niʃ] – v. give something useful or necessary to

furniture [ˈfə:nitʃə] – n. furnishings that make a room or other area ready for occupancy: they had too much furniture for the small apartment

furrier [ˈfə:riə] – n. someone whose occupation is making or repairing fur garments

furry [ˈfə:ri] – adj. covered with a dense coat of fine silky hairs: a furry teddy bear

further [ˈfə:ðə] – v. promote the growth of

furtherance [ˈfə:ðərəns] – n. encouragement of the progress or growth or acceptance of something

furtive [ˈfə:tiv] – adj. marked by quiet and caution and secrecy; taking pains to avoid being observed: a furtive manner

fuse [fju:z] – v. mix together different elements

fused [fju:zd] – adj. joined together into a whole

fusible [ˈfju:zəbl] – adj. capable of being melted and fused

fusion [ˈfju:ʒən] – n. an occurrence that involves the production of a union

futile [ˈfju:tail] – adj. producing no result or effect: a futile effort

futility [fju:ˈtiləti] – n. uselessness as a consequence of having no practical result

futurist [ˈfju:tʃərist] – n. someone who predicts the future

gabble [ˈgæbəl, ˈgæbl] – n. rapid and indistinct speech

gag [gæg] – v. prevent from speaking out: The press was gagged

gage [geidʒ] – n. street names for marijuana

gaiety [ˈgeəti] – n. a gay feeling

gaily [ˈgeili] – adv. in a gay manner: the scandals were gaily diverting

gainsay [.geinˈsei] – v. take exception to

gait [geit] – n. the rate of moving (especially walking or running)

galaxy [ˈgæləksi] – n. a splendid assemblage (especially of famous people)

gale [geil] – n. a strong wind moving 45-90 knots; force 7 to 10 on Beaufort scale

gallant [ˈgælənt] – adj. unflinching in battle or action: a gallant warrior

gallantry [ˈgæləntri] – n. the qualities of a hero or heroine; exceptional or heroic courage when facing danger (especially in battle)

gallery [ˈgæləri] – n. spectators at a golf or tennis match

gallop [ˈgæləp] – n. a fast gait of a horse; a two-beat stride during which all four legs are off the ground simultaneously

galore [gəˈlɔ:] – adj. in great numbers: daffodils galore

galvanic [gælˈvænik] – adj. pertaining to or producing electric current by chemical action: a galvanic cell

galvanism [ˈgælvənizm] – n. electricity produced by chemical action

galvanize [ˈgælvənaiz] – v. to stimulate to action: galvanized into action

gambit [ˈgæmbit] – n. an opening remark intended to secure an advantage for the speaker

gamble [ˈgæmbl] – n. money that is risked for possible monetary gain

gambol [ˈgæmbəl] – n. gay or light-hearted recreational activity for diversion or amusement

gamut [ˈgæmət] – n. a complete extent or range:: a face that expressed a gamut of emotions

gang [gæŋ] – n. an association of criminals: police tried to break up the gang

gap [gæp] – n. a conspicuous disparity or difference as between two figures: gap between income and outgo

gape [geip] – n. an expression of openmouthed astonishment

garb [gɑ:b] – n. clothing of a distinctive style or for a particular occasion

garbage [ˈgɑ:bidʒ] – n. food that is discarded (as from a kitchen)

garment [ˈgɑ:mənt] – n. an article of clothing: garments of the finest silk

garner [ˈgɑ:nə] – v. acquire or deserve by one’s efforts or actions

garnish [ˈgɑ:niʃ] – n. something (such as parsley) added to a dish for flavor or decoration

garrison [ˈgærisn] – n. a fortified military post where troops are stationed

garrote [gəˈrɔt] – n. an instrument of execution for execution by strangulation

garrulity [gəˈruləti] – n. the quality of being wordy and talkative

garrulous [ˈgærələs] – adj. full of trivial conversation

gaseous [ˈgæsiəs, ˈgeizjəs] – adj. existing as or having characteristics of a gas: steam is water is the gaseous state

gash [gæʃ] – n. a wound made by cutting

gasoline [ˈgæsəli:n] – n. a volatile flammable mixture of hydrocarbons (hexane and heptane and octane etc.) derived from petroleum; used mainly as a fuel in internal-combustion engines

gassy  – adj. suffering from excessive gas in the alimentary canal

gastric [ˈgæstrik] – adj. relating to or involving the stomach: gastric ulcer

gastritis [gæˈstraitis] – n. inflammation of the lining of the stomach; nausea and loss of appetite and discomfort after eating

gastronomy [gæˈstrɔnəmi] – n. a particular style of cookery (as of a region): New England gastronomy

gateway  – n. an entrance that can be closed by a gate

gauche [gəuʃ] – adj. lacking social polish: too gauche to leave the room when the conversation became intimate

gauge [geidʒ] – v. judge tentatively or form an estimate of (quantities or time)

gazette [gəˈzet] – n. a newspaper or official journal

gear [giə] – n. a toothed wheel that engages another toothed mechanism in order to change the speed or direction of transmitted motion

gem [dʒem] – n. art highly prized for its beauty or perfection

gemstone [ˈdʒem.stəun] – n. a crystalline rock that can be cut and polished for jewelry

gendarme [ˈʒa:nda:m] – n. a French policeman

gender [ˈdʒendə] – n. the properties that distinguish organisms on the basis of their reproductive roles

genealogist [,dʒi:niˈælədʒist] – n. an expert in genealogy

genealogy [dʒi:niˈælədʒi] – n. successive generations of kin

generality [dʒenəˈræliti] – n. the quality of being general or widespread or having general applicability

generalization [.dʒenərəlaiˈzeiʃən] – n. an idea or conclusion having general application

generalize [ˈdʒenərəlaiz] – v. speak or write in generalities

generally [ˈdʒenərəli] – adv. usually; as a rule

generate [ˈdʒenəreit] – v. bring into existence: The new manager generated a lot of problems

generation [.dʒenəˈreiʃən] – n. all the people living at the same time or of approximately the same age

generic [dʒiˈnerik] – adj. relating to or common to or descriptive of all members of a genus: the generic name

generosity [.dʒenəˈrɔsiti] – n. the trait of being willing to give your money or time

generous [ˈdʒenərəs] – adj. willing to give and share unstintingly: a generous donation

genesis [ˈdʒenisis] – n. a coming into being

genetic [dʒiˈnetik] – adj. occurring among members of a family usually by heredity: genetically transmitted features

genetically [dʒiˈnetikəli] – adv. by genetic mechanisms: genetically passed down talents

genetics [dʒiˈnetiks] – n. the branch of biology that studies heredity and variation in organisms

genial [ˈdʒi:niəl] – adj. diffusing warmth and friendliness: a genial host

genital [ˈdʒenitl] – adj. of or relating to the external sex organs: genital herpes

genitive [ˈdʒenitiv] – n. the case expressing ownership

genius [ˈdʒi:njəs] – n. someone who has exceptional intellectual ability and originality: Mozart was a child genius

genre [ʒɑ:ŋr] – n. a kind of literary or artistic work

genteel [dʒenˈti:l] – adj. marked by refinement in taste and manners: a genteel old lady

gentile [ˈdʒentail] – n. a person who does not acknowledge your god

gentility [dʒenˈtiliti] – n. elegance by virtue of fineness of manner and expression

gentle [ˈdʒentl] – adj. soft and mild; not harsh or stern or severe: a gentle reprimand

gentlemanly  – adj. befitting a man of good breeding: gentlemanly behavior

gentry [ˈdʒentri] – n. the most powerful members of a society

genuine [ˈdʒenjuin] – adj. not fake or counterfeit: a genuine Picasso

geologic  – adj. of or relating to or based on geology: geological formations

geologist  – n. a specialist in geology

geology [dʒiˈɔlədʒi] – n. a science that deals with the history of the earth as recorded in rocks

geometric  – adj. of or relating to or determined by geometry

geometrically  – adv. in a geometric fashion: it grew geometrically

germ [dʒə:m] – n. anything that provides inspiration for later work

germane [dʒə:ˈməin] – adj. relevant and appropriate: he asks questions that are germane and central to the issue

germinate [ˈdʒə:mineit] – v. work out

gestation [dʒeˈsteiʃən] – n. the period during which an embryo develops (about 266 days in humans)

gesticulate [dʒeˈstikjuleit] – v. show, express or direct through movement

gesture [ˈdʒestʃə] – n. motion of hands or body to emphasize or help to express a thought or feeling

ghastly [ˈgɑ:stli] – adj. shockingly repellent; inspiring horror: ghastly wounds

ghost [gəust] – n. a mental representation of some haunting experience: he looked like he had seen a ghost

giant [ˈdʒaiənt] – n. any creature of exceptional size

gibe [dʒaib] – v. be compatible, similar or consistent; coincide in their characteristics

giddy [ˈgidi] – adj. having or causing a whirling sensation; liable to falling: had a headache and felt giddy

gigantic [dʒaiˈgæntik] – adj. so exceedingly large or extensive as to suggest a giant or mammoth: a gigantic redwood

gingham  – n. a clothing fabric in a plaid weave

girder [ˈgə:də] – n. a beam made usually of steel; a main support in a structure

given [ˈgiv(ə)n] – adj. acknowledged as a supposition: given the engine’s condition, it is a wonder that it started

giver [ˈgivə] – n. someone who devotes himself completely: there are no greater givers than those who give themselves

glacial [ˈgleisjəl, ˈglæs-] – adj. devoid of warmth and cordiality; expressive of unfriendliness or disdain: a glacial handshake

glacier [ˈglæsiə] – n. a slowly moving mass of ice

gladden [ˈglædn] – v. become glad or happy

glamorous [ˈglæmərəs] – adj. having an air of allure, romance and excitement: glamorous movie stars

gland [glænd] – n. any of various organs that synthesize substances needed by the body and release it through ducts or directly into the bloodstream

glandular [ˈglændjulə] – adj. relating to or affecting or functioning as a gland: glandular malfunctions

glare [glɛə] – n. a light within the field of vision that is brighter than the brightness to which the eyes are adapted: a glare of sunlight

glassware [ˈglɑ:swɛə] – n. an article of tableware made of glass

glassy [ˈglɑ:si] – adj. (used of eyes) lacking liveliness: a glassy stare

glaze [gleiz] – v. become glassy or take on a glass-like appearance: Her eyes glaze over when she is bored

glazed [gleizd] – adj. (used of eyes) lacking liveliness: his eyes were glazed over with boredom

glazier [ˈgleizjə] – n. someone who cuts flat glass to size

gleam [gli:m] – v. be shiny, as if wet

glean [gli:n] – v. gather, as of natural products

glib [glib] – adj. marked by lack of intellectual depth: glib generalizations

glide [glaid] – n. a vowellike sound that serves as a consonant

glider [ˈglaidə] – n. aircraft supported only by the dynamic action of air against its surfaces

glimmer [ˈglimə] – n. a flash of light (especially reflected light)

glimpse [glimps] – n. a quick look

gloat [gləut] – v. dwell on with satisfaction

global [ˈgləubəl] – adj. involving the entire earth; not limited or provincial in scope: global war

globose [ˈgləubəus] – adj. having the shape of a sphere or ball

globular [ˈglɔbjulə] – adj. having the shape of a sphere or ball: little globular houses like mud-wasp nests

gloomy [ˈglu:mi] – adj. depressingly dark: the gloomy forest

glorify [ˈglɔ:rifai] – v. bestow glory upon

glorious [ˈglɔ:riəs] – adj. characterized by grandeur: a glorious work of art

glossy [ˈglɔsi] – adj. reflecting light: the horse’s glossy coat

glow [gləu] – n. an alert and refreshed state

glowing [ˈgləuiŋ] – n. the amount of electromagnetic radiation leaving or arriving at a point on a surface

glue [glu:] – n. cement consisting of a sticky substance that is used as an adhesive

glut [glʌt] – v. overeat or eat immodestly; make a pig of oneself

glutinous [ˈglu:tinəs] – adj. having the sticky properties of an adhesive

gluttonous [ˈglʌtnəs] – adj. given to excess in consumption of especially food or drink: over-fed women and their gluttonous husbands

gnash [næʃ] – v. grind together, of teeth

gnaw [nɔ:] – v. bite or chew on with the teeth: gnaw an old cracker

goad [gəud] – v. give heart or courage to

goal [gəul] – n. the place designated as the end (as of a race or journey)

gorge [gɔ:dʒ] – n. a deep ravine (usually with a river running through it)

gorgeous [ˈgɔ:dʒəs] – adj. dazzlingly beautiful: a gorgeous Victorian gown

gorilla [gəˈrilə] – n. largest anthropoid ape; terrestrial and vegetarian; of forests of central west Africa

gosling [ˈgɔ:zliŋ] – n. young goose

gospel [ˈgɔspəl] – n. the four books in the New Testament (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John) that tell the story of Christ’s life and teachings

gossamer [ˈgɔsəmə] – n. a gauze fabric with an extremely fine texture

gossip [ˈgɔsip] – n. light informal conversation for social occasions

gouache  – n. an opaque watercolor prepared with gum

gourd [gurd guəd] – n. any of numerous inedible fruits with hard rinds

gourmand [ˈguəmənd] – n. a person who is devoted to eating and drinking to excess

gourmet [ˈguəmei] – n. a person devoted to refined sensuous enjoyment (especially good food and drink)

govern [ˈgʌvən] – v. bring into conformity with rules or principles or usage; impose regulations

governor [ˈgʌvənə] – n. a control that maintains a steady speed in a machine (as by controlling the supply of fuel)

grab [græb] – v. take hold of so as to seize or restrain or stop the motion of

grace [greis] – n. (Christian theology) a state of sanctification by God; the state of one who is under such divine influence: the conception of grace developed alongside the conception of sin

graceful [ˈgreisfəl] – adj. characterized by beauty of movement, style, form, or execution

graceless [ˈgreislis] – adj. lacking graciousness: a totally graceless hostess

gradation [greiˈdeiʃən] – n. relative position in a graded series: subtle gradations in color

grade [greid] – n. a body of students who are taught together

gradient [ˈgreidiənt] – n. the property possessed by a line or surface that departs from the horizontal: a five-degree gradient

graduate [ˈgrædjueit] – v. receive an academic degree upon completion of one’s studies: She graduated in 1990

graft [grɑ:ft] – n. the practice of offering something (usually money) in order to gain an illicit advantage

grain [grein] – n. a relatively small granular particle of a substance: a grain of sand

granary [ˈgrænəri] – n. a storehouse for threshed grain or animal feed

grand [grænd] – adj. of behavior that is impressive and ambitious in scale or scope: in the grand manner

grandeur [ˈgrændʒə] – n. the quality of elevation of mind and exaltation of character or ideals or conduct

grandiloquent [grænˈdiləkwənt] – adj. lofty in style

grandiose [ˈgrændiəus] – adj. affectedly genteel

granite [ˈgrænit] – n. plutonic igneous rock having visibly crystalline texture; generally composed of feldspar and mica and quartz

grant [grɑ:nt] – n. any monetary aid

grantee [grɑ:nˈti:] – n. someone to whom the title of property is transferred

granular [ˈgrænjulə] – adj. composed of or covered with particles resembling meal in texture or consistency: granular sugar

granulate [ˈgrænjuleit] – v. form into grains

granule [ˈgrænju:l] – n. a tiny grain

graph [græf,grɑ:f] – n. a visual representation of the relations between certain quantities plotted with reference to a set of axes

graphic [ˈgræfik] – adj. written or drawn or engraved: graphic symbols

graphics [ˈgræfiks] – n. the drawings and photographs in the layout of a book

graphite [ˈgræfait] – n. used as a lubricant and as a moderator in nuclear reactors

grapple [ˈgræpl] – n. a tool consisting of several hooks for grasping and holding; often thrown with a rope

grasp [grɑ:sp] – n. understanding of the nature or meaning or quality or magnitude of something: he has a good grasp of accounting practices

grasshopper [ˈgrɑ:shɔpər] – n. terrestrial plant-eating insect with hind legs adapted for leaping

grassland  – n. land where grass or grasslike vegetation grows and is the dominant form of plant life

grateful [ˈgreitfəl] – adj. affording comfort or pleasure: the grateful warmth of the fire

gratification [.grætifiˈkeiʃən] – n. the act or an instance of satisfying

gratify [ˈgrætifai] – v. make happy or satisfied

gratuitous [grəˈtju:itəs] – adj. without cause: a gratuitous insult

gratuity [grəˈtju:iti] – n. a relatively small amount of money given for services rendered (as by a waiter)

grave [greiv] – n. death of a person: he went to his grave without forgiving me

gravitation [.græviˈteiʃən] – n. a figurative movement toward some attraction: the gravitation of the middle class to the suburbs

gravitational [ˈgrævəˈteiʃənəl] – adj. of or relating to or caused by gravitation

gravity [ˈgræviti] – n. a manner that is serious and solemn

graze [greiz] – v. feed as in a meadow or pasture

grease [gri:s] – n. a thick fatty oil (especially one used to lubricate machinery)

greedy [ˈgri:di] – adj. immoderately desirous of acquiring e.g. wealth: greedy for money and power

gregarious [griˈgeəriəs] – adj. (of animals) tending to form a group with others of the same species: gregarious bird species

grenadier [grenəˈdiə] – n. deep-sea fish with a large head and body and long tapering tail

grief [gri:f] – n. intense sorrow caused by loss of a loved one (especially by death)

grievance [ˈgri:vəns] – n. a resentment strong enough to justify retaliation

grievous [ˈgri:vəs] – adj. causing fear or anxiety by threatening great harm: grievous bodily harm

grim [grim] – adj. not to be placated or appeased or moved by entreaty: grim determination

grimace [griˈmeis] – n. a contorted facial expression: she made a grimace at the prospect

grind [graind] – v. work hard

grindstone [ˈgraindstəun] – n. a revolving stone shaped like a disk; used to grind or sharpen or polish edge tools

grip [grip] – n. the appendage to an object that is designed to be held in order to use or move it: it was an old briefcase but it still had a good grip

grisly [ˈgrizli] – adj. shockingly repellent; inspiring horror: a grisly murder

grit [grit] – n. fortitude and determination

groom [gru:m] – n. a man participant in his own marriage ceremony

grope [grəup] – v. feel about uncertainly or blindly: She groped for her glasses in the darkness of the bedroom

grotesque [grəuˈtesk] – adj. distorted and unnatural in shape or size; abnormal and hideous: tales of grotesque serpents eight fathoms long that churned the seas

grotto [ˈgrɔtəu] – n. a small cave (usually with attractive features)

grouchy [ˈgrautʃi] – adj. annoyed and irritable

gruff [grʌf] – adj. brusque and surly and forbidding: gruff manner

grumble [ˈgrʌmbl] – v. show one’s unhappiness or critical attitude: We grumbled about the increased work load

grumpy [ˈgrʌmpi] – adj. annoyed and irritable

guarantee [.gærənˈti:] – v. give surety or assume responsibility

guess [ges] – v. expect, believe, or suppose: I guess she is angry at me for standing her up

guideline [ˈgaidlain] – n. a light line that is used in lettering to help align the letters

guile [gail] – n. shrewdness as demonstrated by being skilled in deception

guileless [gailis] – adj. free of deceit

guinea [ˈgini] – n. a former British gold coin worth 21 shillings

guise [gaiz] – n. an artful or simulated semblance: under the guise of friendship he betrayed them

gulf [gʌlf] – n. an arm of a sea or ocean partly enclosed by land; larger than a bay

gull [gʌl] – n. mostly white aquatic bird having long pointed wings and short legs

gullible [ˈgʌləbəl] – adj. naive and easily deceived or tricked: at that early age she had been gullible and in love

gulp [gʌlp] – n. a large and hurried swallow: he finished it at a single gulp

gumption [ˈgʌmpʃən] – n. sound practical judgment

gunfire  – n. the act of shooting a gun: the gunfire endangered innocent bystanders

gush [gʌʃ] – v. praise enthusiastically

gust [gʌst] – n. a strong current of air: the tree was bent almost double by the gust

gusto [ˈgʌstəu] – n. vigorous and enthusiastic enjoyment

gusty [ˈgʌsti] – adj. blowing in puffs or short intermittent blasts: gusty winds

guy [gai] – n. an informal term for a youth or man: a nice guy

guzzle [ˈgʌzəl] – v. drink greedily or as if with great thirst: The boys guzzled the cheap vodka

gymnastic [dʒimˈnæstik] – adj. vigorously active: gymnastic exercises

gymnastics [dʒimˈnæstiks] – n. a sport that involves exercises intended to display strength and balance and agility

gynecocracy  – n. a political system governed by a woman

gynecology [gainəˈkɔlədʒi] – n. the branch of medicine that deals with the diseases and hygiene of women

gyrate [dʒaiˈreit] – v. to wind or move in a spiral course: the young people gyrated on the dance floor

gyration [.dʒaiəˈreiʃən] – n. a single complete turn (axial or orbital)

gyroscope [ˈdʒaiərəskəup] – n. rotating mechanism in the form of a universally mounted spinning wheel that offers resistance to turns in any direction

habitable [ˈhæbitəbl] – adj. fit for habitation: the habitable world

habitant [ˈhæbitənt] – n. a person who inhabits a particular place

habitat [ˈhæbitæt] – n. the type of environment in which an organism or group normally lives or occurs: a marine habitat

habitual [həˈbitjuəl] – adj. commonly used or practiced; usual: his habitual comment

habitude [ˈhæbitju:d] – n. habitual mode of behavior

hacienda  – n. a large estate in Spanish-speaking countries

hackney [ˈhækni] – n. a carriage for hire

haggard [ˈhægəd] – adj. showing the wearing effects of overwork or care or suffering: her face was drawn and haggard from sleeplessness

hail [heil] – v. praise vociferously: The critics hailed the young pianist as a new Rubinstein

hairdo  – n. the arrangement of the hair (especially a woman’s hair)

halcyon [ˈhælsiən] – n. (Greek mythology) a woman who was turned into a kingfisher

hale [heil] – n. United States astronomer who discovered that sunspots are associated with strong magnetic fields (1868-1938)

hallmark [ˈhɔ:lmɑ:k] – n. a distinctive characteristic or attribute

halt [hɔ:lt] – v. cause to stop: halt the presses

ham [hæm] – n. meat cut from the thigh of a hog (usually smoked)

hamburger [ˈhæmbə:gə] – n. a sandwich consisting of a fried cake of minced beef served on a bun, often with other ingredients

hamlet [ˈhæmlit] – n. a community of people smaller than a village

hammer [ˈhæmə] – n. the part of a gunlock that strikes the percussion cap when the trigger is pulled

hamper [ˈhæmpə] – n. a restraint that confines or restricts freedom (especially something used to tie down or restrain a prisoner)

handcraft  – n. a work produced by hand labor

handful [ˈhændful] – n. a small number or amount: only a handful of responses were received

handicap [ˈhændikæp] – n. the condition of being unable to perform as a consequence of physical or mental unfitness

handicraft [ˈhændikrɑ:ft] – n. a work produced by hand labor

handily  – adv. with no difficulty: she beat him handily

handle [ˈhændl] – v. be in charge of, act on, or dispose of: This blender can’t handle nuts

handsomely  – adv. in a generously handsome manner: India has responded handsomely by providing 3,000 men

hands-on [ˈhændzˈɔn] – adj. involving active participation: he’s a hands-on manager

handy [ˈhændi] – adj. easy to reach: found a handy spot for the can opener

hanger-on  – n. someone who persistently (and annoyingly) follows along

hanker  – v. desire strongly or persistently

hap [hæp] – v. come to pass: What is happening?

haphazard [ˈhæpˈhæzəd] – adj. dependent upon or characterized by chance: a haphazard plan of action

haphazardly  – adv. in a random manner

happy-go-lucky  – adj. cheerfully irresponsible

harangue [həˈræŋ] – n. a loud bombastic declamation expressed with strong emotion

harass [ˈhærəs] – v. annoy continually or chronically: This man harasses his female co-workers

harbinger [ˈhɑ:bindʒə] – n. something that precedes and indicates the approach of something or someone

harbor [ˈhɑ:bə] – v. maintain (a theory, thoughts, or feelings): harbor a resentment

harden [ˈhɑ:dn] – v. make hard or harder: The cold hardened the butter

hardihood [ˈhɑ:dihud] – n. the trait of being willing to undertake things that involve risk or danger

hardware [ˈhɑ:dwɛə] – n. major items of military weaponry (as tanks or missile)

hardy [ˈhɑ:di] – adj. able to survive under unfavorable weather conditions: strawberries are hardy and easy to grow

harem  – n. living quarters reserved for wives and concubines and female relatives in a Muslim household

harmful [ˈhɑ:mfəl] – adj. causing or capable of causing harm: too much sun is harmful to the skin

harmless [ˈhɑ:mlis] – adj. not causing or capable of causing harm: harmless bacteria

harmonic [hɑ:ˈmɔnik] – adj. of or relating to harmony as distinct from melody and rhythm: subtleties of harmonic change and tonality

harmonica [hɑ:ˈmɔnikə] – n. a small rectangular free-reed instrument having a row of free reeds set back in air holes and played by blowing into the desired hole

harmonious [hɑ:ˈməunjəs] – adj. musically pleasing

harmonize [ˈhɑ:mənaiz] – v. go together: The colors don’t harmonize

harmony [ˈhɑ:məni] – n. compatibility in opinion and action

harness [ˈhɑ:nis] – v. exploit the power of: harness natural forces and resources

harpsichord [ˈhɑ:psikɔ:d] – n. a clavier with strings that are plucked by plectra mounted on pivots

harrow [ˈhærəu] – n. a cultivator that pulverizes or smooths the soil

harry [ˈhæri] – v. annoy continually or chronically: He is known to harry his staff when he is overworked

harsh [hɑ:ʃ] – adj. unpleasantly stern: wild and harsh country full of hot sand and cactus

harshness [ˈhɑ:ʃnis] – n. the roughness of a substance that causes abrasions

harvest [ˈhɑ:vist] – n. the yield from plants in a single growing season

haste [heist] – n. overly eager speed (and possible carelessness): he soon regretted his haste

hasten [ˈheisn] – v. act or move at high speed

hatch [hætʃ] – v. emerge from the eggs: young birds, fish, and reptiles hatch

hatchery [ˈhætʃəri] – n. a place where eggs are hatched under artificial conditions (especially fish eggs): the park authorities operated a trout hatchery

hatchet [ˈhætʃit] – n. weapon consisting of a fighting ax; used by North American Indians

hatchling [ˈhætʃliŋ] – n. any recently hatched animal (especially birds)

haughty [ˈhɔ:ti] – adj. having or showing arrogant superiority to and disdain of those one views as unworthy: haughty aristocrats

haul [hɔ:l] – n. the quantity that was caught

haunt [hɔ:nt] – v. follow stealthily or recur constantly and spontaneously to: the ghost of her mother haunted her

haven [ˈheivən] – n. a shelter serving as a place of safety or sanctuary

havoc [ˈhævək] – n. violent and needless disturbance

hawthorn [ˈhɔ:θɔ:n] – n. a spring-flowering shrub or small tree of the genus Crataegus

hay [hei] – n. grass mowed and cured for use as fodder

hazard [ˈhæzəd] – n. a source of danger; a possibility of incurring loss or misfortune: drinking alcohol is a health hazard

hazardous [ˈhæzədəs] – adj. involving risk or danger: skydiving is a hazardous sport

haze [heiz] – n. confusion characterized by lack of clarity

hazel [ˈheizl] – n. Australian tree grown especially for ornament and its fine-grained wood and bearing edible nuts

hazy [ˈheizi] – adj. filled or abounding with fog or mist

head [hed] – n. a single domestic animal: 200 head of cattle

headquarters [ˈhedˈkwɔ:təz] – n. (usually plural) the office that serves as the administrative center of an enterprise: many companies have their headquarters in New York

heal [hi:l] – v. provide a cure for, make healthy again: The quack pretended to heal patients but never managed to

healthful [ˈhelθful] – adj. free from filth and pathogens

heartrending [ˈhɑ:trendiŋ] – adj. causing or marked by grief or anguish: the heartrending words of Rabin’s granddaughter

heat [hi:t] – n. a form of energy that is transferred by a difference in temperature

heathenish [ˈhi:ðəniʃ] – adj. not acknowledging the God of Christianity and Judaism and Islam

heave [hi:v] – v. utter a sound, as with obvious effort: She heaved a deep sigh when she saw the list of things to do

heaven [ˈhevn] – n. any place of complete bliss and delight and peace

heavenly [ˈhevənli] – adj. of or relating to the sky: a heavenly body

hectic [ˈhektik] – adj. marked by intense agitation or emotion

heed [hi:d] – n. paying particular notice (as to children or helpless people): he spends without heed to the consequences

heedless [ˈhi:dlis] – adj. characterized by careless unconcern: the heedless generosity and the spasmodic extravagance of persons used to large fortunes

heel [hi:l] – n. the back part of the human foot

heifer [ˈhefə] – n. young cow

heighten [ˈhaitn] – v. become more extreme: The tension heightened

heinous [ˈheinəs] – adj. extremely wicked, deeply criminal: heinous accusations

heir [ɛə] – n. a person who inherits some title or office

helium [ˈhi:ljəm, ˈhi:liəm] – n. a very light colorless element that is one of the six inert gasses; the most difficult gas to liquefy; occurs in economically extractable amounts in certain natural gases (as those found in Texas and Kansas)

helper [ˈhelpə] – n. a person who contributes to the fulfillment of a need or furtherance of an effort or purpose

helpful [ˈhelpfəl] – adj. providing assistance or serving a useful function

helpless [ˈhelplis] – adj. lacking in or deprived of strength or power: lying ill and helpless

hem [hem, hm, mm] – n. the edge of a piece of cloth; especially the finished edge that has been doubled under and stitched down: the hem of her dress was stained

hemisphere [ˈhemisfiə] – n. half of the terrestrial globe

hemlock  – n. poisonous drug derived from an Eurasian plant of the genus Conium: Socrates refused to flee and died by drinking hemlock

hemorrhage [ˈheməridʒ] – n. the flow of blood from a ruptured blood vessel

hemorrhoid  – n. pain caused by venous swelling at or inside the anal sphincter

henchman [ˈhentʃmən] – n. someone who assists in a plot

heptagon [ˈheptəgɔn] – n. a seven-sided polygon

herald [ˈherəld] – v. foreshadow or presage

herbaceous [həˈbeiʃəs] – adj. characteristic of a nonwoody herb or plant part

herbarium [hə:ˈbɛəriəm] – n. a collection of dried plants that are mounted and systematically classified for study

herbivorous [hə:ˈbivərəs] – adj. feeding only on plants

herculean [.hə:kju:ˈljən] – adj. displaying superhuman strength or power: herculean exertions

herd [hə:d] – n. a group of wild mammals of one species that remain together: antelope or elephants or seals or whales or zebra

herder [ˈhɜ:də(r)] – n. someone who drives a herd

hereditary [hiˈreditəri] – adj. inherited or inheritable by established rules (usually legal rules) of descent: hereditary monarchy

heredity [hiˈrediti] – n. the total of inherited attributes

heresy [ˈherisi] – n. any opinions or doctrines at variance with the official or orthodox position

heretic [ˈheritik] – n. a person who holds religious beliefs in conflict with the dogma of the Roman Catholic Church

heritage [ˈheritidʒ] – n. practices that are handed down from the past by tradition: a heritage of freedom

hernia [ˈhə:njə] – n. rupture in smooth muscle tissue through which a bodily structure protrudes

heroism [ˈherəuizəm] – n. the qualities of a hero or heroine; exceptional or heroic courage when facing danger (especially in battle): he showed great heroism in battle

hesitancy [ˈhezitənsi] – n. a feeling of diffidence and indecision about doing something

hesitant [ˈhezitənt] – adj. lacking decisiveness of character; unable to act or decide quickly or firmly

hesitate [ˈheziteit] – v. pause or hold back in uncertainty or unwillingness: Authorities hesitate to quote exact figures

hesitation [.heziˈteiʃən] – n. indecision in speech or action

heterodox [ˈhetərədɔks] – adj. characterized by departure from accepted beliefs or standards

heterogeneity [.hetərəudʒiˈni:iti] – n. the quality of being diverse and not comparable in kind

heterogeneous [.hetərəuˈdʒi:niəs] – adj. consisting of elements that are not of the same kind or nature: the population of the United States is vast and heterogeneous

hexagon [ˈheksəgən] – n. a six-sided polygon

hexapod [ˈheksəpɔd] – n. an animal having six feet

heyday [ˈheidei] – n. the period of greatest prosperity or productivity

hiatus [haiˈeitəs] – n. an interruption in the intensity or amount of something

hibernal [haiˈbə:nl] – adj. characteristic of or relating to winter

hibernate [ˈhaibə.neit] – v. sleep during winter: Bears must eat a lot of food before they hibernate in their caves

hibernation [.haibəˈneiʃən] – n. the torpid or resting state in which some animals pass the winter

hide [haid] – v. prevent from being seen or discovered: Muslim women hide their faces

hideous [ˈhidiəs] – adj. grossly offensive to decency or morality; causing horror: a hideous pattern of injustice

hierarchy [ˈhaiərɑ:ki] – n. a series of ordered groupings of people or things within a system: put honesty first in her hierarchy of values

highlight [ˈhailait] – n. the most interesting or memorable part: the highlight of the tour was our visit to the Vatican

highly [ˈhaili] – adv. at a high rate or wage: highly paid workers

hike [haik] – n. a long walk usually for exercise or pleasure: she enjoys a hike in her spare time

hilarious [həˈleəriəs] – adj. marked by or causing boisterous merriment or convulsive laughter: hilarious broad comedy

hilarity [hiˈlæriti] – n. great merriment

hillock [ˈhilək] – n. a small natural hill

hillside [ˈhilˈsaid] – n. the side or slope of a hill

hilly [ˈhili] – adj. having hills and crags: hilly terrain

hind [haind] – n. any of several mostly spotted fishes that resemble groupers

hinder [ˈhində] – v. be a hindrance or obstacle to

hindmost [ˈhaindməust] – adj. located farthest to the rear

hindrance [ˈhindrəns] – n. something immaterial that interferes with or delays action or progress

hinge [hindʒ] – n. a joint that holds two parts together so that one can swing relative to the other

hint [hint] – n. an indirect suggestion

hinterland [ˈhintəlænd] – n. a remote and undeveloped area

hippopotamus [.hipəˈpɔtəməs] – n. massive thick-skinned herbivorous animal living in or around rivers of tropical Africa

hirsute [ˈhə:sju:t] – adj. having or covered with hair

Hispanic [hisˈpænik] – n. an American whose first language is Spanish

histrionic [.histriˈɔnik] – adj. characteristic of acting or a stage performance; often affected: histrionic gestures

hit [hit] – v. cause to move by striking: hit a ball

hive [haiv] – n. a teeming multitude

hoard [hɔ:d] – v. save up as for future use

hoarse [hɔ:s] – adj. deep and harsh sounding as if from shouting or illness or emotion: hoarse cries

hoax [həuks] – n. something intended to deceive; deliberate trickery intended to gain an advantage

hoe [həu] – n. a tool with a flat blade attached at right angles to a long handle

hold [həuld] – v. keep in a certain state, position, or activity; e.g.,: hold in place

hollow [ˈhɔləu] – n. a cavity or space in something: hunger had caused the hollows in their cheeks

holocaust [ˈhɔləkɔ:st] – n. an act of mass destruction and loss of life (especially in war or by fire): a nuclear holocaust

homage [ˈhɔmidʒ] – n. respectful deference

homely [ˈhəumli] – adj. lacking in physical beauty or proportion: a homely child

homemade [ˈhəʊmˈmeid] – adj. made or produced in the home or by yourself: homemade bread

homeotherm  – n. an animal that has a body temperature that is relatively constant and independent of the environmental temperature

homeothermic  – adj. of birds and mammals; having constant and relatively high body temperature

homesick [ˈhəumsik] – adj. longing to return home

homespun [ˈhəʊmspʌn] – adj. of textiles; having a rough surface: a sweater knitted of nubbly homespun yarns

homily [ˈhɔmili] – n. a sermon on a moral or religious topic

hominid  – n. a primate of the family Hominidae

homogeneity [həumədʒəˈni:iti] – n. the quality of being similar or comparable in kind or nature: there is a remarkable homogeneity between the two companies

homogeneous [.hɔməˈdʒi:niəs] – adj. all of the same or similar kind or nature: a close-knit homogeneous group

homogenize [həˈmɔdʒənaiz] – v. break up the fat globules of: homogenized milk

homologous [hɔˈmɔləgəs] – adj. having the same evolutionary origin but not necessarily the same function: the wing of a bat and the arm of a man are homologous

homonym [ˈhɔmənim] – n. two words are homonyms if they are pronounced or spelled the same way but have different meanings

homophone [ˈhɔməfəun] – n. two words are homophones if they are pronounced the same way but differ in meaning or spelling or both (e.g. bare and bear)

honeycomb  – v. penetrate thoroughly and into every part: the revolutionaries honeycombed the organization

honorarium [.ɔnəˈreəriəm] – n. a fee paid for a nominally free service

hoodwink [ˈhud.wiŋk] – v. influence by slyness

horde [hɔ:d] – n. a vast multitude

horizon [həˈraizn] – n. the line at which the sky and Earth appear to meet

horizontal [.hɔriˈzɔntl] – adj. parallel to or in the plane of the horizon or a base line: a horizontal surface

hormonal  – adj. of or relating to or caused by hormones: hormonal changes

hormone [ˈhɔ:məun] – n. the secretion of an endocrine gland that is transmitted by the blood to the tissue on which it has a specific effect

horn [hɔ:n] – n. a noisemaker (as at parties or games) that makes a loud noise when you blow through it

hornbill [ˈhɔ:nbil] – n. bird of tropical Africa and Asia having a very large bill surmounted by a bony protuberance; related to kingfishers

horned [hɔ:nd, ˈhɔ:nid] – adj. having a horn or horns or hornlike parts or horns of a particular kind: horned viper

hornet [ˈhɔ:nit] – n. large stinging paper wasp

horror [ˈhɔrə] – n. intense and profound fear

horsefly  – n. large swift fly the female of which sucks blood of various animals

horticulture [ˈhɔ:ti.kʌltʃə] – n. the cultivation of plants

hosiery [ˈhəuziəri] – n. socks and stockings and tights collectively (the British include underwear)

hospitable [ˈhɔspitəbl] – adj. favorable to life and growth: soil sufficiently hospitable for forest growth

hospitality [.hɔspiˈtæliti] – n. kindness in welcoming guests or strangers

hostile [ˈhɔstail] – adj. characterized by enmity or ill will: a hostile nation

hostility [hɔsˈtiliti] – n. a state of deep-seated ill-will

house [haus] – n. a dwelling that serves as living quarters for one or more families: he has a house on Cape Cod

hovel [ˈhɔvl] – n. small crude shelter used as a dwelling

hover [ˈhʌvə] – v. be undecided about something; waver between conflicting positions or courses of action

hovercraft [ˈhɔvəkrɑ:ft] – n. a craft capable of moving over water or land on a cushion of air created by jet engines

howl [haul] – v. emit long loud cries: howl with sorrow

hub [hʌb] – n. the central part of a car wheel (or fan or propeller etc) through which the shaft or axle passes

hubbub [ˈhʌbʌb] – n. loud confused noise from many sources

huckster [ˈhʌkstə] – n. a seller of shoddy goods

huddle [ˈhʌdl] – n. (informal) a quick private conference

hue [hju:] – v. take on color or become colored: In highlights it hued to a dull silver-grey

hum [hʌm] – v. sing with closed lips: She hummed a melody

humane [hju:ˈmein] – adj. marked or motivated by concern with the alleviation of suffering

humanist [ˈhju:mənist] – adj. of or pertaining to Renaissance humanism: the humanistic revival of learning

humanistic [.hju:məˈnistik] – adj. of or pertaining to Renaissance humanism: the humanistic revival of learning

humanitarian [hju(:).mæniˈtɛəriən] – n. someone devoted to the promotion of human welfare and to social reforms

humanity [hju:ˈmæniti] – n. the quality of being human

humanize [ˈhju:mənaiz] – v. make more humane: The mayor tried to humanize life in the big city

humble [ˈhʌmbl] – adj. low or inferior in station or quality: a humble cottage

humbug [ˈhʌmbʌg] – n. pretentious or silly talk or writing

humid [ˈhju:mid] – adj. containing or characterized by a great deal of water vapor: humid air

humidity [hju:ˈmiditi] – n. wetness in the atmosphere

humiliate [hju:ˈmilieit] – v. cause to feel shame; hurt the pride of: He humiliated his colleague by criticising him in front of the boss

humility [hju(:)ˈmiliti] – n. a disposition to be humble; a lack of false pride: not everyone regards humility as a virtue

hummingbird [ˈhʌmiŋbɜ:d] – n. tiny American bird having brilliant iridescent plumage and long slender bills; wings are specialized for vibrating flight

humorous [ˈhju:mərəs] – adj. full of or characterized by humor: humorous stories

hump [hʌmp] – v. round one’s back by bending forward and drawing the shoulders forward

hunger [ˈhʌŋgə] – v. feel the need to eat

hurl [hə:l] – v. throw forcefully

hurricane [ˈhʌrikən] – n. a severe tropical cyclone usually with heavy rains and winds moving a 73-136 knots (12 on the Beaufort scale)

husbandry [ˈhʌzbəndri] – n. the practice of cultivating the land or raising stock

husk [hʌsk] – n. material consisting of seed coverings and small pieces of stem or leaves that have been separated from the seeds

hussar [huˈzɑ:] – n. a member of a European light cavalry unit; renowned for elegant dress

hustle [ˈhʌsl] – v. cause to move furtively and hurriedly: The secret service agents hustled the speaker out of the amphitheater

hybrid [ˈhaibrid] – n. a word that is composed of parts from different languages (e.g., `monolingual’ has a Greek prefix and a Latin root)

hydra [ˈhaidrə] – n. (Greek mythology) monster with nine heads; when struck off each head was replaced by two new ones

hydraulic [haiˈdrɔ:lik] – adj. moved or operated or effected by liquid (water or oil): hydraulic erosion

hydrodynamics [ˈhaidrəudaiˈnæmiks] – n. study of fluids in motion

hydroelectric [ˈhaidrəiˈlektrik] – adj. of or relating to or used in the production of electricity by waterpower: hydroelectric power

hydrogen [ˈhaidridʒən] – n. a nonmetallic univalent element that is normally a colorless and odorless highly flammable diatomic gas; the simplest and lightest and most abundant element in the universe

hydrometer [haiˈdrɔmitə] – n. a measuring instrument for determining the specific gravity of a liquid or solid

hydrosphere [ˈhaidrəsfiə] – n. the watery layer of the earth’s surface; includes water vapor

hydrostatics [,haidrəuˈstætiks] – n. study of the mechanical properties of fluids that are not in motion

hydrous [ˈhaidrəs] – adj. containing combined water (especially water of crystallization as in a hydrate)

hygiene [ˈhaidʒi:n] – n. a condition promoting sanitary practices: personal hygiene

hyperbole [haiˈpə:bəli] – n. extravagant exaggeration

hypercritical [.haipəˈkritikəl] – adj. inclined to judge too severely: hypercritical of colloquial speech

hypersensitive [.haipə(:)ˈsensitiv] – adj. having an allergy or peculiar or excessive susceptibility (especially to a specific factor): hypersensitive to pollen

hypnosis [hipˈnəusis] – n. a state that resembles sleep but that is induced by suggestion

hypnotic [hipˈnɔtik] – adj. attracting and holding interest as if by a spell: read the bedtime story in a hypnotic voice

hypnotism [ˈhipnətizm] – n. the act of inducing hypnosis

hypnotize [ˈhipnətaiz] – v. induce hypnosis in

hypocrisy [hiˈpɔkrəsi] – n. an expression of agreement that is not supported by real conviction

hypocrite [ˈhipəkrit] – n. a person who professes beliefs and opinions that he or she does not hold in order to conceal his or her real feelings or motives

hypodermic [haipəˈdə:mik] – adj. relating to or located below the epidermis: hypodermic needle

hypotenuse [haiˈpɔtənju:z] – n. the side of a right triangle opposite the right angle

hypothesis [haiˈpɔθisis] – n. a proposal intended to explain certain facts or observations

hypothesize [haiˈpɔθisaiz] – v. to believe especially on uncertain or tentative grounds

hypothetical [.haipəˈθetikəl] – adj. based primarily on surmise rather than adequate evidence: hypothetical situation

hysteria [hisˈtiəriə] – n. state of violent mental agitation

iceberg [ˈaisbəg] – n. a large mass of ice floating at sea; usually broken off of a polar glacier

ichthyology [,ikθiˈɔlədʒi] – n. the branch of zoology that studies fishes

ichthyosaur  – n. any of several marine reptiles of the Mesozoic having a body like a porpoise with dorsal and tail fins and paddle-shaped limbs

icicle [ˈaisikl] – n. ice resembling a pendent spear, formed by the freezing of dripping water

icon [ˈaikɔn] – n. a visual representation (of an object or scene or person or abstraction) produced on a surface

iconoclast [aiˈkɔnəklæst] – n. a destroyer of images used in religious worship

idealize [aiˈdiəlaiz] – v. form ideals: Man has always idealized

identical [aiˈdentikəl] – adj. exactly alike; incapable of being perceived as different: rows of identical houses

identifiable [aiˈdentifaiəbl] – adj. capable of being identified

identification [ai.dentifiˈkeiʃən] – n. evidence of identity; something that identifies a person or thing

identify [aiˈdentifai] – v. recognize as being; establish the identity of someone or something

identity [aiˈdentiti] – n. the distinct personality of an individual regarded as a persisting entity: you can lose your identity when you join the army

ideological [.aidiəˈlɔdʒikəl] – adj. of or pertaining to or characteristic of an orientation that characterizes the thinking of a group or nation

ideology [.aidiˈɔlədʒi] – n. an orientation that characterizes the thinking of a group or nation

idiom [ˈidiəm] – n. a manner of speaking that is natural to native speakers of a language

idiomatic [.idiəˈmætik] – adj. of or relating to or conforming to idiom: idiomatic English

idiosyncrasy [.idiəˈsiŋkrəsi] – n. a behavioral attribute that is distinctive and peculiar to an individual

idiotic [.idiˈɔtik] – adj. insanely irresponsible: an idiotic idea

idleness [ˈaidlnis] – n. having no employment

idolize [ˈaidəlaiz] – v. love unquestioningly and uncritically or to excess; venerate as an idol: Many teenagers idolized the Beatles

idyllic [aiˈdilik, iˈdilik] – adj. excellent and delightful in all respects: an idyllic spot for a picnic

igneous [ˈigniəs] – adj. produced under conditions involving intense heat: igneous rock is rock formed by solidification from a molten state; especially from molten magma

ignite [igˈnait] – v. cause to start burning; subject to fire or great heat: Great heat can ignite almost any dry matter

ignoble [igˈnəubəl] – adj. completely lacking nobility in character or quality or purpose: something cowardly and ignoble in his attitude

ignominious [.ignəˈminiəs] – adj. (used of conduct or character) deserving or bringing disgrace or shame: an ignominious retreat

ignorance [ˈignərəns] – n. the lack of knowledge or education

ignorant [ˈignərənt] – adj. uneducated in general; lacking knowledge or sophistication: an ignorant man

ignore [igˈnɔ:] – v. refuse to acknowledge

Iliad [ˈiliəd] – n. a Greek epic poem (attributed to Homer) describing the siege of Troy

illegal [iˈli:gəl] – adj. prohibited by law or by official or accepted rules: an illegal chess move

illegible [iˈledʒəbl] – adj. (of handwriting, print, etc.) not legible: illegible handwriting

illegitimate [.iliˈdʒitimit] – adj. contrary to or forbidden by law: an illegitimate seizure of power

illiberal [iˈlibərəl] – adj. narrow-minded about cherished opinions

illicit [iˈlisit] – adj. contrary to accepted morality (especially sexual morality) or convention: an illicit association with his secretary

illimitable [iˈlimitəbl] – adj. without limits in extent or size or quantity

illiterate [iˈlitərit] – adj. not able to read or write

ill-natured  – adj. having an irritable and unpleasant disposition

illogical [iˈlɔdʒikəl] – adj. lacking in correct logical relation

illuminant [iˈlju:minənt] – n. something that can serve as a source of light

illuminate [iˈlju:mineit] – v. make lighter or brighter

illumination [i.lju:miˈneiʃən] – n. the degree of visibility of your environment

illumine [iˈlju:min] – v. make lighter or brighter

illusion [iˈlu:ʒən] – n. an erroneous mental representation

illusive [iˈlu:siv] – adj. based on or having the nature of an illusion: illusive hopes of finding a better job

illusory [iˈlu:səri] – adj. based on or having the nature of an illusion: Secret activities offer presidents the alluring but often illusory promise that they can achieve foreign policy goals without the bothersome debate and open decision that are staples of democracy

illustrate [ˈiləstreit] – v. clarify by giving an example of

illustration [i.ləsˈtreiʃən] – n. artwork that helps make something clear or attractive

illustrator  – n. an artist who makes illustrations (for books or magazines or advertisements etc.)

image [ˈimidʒ] – n. an iconic mental representation: her imagination forced images upon her too awful to contemplate

imagery [ˈimidʒəri] – n. the ability to form mental images of things or events

imaginable [iˈmædʒinəbl] – adj. capable of being imagined

imaginary [iˈmædʒinəri] – n. (mathematics) a number of the form a+bi where a and b are real numbers and i is the square root of -1

imaginative [iˈmædʒinətiv] – adj. (used of persons or artifacts) marked by independence and creativity in thought or action: an imaginative use of material

imagism  – n. a movement by American and English poets early in the 20th century in reaction to Victorian sentimentality; used common speech in free verse with clear concrete imagery

imbalance [imˈbæləns] – n. a lack of balance or state of disequilibrium: a hormonal imbalance

imbibe [imˈbaib] – v. take in, also metaphorically

imbroglio [imˈbrəuliəu] – n. an intricate and confusing interpersonal or political situation

imbrue [imˈbru:] – v. permeate or impregnate

imbue [imˈbju:] – v. spread or diffuse through

imitate [ˈimiteit] – v. reproduce someone’s behavior or looks: The mime imitated the passers-by

imitation [.imiˈteiʃən] – n. something copied or derived from an original

immaculate [iˈmækjulit] – adj. completely neat and clean: the apartment was immaculate

immaterial [.iməˈtiəriəl] – adj. of no importance or relevance especially to a law case: an objection that is immaterial after the fact

immature [.iməˈtjuə] – adj. characteristic of a lack of maturity: immature behavior

immeasurable [iˈmeʒərəbl] – adj. impossible to measure

immediate [iˈmi:djət] – adj. of the present time and place: the immediate revisions

immediately [iˈmi:djətli] – adv. without delay or hesitation; with no time intervening: he answered immediately

immense [iˈmens] – adj. unusually great in size or amount or degree or especially extent or scope: the Los Angeles aqueduct winds like an immense snake along the base of the mountains

immerse [iˈmə:s] – v. thrust or throw into

immersion [iˈmə:ʃən] – n. sinking until covered completely with water

immigrant [ˈimigrənt] – n. a person who comes to a country where they were not born in order to settle there

immigrate [ˈimigreit] – v. migrate to a new environment: only few plants can immigrate to the island

immigration [.imiˈgreiʃən] – n. migration into a place (especially migration to a country of which you are not a native in order to settle there)

imminence [ˈiminəns] – n. the state of being imminent and liable to happen soon

imminent [ˈiminənt] – adj. close in time; about to occur: in imminent danger

immiscible [iˈmisib(ə)l] – adj. (chemistry, physics) incapable of mixing

immobile [iˈməubail] – adj. not capable of movement or of being moved

immobility [.imoˈbiləti] – n. remaining in place

immobilize [iˈməʊbilaiz] – v. hold as reserve or withdraw from circulation; of capital

immodesty [iˈmadisti] – n. the trait of being vain and conceited

immolate [ˈiməleit] – v. offer as a sacrifice by killing or by giving up to destruction: The Aztecs immolated human victims

immoral [iˈmɔrəl] – adj. deliberately violating accepted principles of right and wrong

immortal [iˈmɔ:tl] – n. a person (such as an author) of enduring fame: Shakespeare is one of the immortals

immortalize [iˈmɔ:təlaiz] – v. be or provide a memorial to a person or an event

immovable [iˈmu:vəbl] – n. property consisting of houses and land

immune [iˈmju:n] – adj. secure against: immune from taxation as long as he resided in Bermuda

immunity [iˈmju:niti] – n. the state of not being susceptible

immutable [iˈmju:təbəl] – adj. not subject or susceptible to change or variation in form or quality or nature: the view of that time was that all species were immutable, created by God

impact [ˈimpækt,imˈpækt] – n. the striking of one body against another

impair [imˈpɛə] – v. make worse or less effective: His vision was impaired

impale [imˈpel] – v. pierce with a sharp stake or point: impale a shrimp on a skewer

impalpable [imˈpælpəbəl] – adj. incapable of being perceived by the senses especially the sense of touch

impart [imˈpɑ:t] – v. transmit (knowledge or skills): impart a new skill to the students

impartial [imˈpɑ:ʃəl] – adj. showing lack of favoritism: the cold neutrality of an impartial judge

impartially [imˈpɑ:ʃəli] – adv. in an impartial manner: he smiled at them both impartially

impassable [imˈpæsəbl] – adj. incapable of being passed

impassive [imˈpæsiv] – adj. having or revealing little emotion or sensibility; not easily aroused or excited: her impassive remoteness

impatience [imˈpeiʃəns] – n. a lack of patience; irritation with anything that causes delay

impeach [imˈpi:tʃ] – v. challenge the honesty or veracity of: the lawyers tried to impeach the credibility of the witnesses

impeccable [imˈpekəbəl] – adj. without fault or error: speaks impeccable French

impecunious [.impiˈkju:niəs] – adj. not having enough money to pay for necessities

impede [imˈpi:d] – v. be a hindrance or obstacle to

impediment [imˈpedimənt] – n. something immaterial that interferes with or delays action or progress

impel [imˈpel] – v. urge or force (a person) to an action; constrain or motivate

impend [imˈpend] – v. be imminent or about to happen: Changes are impending

imperative [imˈperətiv] – n. a mood that expresses an intention to influence the listener’s behavior

imperceptible [.impəˈseptəbəl] – adj. impossible or difficult to perceive by the mind or senses: an imperceptible drop in temperature

imperceptibly  – adv. in an imperceptible manner or to an imperceptible degree: the power of the Secretary of State in London increased gradually but imperceptibly

imperil [imˈperil] – v. pose a threat to; present a danger to

imperious [imˈpiəriəs] – adj. having or showing arrogant superiority to and disdain of those one views as unworthy

impermeable [imˈpə:miəbəl] – adj. preventing especially liquids to pass or diffuse through: impermeable stone

impermissible [ˈimpəˈmisəbl] – adj. not permitted: impermissible behavior

impersonal [imˈpə:sənl] – adj. not relating to or responsive to individual persons: an impersonal corporation

impersonate [imˈpə:səneit] – v. assume or act the character of: She impersonates Madonna

impersonation [im.pə:səˈneiʃən] – n. a representation of a person that is exaggerated for comic effect

impertinence [imˈpə:tinəns] – n. an impudent statement

impertinent [imˈpə:tnənt] – adj. characterized by a lightly pert and exuberant quality

imperturbable [.impəˈtə:bəbəl] – adj. not easily perturbed or excited or upset; marked by extreme calm and composure: hitherto imperturbable, he now showed signs of alarm

impervious [imˈpə:viəs] – adj. not admitting of passage or capable of being affected: a material impervious to water

impetuosity [impetʃuˈɔsiti] – n. rash impulsiveness

impetuous [imˈpetjuəs] – adj. characterized by undue haste and lack of thought or deliberation: an impetuous display of spending and gambling

impetus [ˈimpitəs] – n. a force that moves something along

impiety [imˈpaiəti] – n. unrighteousness by virtue of lacking respect for a god

impious [ˈimpiəs] – adj. lacking piety or reverence for a god

implacable [imˈplækəbəl] – adj. incapable of being placated: an implacable enemy

implausible [imˈplɔ:zəbl] – adj. having a quality that provokes disbelief: gave the teacher an implausible excuse

implementation [.implimenˈteiʃən] – n. the act of accomplishing some aim or executing some order: the agency was created for the implementation of the policy

implicate [ˈimplikeit] – v. bring into intimate and incriminating connection: He is implicated in the scheme to defraud the government

implication [.impliˈkeiʃən] – n. something that is inferred (deduced or entailed or implied): his resignation had political implications

implicit [imˈplisit] – adj. being without doubt or reserve: implicit trust

imply [imˈplai] – v. express or state indirectly

impolitic [imˈpɔlitik] – adj. not politic: an impolitic approach to a sensitive issue

import [ˈimpɔ:t,imˈpɔ:t] – n. commodities (goods or services) bought from a foreign country

importation [.impɔ:ˈteiʃən] – n. the commercial activity of buying and bringing in goods from a foreign country

importunate [imˈpɔ:tʃənit] – adj. expressing earnest entreaty: an importunate job applicant

importune [.imˈpɔ:tju:n] – v. beg persistently and urgently: I importune you to help them

impose [imˈpəuz] – v. compel to behave in a certain way: Social relations impose courtesy

imposing [imˈpəuziŋ] – adj. impressive in appearance: an imposing residence

impostor [imˈpɔstə] – n. a person who makes deceitful pretenses

impotent [ˈimpətənt] – adj. lacking power or ability: Technology without morality is barbarous; morality without technology is impotent

impoverish [imˈpɔvəriʃ] – v. make poor

impracticable [imˈpræktikəbl] – adj. not capable of being carried out or put into practice: refloating the sunken ship proved impracticable because of its fragility

impractical [imˈpræktikəl] – adj. not practical; not workable or not given to practical matters: refloating the ship proved impractical because of the expense

impracticality [im.præktiˈkæliti] – n. concerned with theoretical possibilities rather than actual use

imprecate [impriˈkeit] – v. wish harm upon; invoke evil upon

imprecation [impriˈkeiʃən] – n. the act of calling down a curse that invokes evil (and usually serves as an insult): he suffered the imprecations of the mob

impregnable [imˈgregnəbəl] – adj. immune to attack; incapable of being tampered with: an impregnable fortress

impregnate [ˈimpregneit] – v. fill, as with a certain quality

impressive [imˈpresiv] – adj. producing a strong effect: gave an impressive performance as Othello

imprint [imˈprint] – n. a distinctive influence: English stills bears the imprint of the Norman invasion

imprisonment [imˈprizənmənt] – n. putting someone in prison or in jail as lawful punishment

improbable [imˈprɔbəbl] – adj. not likely to be true or to occur or to have occurred: an improbable event

impromptu [imˈprɔmptju:] – n. an extemporaneous speech or remark: a witty impromptu must not sound premeditated

improper [imˈprɔpə] – adj. not suitable or right or appropriate: slightly improper to dine alone with a married man

impropriety [.imprəˈpraiəti] – n. the condition of being improper

improvident [imˈprɔvidənt] – adj. not provident; not providing for the future

improvise [ˈimprəvaiz] – v. perform without preparation

imprudent [imˈpru:dənt] – adj. not prudent or wise: very imprudent of her mother to encourage her in such silly romantic ideas

impudence [ˈimpjudns] – n. the trait of being rude and impertinent; inclined to take liberties

impugn [imˈpju:n] – v. attack as false or wrong

impulse [ˈimpʌls] – n. an instinctive motive: profound religious impulses

impulsion [imˈpʌlʃən] – n. a force that moves something along

impulsive [imˈpʌlsiv] – adj. without forethought: letting him borrow her car was an impulsive act that she immediately regretted

impunity [imˈpju:niti] – n. exemption from punishment or loss

impure [imˈpjuə] – adj. combined with extraneous elements

impurity [imˈpjuəriti] – n. worthless or dangerous material that should be removed

impute [imˈpju:t] – v. attribute or credit to: People impute great cleverness to cats

inaccessible [.inækˈsesəbl] – adj. capable of being reached only with great difficulty or not at all

inaccurate [inˈækjurit] – adj. not exact: an inaccurate translation

inactivate [inˈæktiveit] – v. release from military service or remove from the active list of military service

inactive [inˈæktiv] – adj. (chemistry) not participating in a chemical reaction; chemically inert: desired amounts of inactive chlorine

inactivity  – n. a disposition to remain inactive or inert

inadequate [inˈædikwit] – adj. lacking the requisite qualities or resources to meet a task: inadequate training

inadmissible [inədˈmisəbl] – adj. not deserving to be admitted: inadmissible evidence

inadvertent [.inədˈvə:tənt] – adj. happening by chance or unexpectedly or unintentionally: with an inadvertent gesture she swept the vase off the table

inadvisable [inədˈvaizəbl] – adj. not prudent or wise; not recommended: running on the ice is inadvisable

inane [iˈnein] – adj. devoid of intelligence

inanimate [inˈænimit] – adj. belonging to the class of nouns denoting nonliving things: the word `car’ is inanimate

inappropriate [.inəˈprəupriit] – adj. not suitable for a particular occasion etc: noise seems inappropriate at a time of sadness

inapt [inˈæpt] – adj. not elegant or graceful in expression

inarticulate [inɑ:ˈtikjulit] – adj. without or deprived of the use of speech or words: inarticulate beasts

inaudible [inˈɔ:dəbl] – adj. impossible to hear; imperceptible by the ear: an inaudible conversation

inaugurate [iˈnɔ:gjureit] – v. commence officially

inborn [.inˈbɔ:n] – adj. present at birth but not necessarily hereditary; acquired during fetal development

inbred [ˈinˈbred] – adj. normally existing at birth

incandescence [inkænˈdesns] – n. the phenomenon of light emission by a body as its temperature is raised

incandescent [.inkænˈdesnt] – adj. emitting light as a result of being heated: an incandescent bulb

incapacitate [.inkəˈpæsiteit] – v. make unable to perform a certain action

incapacity [.inkəˈpæsiti] – n. lack of intellectual power

incarcerate [inˈkɑ:səreit] – v. lock up or confine, in or as in a jail: the murderer was incarcerated for the rest of his life

incendiary [inˈsendiəri] – adj. involving deliberate burning of property: an incendiary fire

incense [inˈsens] – n. a substance that produces a fragrant odor when burned

incentive [inˈsentiv] – n. a positive motivational influence

inception [inˈsepʃən] – n. an event that is a beginning; a first part or stage of subsequent events

incessant [inˈsesnt] – adj. uninterrupted in time and indefinitely long continuing: night and day we live with the incessant noise of the city

inchoate [inˈkəuit] – adj. only partly in existence; imperfectly formed: a vague inchoate idea

inchoative [`inkəueitiv] – n. aspect with regard to the beginning of the action of the verb

incidence [ˈinsidəns] – n. the relative frequency of occurrence of something

incident [ˈinsidənt] – n. a single distinct event

incidentally [.insiˈdentəli] – adv. introducing a different topic; in point of fact: incidentally, I won’t go to the party

incinerate [inˈsinəreit] – v. become reduced to ashes: The paper incinerated quickly

incipience [inˈsipiəns] – n. beginning to exist or to be apparent: he placed the incipience of democratic faith at around 1850

incipient [inˈsipiənt] – adj. only partly in existence; imperfectly formed: incipient civil disorder

incise [inˈsaiz] – v. make an incision into by carving or cutting

incisive [inˈsaisiv] – adj. having or demonstrating ability to recognize or draw fine distinctions: incisive comments

incisor [inˈsaizə] – n. a tooth for cutting or gnawing; located in the front of the mouth in both jaws

incite [inˈsait] – v. provoke or stir up: incite a riot

inclination [.inkliˈneiʃən] – n. an attitude of mind especially one that favors one alternative over others: he had an inclination to give up too easily

inclined [inˈklaind] – adj. (often followed by `to’) having a preference, disposition, or tendency: wasn’t inclined to believe the excuse

inclusive [inˈklu:siv] – adj. including much or everything; and especially including stated limits: an inclusive art form

incognito [.inkɔgˈni:təu] – adj. with your identity concealed

incoherence [inkəu`hiərəns] – n. lack of cohesion or clarity or organization

incoherent [.inkəuˈhiərənt] – adj. without logical or meaningful connection: a turgid incoherent presentation

incombustible [inkəmˈbʌstəbl] – adj. not capable of igniting and burning

income [ˈin.kʌm] – n. the financial gain (earned or unearned) accruing over a given period of time

incomparable [inˈkɔmpərəbl] – adj. such that comparison is impossible; unsuitable for comparison or lacking features that can be compared: an incomparable week of rest and pleasure

incompatible [.inkəmˈpætəbl] – adj. not compatible: incompatible personalities

incompetence [inˈkɔmpitəns] – n. lack of physical or intellectual ability or qualifications

incompetent [inˈkɔmpitənt] – adj. legally not qualified or sufficient: incompetent witnesses

incomplete [.inkəmˈpli:t] – adj. not complete or total; not completed: an incomplete account of his life

incomprehensible [.inkɔmpriˈhensəbl] – adj. incapable of being explained or accounted for

incompressible [inkəmˈpresəbl] – adj. incapable of being compressed; resisting compression: mounds of incompressible garbage

inconceivable [.inkənˈsi:vəbəl] – adj. totally unlikely

inconclusive [.inkənˈklu:siv] – adj. not conclusive; not putting an end to doubt or question: an inconclusive reply

incongruent  – adj. not congruent

incongruity [.inkɔŋˈgru(:)iti] – n. the quality of disagreeing; being unsuitable and inappropriate

incongruous [inˈkɔŋgruəs] – adj. lacking in harmony or compatibility or appropriateness: a plan incongruous with reason

inconsequential [in.kɔnsiˈkwenʃəl] – adj. lacking worth or importance: his work seems trivial and inconsequential

inconsiderable [inkənˈsidərəbl] – adj. too small or unimportant to merit attention: passed his life in an inconsiderable village

inconsistent [.inkənˈsistənt] – adj. displaying a lack of consistency: inconsistent statements cannot both be true at the same time

inconstant [inˈkɔnstənt] – adj. likely to change frequently often without apparent or cogent reason; variable: inconstant affections

incontrovertible [inkɔntrəˈvə:təbl] – adj. impossible to deny or disprove: incontrovertible proof of the defendant’s innocence

inconvenient [.inkənˈvi:njənt] – adj. not suited to your comfort, purpose or needs: it is inconvenient not to have a telephone in the kitchen

incorporate [inˈkɔ:pəreit] – v. make into a whole or make part of a whole: She incorporated his suggestions into her proposal

incorporation [in.kɔ:pəˈreiʃən] – n. consolidating two or more things; union in (or into) one body

incredible [inˈkredəbl] – adj. beyond belief or understanding: at incredible speed

incredulity [.inkriˈdju:liti] – n. doubt about the truth of something

increment [ˈinkrimənt] – n. a process of becoming larger or longer or more numerous or more important

incriminate [inˈkrimineit] – v. suggest that someone is guilty

inculcate [inˈkʌlkeit] – v. teach and impress by frequent repetitions or admonitions: inculcate values into the young generation

incumbent [inˈkʌmbənt] – adj. lying or leaning on something else: an incumbent geological formation

incur [inˈkə:] – v. make oneself subject to; bring upon oneself; become liable to: People who smoke incur a great danger to their health

indefatigable [.indiˈfætigəbəl] – adj. showing sustained enthusiastic action with unflagging vitality: an indefatigable advocate of equal rights

indefensible [,indiˈfensəbl] – adj. (of theories etc) incapable of being defended or justified

indefinite [inˈdefinit] – adj. vague or not clearly defined or stated: must you be so indefinite?

indefinitely [inˈdefinitli] – adv. to an indefinite extent; for an indefinite time: this could go on indefinitely

indelible [inˈdeləbəl] – adj. cannot be removed or erased: an indelible stain

indemnify [inˈdemnifai] – v. secure against future loss, damage, or liability; give security for

indent [ˈindent,inˈdent] – v. set in from the margin

indenture [inˈdentʃə] – n. a concave cut into a surface or edge (as in a coastline)

independent [.indiˈpendənt] – adj. free from external control and constraint: an independent mind

indescribable [.indisˈkraibəbəl] – adj. defying expression or description: indescribable beauty

indestructible [indisˈtrʌktəbl] – adj. not easily destroyed

indicant [ˈindikənt] – n. something that serves to indicate or suggest: symptoms are the prime indicants of disease

indicate [ˈindikeit] – v. be a signal for or a symptom of: These symptoms indicate a serious illness

indication [.indiˈkeiʃən] – n. the act of indicating or pointing out by name

indicative [inˈdikətiv] – adj. relating to the mood of verbs that is used simple in declarative statements: indicative mood

indicator [ˈindikeitə] – n. a signal for attracting attention

indict [inˈdait] – v. accuse formally of a crime

indictment [inˈdaitmənt] – n. a formal document written for a prosecuting attorney charging a person with some offense

indifference [inˈdifrəns] – n. unbiased impartial unconcern

indifferent [inˈdifrənt] – adj. marked by a lack of interest: the universe is neither hostile nor friendly; it is simply indifferent

indigence [ˈindidʒəns] – n. a state of extreme poverty or destitution: their indigence appalled him

indigenous [inˈdidʒənəs] – adj. originating where it is found: the Ainu are indigenous to the northernmost islands of Japan

indigent [ˈindidʒənt] – adj. poor enough to need help from others

indigestible [indiˈdʒestəbl] – adj. digested with difficulty

indigestion [.indiˈdʒestʃən] – n. a disorder of digestive function characterized by discomfort or heartburn or nausea

indignant [inˈdignənt] – adj. angered at something unjust or wrong: an indignant denial

indignity [inˈdigniti] – n. an affront to one’s dignity or self-esteem

indiscernible [.indiˈsə:nəbəl] – adj. difficult or impossible to perceive or discern: an indiscernible increase in temperature

indiscreet [.indisˈkri:t] – adj. lacking discretion; injudicious: her behavior was indiscreet at the very best

indiscriminate [.indisˈkriminit] – adj. failing to make or recognize distinctions

indiscriminately [indiˈskriminitli] – adv. in a random manner

indispensable [.indisˈpensəbl] – adj. not to be dispensed with; essential: foods indispensable to good nutrition

indistinct [indisˈtiŋkt] – adj. not clearly defined or easy to perceive or understand: indistinct shapes in the gloom

indite  – v. produce a literary work

individualism [indiˈvidjʊəliz(ə)m] – n. a belief in the importance of the individual and the virtue of self-reliance and personal independence

individuality  – n. the distinct personality of an individual regarded as a persisting entity

indivisible [.indiˈvizəbəl] – adj. impossible of undergoing division: an indivisible union of states

indolence [ˈindələns] – n. inactivity resulting from a dislike of work

indolent [ˈindələnt] – adj. disinclined to work or exertion: an indolent hanger-on

indomitable [inˈdɔmitəbəl] – adj. impossible to subdue

induce [inˈdju:s] – v. cause to arise: induce a crisis

induct [inˈdʌkt] – v. place ceremoniously or formally in an office or position: there was a ceremony to induct the president of the Academy

induction [inˈdʌkʃən] – n. a formal entry into an organization or position or office: he was ordered to report for induction into the army

indulgence [inˈdʌldʒəns] – n. an inability to resist the gratification of whims and desires

indulgent [inˈdʌldʒənt] – adj. characterized by or given to yielding to the wishes of someone: indulgent grandparents

industrial [inˈdʌstriəl] – adj. having highly developed industries: the industrial revolution

industrialization [in.dʌstriəlaiˈzeiʃn] – n. the development of industry on an extensive scale

industrialized [inˈdʌstriəlaizd] – adj. made industrial; converted to industrialism: industrialized areas

industrious [inˈdʌstriəs] – adj. characterized by hard work and perseverance

inebriate [iˈni:brieit] – v. fill with sublime emotion: He was inebriated by his phenomenal success

inedible [inˈedibl] – adj. not suitable for food

ineffable [inˈefəbəl] – adj. defying expression or description: ineffable ecstasy

inefficiency [.iniˈfiʃənsi] – n. unskillfulness resulting from a lack of efficiency

inefficient [.iniˈfiʃənt] – adj. not producing desired results; wasteful: an inefficient campaign against drugs

inelastic [.iniˈlæstik] – adj. not elastic: economists speak of an inelastic price structure

ineligible [inˈelidʒəbl] – adj. not eligible: ineligible to vote

inept [iˈnept] – adj. not elegant or graceful in expression: if the rumor is true, can anything be more inept than to repeat it now?

inequity  – n. injustice by virtue of not conforming with rules or standards

inert [iˈnə:t] – adj. unable to move or resist motion

inestimable [inˈestiməbl] – adj. beyond calculation or measure: jewels of inestimable value

inevitable [inˈevitəbl] – adj. incapable of being avoided or prevented: the inevitable result

inevitably [inˈevitəbli] – adv. in such a manner as could not be otherwise

inexcusable [inikˈskju:zəbl] – adj. without excuse or justification

inexhaustible [.inigˈzɔ:stəbəl] – adj. that cannot be entirely consumed or used up: an inexhaustible supply of coal

inexorable [inˈeksərəbəl] – adj. not to be placated or appeased or moved by entreaty: Russia’s final hour, it seemed, approached with inexorable certainty

inexorably  – adv. in an inexorable manner: time marches on inexorably

inexpedient [.inikˈspi:diənt] – adj. not suitable or advisable: an inexpedient tactic

inexpensive [.inikˈspensiv] – adj. relatively low in price or charging low prices: inexpensive family restaurants

inexperience [inikˈspiəriəns] – n. lack of experience and the knowledge and understanding derived from experience: procedural inexperience created difficulties

inexplicable [.inikˈsplikəbəl] – adj. incapable of being explained or accounted for: inexplicable errors

inexpressible [iniksˈpresəbl] – adj. defying expression

inextricable [inˈekstrikəbəl] – adj. not permitting extrication; incapable of being disentangled or untied: an inextricable knot

inextricably [inˈekstrikəbli] – adv. in an inextricable manner: motives inspired by Mammon were often inextricably blended with things pertaining to Caesar and to God

infallible [inˈfæləbəl] – adj. incapable of failure or error: an infallible antidote

infamous [ˈinfəməs] – adj. known widely and usually unfavorably: the infamous Benedict Arnold

infamy [ˈinfəmi] – n. a state of extreme dishonor: a date which will live in infamy

infancy [ˈinfənsi] – n. the early stage of growth or development

infant [ˈinfənt] – n. a very young child (birth to 1 year) who has not yet begun to walk or talk

infection [inˈfekʃən] – n. the pathological state resulting from the invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms

infectious [inˈfekʃəs] – adj. easily spread: fear is exceedingly infectious; children catch it from their elders

inference [ˈinfərəns] – n. the reasoning involved in drawing a conclusion or making a logical judgment on the basis of circumstantial evidence and prior conclusions rather than on the basis of direct observation

inferior [inˈfiəriə] – adj. of or characteristic of low rank or importance

inferiority [in.fiəriˈɔriti] – n. an inferior quality

infernal [inˈfə:nəl] – adj. characteristic of or resembling Hell: infernal noise

infertile [inˈfə:tail] – adj. incapable of reproducing: an infertile couple

infest [inˈfest] – v. invade in great numbers: the roaches infested our kitchen

infidel [ˈinfidl] – n. a person who does not acknowledge your god

infidelity [.infiˈdeliti] – n. the quality of being unfaithful

infiltrate [inˈfiltreit] – v. cause (a liquid) to enter by penetrating the interstices

infiltration  – n. the slow passage of a liquid through a filtering medium: the infiltration of seawater through the lava

infinite [ˈinfinit] – adj. having no limits or boundaries in time or space or extent or magnitude: the infinite ingenuity of man

infinitely [ˈinfinitli] – adv. without bounds: he is infinitely wealthy

infinity [inˈfiniti] – n. time without end

infirm [inˈfə:m] – adj. lacking bodily or muscular strength or vitality

infirmary [inˈfə:məri] – n. a health facility where patients receive treatment

infirmity [inˈfə:miti] – n. the state of being weak in health or body (especially from old age)

inflammable [inˈflæməbl] – adj. easily ignited

inflammation [infləˈmeiʃən] – n. a response of body tissues to injury or irritation; characterized by pain and swelling and redness and heat

inflate [inˈfleit] – v. exaggerate or make bigger: The charges were inflated

inflation [inˈfleiʃən] – n. a general and progressive increase in prices: in inflation everything gets more valuable except money

inflexible [inˈfleksəbl] – adj. incapable of change: a man of inflexible purpose

inflict [inˈflikt] – v. impose something unpleasant

influence [ˈinfluəns] – n. a power to affect persons or events especially power based on prestige etc: used her parents’ influence to get the job

influential [.influˈenʃəl] – adj. having or exercising influence or power: an influential newspaper

influenza [ˈinfluˈenzə] – n. an acute febrile highly contagious viral disease

influx [ˈinflʌks] – n. the process of flowing in

informal [inˈfɔ:məl] – adj. not formal: conservative people unaccustomed to informal dress

informative [inˈfɔ:mətiv] – adj. tending to increase knowledge or dissipate ignorance

informed [inˈfɔ:md] – adj. having much knowledge or education: an informed public

infrared [ˈinfrəˈred] – n. electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths longer than visible light but shorter than radio waves

infrequent [inˈfri:kwənt] – adj. not frequent; not occurring regularly or at short intervals: infrequent outbursts of temper

infringe [inˈfrindʒ] – v. go against, as of rules and laws

infuse [inˈfju:z] – v. teach and impress by frequent repetitions or admonitions

infusion [inˈfju:ʒən] – n. a solution obtained by steeping or soaking a substance (usually in water)

ingenious [inˈdʒi:njəs] – adj. showing inventiveness and skill: an ingenious solution to the problem

ingeniously [inˈdʒi:njəsli] – adv. in an ingenious manner: a Hampshire farmer had fowls of different breeds, including Dorkings, and he discriminated ingeniously between the `dark ones’ and the `white ones’

ingenuity [.indʒiˈnju:iti] – n. the power of creative imagination

ingenuous [inˈdʒenjuəs] – adj. characterized by an inability to mask your feelings; not devious: an ingenuous admission of responsibility

inglorious [inˈglɔ:riəs] – adj. (used of conduct or character) deserving or bringing disgrace or shame: inglorious defeat

ingratiate [inˈgreiʃieit] – v. gain favor with somebody by deliberate efforts

ingratitude [inˈgrætitju:d] – n. a lack of gratitude

ingredient [inˈgri:diənt] – n. a component of a mixture or compound

inhabit [inˈhæbit] – v. be present in: sweet memories inhabit this house

inhabitant [inˈhæbitənt] – n. a person who inhabits a particular place

inherence [in`hiərəns] – n. the state of inhering; the state of being a fixed characteristic: the inherence of polysemy in human language

inherent [inˈhiərənt] – adj. existing as an essential constituent or characteristic

inherit [inˈherit] – v. obtain from someone after their death: I inherited a castle from my French grandparents

inheritance [inˈheritəns] – n. hereditary succession to a title or an office or property

inhibit [inˈhibit] – v. to put down by force or authority

inhospitable [inˈhɔspitəbl] – adj. unfavorable to life or growth: the barren inhospitable desert

inhuman [inˈhju:mən] – adj. without compunction or human feeling

inhume [inˈhju:m] – v. place in a grave or tomb

inimical [iˈnimikəl] – adj. not friendly: an inimical critic

iniquity [iˈnikwiti] – n. absence of moral or spiritual values

initial [iˈniʃəl] – n. the first letter of a word (especially a person’s name): he refused to put the initials FRS after his name

initially [iˈniʃəli] – adv. at the beginning

initiate [iˈniʃieit] – v. bring into being: He initiated a new program

inject [inˈdʒekt] – v. to introduce (a new aspect or element): He injected new life into the performance

injection [inˈdʒekʃən] – n. the forceful insertion of a substance under pressure

injunction [inˈdʒʌŋkʃən] – n. a formal command or admonition

injury [ˈindʒəri] – n. any physical damage to the body caused by violence or accident or fracture etc.

injustice [inˈdʒʌstis] – n. an unjust act

inkling [ˈiŋkliŋ] – n. a slight suggestion or vague understanding: he had no inkling what was about to happen

inland [ˈinlənd] – adj. situated away from an area’s coast or border

inlet [ˈinlet] – n. an arm off of a larger body of water (often between rocky headlands)

inmost [ˈinməust] – adj. being deepest within the self

innate [.iˈneit] – adj. not established by conditioning or learning

innermost [ˈinəməʊst] – adj. being deepest within the self: one’s innermost feelings

innocent [ˈinəsnt] – adj. free from evil or guilt: an innocent child

innocuous [iˈnɔkjuəs] – adj. not injurious to physical or mental health

innovate [ˈinəuveit] – v. bring something new to an environment

innovation [.inəuˈveiʃən] – n. a creation (a new device or process) resulting from study and experimentation

innovative [ˈinəʊveitiv] – adj. ahead of the times: is British industry innovative enough?

innovator  – n. someone who helps to open up a new line of research or technology or art

innuendo [.injuˈendəu] – n. an indirect (and usually malicious) implication

innumerable [iˈnju:mərəbl] – adj. too numerous to be counted: innumerable difficulties

inoffensive [.inəˈfensiv] – adj. not causing anger or annoyance: inoffensive behavior

inopportune [inˈɔpətju:n] – adj. not opportune: arrived at a most inopportune hour

inordinate [inˈɔrdinit, iˈnɔ:dinət] – adj. beyond normal limits: a book of inordinate length

inquire [inˈkwaiə] – v. have a wish or desire to know something

inquiry [inˈkwaiəri] – n. a search for knowledge

inquisition [inkwiˈziʃən] – n. a former tribunal of the Roman Catholic Church (1232-1820) created to discover and suppress heresy

inquisitive [inˈkwizitiv] – adj. showing curiosity: if someone saw a man climbing a light post they might get inquisitive

inquisitor [inˈkwizitə] – n. a questioner who is excessively harsh

inroad [ˈinrəud] – n. an encroachment or intrusion: they made inroads in the United States market

insanity [inˈsæniti] – n. relatively permanent disorder of the mind

insatiable [inˈseiʃiəbl] – adj. impossible to satisfy: an insatiable demand for old buildings to restore

inscribe [inˈskraib] – v. carve, cut, or etch into a material or surface

inscrutable [inˈskru:təbəl] – adj. of an obscure nature: the inscrutable workings of Providence

insect [ˈinsekt] – n. small air-breathing arthropod

insecure [insiˈkjuə] – adj. not firm or firmly fixed; likely to fail or give way: the hinge is insecure

insensible [inˈsensəbl] – adj. incapable of physical sensation: insensible to pain

insentient [inˈsenʃənt] – adj. devoid of feeling and consciousness and animation: insentient (or insensate) stone

inseparable [inˈsepərəbl] – adj. not capable of being separated: inseparable pieces of rock

insert [inˈsə:t] – n. a folded section placed between the leaves of another publication

insidious [inˈsidiəs] – adj. beguiling but harmful: insidious pleasures

insight [ˈinsait] – n. clear or deep perception of a situation

insightful  – adj. exhibiting insight or clear and deep perception: an insightful parent

insignificance [insigˈnifikəns] – n. the quality of having little or no significance

insignificant [.insigˈnifikənt] – adj. not worthy of notice

insinuate [inˈsinjueit] – v. introduce or insert (oneself) in a subtle manner: He insinuated himself into the conversation of the people at the nearby table

insipid [inˈsipid] – adj. lacking taste or flavor or tang: insipid hospital food

insist [inˈsist] – v. be emphatic or resolute and refuse to budge: I must insist!

insistence [inˈsistəns] – n. continual and persistent demands

insistent [inˈsistənt] – adj. repetitive and persistent: the bluejay’s insistent cry

insolence [ˈinsələns] – n. the trait of being rude and impertinent; inclined to take liberties

insolent [ˈinsələnt] – adj. marked by casual disrespect

insomnia [inˈsɔmniə] – n. an inability to sleep; chronic sleeplessness

inspect [inˈspekt] – v. look over carefully: Please inspect your father’s will carefully

inspection [inˈspekʃən] – n. a formal or official examination: we had to wait for the inspection before we could use the elevator

inspector [inˈspektə] – n. a high ranking police officer

inspiration [.inspəˈreiʃən] – n. arousal of the mind to special unusual activity or creativity

inspire [inˈspair] – v. heighten or intensify

inspiring [inˈspaiəriŋ] – adj. stimulating or exalting to the spirit

instability [.instəˈbiliti] – n. an unstable order

install [inˈstɔ:l] – v. set up for use: install the washer and dryer

installment [inˈstɔ:lmənt] – n. a payment of part of a debt; usually paid at regular intervals

instance [ˈinstəns] – n. an occurrence of something: another instance occurred yesterday

instant [ˈinstənt] – adj. occurring with no delay: relief was instantaneous

instantaneous [.instənˈteiniəs] – adj. occurring with no delay: relief was instantaneous

instigate [ˈinstigeit] – v. provoke or stir up

instill [inˈstil] – v. impart gradually: Her presence instilled faith into the children

instinct [ˈinstiŋkt] – n. inborn pattern of behavior often responsive to specific stimuli: the spawning instinct in salmon

instinctive [inˈstiŋktiv] – adj. unthinking; prompted by (or as if by) instinct: offering to help was as instinctive as breathing

instinctively [inˈstiŋktivli] – adv. as a matter of instinct: he instinctively grabbed the knife

institute [ˈinstitju:t] – v. set up or lay the groundwork for

institution [.instiˈtju:ʃən] – n. an organization founded and united for a specific purpose

institutionalize [.instiˈtju:ʃənəlaiz] – v. cause to be admitted; of persons to an institution

instruct [inˈstrʌkt] – v. impart skills or knowledge to: He instructed me in building a boat

instruction [inˈstrʌkʃən] – n. a message describing how something is to be done

instructive [inˈstrʌktiv] – adj. serving to instruct or enlighten or inform

instructor [inˈstrʌktə] – n. a person whose occupation is teaching

instrument [ˈinstrumənt] – n. a device that requires skill for proper use

instrumental [.instruˈmentl] – adj. serving or acting as a means or aid: instrumental in solving the crime

instrumentalist [instrəˈmentəlist] – n. someone who plays a musical instrument (as a profession)

insufficiency [.insəˈfiʃənsi] – n. a lack of competence

insufficient [.insəˈfiʃənt] – adj. of a quantity not able to fulfill a need or requirement: insufficient funds

insular [ˈinsjulə] – adj. relating to or characteristic of or situated on an island: insular territories

insulate [ˈinsjuleit] – v. place or set apart

insulation [.insjuˈleiʃən] – n. the state of being isolated or detached: the insulation of England was preserved by the English Channel

insulator [ˈinsju.leitə] – n. a material such as glass or porcelain with negligible electrical or thermal conductivity

insulin [ˈinsjulin] – n. hormone secreted by the isles of Langerhans in the pancreas; regulates storage of glycogen in the liver and accelerates oxidation of sugar in cells

insult [ˈinsʌlt,inˈsʌlt] – n. a rude expression intended to offend or hurt: they yelled insults at the visiting team

insuperable [inˈsju:pərəbəl] – adj. impossible to surmount

insurgence [in`sə:dʒəns] – n. an organized rebellion aimed at overthrowing a constituted government through the use of subversion and armed conflict

insurgent [inˈsə:dʒənt] – n. a member of an irregular armed force that fights a stronger force by sabotage and harassment

insurmountable [.insəˈmauntəbl] – adj. not capable of being surmounted or overcome: insurmountable disadvantages

insurrection [.insəˈrekʃən] – n. organized opposition to authority; a conflict in which one faction tries to wrest control from another

intact [inˈtækt] – adj. constituting the undiminished entirety; lacking nothing essential especially not damaged: fought to keep the union intact

intangible [inˈtændʒəbəl] – adj. (of especially business assets) not having physical substance or intrinsic productive value: intangible assets such as good will

integral [ˈintigrəl] – adj. existing as an essential constituent or characteristic

integrate [ˈintigreit] – v. make into a whole or make part of a whole

integrated [ˈintigreitid] – adj. formed or united into a whole

integrity [inˈtegriti] – n. an undivided or unbroken completeness or totality with nothing wanting: the integrity of the nervous system is required for normal development

intellect [ˈintilekt] – n. the capacity for rational thought or inference or discrimination

intellectual [.intilˈektʃuəl] – adj. of or associated with or requiring the use of the mind: intellectual problems

intelligence [inˈtelidʒəns] – n. the ability to comprehend; to understand and profit from experience

intelligent [inˈtelidʒənt] – adj. having the capacity for thought and reason especially to a high degree: is there intelligent life in the universe?

intelligible [inˈtelidʒəbl] – adj. capable of being apprehended or understood

intemperance [inˈtempərəns] – n. consumption of alcoholic drinks

intend [inˈtend] – v. have in mind as a purpose

intense [inˈtens] – adj. possessing or displaying a distinctive feature to a heightened degree: intense heat

intensify [inˈtensifai] – v. make more intense, stronger, or more marked

intension [inˈteʃən] – n. what you must know in order to determine the reference of an expression

intensity [inˈtensiti] – n. the amount of energy transmitted (as by acoustic or electromagnetic radiation): he adjusted the intensity of the sound

intensive [inˈtensiv] – adj. tending to give force or emphasis: an intensive adverb

intent [inˈtent] – n. the intended meaning of a communication

intention [inˈtenʃən] – n. (usually plural) the goal with respect to a marriage proposal: his intentions are entirely honorable

intentionally [inˈtenʃənli] – adv. with intention; in an intentional manner: he used that word intentionally

interact [.intəˈrækt] – v. act together or towards others or with others: He should interact more with his colleagues

interaction [.intəˈrækʃən] – n. a mutual or reciprocal action; interacting

interactive [.intərˈæktiv] – adj. used especially of drugs or muscles that work together so the total effect is greater than the sum of the two (or more)

intercede [.intəˈsi:d] – v. act between parties with a view to reconciling differences: He interceded in the family dispute

intercept [.intəˈsept] – v. seize on its way: The fighter plane was ordered to intercept an aircraft that had entered the country’s airspace

intercession [intəˈseʃən] – n. a prayer to God on behalf of another person

interconnect  – v. be interwoven or interconnected: The bones are interconnected via the muscle

interdependence [.intədiˈpendəns] – n. a reciprocal relation between interdependent entities (objects or individuals or groups)

interdependent [.intə(:)diˈpendənt] – adj. mutually dependent

interdict [ˈintədikt] – n. a court order prohibiting a party from doing a certain activity

interest [ˈintərist] – n. a sense of concern with and curiosity about someone or something: an interest in music

interfere [.intəˈfiə] – v. come between so as to be hindrance or obstacle: Your talking interferes with my work!

interference [.intəˈfiərəns] – n. a policy of intervening in the affairs of other countries

interim [ˈintərim] – n. the time between one event, process, or period and another

interior [inˈtiəriə] – adj. situated within or suitable for inside a building: an interior scene

interject  – v. to insert between other elements: She interjected clever remarks

interlock [.intəˈlɔk] – v. coordinate in such a way that all parts work together effectively

interlocutor [.intəˈlɔkjutə] – n. the performer in the middle of a minstrel line who engages the others in talk

interlude [ˈintəlu:d] – n. a brief show (music or dance etc) inserted between the sections of a longer performance

intermediate [.intəˈmi:diət] – adj. lying between two extremes in time or space or state: going from sitting to standing without intermediate pushes with the hands

interminable [inˈtə:minəbəl] – adj. tiresomely long; seemingly without end: an interminable sermon

intermission [.intəˈmiʃən] – n. the act of suspending activity temporarily

intermit [intəˈmit] – v. cease an action temporarily

intermittent [.intəˈmitənt] – adj. stopping and starting at irregular intervals: intermittent rain showers

internal [inˈtə:nəl] – adj. happening or arising or located within some limits or especially surface: internal organs

interpersonal [.intəˈpə:sənl] – adj. occurring among or involving several people: interpersonal situations in which speech occurs

interplanetary  – adj. between or among planets: interplanetary travel

interplay [ˈintəplei] – n. reciprocal action and reaction

interpolation [in.tə:pəuˈleiʃən] – n. a message (spoken or written) that is introduced or inserted: with the help of his friend’s interpolations his story was eventually told

interpose [.intəˈpəuz] – v. be or come between

interposition [in.tə:pəˈziʃən] – n. the act or fact of interposing one thing between or among others

interpret [inˈtə:prit] – v. make sense of; assign a meaning to: How do you interpret his behavior?

interpretation [in.tə:priˈteiʃən] – n. a mental representation of the meaning or significance of something

interpreter [inˈtə:pritə] – n. someone who mediates between speakers of different languages

interrogate [inˈterəgeit] – v. transmit (a signal) for setting off an appropriate response, as in telecommunication

interrogative [.intəˈrɔgətiv] – n. a sentence of inquiry that asks for a reply

interrogatory [,intəˈrɔgətəri] – n. formal systematic questioning

interrupt [.intəˈrʌpt] – v. make a break in: We interrupt the program for the following messages

intersect [.intəˈsekt] – v. meet at a point

intersection [.intəˈsekʃən] – n. a junction where one street or road crosses another

intersperse [.intəˈspə:s] – v. place at intervals in or among: intersperse exclamation marks in the text

interstellar [ˈintə(:)ˈstelə] – adj. between or among stars: the density of hydrogen in interplanetary and interstellar space

interval [ˈintəvəl] – n. a definite length of time marked off by two instants

intervene [.intəˈvi:n] – v. get involved, so as to alter or hinder an action, or through force or threat of force: Why did the U.S. not intervene earlier in WW II?

intervention [.intə(:)ˈvenʃən] – n. a policy of intervening in the affairs of other countries

intestacy [inˈtestəsi] – n. the situation of being or dying without a legally valid will

intestate [inˈtesteit] – adj. having made no legally valid will before death or not disposed of by a legal will: he died intestate

intestine [inˈtestin] – n. the part of the alimentary canal between the stomach and the anus

intimacy [ˈintiməsi] – n. close or warm friendship: the absence of fences created a mysterious intimacy in which no one knew privacy

intimate [ˈintimeit,ˈintimit] – adj. marked by close acquaintance, association, or familiarity: intimate friend

intimidate [inˈtimideit] – v. make timid or fearful: Her boss intimidates her

intimidation [in.timəˈdeʃən] – n. the feeling of discouragement in the face of someone’s superior fame or wealth or status etc.

intolerable [inˈtɔlərəbl] – adj. incapable of being put up with: an intolerable degree of sentimentality

intolerance [inˈtɔlərəns] – n. impatience with annoyances: his intolerance of interruptions

intolerant [inˈtɔlərənt] – adj. unwilling to tolerate difference of opinion

intoxicant [inˈtɔksikənt] – n. a liquor or brew containing alcohol as the active agent

intoxicate [inˈtɔksikeit] – v. fill with high spirits; fill with optimism

intoxication [in.tɔksiˈkeiʃən] – n. the physiological state produced by a poison or other toxic substance

intracellular [,intrəˈseljulə] – adj. located or occurring within a cell or cells: intracellular fluid

intramural [intrəˈmjurəl] – adj. carried on within the bounds of an institution or community: most of the students participated actively in the college’s intramural sports program

intrepid [inˈtrepid] – adj. invulnerable to fear or intimidation: intrepid pioneers

intricacy [ˈintrikəsi] – n. marked by elaborately complex detail

intricate [ˈintrikit] – adj. having many complexly arranged elements; elaborate: intricate lacework

intricately [ˈintrəkitli] – adv. with elaboration

intrigue [inˈtri:g] – n. a crafty and involved plot to achieve your (usually sinister) ends

intriguing [inˈtri:giŋ] – adj. disturbingly provocative: an intriguing smile

intrinsic [inˈtrinsik] – adj. belonging to a thing by its very nature: form was treated as something intrinsic, as the very essence of the thing

introductory [.intrəˈdʌktəri] – adj. serving to open or begin: began the slide show with some introductory remarks

intromit [,intrəuˈmit] – v. allow to enter; grant entry to

introspection [.intrəˈspekʃən] – n. the contemplation of your own thoughts and desires and conduct

introspective [.intrəuˈspektiv] – adj. given to examining own sensory and perceptual experiences

introversion [intrəˈvə:ʃən] – n. the condition of being folded inward or sheathed

introvert [ˈintrəvə:t] – v. fold inwards

intrude [inˈtru:d] – v. enter uninvited: They intruded on our dinner party

intruder [inˈtru:də] – n. someone who intrudes on the privacy or property of another without permission

intrusion [inˈtru:ʒən] – n. any entry into an area not previously occupied

intuition [.intju:ˈiʃən] – n. instinctive knowing (without the use of rational processes)

inundate [ˈinəndeit] – v. fill quickly beyond capacity; as with a liquid: the basement was inundated after the storm

inundation [.inənˈdeiʃən] – n. the rising of a body of water and its overflowing onto normally dry land: plains fertilized by annual inundations

inure [iˈnjuə] – v. cause to accept or become hardened to; habituate: He was inured to the cold

invade [inˈveid] – v. march aggressively into another’s territory by military force for the purposes of conquest and occupation: Hitler invaded Poland on September 1, 1939

invader [inˈveidə] – n. someone who enters by force in order to conquer

invalid [ˈinvəli:d] – v. force to retire, remove from active duty, as of firemen

invalidate [inˈvælideit] – v. make invalid for use

invaluable [inˈvæljuəbl] – adj. having incalculable monetary, intellectual, or spiritual worth

invariable [inˈvɛəriəbl] – n. a quantity that does not vary

invariably [inˈveəriəb(ə)li] – adv. without variation or change, in every case

invasion [inˈveiʒən] – n. any entry into an area not previously occupied: an invasion of tourists

invective [inˈvektiv] – n. abusive or venomous language used to express blame or censure or bitter deep-seated ill will

inveigh [inˈvei] – v. complain bitterly

inventive [inˈventiv] – adj. (used of persons or artifacts) marked by independence and creativity in thought or action: had an inventive turn of mind

inventory [ˈinvəntri] – n. a detailed list of all the items in stock

inverse [ˈinˈvə:s] – adj. reversed (turned backward) in order or nature or effect

inversion [inˈvə:ʃən] – n. the layer of air near the earth is cooler than an overlying layer

invert [inˈvə:t] – v. reverse the position, order, relation, or condition of: when forming a question, invert the subject and the verb

invertebrate [inˈvə:tibrit] – n. any animal lacking a backbone or notochord; the term is not used as a scientific classification

investigate [inˈvestigeit] – v. conduct an inquiry or investigation of: The district attorney’s office investigated reports of possible irregularities

investigation [in.vestiˈgeiʃən] – n. an inquiry into unfamiliar or questionable activities

investment [inˈvestmənt] – n. money that is invested with an expectation of profit

investor [inˈvestə] – n. someone who commits capital in order to gain financial returns

inveterate [inˈvetərit] – adj. habitual

invidious [inˈvidiəs] – adj. containing or implying a slight or showing prejudice: invidious comparisons

invigorate [inˈvigəreit] – v. heighten or intensify

invincible [inˈvinsəbəl] – adj. incapable of being overcome or subdued: an invincible army

inviolable [inˈvaiələbəl] – adj. incapable of being transgressed or dishonored: the person of the king is inviolable

invisible [inˈvizəbl] – adj. impossible or nearly impossible to see; imperceptible by the eye: the invisible man

invite [inˈvait] – v. increase the likelihood of: invite criticism

inviting [inˈvaitiŋ] – adj. attractive and tempting: an inviting offer

invoke [inˈvəuk] – v. summon into action or bring into existence, often as if by magic

involuntary [inˈvɔləntəri] – adj. not subject to the control of the will: involuntary manslaughter

involution [,invəˈlu:ʃən] – n. reduction in size of an organ or part (as in the return of the uterus to normal size after childbirth)

involve [inˈvɔlv] – v. connect closely and often incriminatingly

invulnerable [inˈvʌlnərəbəl] – adj. immune to attack; impregnable: gunners raked the beach from invulnerable positions on the cliffs

inwardly [ˈinwədli] – adv. with respect to private feelings: inwardly, she was raging

iodine [ˈaiədi:n] – n. a nonmetallic element belonging to the halogens; used especially in medicine and photography and in dyes; occurs naturally only in combination in small quantities (as in sea water or rocks)

ion [ˈaiən] – n. a particle that is electrically charged (positive or negative); an atom or molecule or group that has lost or gained one or more electrons

ionosphere [aiˈɔnəsfiə] – n. the outer region of the Earth’s atmosphere; contains a high concentration of free electrons

iota [aiˈəutə] – n. a tiny or scarcely detectable amount

irascible [iˈræsəbəl] – adj. quickly aroused to anger

irate [aiˈreit] – adj. feeling or showing extreme anger: irate protesters

ire [aiə] – n. a strong emotion; a feeling that is oriented toward some real or supposed grievance

iridescence [iriˈdesns] – n. the visual property of something having a milky brightness and a play of colors from the surface

iridescent [.iriˈdesənt] – adj. varying in color when seen in different lights or from different angles: a dragonfly hovered, vibrating and iridescent

irk [ə:k] – v. irritate or vex

irksome [ˈə:ksəm] – adj. so lacking in interest as to cause mental weariness: what an irksome task the writing of long letters is

ironic [aiəˈrɔnik] – adj. humorously sarcastic or mocking: an ironic remark often conveys an intended meaning obliquely

ironwork  – n. work made of iron (gratings or rails or railings etc): the houses had much ornamental ironwork

ironworks  – n. the workplace where iron is smelted or where iron goods are made

irony [ˈaiərəni] – n. witty language used to convey insults or scorn: irony is wasted on the stupid

irradiate [iˈreidieit] – v. give spiritual insight to; in religion

irrational [iˈræʃənl] – adj. not consistent with or using reason: irrational fears

irreducible [iriˈdju:səbl] – adj. incapable of being made smaller or simpler: an irreducible minimum

irregular [iˈregjulə] – adj. contrary to rule or accepted order or general practice: irregular hiring practices

irregularly [iˈregjuləli] – adv. having an irregular form: irregularly shaped solids

irrelevant [iˈrelivənt] – adj. having no bearing on or connection with the subject at issue: an irrelevant comment

irreligious [,iriˈlidʒəs] – adj. hostile or indifferent to religion

irreparable [iˈrepərəbl] – adj. impossible to repair, rectify, or amend: irreparable harm

irrepressible [iriˈpresəbl] – adj. impossible to repress or control: an irrepressible chatterbox

irresistible [.iriˈzistəbl] – adj. impossible to resist; overpowering: irresistible (or resistless) impulses

irresponsible [.irisˈpɔnsəbl] – adj. showing lack of care for consequences: behaved like an irresponsible idiot

irreverence [iˈrevərəns] – n. a disrespectful act

irreverent [iˈrevərənt] – adj. showing lack of due respect or veneration: irreverent scholars mocking sacred things

irreversible [.iriˈvə:səbl.-sib-] – adj. incapable of being reversed: irreversible momentum toward revolution

irrevocable [iˈrevəkəbəl] – adj. incapable of being retracted or revoked: firm and irrevocable is my doom

irrigate [ˈirigeit] – v. supply with water, as with channels or ditches or streams

irrigation [.iriˈgeiʃən] – n. supplying dry land with water by means of ditches etc

irritable [ˈiritəbl] – adj. abnormally sensitive to a stimulus

irritant [ˈiritənt] – n. something that causes irritation and annoyance

irritate [ˈiriteit] – v. excite to an abnormal condition, or chafe or inflame: Aspirin irritates my stomach

irritating [ˈiri.teitiŋ] – adj. (used of physical stimuli) serving to stimulate or excite

irrupt  – v. enter uninvited: She irrupted into our sitting room

isle [ail] – n. a small island

islet [ˈailit] – n. a small island

isobar [ˈaisəbɑ:] – n. (meteorology)an isogram connecting points having equal barometric pressure at a given time

isochronous [aiˈsɔkrənəs] – adj. equal in duration or interval

isolate [ˈaisəleit] – v. place or set apart: They isolated the political prisoners from the other inmates

isolated [ˈaisəleitid] – adj. not close together in time: isolated instances of rebellion

isolation [.aisəuˈleiʃən] – n. a state of separation between persons or groups

isothermal [aisəˈθə:ml] – adj. of a process or change taking place at constant temperature

issue [ˈiʃju:] – n. an important question that is in dispute and must be settled: the issue could be settled by requiring public education for everyone

item [ˈaitəm] – n. a distinct part that can be specified separately in a group of things that could be enumerated on a list: he noticed an item in the New York Times

iterate [ˈitəreit] – v. to say, state, or perform again

itinerant [iˈtinərənt] – n. a laborer who moves from place to place as demanded by employment: itinerant traders

itinerary [aiˈtinərəri] – n. an established line of travel or access

itinerate [iˈtinəreit] – v. travel from place to place, as for work

jack  – n. a small worthless amount: you don’t know jack

jagged [ˈdʒægid] – adj. having a sharply uneven surface or outline: the jagged outline of the crags

jail [dʒeil] – n. a correctional institution used to detain persons who are in the lawful custody of the government (either accused persons awaiting trial or convicted persons serving a sentence)

jar [dʒɑ:] – v. be incompatible; be or come into conflict

jargon [ˈdʒɑ:gən] – n. a characteristic language of a particular group (as among thieves)

jaundice [ˈdʒɔ:ndis] – n. a rough and bitter manner

jaunty [ˈdʒɔ:nti] – adj. marked by up-to-dateness in dress and manners: a jaunty red hat

jazz [dʒæz] – n. empty rhetoric or insincere or exaggerated talk: don’t give me any of that jazz

jealousy [ˈdʒeləsi] – n. zealous vigilance: cherish their official political freedom with fierce jealousy

jeer [dʒiə] – n. showing your contempt by derision

jelly [ˈdʒeli] – n. a preserve made of the jelled juice of fruit

jellyfish [ˈdʒelifiʃ] – n. large siphonophore having a bladderlike float and stinging tentacles

jeopardize [ˈdʒepədaiz] – v. pose a threat to; present a danger to

jeopardy [ˈdʒepədi] – n. a source of danger; a possibility of incurring loss or misfortune

jerk [dʒə:k] – n. a dull stupid fatuous person

jettison [ˈdʒetisn, -tizn] – v. throw away, of something encumbering

jewel [ˈdʒu:əl] – v. adorn or decorate with precious stones: jeweled dresses

jeweler [ˈdʒu:ələ(r)] – n. someone in the business of selling jewelry

jewelry [ˈdʒu:əlri] – n. an adornment (as a bracelet or ring or necklace) made of precious metals and set with gems (or imitation gems)

jocose [dʒəˈkəus] – adj. characterized by jokes and good humor

jocular [ˈdʒɔkjulə] – adj. characterized by jokes and good humor

jog [dʒɔg] – v. continue talking or writing in a desultory manner: This novel rambles on and jogs

jogging [ˈdʒɔgiŋ] – n. running at a jog trot as a form of cardiopulmonary exercise

joggle [ˈdʒɔgl] – n. a fastener that is inserted into holes in two adjacent pieces and holds them together

jolt [dʒəult] – n. a sudden jarring impact: the door closed with a jolt

jostle  – v. come into rough contact with while moving: The passengers jostled each other in the overcrowded train

journal [ˈdʒə:nl] – n. a daily written record of (usually personal) experiences and observations

journalism [ˈdʒə:nəlizəm] – n. newspapers and magazines collectively

journalist [ˈdʒə:nəlist] – n. a writer for newspapers and magazines

journalistic [.dʒɜ: nəˈlistik] – adj. of or relating to or having the characteristics of journalism: journalistic writing

joust [dʒaust] – n. a combat between two mounted knights tilting against each other with blunted lances

jovial [ˈdʒəviəl] – adj. full of or showing high-spirited merriment: a jovial old gentleman

jubilant [ˈdʒu:bilənt] – adj. joyful and proud especially because of triumph or success

jubilation [.dʒu:biˈleiʃən] – n. a feeling of extreme joy

judge [dʒʌdʒ] – v. determine the result of (a competition)

judgement  – n. the legal document stating the reasons for a judicial decision

judgment [ˈdʒʌdʒmənt] – n. the act of judging or assessing a person or situation or event: they criticized my judgment of the contestants

judicature [ˈdʒu:dikətʃə] – n. the system of law courts that administer justice and constitute the judicial branch of government

judicial [dʒu:ˈdiʃəl] – adj. decreed by or proceeding from a court of justice: a judicial decision

judiciary [dʒu:ˈdiʃiəri] – n. persons who administer justice

judicious [dʒu(:)ˈdiʃəs] – adj. marked by the exercise of good judgment or common sense in practical matters: judicious use of one’s money

jug [dʒʌg] – n. a large bottle with a narrow mouth

juggle [ˈdʒʌgəl] – v. influence by slyness

jugglery [`dʒʌgləri] – n. artful trickery designed to achieve an end: the senator’s tax program was mere jugglery

jugular [ˈdʒʌgjulə] – n. veins in the neck that return blood from the head

juice [dʒu:s] – n. the liquid part that can be extracted from plant or animal tissue by squeezing or cooking

juicy [ˈdʒu:si] – adj. having strong sexual appeal: juicy barmaids

jumble [ˈdʒʌmbl] – n. a confused multitude of things

junction [ˈdʒʌŋkʃən] – n. the place where two or more things come together

juncture [ˈdʒʌŋktʃə] – n. an event that occurs at a critical time: at such junctures he always had an impulse to leave

jungle [ˈdʒʌŋgl] – n. a location marked by an intense competition and struggle for survival

junta [ˈdʒʌntə] – n. a group of military officers who rule a country after seizing power

Jupiter [ˈdʒu:pitə] – n. the largest planet and the 5th from the sun; has many satellites and is one of the brightest objects in the night sky

juridical [dʒuəˈridikəl] – adj. of or relating to the law or jurisprudence: juridical days

jurisdiction [.dʒuərisˈdikʃən] – n. (law) the right and power to interpret and apply the law: courts having jurisdiction in this district

jurisprudence [.dʒuərisˈpru:dəns] – n. the branch of philosophy concerned with the law and the principles that lead courts to make the decisions they do

juror [ˈdʒuərə] – n. someone who serves (or waits to be called to serve) on a jury

jury [ˈdʒuəri] – n. a body of citizens sworn to give a true verdict according to the evidence presented in a court of law

justice [ˈdʒʌstis] – n. judgment involved in the determination of rights and the assignment of rewards and punishments

justification [dʒʌstifiˈkeiʃ(ə)n] – n. something (such as a fact or circumstance) that shows an action to be reasonable or necessary: he considered misrule a justification for revolution

justify [ˈdʒʌstifai] – v. show to be reasonable or provide adequate ground for

justly [ˈdʒʌstli] – adv. with honesty

juvenile [ˈdʒu:vinail] – adj. of or relating to or characteristic of or appropriate for children or young people: juvenile diabetes

juxtapose [.dʒʌkstəˈpəuz] – v. place side by side: The fauvists juxtaposed strong colors

juxtaposition [.dʒʌkstəpəˈziʃən] – n. the act of positioning close together (or side by side): it is the result of the juxtaposition of contrasting colors

kaleidoscopic  – adj. continually shifting or rapidly changing

keen [ki:n] – adj. having or demonstrating ability to recognize or draw fine distinctions

keepsake [ˈki:pseik] – n. something of sentimental value

ken [ken] – n. range of what one can know or understand: beyond my ken

kennel [ˈkenl] – n. outbuilding that serves as a shelter for a dog

kerchief [ˈkə:tʃiʃ] – n. a square scarf that is folded into a triangle and worn over the head or about the neck

kernel [ˈkə:nl] – n. the inner and usually edible part of a seed or grain or nut or fruit stone: black walnut kernels are difficult to get out of the shell

kerosene [ˈkerəsi:n] – n. a flammable hydrocarbon oil used as fuel in lamps and heaters

kiln [kiln, kil] – n. a furnace for firing or burning or drying such things as porcelain or bricks

kilocalorie  – n. a unit of heat equal to the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water by one degree at one atmosphere pressure; used by nutritionists to characterize the energy-producing potential in food

kiloliter [ˈkiləu,li:tə] – n. a metric unit of volume or capacity equal to 1000 liters

kilometer [ˈkilə.mi:tə] – n. a metric unit of length equal to 1000 meters (or 0.621371 miles)

kilowatt [ˈkiləuwɔt] – n. a unit of power equal to 1000 watts

kimono [kiˈməunəu] – n. a loose robe; imitated from robes originally worn by Japanese

kinetic [kiˈnetik] – adj. relating to the motion of material bodies and the forces associated therewith: kinetic energy

kingdom [ˈkiŋdəm] – n. a domain in which something is dominant: the untroubled kingdom of reason

kingship [ˈkiŋʃip] – n. the dignity or rank or position of a king

kinsfolk  – n. people descended from a common ancestor

kinsman  – n. a male relative

kiosk [ˈki:ɔsk] – n. small area set off by walls for special use

knapsack [ˈnæpsæk] – n. a bag carried by a strap on your back or shoulder

knavery [ˈneivəri] – n. lack of honesty; acts of lying or cheating or stealing

knead [ni:d] – v. make uniform: knead dough

knell [nel] – v. ring as in announcing death

knickknack [ˈniknæk] – n. a small inexpensive mass-produced article

knight [nait] – n. a chessman shaped to resemble the head of a horse; can move two squares horizontally and one vertically (or vice versa)

knighthood [ˈnaithud] – n. aristocrats holding the rank of knight

knit [nit] – n. needlework created by interlacing yarn in a series of connected loops using straight eyeless needles or by machine

knuckle [ˈnʌkəl] – n. a joint of a finger when the fist is closed

krill  – n. shrimp-like planktonic crustaceans; major source of food for e.g. baleen whales

kymograph [ˈkaiməgrɑ:f] – n. scientific instrument consisting of a rotating drum holding paper on which a stylus traces a continuous record (as of breathing or blood pressure)

laborer [ˈleibərə] – n. someone who works with their hands; someone engaged in manual labor

laborious [ləˈbɔ:riəs] – adj. characterized by effort to the point of exhaustion; especially physical effort: spent many laborious hours on the project

laboriously [ləˈbɔ:riəsli] – adv. in a laborious manner: their lives were spent in committee making decisions for others to execute on the basis of data laboriously gathered for them

labyrinth [ˈlæbərinθ] – n. complex system of paths or tunnels in which it is easy to get lost

lace [leis] – v. spin,wind, or twist together

lacerate [ˈlæsəreit] – v. cut or tear irregularly

lachrymose [ˈlækriməus] – adj. showing sorrow

lackadaisical [lækəˈdeizik(ə)l] – adj. lacking spirit or liveliness: a lackadaisical attempt

lackey [ˈlæki] – n. a male servant (especially a footman)

lacquer  – n. a black resinous substance obtained from certain trees and used as a natural varnish

lactation [lækˈteiʃən] – n. the period following birth during which milk is secreted: lactation normally continues until weaning

lacteal [ˈlæktiəl] – n. any of the lymphatic vessels that convey chyle from the small intestine to the thoracic duct

lactic [ˈlæktik] – adj. of or relating to or obtained from milk (especially sour milk or whey): lactic acid

lad [læd] – n. a boy or man

laddie  – n. a male child (a familiar term of address to a boy)

lade  – v. fill or place a load on

laden [ˈleidn] – v. fill or place a load on

ladle [ˈleidl] – n. a spoon-shaped vessel with a long handle; frequently used to transfer liquids from one container to another

lag [læg] – v. hang (back) or fall (behind) in movement, progress, development, etc.

laggard [ˈlægəd] – n. someone who takes more time than necessary; someone who lags behind

lagoon [ləˈgu:n] – n. a body of water cut off from a larger body by a reef of sand or coral

lament [ləˈment] – n. a cry of sorrow and grief: their pitiful laments could be heard throughout the ward

lampshade [ˈlæmpʃeid] – n. a protective ornamental shade used to screen a light bulb from direct view

landholder [ˈlændhəuldər] – n. a holder or proprietor of land

landing [ˈlændiŋ] – n. an intermediate platform in a staircase

landlord [ˈlændlɔ:d] – n. a landowner who leases to others

landmark [ˈlændma:k] – n. an event marking a unique or important historical change of course or one on which important developments depend

landmass  – n. a large continuous extent of land

landscape [ˈlændskeip] – n. an expanse of scenery that can be seen in a single view

landscaping  – n. a garden laid out for esthetic effect: they spent a great deal of money on the landscaping

landslide [ˈlændslaid] – n. an overwhelming electoral victory: Roosevelt defeated Hoover in a landslide

languid [ˈlæŋgwid] – adj. lacking spirit or liveliness: a languid mood

languish [ˈlæŋgwiʃ] – v. lose vigor, health, or flesh, as through grief

languor [ˈlæŋgə] – n. a relaxed comfortable feeling

lank [læŋk] – adj. long and thin and often limp: grown lank with fasting

lantern [ˈlæntən] – n. light in a transparent protective case

lapse [læps] – v. pass into a specified state or condition

larceny [ˈlɑ:səni] – n. the act of taking something from someone unlawfully

largely [ˈlɑ:dʒli] – adv. on a large scale: the sketch was so largely drawn that you could see it from the back row

larva [ˈlɑ:və] – n. the immature free-living form of most invertebrates and amphibians and fish which at hatching from the egg is fundamentally unlike its parent and must metamorphose

larynx [ˈlæriŋks] – n. a cartilaginous structure at the top of the trachea; contains elastic vocal cords that are the source of the vocal tone in speech

lascivious [ləˈsiviəs] – adj. driven by lust; preoccupied with or exhibiting lustful desires

laser [ˈleizə] – n. an acronym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation; an optical device that produces an intense monochromatic beam of coherent light

lash [læʃ] – v. beat severely with a whip or rod

lassie [ˈlæsi] – n. a girl or young woman who is unmarried

latency [ˈleitənsi] – n. the time that elapses between a stimulus and the response to it

latent [ˈleitnt] – adj. potentially existing but not presently evident or realized: a latent fingerprint

lateral [ˈlætərəl] – adj. situated at or extending to the side: the lateral branches of a tree

lathe [leið] – n. machine tool for shaping metal or wood; the workpiece turns about a horizontal axis against a fixed tool

latish [ˈleitiʃ] – adj. somewhat late

latitude [ˈlætitju:d] – n. the angular distance between an imaginary line around a heavenly body parallel to its equator and the equator itself

lattice [ˈlætis] – n. an arrangement of points or particles or objects in a regular periodic pattern in 2 or 3 dimensions

laud [lɔ:d] – v. praise, glorify, or honor

laudable [ˈlɔ:dəbəl] – adj. worthy of high praise: applaudable efforts to save the environment

laudatory [ˈlɔ:dətəri] – adj. full of or giving praise: a laudatory remark

launch [lɔ:ntʃ] – v. set up or found

laundress [ˈlɔ:ndris] – n. a working woman who takes in washing

laundry [ˈlɔ:ndri] – n. workplace where clothes are washed and ironed

laureate [ˈlɔ:riit] – n. someone honored for great achievements; figuratively someone crowned with a laurel wreath

lava [ˈlɑ:və] – n. rock that in its molten form (as magma) issues from volcanos; lava is what magma is called when it reaches the surface

lavatory [ˈlævətəri] – n. a room or building equipped with one or more toilets

lave [leiv] – v. wash or flow against: the waves laved the shore

lawgiver [ˈlɔ:givə] – n. a maker of laws; someone who gives a code of laws

lawmaker [lɔ:ˈmeikə] – n. a maker of laws; someone who gives a code of laws

lawn [lɔ:n] – n. a field of cultivated and mowed grass

lawsuit [ˈlɔ:su:t, ˈlɔ:sju:t] – n. a comprehensive term for any proceeding in a court of law whereby an individual seeks a legal remedy

lax [læks] – adj. lacking in rigor or strictness: such lax and slipshod ways are no longer acceptable

laxative [ˈlæksətiv] – n. a mild cathartic

lay [lei] – v. put in a horizontal position: lay the books on the table

layer [ˈleiə] – n. single thickness of usually some homogeneous substance

layman [ˈleimən] – n. someone who is not a clergyman or a professional person

layout [ˈleiaut] – n. a plan or design of something that is laid out

lea [li:] – n. a field covered with grass or herbage and suitable for grazing by livestock

leadership [ˈli:dəʃip] – n. the activity of leading: his leadership inspired the team

leading [ˈli:diŋ] – adj. indicating the most important performer or role: the leading man

leaflet [ˈli:flit] – n. a thin triangular flap of a heart valve

league [li:g] – n. an association of sports teams that organizes matches for its members

leak [li:k] – n. soft watery rot in fruits and vegetables caused by fungi

leaky [ˈli:ki] – adj. permitting the unwanted passage of fluids or gases: a leaky roof

leap [li:p] – n. an abrupt transition: a successful leap from college to the major leagues

lease [li:s] – v. let for money

leaven [ˈlevən] – n. a substance used to produce fermentation in dough or a liquid

ledge [ledʒ] – n. a projecting ridge on a mountain or submerged under water

leeward [ˈli:wəd] – n. the direction in which the wind is blowing

left-handed [ˈleftˈhændid] – adj. using or intended for the left hand: left-handed golfers need left-handed clubs

legacy [ˈlegəsi] – n. (law) a gift of personal property by will

legalize [ˈli:gəlaiz] – v. make legal: Marijuana should be legalized

legend [ˈledʒənd] – n. a story about mythical or supernatural beings or events

legendary [ˈledʒəndəri] – adj. celebrated in fable or legend: legendary exploits of Jesse James

legible [ˈledʒəbəl] – adj. (of handwriting, print, etc.) capable of being read or deciphered: legible handwriting

legion [ˈli:dʒən] – n. archaic terms for army

legionary [ˈli:dʒənəri] – n. a soldier who is a member of a legion (especially the French Foreign Legion)

legislate [ˈledʒisleit] – v. make laws, bills, etc. or bring into effect by legislation: We cannot legislate how people spend their free time

legislative [ˈledʒislətiv] – adj. of or relating to or created by legislation: legislative proposal

legislator [ˈledʒisleitə] – n. someone who makes or enacts laws

legislature [ˈledʒisleitʃə] – n. persons who make or amend or repeal laws

legitimacy [l iˈdʒitiməsi] – n. lawfulness by virtue of being authorized or in accordance with law

legitimate [liˈdʒitimit] – adj. of marriages and offspring; recognized as lawful

legume  – n. an erect or climbing bean or pea plant of the family Leguminosae

leisure [ˈli:ʒə] – n. time available for ease and relaxation: his job left him little leisure

lengthen [ˈleŋθən] – v. make longer

leniency [ˈli:njənsi] – n. a disposition to yield to the wishes of someone

lenient [ˈli:niənt] – adj. not strict: lenient rules

lens [lenz] – n. a transparent optical device used to converge or diverge transmitted light and to form images

leonine [ˈli:ənain] – adj. of or characteristic of or resembling a lion

lessen [ˈlesn] – v. decrease in size, extent, or range

lesser  – adj. smaller in size or amount or value: the lesser powers of Europe

lethal [ˈli:θəl] – adj. of an instrument of certain death: lethal weapon

lethargy [ˈleθədʒi] – n. a state of comatose torpor (as found in sleeping sickness)

lettuce [ˈletis] – n. informal terms for money

levee [ˈlevi] – n. a formal reception of visitors or guests (as at a royal court)

level [ˈlevl] – n. a position on a scale of intensity or amount or quality: a high level of care is required

lever [ˈlev] – n. a rigid bar pivoted about a fulcrum

leviathan [liˈvaiəθən] – n. the largest or most massive thing of its kind: it was a leviathan among redwoods

levity [ˈleviti] – n. feeling an inappropriate lack of seriousness

levy [ˈlevi] – n. the act of drafting into military service

lewd [lu:d] – adj. suggestive of or tending to moral looseness: lewd whisperings of a dirty old man

lexicographer [.leksiˈkɔgrəfə] – n. a compiler or writer of a dictionary; a student of the lexical component of language

lexicography [leksiˈkɔgrəfi] – n. the act of writing dictionaries

lexicon [ˈleksikən] – n. a language user’s knowledge of words

liable [ˈlaiəbl] – adj. at risk of or subject to experiencing something usually unpleasant: she is liable to forget

libel [ˈlaibəl] – n. a false and malicious publication printed for the purpose of defaming a living person

liberal [ˈlibərəl] – adj. showing or characterized by broad-mindedness: a liberal newspaper

liberalism [ˈlibərəlizm] – n. a political orientation that favors social progress by reform and by changing laws rather than by revolution

liberate [ˈlibəreit] – v. give equal rights to; of women and minorities

licentious [laiˈsenʃəs] – adj. lacking moral discipline; especially sexually unrestrained: coarse and licentious men

licit [ˈlisit] – adj. sanctioned by custom or morality especially sexual morality: a wife’s licit love

liege [li:dʒ] – n. a person holding a fief; a person who owes allegiance and service to a feudal lord

lien [li:ən] – n. the right to take another’s property if an obligation is not discharged

lieu [lu:] – n. the post or function properly or customarily occupied or served by another: in lieu of

lifeblood  – n. the blood considered as the seat of vitality

lifelike [ˈlaiflaik] – adj. free from artificiality: a lifelike pose

lifelong [ˈlaifllɔŋ] – adj. continuing through life: a lifelong friend

lifesaver [ˈlaif.sevə] – n. an attendant employed at a beach or pool to protect swimmers from accidents

lifetime [ˈlaiftaim] – n. the period during which something is functional (as between birth and death)

ligament [ˈligəmənt] – n. a sheet or band of tough fibrous tissue connecting bones or cartilages or supporting muscles or organs

ligature [ˈligətʃə] – n. (music) a group of notes connected by a slur

light [lait] – adj. of comparatively little physical weight or density: a light load

lighthouse [ˈlaithaʊs] – n. a tower with a light that gives warning of shoals to passing ships

ligneous [ˈligniəs] – adj. consisting of or containing lignin or xylem: ligneous (or woody) tissue

likelihood [ˈlaiklihud] – n. the probability of a specified outcome

likely [ˈlaikli] – adj. has a good chance of being the case or of coming about: these services are likely to be available to us all before long

likewise [ˈlaikwaiz] – adv. in addition

limb [lim] – n. any of the main branches arising from the trunk or a bough of a tree

limestone [ˈlaimstəun] – n. a sedimentary rock consisting mainly of calcium that was deposited by the remains of marine animals

limitation [.limiˈteiʃən] – n. the quality of being limited or restricted: it is a good plan but it has serious limitations

line [lain] – n. a formation of people or things one beside another: the line of soldiers advanced with their bayonets fixed

linear [ˈliniə] – adj. designating or involving an equation whose terms are of the first degree

linen [ˈlinin] – n. a fabric woven with fibers from the flax plant

liner [ˈlainə] – n. (baseball) a hit that flies straight out from the batter: the batter hit a liner to the shortstop

linger [ˈliŋgə] – v. remain present although waning or gradually dying: Her perfume lingered on

lingo [ˈliŋgəu] – n. a characteristic language of a particular group (as among thieves): they don’t speak our lingo

lingua [ˈliŋgwə] – n. a mobile mass of muscular tissue covered with mucous membrane and located in the oral cavity

lingual [ˈliŋgwəl] – adj. consisting of or related to language: lingual diversity

linguist [ˈliŋgwist] – n. a person who speaks more than one language

linguistics [liŋˈgwistiks] – n. the scientific study of language

liniment [ˈlinəmənt] – n. a medicinal liquid that is rubbed into the skin to relieve muscular stiffness and pain

link [liŋk] – n. a fastener that serves to join or connect: the walls are held together with metal links placed in the wet mortar during construction

linkage  – n. an associative relation

linkup  – n. a fastener that serves to join or connect

lipid  – n. an oily organic compound insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents; essential structural component of living cells (along with proteins and carbohydrates)

liquefy [ˈlikwifai] – v. make (a solid substance) liquid, as by heating: liquefy the silver

liqueur [liˈkjuə] – n. strong highly flavored sweet liquor usually drunk after a meal

liquidate [ˈlikwideit] – v. get rid of (someone who may be a threat) by killing: The mafia liquidated the informer

liquor [ˈlikə] – n. an alcoholic beverage that is distilled rather than fermented

listless [ˈlistləs] – adj. lacking zest or vivacity: he was listless and bored

literacy [ˈlitərəsi] – n. the ability to read and write

literal [ˈlitərəl] – adj. being or reflecting the essential or genuine character of something: a literal solitude like a desert

literally [ˈlitərəli] – adv. (intensifier before a figurative expression) without exaggeration: our eyes were literally pinned to TV during the Gulf War

literary [ˈlitərəri] – adj. knowledgeable about literature: a literary style

literature [ˈlitərətʃə] – n. creative writing of recognized artistic value

lithe [laið] – adj. moving and bending with ease

lithesome [`laiðsəm] – adj. moving and bending with ease

lithograph [ˈliθə.grɑ:f] – v. make by lithography

lithosphere [ˈliθə.sfiə] – n. the solid part of the earth consisting of the crust and outer mantle

litigant [ˈlitigənt] – n. (law) a party to a lawsuit; someone involved in litigation: plaintiffs and defendants are both litigants

litigate [ˈlitigeit] – v. engage in legal proceedings

litigious [liˈtidʒəs] – adj. inclined or showing an inclination to dispute or disagree, even to engage in law suits: a litigious and acrimonious spirit

litter [ˈlitə] – n. the offspring at one birth of a multiparous mammal

littoral [ˈlitərəl] – n. the region of the shore of a lake or sea or ocean

liturgy [ˈlitədʒi] – n. a Christian sacrament commemorating the Last Supper by consecrating bread and wine

livelihood [ˈlaivlihud] – n. the financial means whereby one lives: he could no longer earn his own livelihood

liveliness  – n. general activity and motion

livid [ˈlivid] – adj. anemic looking from illness or emotion: a face livid with shock

lizard  – n. relatively long-bodied reptile with usually two pairs of legs and a tapering tail

load [ləud] – n. weight to be borne or conveyed

loam [ləum] – n. a rich soil consisting of a mixture of sand and clay and decaying organic materials

loan [ləun] – n. the temporary provision of money (usually at interest)

loath [ləuθ] – adj. unwillingness to do something contrary to your custom: loath to admit a mistake

loathe [ləuð] – v. find repugnant: I loathe that man

lobster [ˈlɔbstə] – n. any of several edible marine crustaceans of the families Homaridae and Nephropsidae and Palinuridae

locate [ləuˈkeit] – v. determine or indicate the place, site, or limits of, as if by an instrument or by a survey: Our sense of sight enables us to locate objects in space

location [ləuˈkeiʃən] – n. a point or extent in space

locative [ˈlɔkətiv] – n. the semantic role of the noun phrase that designates the place of the state or action denoted by the verb

loch [lɔk] – n. Scottish word for a lake

lock [lɔk] – v. keep engaged

locomote [.ləukəˈməut] – v. change location; move, travel, or proceed, also metaphorically

locomotion [ləʊkəˈməʊʃ(ə)n] – n. the power or ability to move

locomotive [.ləukəˈməutiv] – n. a wheeled vehicle consisting of a self-propelled engine that is used to draw trains along railway tracks

locoweed [ˈləʊkəʊwi:d] – n. street names for marijuana

lode [ləud] – n. a deposit of valuable ore occurring within definite boundaries separating it from surrounding rocks

lodge [lɔdʒ] – n. English physicist who studied electromagnetic radiation and was a pioneer of radiotelegraphy (1851-1940)

lodging [ˈlɔdʒiŋ] – n. structures collectively in which people are housed

lodgment  – n. bringing a charge or accusation against someone

loft [lɔft] – n. floor consisting of open space at the top of a house just below roof; often used for storage

log [lɔg] – n. a segment of the trunk of a tree when stripped of branches

logger  – n. a person who fells trees

logic [ˈlɔdʒik] – n. the branch of philosophy that analyzes inference

logical [ˈlɔdʒikəl] – adj. capable of or reflecting the capability for correct and valid reasoning: a logical mind

lone  – adj. lacking companions or companionship: he was alone when we met him

loneliness [ˈləʊnliniz] – n. the state of being alone in solitary isolation

longevity [lɔnˈdʒeviti] – n. duration of service: her longevity as a star

longitude [ˈlɔndʒitju:d] – n. the angular distance between a point on any meridian and the prime meridian at Greenwich

long-lasting [ˈlɔŋˈlɑ:stiŋ] – adj. existing for a long time: a long-lasting friendship

long-range  – adj. involving an extended span of time: long-range goals

long-term  – adj. relating to or extending over a relatively long time: the long-term reconstruction of countries damaged by the war

loom [lu:m] – v. come into view indistinctly, often threateningly: Another air plane loomed into the sky

loop [lu:p] – n. fastener consisting of a metal ring for lining a small hole to permit the attachment of cords or lines

loose [lu:s] – adj. not compact or dense in structure or arrangement: loose gravel

loosen [ˈlu:sn] – v. make less severe or strict

loot [lu:t] – n. goods or money obtained illegally

lopsided  – adj. having one side lower or smaller or lighter than the other

loquacious [ləuˈkweiʃəs] – adj. full of trivial conversation

lordly  – adj. having or showing arrogant superiority to and disdain of those one views as unworthy: his lordly manners were offensive

lore [lɔ:, lɔə] – n. knowledge gained through tradition or anecdote: early peoples passed on plant and animal lore through legend

lough  – n. a long narrow (nearly landlocked) cove in Ireland

louse [laus] – n. wingless usually flattened bloodsucking insect parasitic on warm-blooded animals

lovable [ˈlʌvəb(ə)l] – adj. having characteristics that attract love or affection: a mischievous but lovable child

lovelorn  – adj. unhappy in love; suffering from unrequited love

low [ləu] – adj. less than normal in degree or intensity or amount: low prices

lowly [ˈləuli] – adj. inferior in rank or status: a lowly corporal

low-spirited  – adj. filled with melancholy and despondency

loyalist  – n. a person who is loyal to their allegiance (especially in times of revolt)

lubrication [.lu:briˈkeiʃən] – n. an application of a lubricant to something

lubricator  – n. a substance capable of reducing friction by making surfaces smooth or slippery

lucid [ˈlu:sid] – adj. (of language) transparently clear; easily understandable: lucid directions

lucrative [ˈlu:krətiv] – adj. producing a sizeable profit

ludicrous [ˈlu:dikrəs] – adj. broadly or extravagantly humorous; resembling farce: ludicrous green hair

lug [lʌg] – n. ancient Celtic god

lull [lʌl] – v. calm by deception: Don’t let yourself be lulled into a false state of security

lumber [ˈlʌmbə] – n. the wood of trees cut and prepared for use as building material

luminary [ˈlu:minəri] – n. a celebrity who is an inspiration to others

luminescence [lu:miˈnesns] – n. light not due to incandescence; occurs at low temperatures

luminosity [.lju:miˈnɔsiti] – n. the quality of being luminous; emitting or reflecting light: its luminosity is measured relative to that of our sun

luminous [ˈlju:minəs] – adj. softly bright or radiant: a sky luminous with stars

lump [lʌmp] – n. a compact mass

lunacy [ˈlu:nəsi] – n. obsolete terms for legal insanity

lunar [ˈlu:nə] – adj. of or relating to or associated with the moon: lunar surface

lunatic [ˈlu:nətik] – n. an insane person

lurch [lə:tʃ] – v. walk as if unable to control one’s movements

lure [lu] – n. qualities that attract by seeming to promise some kind of reward

lurid [ˈljuərid] – adj. horrible in fierceness or savagery: lurid crimes

lurk [lə:k] – v. lie in wait, lie in ambush, behave in a sneaky and secretive manner

luscious [ˈlʌʃəs] – adj. having strong sexual appeal

luster [ˈlʌstə] – n. a quality that outshines the usual

lustrous [ˈlʌstrəs] – adj. made smooth and bright by or as if by rubbing; reflecting a sheen or glow: she brushed her hair until it fell in lustrous auburn waves

luxuriance [lʌgˈzuəriəns] – n. the property of being lush and abundant and a pleasure to the senses

luxuriant [lʌgˈzjuəriənt] – adj. marked by complexity and richness of detail

luxuriate [lʌgˈzjuərieit] – v. enjoy to excess

luxurious [lʌgˈʒu:riəs] – adj. rich and superior in quality

luxury [ˈlʌkʃəri] – n. something that is an indulgence rather than a necessity

lyre [ˈlaiə] – n. a harp used by ancient Greeks for accompaniment

lyric [ˈlirik] – adj. expressing deep emotion: the dancer’s lyrical performance

lyrical  – adj. suitable for or suggestive of singing

lyrically  – adv. in a lyrical manner: she danced the part of the Black Swan very lyrically

lyricist [ˈlirisist] – n. a person who writes the words for songs

macadamize [məˈkædəmaiz] – v. surface with macadam

Machiavellian [.mækiəˈveliən] – n. a follower of Machiavelli’s principles

machinery [məˈʃi:nəri] – n. a system of means and activities whereby a social institution functions: the complex machinery of negotiation

machinist [məˈʃi:nist] – n. a craftsman skilled in operating machine tools

macrocosm [ˈmækrəukɔzəm] – n. everything that exists anywhere

madden [ˈmædən] – v. cause to go crazy; cause to lose one’s mind

Madonna [məˈdɔnə] – n. the mother of Jesus; Christians refer to her as the Virgin Mary; she is especially honored by Roman Catholics

magenta [məˈdʒentə] – adj. of deep purplish red

magic [ˈmædʒik] – n. any art that invokes supernatural powers

magical [ˈmædʒikəl] – adj. possessing or using or characteristic of or appropriate to supernatural powers: a magical spell

magician [məˈdʒiʃən] – n. one who practices magic or sorcery

magisterial [.mædʒiˈstiəriəl] – adj. offensively self-assured or given to exercising usually unwarranted power: managed the employees in an aloof magisterial way

magistracy [ˈmædʒistrəsi] – n. the position of magistrate

magnanimous [mægˈnæniməs] – adj. noble and generous in spirit: a magnanimous conqueror

magnate [ˈmægneit] – n. a very wealthy or powerful businessman

magnesium [mægˈni:zjəm] – n. a light silver-white ductile bivalent metallic element; in pure form it burns with brilliant white flame; occurs naturally only in combination (as in magnesite and dolomite and carnallite and spinel and olivine)

magnet [ˈmægnit] – n. a characteristic that provides pleasure and attracts

magnetic [mægˈnetik] – adj. having the properties of a magnet; i.e. of attracting iron or steel: the hard disk is covered with a thin coat of magnetic material

magnetism [ˈmægnitizəm] – n. attraction for iron; associated with electric currents as well as magnets; characterized by fields of force

magnetize [ˈmægnitaiz] – v. attract strongly, as if with a magnet: She magnetized the audience with her tricks

magnetosphere [mægˈni:təusfiə] – n. the magnetic field of a planet; the volume around the planet in which charged particles are subject more to the planet’s magnetic field than to the solar magnetic field

magnification [.mægnifiˈkeiʃən] – n. the act of expanding something in apparent size

magnificence [mægˈnifisns] – n. splendid or imposing in size or appearance

magnificent [mægˈnifisnt] – adj. characterized by grandeur: magnificent cathedrals

magnify [ˈmægnifai] – v. increase in size, volume or significance

magnitude [ˈmægnitju:d] – n. the property of relative size or extent (whether large or small): they tried to predict the magnitude of the explosion

maharaja [,mɑ:həˈrɑ:dʒə] – n. a great raja; a Hindu prince or king in India ranking above a raja

maidenhood [ˈmeidnhud] – n. the childhood of a girl

maim [meim] – v. injure or wound seriously and leave permanent disfiguration or mutilation: people were maimed by the explosion

mainsheet  – n. (nautical) a line (rope or chain) that regulates the angle at which a sail is set in relation to the wind

mainspring [ˈmeinspriŋ] – n. the most important spring in a mechanical device (especially a clock or watch); as it uncoils it drives the mechanism

mainstay  – n. a prominent supporter

maintain [meinˈtein] – v. keep in a certain state, position, or activity; e.g.,

maintenance [ˈmeintinəns] – n. activity involved in maintaining something in good working order

maize [meiz] – n. a strong yellow color

majestic [məˈdʒestik] – adj. having or displaying great dignity or nobility: majestic cities

majesty [ˈmædʒisti] – n. impressiveness in scale or proportion

majority [məˈdʒɔ:riti] – n. the property resulting from being or relating to the greater in number of two parts; the main part: the majority of his customers prefer it

makeup [ˈmeikʌp] – n. cosmetics applied to the face to improve or change your appearance

malady [ˈmælədi] – n. any unwholesome or desperate condition

malaria [məˈlɛəriə] – n. an infective disease caused by sporozoan parasites that are transmitted through the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito; marked by paroxysms of chills and fever

malcontent [ˈmælkəntent] – n. a person who is discontented or disgusted

malediction [.mæləˈdikʃən] – n. the act of calling down a curse that invokes evil (and usually serves as an insult)

malefactor [ˈmælifæktə] – n. someone who has committed a crime or has been legally convicted of a crime

maleficent [məˈlefisnt] – adj. harmful or evil in intent or effect

malevolence [məˈlevələns] – n. wishing evil to others

malevolent [məˈlevələnt] – adj. wishing or appearing to wish evil to others; arising from intense ill will or hatred: a gossipy malevolent old woman

malfunction [mælˈfʌŋkʃən] – n. a failure to function normally

malicious [məˈliʃəs] – adj. having the nature of or resulting from malice: malicious gossip

malign [məˈlain] – adj. evil or harmful in nature or influence: prompted by malign motives

malignant [məˈlignənt] – adj. dangerous to health; characterized by progressive and uncontrolled growth (especially of a tumor)

mall [mɔ:l, mæl] – n. a public area set aside as a pedestrian walk

malleability [.mæliəˈbiliti] – n. the property of being physically malleable; the property of something that can be worked or hammered or shaped without breaking

malleable [ˈmæliəbəl] – adj. easily influenced

mallet [ˈmælit] – n. a sports implement with a long handle and a head like a hammer; used in sports (polo or croquet) to hit a ball

malnutrition [.mælnjuˈtriʃən] – n. a state of poor nutrition; can result from insufficient or excessive or unbalanced diet or from inability to absorb foods

maltreat [mælˈtri:t] – v. treat badly

mammal [ˈmæməl] – n. any warm-blooded vertebrate having the skin more or less covered with hair; young are born alive except for the small subclass of monotremes and nourished with milk

mammalian  – adj. of or relating to the class Mammalia

mammoth [ˈmæməθ] – n. any of numerous extinct elephants widely distributed in the Pleistocene; extremely large with hairy coats and long upcurved tusks

management [ˈmænidʒmənt] – n. those in charge of running a business

mandate [ˈmændeit] – n. a document giving an official instruction or command

mandatory [ˈmændətəri] – n. the recipient of a mandate

mane [mein] – n. growth of hair covering the scalp of a human being

man-eater  – n. a person who eats human flesh

maneuver [məˈnu:və] – n. a military training exercise

manful [ˈmænfəl] – adj. characteristic of a man

mania [ˈmeiniə] – n. an irrational but irresistible motive for a belief or action

maniac [ˈmeiniæk] – n. an insane person

manifest [ˈmænifest] – v. provide evidence for; stand as proof of; show by one’s behavior, attitude, or external attributes: The buildings in Rome manifest a high level of architectural sophistication

manifestation [.mænifesˈteiʃən] – n. a clear appearance: a manifestation of great emotion

manifesto [.mæniˈfestəu] – n. a public declaration of intentions (as issued by a political party or government)

manipulate [məˈnipjuleit] – v. influence or control shrewdly or deviously: He manipulated public opinion in his favor

mannerism [ˈmænərizəm] – n. a behavioral attribute that is distinctive and peculiar to an individual

manoeuvre  – n. a plan for attaining a particular goal

manor [ˈmænə] – n. the landed estate of a lord (including the house on it)

mansion [ˈmænʃən] – n. (astrology) one of 12 equal areas into which the zodiac is divided

mantel [ˈmæntl] – n. shelf that projects from wall above fireplace: in Britain they call a mantel a chimneypiece

mantle [ˈmæntl] – n. the cloak as a symbol of authority: place the mantle of authority on younger shoulders

manual [ˈmænjuəl] – adj. of or relating to the hands: manual dexterity

manually [ˈmænjʊəli] – adv. by hand: this car shifts manually

manufacturer [.mænjuˈfæktʃərə] – n. someone who manufactures something

manumission [ˈmænjumiʃən] – n. the formal act of freeing from slavery: he believed in the manumission of the slaves

manumit [.mænjuˈmit] – v. free from slavery or servitude

manure [məˈnjuə] – n. any animal or plant material used to fertilize land especially animal excreta usually with litter material

map [mæp] – v. locate within a specific region of a chromosome in relation to known DNA or gene sequences: map the genes

marble [ˈmɑ:bl] – n. a hard crystalline metamorphic rock that takes a high polish; used for sculpture and as building material

march  – n. the month following February and preceding April

margin [ˈmɑ:dʒin] – n. the boundary line or the area immediately inside the boundary

marine [məˈri:n] – adj. of or relating to the sea: marine explorations

maritime [ˈmæritaim] – adj. relating to or involving ships or shipping or navigation or seamen: maritime law

mark [mɑ:k] – n. a distinguishing symbol: the owner’s mark was on all the sheep

marked [mɑ:kt] – adj. singled out for notice or especially for a dire fate: a marked man

markedly [ˈmɑ:kidli] – adv. in a clearly noticeable manner: sales of luxury cars dropped markedly

market [ˈmɑ:kit] – n. the world of commercial activity where goods and services are bought and sold: without competition there would be no market

marketing [ˈmɑ:kitiŋ] – n. the exchange of goods for an agreed sum of money

marketplace [ˈmɑ:kitˈpleis] – n. the world of commercial activity where goods and services are bought and sold: they were driven from the marketplace

maroon [məˈru:n] – n. a person who is stranded (as on an island): when the tide came in I was a maroon out there

marriage [ˈmæridʒ] – n. two people who are married to each other: his second marriage was happier than the first

marrow [ˈmærəu] – n. the fatty network of connective tissue that fills the cavities of bones

marsh [mɑ:ʃ] – n. low-lying wet land with grassy vegetation; usually is a transition zone between land and water: thousands of acres of marshland

marshy [ˈmɑ:ʃi] – adj. (of soil) soft and watery: a marshy coastline

martial [ˈmɑ:ʃəl] – adj. (of persons) befitting a warrior

Martian [ˈmɑ:ʃiən] – n. imaginary people who live on the planet Mars

martinet [.ma:tiˈnet] – n. someone who demands exact conformity to rules and forms

martyrdom [ˈma:tədəm] – n. death that is imposed because of the person’s adherence of a religious faith or cause

marvel [ˈmɑ:vəl] – v. be amazed at: We marvelled at the child’s linguistic abilities

marvelous [ˈmɑ:viləs] – adj. extraordinarily good or great ; used especially as intensifiers: a marvelous collection of rare books

mask [mɑ:sk] – v. hide under a false appearance: He masked his disappointment

mason [ˈmeisn] – n. American Revolutionary leader from Virginia whose objections led to the drafting of the Bill of Rights (1725-1792)

masonry [ˈmeisnri] – n. Freemasons collectively

masquerade [.mæskəˈreid] – n. a party of guests wearing costumes and masks

mass [mæs] – n. the property of a body that causes it to have weight in a gravitational field

massacre [ˈmæsəkə] – n. the savage and excessive killing of many people

massive [ˈmæsiv] – adj. imposing in size or bulk or solidity: massive oak doors

mast [mɑ:st] – n. a vertical spar for supporting sails

masterpiece [ˈmɑ:stəpi:s] – n. the most outstanding work of a creative artist or craftsman

mastery [ˈma:stəri] – n. great skillfulness and knowledge of some subject or activity

masticate [ˈmæstəkeit] – v. grind and knead: masticate rubber

match [mætʃ] – v. be compatible, similar or consistent; coincide in their characteristics: The suspect’s fingerprints don’t match those on the gun

matchless [ˈmætʃlis] – adj. eminent beyond or above comparison: matchless beauty

matchstick [ˈmætʃstik] – n. a short thin stick of wood used in making matches

mate [meit] – n. a fellow member of a team: it was his first start against his former teammates

material [məˈtiəriəl] – adj. concerned with worldly rather than spiritual interests: material possessions

materialize [məˈtiəriəlaiz] – v. come into being; become reality: Her dream really materialized

maternal [məˈtə:nl] – adj. characteristic of a mother: warm maternal affection for her guest

mathematical [.mæθiˈmætikəl] – adj. relating to or having ability to think in or work with numbers: a mathematical whiz

mathematics [.mæθiˈmætiks] – n. a science (or group of related sciences) dealing with the logic of quantity and shape and arrangement

matinee [ˈmætinei] – n. a theatrical performance held during the daytime (especially in the afternoon)

matricide [ˈmeitrisaid] – n. a person who murders their mother

matrimony [ˈmætriməni] – n. the state of being a married couple voluntarily joined for life (or until divorce)

matrix [ˈmeitriks] – n. (geology) amass of fine-grained rock in which fossils, crystals, or gems are embedded

matron  – n. a married woman (usually middle-aged with children) who is staid and dignified

matter [ˈmætə] – n. a vaguely specified concern: several matters to attend to

maturity [məˈtjuəriti] – n. the period of time in your life after your physical growth has stopped and you are fully developed

maudlin [ˈmɔ:dlin] – adj. effusively or insincerely emotional: maudlin expressions of sympathy

mausoleum [mɔ:səˈliəm] – n. a large burial chamber, usually above ground

maverick [ˈmævərik] – n. someone who exhibits great independence in thought and action

mawkish [ˈmɔ:kiʃ] – adj. effusively or insincerely emotional

maxim [ˈmæksim] – n. a saying that is widely accepted on its own merits

maximum [ˈmæksiməm] – n. the largest possible quantity

maze [meiz] – n. complex system of paths or tunnels in which it is easy to get lost

mead [mi:d] – n. United States philosopher of pragmatism (1863-1931)

meager [ˈmi:gə] – adj. deficient in amount or quality or extent: meager resources

meagre  – adj. deficient in amount or quality or extent

meander [miˈændə] – n. a bend or curve, as in a stream or river

meaningful [ˈmi:niŋfəl] – adj. having a meaning or purpose: a meaningful explanation

means [mi:nz] – n. how a result is obtained or an end is achieved: a means of control

measure [ˈmeʒə] – n. any maneuver made as part of progress toward a goal: the situation called for strong measures

measurement [ˈmeʒəmənt] – n. the act or process of assigning numbers to phenomena according to a rule: the measurements were carefully done

mechanic [miˈkænik] – n. a craftsman skilled in operating machine tools

mechanical [miˈkænikəl] – adj. relating to or concerned with machinery or tools: mechanical arts

mechanics [miˈkæniks] – n. the branch of physics concerned with the motion of bodies in a frame of reference

mechanism [ˈmekənizəm] – n. the atomic process that occurs during a chemical reaction: he determined unique mechanisms for the photochemical reactions

mechanized [ˈmekənaizd] – adj. equipped with machinery: a mechanized factory

medallion [miˈdæljən] – n. any of various large ancient Greek coins

meddle [ˈmedl] – v. intrude in other people’s affairs or business; interfere unwantedly: Don’t meddle in my affairs!

meddlesome [ˈmedlsəm] – adj. intrusive in a meddling or offensive manner

medial [ˈmi:diəl] – adj. dividing an animal into right and left halves

mediate [ˈmidieit] – v. act between parties with a view to reconciling differences: He mediated a settlement

mediator [ˈmi:dieitə] – n. a negotiator who acts as a link between parties

medicine [ˈmedisin] – n. the branches of medical science that deal with nonsurgical techniques

medieval [mediˈi:vəl] – adj. relating to or belonging to the Middle Ages

mediocre [.mi:diˈəukə] – adj. moderate to inferior in quality: they improved the quality from mediocre to above average

meditation [.mediˈteiʃən] – n. continuous and profound contemplation or musing on a subject or series of subjects of a deep or abstruse nature: the habit of meditation is the basis for all real knowledge

medium [ˈmi:diəm] – n. a means or instrumentality for storing or communicating information

medley [ˈmedli] – n. a musical composition consisting of a series of songs or other musical pieces from various sources

megawatt  – n. a unit of power equal to one million watts

melange [meiˈlɑ:nʒ] – n. a motley assortment of things

meliorate [ˈmi:ljəreit] – v. to make better

mellifluous [miˈlifluəs] – adj. pleasing to the ear

melodic [miˈlɔdik] – adj. of or relating to melody: melodic harmony

melodious [miˈləudiəs] – adj. having a musical sound; especially a pleasing tune

melodrama [ˈmelədrɑ:mə] – n. an extravagant comedy in which action is more salient than characterization

melody [ˈmelədi] – n. a succession of notes forming a distinctive sequence

melt [melt] – v. reduce or cause to be reduced from a solid to a liquid state, usually by heating: melt butter

membership [ˈmembəʃip] – n. the state of being a member

membrane [ˈmembrein] – n. a thin pliable sheet of material

memento [miˈmentəu] – n. a reminder of past events

memo [ˈmeməu] – n. a written proposal or reminder

memorable [ˈmemərəbl] – adj. worth remembering

memorandum [.meməˈrændəm] – n. a written proposal or reminder

memorial [miˈmɔ:riəl] – n. a recognition of meritorious service

memorization  – n. learning so as to be able to remember verbatim: the actor’s memorization of his lines

memorize [ˈmeməraiz] – v. commit to memory; learn by heart: Have you memorized your lines for the play yet?

memory [ˈmeməri] – n. the cognitive processes whereby past experience is remembered: he can do it from memory

menace [ˈmenis] – v. pose a threat to; present a danger to

menagerie [miˈnædʒəri] – n. a collection of live animals for study or display

mend [mend] – n. the act of putting something in working order again

mendacious [menˈdeiʃəs] – adj. given to lying: a mendacious child

mendicant [ˈmendikənt] – n. a male member of a religious order that originally relied solely on alms

menial [ˈmi:niəl] – n. a domestic servant

mentality [menˈtæliti] – n. mental ability

mention [ˈmenʃən] – n. a remark that calls attention to something or someone: she made frequent mention of her promotion

mentor [ˈmentə] – n. a wise and trusted guide and advisor

menu [ˈmenju:] – n. a list of dishes available at a restaurant: the menu was in French

mercantile [ˈmə:kəntail] – adj. profit oriented: preached a mercantile and militant patriotism

mercenary [ˈmə:sinəri] – adj. marked by materialism

merchandise [ˈmə:tʃəndaiz] – n. commodities offered for sale: good business depends on having good merchandise

merchant [ˈmə:tʃənt] – n. a businessperson engaged in retail trade

merciful [ˈmə:sifəl] – adj. (used conventionally of royalty and high nobility) gracious: our merciful king

merciless [ˈmə:silis] – adj. having or showing no mercy: the merciless enemy

meretricious [.meriˈtriʃəs] – adj. like or relating to a prostitute: meretricious relationships

merge [mə:dʒ] – v. become one: the cells merge

merger [mə:dʒə] – n. an occurrence that involves the production of a union

meridian [məˈridiən] – n. the highest level or degree attainable; the highest stage of development

merit [ˈmerit] – n. any admirable quality or attribute: work of great merit

mesmerize [ˈmezməraiz] – v. attract strongly, as if with a magnet

mesquite  – n. any of several small spiny trees or shrubs of the genus Prosopis having small flowers in axillary cylindrical spikes followed by large pods rich in sugar

messy [ˈmesi] – adj. dirty and disorderly: a child’s messy eating habits

metabolic [.metəˈbɔlik] – adj. undergoing metamorphosis

metabolism [məˈtæbəlizəm] – n. the marked and rapid transformation of a larva into an adult that occurs in some animals

metal [ˈmetl] – n. any of several chemical elements that are usually shiny solids that conduct heat or electricity and can be formed into sheets etc.

metallic [mi ˈtælik] – n. a yarn made partly or entirely of metal

metallurgy [meˈtælədʒi] – n. the science and technology of metals

metamorphosis [.metəˈmɔ:fəsis] – n. the marked and rapid transformation of a larva into an adult that occurs in some animals

metaphor [ˈmetəfə] – n. a figure of speech in which an expression is used to refer to something that it does not literally denote in order to suggest a similarity

metaphysical [metəˈfizikl] – adj. without material form or substance: metaphysical forces

metazoan  – n. any animal of the subkingdom Metazoa; all animals except protozoans and sponges

mete [mi:t] – n. a line that indicates a boundary

metempsychosis [,metempsiˈkəusis] – n. after death the soul begins a new cycle of existence in another human body

meteor [ˈmi:tjə] – n. (astronomy) any of the small solid extraterrestrial bodies that hits the earth’s atmosphere

meteorite [ˈmi:tiərɑit] – n. stony or metallic object that is the remains of a meteoroid that has reached the earth’s surface

meteorologist [.mi:tjəˈrɔlədʒist] – n. a specialist who studies processes in the earth’s atmosphere that cause weather conditions

meteorology [mi:tiəˈrɔlədʒi] – n. predicting what the weather will be

methodically [miˈθɔdikəli] – adv. in a methodical manner: she worked methodically

methodology [meθəˈdɔlədʒi] – n. the branch of philosophy that analyzes the principles and procedures of inquiry in a particular discipline

meticulous [miˈtikjʊləs] – adj. marked by precise accordance with details: meticulous research

metonymy [miˈtɔnimi] – n. substituting the name of an attribute or feature for the name of the thing itself (as in `they counted heads’)

metric [ˈmetrik] – n. a system of related measures that facilitates the quantification of some particular characteristic

metronome [ˈmetrənəum] – n. clicking pendulum indicates the exact tempo of a piece of music

metropolis [miˈtrɔpəlis] – n. a large and densely populated urban area; may include several independent administrative districts

metropolitan [.metrəˈpɔlitən] – n. a person who lives in a metropolis

mettle [ˈmetl] – n. the courage to carry on

mettlesome [ˈmetlsəm] – adj. having a proud and unbroken spirit

miasmic  – adj. of noxious stench from atmospheric pollution

microbe [ˈmaikrəub] – n. a minute life form (especially a disease-causing bacterium); the term is not in technical use

microcosm [ˈmaikrəkɔzəm] – n. a miniature model of something

micrometer [maiˈkrɔmətə] – n. a metric unit of length equal to one millionth of a meter

micron  – n. a metric unit of length equal to one millionth of a meter

microorganism [maikrəʊˈɔ:gəniz(ə)m] – n. any organism of microscopic size

micro-organism  – n. any organism of microscopic size

microphone [ˈmaikrəfəun] – n. device for converting sound waves into electrical energy

microscope [ˈmaikrəskəup] – n. magnifier of the image of small objects: the invention of the microscope led to the discovery of the cell

microscopic [maikrəˈskɔpik] – adj. visible under a microscope; using a microscope

microscopy [maiˈkrəuskəpi] – n. research with the use of microscopes

microwave [ˈmaikrəuweiv] – n. kitchen appliance that cooks food by passing an electromagnetic wave through it; heat results from the absorption of energy by the water molecules in the food

midsummer [ˈmidsʌmə] – n. June 21, when the sun is at its northernmost point

midwife [ˈmidwaif] – n. a woman skilled in aiding the delivery of babies

mien [mi:n] – n. dignified manner or conduct

mighty [ˈmaiti] – adj. having or showing great strength or force or intensity: struck a mighty blow

migrant [ˈmaigrənt] – n. traveler who moves from one region or country to another

migrate [ˈmaigreit] – v. move from one country or region to another and settle there: Many Germans migrated to South America in the mid-19th century

migration [maiˈgreiʃən] – n. the movement of persons from one country or locality to another

migratory [ˈmaigrətəri, maiˈgreitəri] – adj. used of animals that move seasonally: migratory birds

mild [maild] – adj. moderate in type or degree or effect or force; far from extreme: a mild winter storm

mileage [ˈmailidʒ] – n. the ratio of the number of miles traveled to the number of gallons of gasoline burned

milestone [ˈmailstəun] – n. stone post at side of a road to show distances

milieu [ˈmi:ljə:] – n. the environmental condition

militant [ˈmilitənt] – adj. disposed to warfare or hard-line policies: militant nations

militarism [ˈmilitərizəm] – n. a political orientation of a people or a government to maintain a strong military force and to be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or promote national interests

militate [ˈmiliteit] – v. have force or influence; bring about an effect or change: Politeness militated against this opinion being expressed

militia [miˈliʃə] – n. civilians trained as soldiers but not part of the regular army

mill [mil] – n. a plant consisting of one or more buildings with facilities for manufacturing

millenarian  – n. a person who believes in the coming of the millennium (a time of great peace and prosperity)

millennium [miˈleniəm] – n. a span of 1000 years

millet [ˈmilit] – n. French painter of rural scenes (1814-1875)

millimeter [ˈmili.mi:tə] – n. a metric unit of length equal to one thousandth of a meter

millionaire [.miljənˈɛə] – n. a person whose material wealth is valued at more than a million dollars

mime [maim] – n. an actor who communicates entirely by gesture and facial expression

mimetic [miˈmetik, mai-] – adj. exhibiting mimicry: mimetic coloring of a butterfly

mimic [ˈmimik] – v. imitate (a person or manner), especially for satirical effect: The actor mimicked the President very accurately

mimicry [ˈmimikri] – n. the act of mimicking; imitative behavior

mince [mins] – v. make less severe or harsh

mincing [ˈminsiŋ] – adj. affectedly dainty or refined

mine [main] – n. explosive device that explodes on contact; designed to destroy vehicles or ships or to kill or maim personnel

mineral [ˈminərəl] – adj. composed of matter other than plant or animal: the inorganic mineral world

mingle [ˈmiŋgl] – v. to bring or combine together or with something else: resourcefully he mingled music and dance

miniature [ˈminiətʃə] – n. painting or drawing included in a book (especially in illuminated medieval manuscripts)

minimal [ˈminiməl] – adj. the least possible: needed to enforce minimal standards

minimalist [ˈminiməlist] – n. a conservative who advocates only minor reforms in government or politics

minimize [ˈminimaiz] – v. make small or insignificant: Let’s minimize the risk

minimum [ˈminiməm] – n. the smallest possible quantity

minion [ˈminiən] – n. a servile or fawning dependant

ministration [minisˈtreiʃən] – n. assistance in time of difficulty

ministry [ˈministri] – n. building where the business of a government department is transacted

minority [maiˈnɔ:riti] – n. a group of people who differ racially or politically from a larger group of which it is a part

mint [mint] – n. (often followed by `of’) a large number or amount or extent: he made a mint on the stock market

minuscule [miˈnʌskju:l] – adj. of or relating to a small cursive script developed from uncial; 7th to 9th centuries

minute [ˈminit,maiˈnju:t] – n. a unit of time equal to 60 seconds or 1/60th of an hour: he ran a 4 minute mile

minutia [maiˈnju:ʃiə] – n. a small or minor detail: he had memorized the many minutiae of the legal code

miracle [ˈmirəkl] – n. any amazing or wonderful occurrence

miraculous [miˈrækjuləs] – adj. peculiarly fortunate or appropriate; as if by divine intervention

mirage [ˈmirɑ:ʒ] – n. something illusory and unattainable

misadventure [ˈmisədˈventʃə] – n. an instance of misfortune

misanthropic [mizənˈθrɔpik] – adj. believing the worst of human nature and motives; having a sneering disbelief in e.g. selflessness of others

misanthropy [misˈænθrəpi] – n. hatred of mankind

misapprehend [ˈmisæpriˈhend] – v. interpret in the wrong way

mischievous [ˈmistʃivəs] – adj. naughtily or annoyingly playful

misconception [ˈmiskənˈsepʃən] – n. an incorrect conception

miscount [ˈmisˈkaunt] – n. an inaccurate count

miscreant [ˈmiskriənt] – n. a person without moral scruples

misdeed [.misˈdi:d] – n. improper or wicked or immoral behavior

misdemeanor [ˈmisdiˈmi:nə] – n. a crime less serious than a felony

miser [ˈmaizə] – n. a stingy hoarder of money and possessions (often living miserably)

miserable [ˈmizərəbl] – adj. deserving or inciting pity: miserable victims of war

misfortune [misˈfɔ:tʃən] – n. unnecessary and unforeseen trouble resulting from an unfortunate event

misgiving [misˈgiviŋ] – n. uneasiness about the fitness of an action

mishap [ˈmishæp, misˈhæp] – n. an unpredictable outcome that is unfortunate

misinterpret [ˈmisinˈtə:prit] – v. interpret falsely

mislay [misˈlei] – v. place (something) where one cannot find it again

mislead [misˈli:d] – v. lead someone in the wrong direction or give someone wrong directions

misnomer [ˈmisˈnəumə] – n. an incorrect or unsuitable name

misogamy [miˈsɔgəmi] – n. hatred of marriage

misogyny [maiˈsɔdʒini] – n. hatred of women

misplace [ˈmisˈpleis] – v. place (something) where one cannot find it again: I misplaced my eyeglasses

misrepresent [.misrepriˈzent] – v. represent falsely: This statement misrepresents my intentions

misrule [ˈmisˈru:l] – n. government that is inefficient or dishonest

missal [ˈmisl] – n. (Roman Catholic Church) a book containing all the prayers and responses needed to celebrate Mass throughout the year

missile [ˈmisail] – n. a rocket carrying a warhead of conventional or nuclear explosives; may be ballistic or directed by remote control

mission [ˈmiʃən] – n. an operation that is assigned by a higher headquarters: the planes were on a bombing mission

missionary [ˈmiʃənəri] – n. someone who attempts to convert others to a particular doctrine or program

missive [ˈmisiv] – n. a written message addressed to a person or organization

mistrust [ˈmisˈtrʌst] – n. doubt about someone’s honesty

misty [ˈmisti] – adj. wet with mist: the misty evening

misunderstand [ˈmisʌndəˈstænd] – v. interpret in the wrong way

misuse [misˈju:z] – v. apply to a wrong thing or person; apply badly or incorrectly

mite [mait] – n. a slight but appreciable amount

miter [ˈmaitə] – n. joint that forms a corner; usually both sides are bevelled at a 45-degree angle to form a 90-degree corner

mitigate [ˈmitigeit] – v. lessen or to try to lessen the seriousness or extent of

moat [məut] – n. ditch dug as a fortification and usually filled with water

mobile [ˈməubail] – adj. migratory: a restless mobile society

mobility [məuˈbiliti] – n. the quality of moving freely

mobilize [ˈməubilaiz] – v. make ready for action or use

mobocracy  – n. a political system in which a mob is the source of control; government by the masses

moccasin [ˈmɔkəsin] – n. soft leather shoe; originally worn by Native Americans

mock [mɔk] – v. treat with contempt: The new constitution mocks all democratic principles

mockery [ˈmɔkəri] – n. showing your contempt by derision

mockingbird [ˈmɔkiŋbɜ:d] – n. long-tailed grey-and-white songbird of the southern United States able to mimic songs of other birds

mode [məud] – n. how something is done or how it happens: their nomadic mode of existence

model [ˈmɔdl] – n. a hypothetical description of a complex entity or process: the computer program was based on a model of the circulatory and respiratory systems

modem  – n. (from a combination of MOdulate and DEModulate) electronic equipment consisting of a device used to connect computers by a telephone line

moderate [ˈmɔdəreit,ˈmɔdərit] – v. preside over: John moderated the discussion

moderation [mɔdəˈreiʃən] – n. a change for the better

moderator [ˈmɔdəreitə] – n. any substance used to slow down neutrons in nuclear reactors

modernize [ˈmɔdən.aiz] – v. make repairs, renovations, revisions or adjustments to

modest [ˈmɔdist] – adj. marked by simplicity; having a humble opinion of yourself: a modest apartment

modestly  – adv. with modesty; in a modest manner: the dissertation was entitled, modestly, `Remarks about a play by Shakespeare’

modification [.mɔdifiˈkeiʃən] – n. the act of making something different (as e.g. the size of a garment)

modify [ˈmɔdifai] – v. make less severe or harsh or extreme: please modify this letter to make it more polite

modish [ˈməudiʃ] – adj. in the current fashion or style

modulate [ˈmɔdjuleit] – v. change the key of, in music: modulate the melody

moiety [ˈmɔiəti] – n. one of two (approximately) equal parts

moist [mɔist] – adj. slightly wet: a moist breeze

moisten [ˈmɔisn] – v. make moist: The dew moistened the meadows

moisture [ˈmɔistʃə] – n. wetness caused by water

molasses  – n. thick dark syrup produced by boiling down juice from sugar cane; especially during sugar refining

mold [məuld] – n. the distinctive form in which a thing is made

moldy  – adj. covered with or smelling of mold: moldy bread

molecular [məuˈlekjulə] – adj. relating to simple or elementary organization: proceed by more and more detailed analysis to the molecular facts of perception

molecule [ˈmɔlikju:l] – n. (physics and chemistry) the simplest structural unit of an element or compound

mollify [ˈmɔlifai] – v. cause to be more favorably inclined; gain the good will of: She managed to mollify the angry customer

mollusk [ˈmɔləsk] – n. invertebrate having a soft unsegmented body usually enclosed in a shell

molt [məult] – n. periodic shedding of the cuticle in arthropods or the outer skin in reptiles

molten [ˈməultən] – adj. reduced to liquid form by heating: a mass of molten rock

momentary [ˈməuməntəri] – adj. lasting for a markedly brief time: a momentary glimpse

momentous [məuˈmentəs] – adj. of very great significance: a momentous event

momentum [məuˈmentəm] – n. an impelling force or strength: the car’s momentum carried it off the road

monarch [ˈmɔnək] – n. a nation’s ruler or head of state usually by hereditary right

monarchy [ˈmɔnəki] – n. an autocracy governed by a monarch who usually inherits the authority

monastery [ˈmɔnəstri] – n. the residence of a religious community

monetary [ˈmʌnə.teri] – adj. relating to or involving money: monetary rewards

mongrel [ˈmʌŋgrəl] – n. derogatory term for a variation that is not genuine; something irregular or inferior or of dubious origin

monition [məuˈniʃən] – n. a firm rebuke

monitor [ˈmɔnitə] – n. someone who supervises (an examination)

monitory [ˈmɔnitəri] – adj. serving to warn: shook a monitory finger at him

monochromatic [ˈmɔnəukrəuˈmætik] – adj. (of light or other electromagnetic radiation) having only one wavelength: monochromatic light

monochrome  – n. painting done in a range of tones of a single color

monocracy [mɔˈnɔkrəsi] – n. a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)

monogamous  – adj. (used of relationships and of individuals) having one mate: monogamous marriage

monogamy [məˈnɔgəmi] – n. having only one spouse at a time

monogram [ˈmɔnəgræm] – n. a graphic symbol consisting of 2 or more letters combined (usually your initials); printed on stationery or embroidered on clothing

monograph [ˈmɔnəgrɑ:f] – n. a detailed and documented treatise on a particular subject

monolith [ˈmɔnəuliθ] – n. a single great stone (often in the form of a column or obelisk)

monologue [ˈmɔnəlɔg] – n. speech you make to yourself

monomania [mɔnəˈmeiniə] – n. a mania restricted to one thing or idea

monopolise  – v. have and control fully and exclusively

monopolize [məˈnɔpəlaiz] – v. have and control fully and exclusively: He monopolizes the laser printer

monopoly [məˈnɔpəli] – n. (economics) a market in which there are many buyers but only one seller: a monopoly on silver

monosyllable [ˈmɔnəsiləbl] – n. a word or utterance of one syllable

monotone [ˈməunətəun] – n. an unchanging intonation

monotonous [məˈnɔtənəs] – adj. tediously repetitious or lacking in variety: nothing is so monotonous as the sea

monotony [məˈnɔtəni] – n. the quality of wearisome constancy, routine, and lack of variety: he had never grown accustomed to the monotony of his work

monsieur [məˈsjə:] – n. used as a French courtesy title; equivalent to English `Mr’

monster [ˈmɔnstə] – n. an imaginary creature usually having various human and animal parts

monstrosity [mɔnsˈtrɔsiti] – n. a person or animal that is markedly unusual or deformed

monument [ˈmɔnjumənt] – n. a structure erected to commemorate persons or events

mood [mu:d] – n. a characteristic (habitual or relatively temporary) state of feeling

moonbeam [ˈmu:nbi:m] – n. a ray of moonlight

moral [ˈmɔrəl] – adj. psychological rather than physical or tangible in effect: a moral victory

morale [mɔˈrɑ:l] – n. a state of individual psychological well-being based upon a sense of confidence and usefulness and purpose

moralist [ˈmɔrəlist] – n. someone who demands exact conformity to rules and forms

morality [məˈræliti] – n. concern with the distinction between good and evil or right and wrong; right or good conduct

moralize [ˈmɑ:əlaiz] – v. speak as if delivering a sermon; express moral judgements

moratorium [.mɔrəˈtɔ:riəm] – n. a legally authorized postponement before some obligation must be discharged

morbid [ˈmɔ:bid] – adj. suggesting an unhealthy mental state: morbid interest in death

mordant [ˈmɔ:dənt] – adj. harshly ironic or sinister: fun ranging from slapstick clowning … to savage mordant wit

moribund [ˈmɔribʌnd] – adj. not growing or changing; without force or vitality

morose [məˈrəus] – adj. showing a brooding ill humor: a morose and unsociable manner

morphological  – adj. relating to or concerned with the formation of admissible words in a language

morphology [mɔ:ˈfɔlədʒi] – n. the branch of biology that deals with the structure of animals and plants

mortal [ˈmɔ:tl] – adj. subject to death: mortal beings

mortar [ˈmɔ:tə] – n. a muzzle-loading high-angle gun with a short barrel that fires shells at high elevations for a short range

mosaic [mɔˈzeiik] – n. art consisting of a design made of small pieces of colored stone or glass

mote [məut] – n. (nontechnical usage) a tiny piece of anything

moth [mɔθ] – n. typically crepuscular or nocturnal insect having a stout body and feathery or hairlike antennae

motif [məuˈti:f] – n. a design or figure that consists of recurring shapes or colors, as in architecture or decoration

motion [ˈməuʃən] – n. the use of movements (especially of the hands) to communicate familiar or prearranged signals

motionless [ˈməʊʃ(ə)nlis] – adj. not in physical motion

motivate [ˈməutiveit] – v. give an incentive for action

motivation [.məutiˈveiʃən] – n. the condition of being motivated: his motivation was at a high level

motive [ˈməutiv] – n. a theme that is repeated or elaborated in a piece of music

motley [ˈmɔtli] – n. a collection containing a variety of sorts of things

motorcycle [ˈməutəsaikl] – n. a motor vehicle with two wheels and a strong frame

mottled [ˈmɔtld] – adj. having spots or patches of color

motto [ˈmɔtəu] – n. a favorite saying of a sect or political group

mount [maunt] – v. attach to a support: They mounted the aerator on a floating

mountaineer [mauntiˈniə] – n. someone who climbs mountains

mountainous [ˈmauntinəs] – adj. having hills and crags

mournful [ˈmɔ:nful] – adj. expressing sorrow

mourning [ˈmɔ:niŋ] – n. state of sorrow over the death or departure of a loved one

mouth [mauθ] – n. the opening through which food is taken in and vocalizations emerge: he stuffed his mouth with candy

mouthful [ˈmauθful] – n. a small amount eaten or drunk

muddle [ˈmʌdl] – n. a confused multitude of things

muffle [ˈmʌfl] – v. conceal or hide: muffle one’s anger

mulatto [mju:ˈlætəu] – n. an offspring of a black and a white parent

mulberry [ˈmʌlbəri] – n. any of several trees of the genus Morus having edible fruit that resembles the blackberry

muleteer [ˈmju:liˈtiə] – n. a worker who drives mules

multicellular  – adj. consisting of many cells: multicellular organisms

multiform [ˈmʌltifɔ:m] – adj. occurring in or having many forms or shapes or appearances: the multiform universe of nature and man

multiple [ˈmʌltipl] – n. the product of a quantity by an integer: 36 is a multiple of 9

multiplication [.mʌltipliˈkeiʃən] – n. a multiplicative increase: repeated copying leads to a multiplication of errors

multiplicity [mʌltiˈplisiti] – n. a large number

multiply [ˈmʌltiplai] – v. combine or increase by multiplication: He managed to multiply his profits

multistory  – adj. having more than one story

multitude [ˈmʌltitju:d] – n. a large indefinite number: a multitude of TV antennas

mundane [mʌnˈdein] – adj. found in the ordinary course of events

municipal [mju:ˈnisipəl] – adj. relating or belonging to or characteristic of a municipality: municipal government

municipality [mju:nisiˈpæliti] – n. an urban district having corporate status and powers of self-government

munificence [mju:ˈnifisns] – n. liberality in bestowing gifts; extremely liberal and generous of spirit

munificent [mju:ˈnifisənt] – adj. very generous: a munificent gift

mural [ˈmjuərəl] – n. a painting that is applied to a wall surface

murky [ˈmə:ki] – adj. (of liquids) clouded as with sediment: murky waters

muscle [ˈmʌsl] – n. one of the contractile organs of the body

muscular [ˈmʌskjulə] – adj. of or relating to or consisting of muscle: muscular contraction

mushroom [ˈmʌʃrum] – n. common name for an edible agaric (contrasting with the inedible toadstool)

musicologist  – n. a student of musicology

muster [ˈmʌstə] – n. a gathering of military personnel for duty: he was thrown in the brig for missing muster

mutable [ˈmju:təbəl] – adj. capable of or tending to change in form or quality or nature: a mutable substance

mutation [mju:ˈteiʃən] – n. (biology) an organism that has characteristics resulting from chromosomal alteration

mutilate [ˈmju:tileit] – v. destroy or injure severely: The madman mutilates art work

mutiny [ˈmju:tini] – n. open rebellion against constituted authority (especially by seamen or soldiers against their officers)

mutual [ˈmju:tʃuəl] – adj. common to or shared by two or more parties: the mutual interests of management and labor

mycology [maiˈkɔlədʒi] – n. the branch of botany that studies fungi and fungus-caused diseases

myriad [ˈmiriəd] – n. a large indefinite number: he faced a myriad of details

mysterious [misˈtiəriəs] – adj. of an obscure nature: the new insurance policy is written without cryptic or mysterious terms

mystery [ˈmistəri] – n. something that baffles understanding and cannot be explained: how it got out is a mystery

mystic [ˈmistik] – adj. having an import not apparent to the senses nor obvious to the intelligence; beyond ordinary understanding: the mystical style of Blake

mystical [ˈmistikəl] – adj. relating to or resembling mysticism: mystical intuition

mystification [mistifiˈkeiʃən] – n. confusion resulting from failure to understand

mystify  – v. make mysterious: mystify the story

myth [miθ] – n. a traditional story accepted as history; serves to explain the world view of a people

mythical [ˈmiθikə l] – adj. based on or told of in traditional stories; lacking factual basis or historical validity: mythical centaurs

mythological  – adj. based on or told of in traditional stories; lacking factual basis or historical validity

mythology [miˈθɔlədʒi] – n. myths collectively; the body of stories associated with a culture or institution or person

naive [nɑˈi:v] – adj. marked by or showing unaffected simplicity and lack of guile or worldly experience: a teenager’s naive ignorance of life

naked [ˈneikid] – adj. completely unclothed: naked from the waist up

nameless [ˈneimlis] – adj. being or having an unknown or unnamed source: corporations responsible to nameless owners

namely [ˈneimli] – adv. as follows

naphtha [ˈnæfθə] – n. any of various volatile flammable liquid hydrocarbon mixtures; used chiefly as solvents

Narcissus [narˈsisəs] – n. (Greek mythology) a beautiful young man who fell in love with his own reflection

narcotic [nɑ:ˈkɔtik] – adj. inducing stupor or narcosis: narcotic drugs

narrate [næˈreit] – v. provide commentary for a film, for example

narration [næˈreiʃən] – n. the act of giving an account describing incidents or a course of events: his narration was hesitant

narrative [ˈnærətiv] – adj. consisting of or characterized by the telling of a story: narrative poetry

narrator [ˈnæreitə] – n. someone who tells a story

narrow-minded  – adj. capable of being shocked

narwhal  – n. small Arctic whale the male having a long spiral ivory tusk

nasal [ˈneizəl] – n. a consonant produced through the nose with the mouth closed

nascent [ˈnæsənt] – adj. being born or beginning: the nascent chicks

natal [ˈneitl] – n. a region of eastern South Africa on the Indian Ocean

nationality [.næʃəˈnæliti] – n. the status of belonging to a particular nation by birth or naturalization

native [ˈneitiv] – adj. characteristic of or existing by virtue of geographic origin: the native North American sugar maple

naturalist [ˈnætʃərəlist] – n. an advocate of the doctrine that the world can be understood in scientific terms

naturalistic [.nætʃərəˈlistik] – adj. representing what is real; not abstract or ideal: in naturalistic colors

naturally [ˈnætʃərəli] – adv. as might be expected: naturally, the lawyer sent us a huge bill

nature [ˈneitʃə] – n. the essential qualities or characteristics by which something is recognized: it is the nature of fire to burn

nausea [ˈnɔ:sjə] – n. the state that precedes vomiting

nauseate [ˈnɔ:zieit] – v. cause aversion in; offend the moral sense of

nauseous [ˈnɔ:ʃiəs] – adj. feeling nausea; feeling about to vomit

nautical [ˈnɔ:tikəl] – adj. relating to or involving ships or shipping or navigation or seamen: nautical charts

naval [ˈneivəl] – adj. connected with or belonging to or used in a navy: naval history

navel [ˈneivəl] – n. a scar where the umbilical cord was attached: you were not supposed to show your navel on television

navigable [ˈnævigəbl] – adj. able to be sailed on or through safely: navigable waters

navigate [ˈnævigeit] – v. travel on water propelled by wind or by other means

navigation [.næviˈgeiʃən] – n. the guidance of ships or airplanes from place to place

navigational  – adj. of or relating to navigation: navigational aids

neat [ni:t] – adj. clean or organized: her neat dress

nebula [ˈnebjulə] – n. a medicinal liquid preparation intended for use in an atomizer

necessary [ˈnesə.səri] – adj. absolutely essential

necessitate [niˈsesiteit] – v. require as useful, just, or proper

necessity [niˈsesiti] – n. the condition of being essential or indispensable

necrology [neˈkrɔlədʒi] – n. a notice of someone’s death; usually includes a short biography

necropolis [niˈkrɔpəlis] – n. a tract of land used for burials

necrosis [neˈkrəusis] – n. the localized death of living cells (as from infection or the interruption of blood supply)

nectar [ˈnektə] – n. a sweet liquid secretion that is attractive to pollinators

nectarine [ˈnektəri:n] – n. variety or mutation of the peach bearing fruit with smooth skin and (usually) yellow flesh

needlework [ˈni:dəlwə:k] – n. work (such as sewing or embroidery) that is done with a needle

needy [ˈni:di] – adj. demanding or needing attention, affection, or reassurance to an excessive degree

nefarious [niˈfeəriəs] – adj. extremely wicked: nefarious schemes

negate [niˈgeit] – v. be in contradiction with

negation [niˈgeiʃən] – n. the speech act of negating

negative [ˈnegətiv] – adj. expressing or consisting of a negation or refusal or denial

neglect [niˈglekt] – n. lack of attention and due care

neglectful [nigˈlektful] – adj. not showing due care or attention: neglectful parents

negligee [ˈnegliʒei] – n. a loose dressing gown for women

negligence [ˈneglidʒəns] – n. failure to act with the prudence that a reasonable person would exercise under the same circumstances

negligent [ˈneglidʒənt] – adj. characterized by neglect and undue lack of concern: negligent parents

negligible [ˈneglidʒəbl] – adj. so small as to be meaningless; insignificant: the effect was negligible

negotiable [niˈgəuʃjəbl] – adj. able to be negotiated or arranged by compromise: negotiable demands

negotiation [ni.gəuʃiˈeiʃən] – n. a discussion intended to produce an agreement: the buyout negotiation lasted several days

nemesis [ˈnemisis] – n. (Greek mythology) the goddess of divine retribution and vengeance

neoclassical [ˈni:əuklæsikəl] – adj. characteristic of a revival of an earlier classical style

Neolithic  – n. latest part of the Stone Age beginning about 10,000 BC in the Middle East (but later elsewhere)

neon [ˈni:, ɔn , ˈni, ɑn] – n. a colorless odorless gaseous element that give a red glow in a vacuum tube; one of the six inert gasses; occurs in the air in small amounts

neophyte [ˈniəfait] – n. a plant that is found in an area where it had not been recorded previously

Neptune  – n. (Roman mythology) god of the sea; counterpart of Greek Poseidon

nervous [ˈnə:vəs] – adj. easily agitated: a nervous addict

nestle [ˈnesl] – v. lie in a sheltered position: The little cottage nestles in the forest

net [net] – n. the excess of revenues over outlays in a given period of time (including depreciation and other non-cash expenses)

nettle [ˈnetl] – v. cause annoyance in; disturb, especially by minor irritations

network [ˈnetwə:k] – n. an interconnected system of things or people: he owned a network of shops

neural [ˈnjuərəl] – adj. of or relating to the nervous system: neural disorder

neurology [njuˈrɔlədʒi] – n. the branch of medical science that deals with the nervous system

neuron [ˈnjuərɔn] – n. a cell that is specialized to conduct nerve impulses

neurotransmitter [.njuərətrænsˈmitə] – n. a neurochemical that transmits nerve impulses across a synapse

neuter [ˈnju:tə] – adj. of grammatical gender: `it’ is the third-person singular neuter pronoun

neutral [ˈnju:trəl] – adj. having no personal preference: a neutral observer

neutralize [ˈnju:trəlaiz] – v. make ineffective by counterbalancing the effect of: Her optimism neutralizes his gloom

neutron [ˈnju:trɔn] – n. an elementary particle with 0 charge and mass about equal to a proton; enters into the structure of the atomic nucleus

nevertheless [.nevəðəˈles] – adv. despite anything to the contrary (usually following a concession): while we disliked each other, nevertheless we agreed

newscast [ˈnju:zkɑ:st; -kæst] – n. a broadcast of news or commentary on the news

newsstand [ˈnju:zstænd] – n. a stall where newspapers and other periodicals are sold

Newton  – n. English mathematician and physicist; remembered for developing the calculus and for his law of gravitation and his three laws of motion (1642-1727)

niche [nitʃ] – n. a position particularly well suited to the person who occupies it: he found his niche in the academic world

nickel [ˈnikl] – n. a United States coin worth one twentieth of a dollar

nickname [ˈnikneim] – n. a familiar name for a person (often a shortened version of a person’s given name): Joe’s mother would not use his nickname and always called him Joseph

nicotine [ˈnikəti:n, -tin] – n. an alkaloid poison that occurs in tobacco; used in medicine and as an insecticide

niggardly [ˈnigədli] – adj. petty or reluctant in giving or spending: a niggardly tip

nightmare [ˈnait.mɛə] – n. a situation resembling a terrifying dream

nil [nil] – n. a quantity of no importance: reduced to nil all the work we had done

nimble [ˈnimbəl] – adj. moving quickly and lightly: as nimble as a deer

nit [nit] – n. egg or young of an insect parasitic on mammals especially a sucking louse; often attached to a hair or item of clothing

nitrate  – v. treat with nitric acid, so as to change an organic compound into a nitrate

nitrogen [ˈnaitrədʒən] – n. a common nonmetallic element that is normally a colorless odorless tasteless inert diatomic gas; constitutes 78 percent of the atmosphere by volume; a constituent of all living tissues

nocturnal [nɔkˈtə:nl] – adj. belonging to or active during the night: nocturnal animals are active at night

noisome [ˈnɔisəm] – adj. causing or able to cause nausea

noisy [ˈnɔizi] – adj. full of or characterized by loud and nonmusical sounds: a noisy cafeteria

nomad [ˈnəumæd] – n. a member of a people who have no permanent home but move about according to the seasons

nomadic [nəuˈmædik] – adj. migratory: the nomadic habits of the Bedouins

nominal [ˈnɔminəl] – adj. relating to or constituting or bearing or giving a name: the Russian system of nominal brevity

nominate [ˈnɔmineit] – v. propose as a candidate for some honor

nomination [nɔmiˈneiʃən] – n. the act of officially naming a candidate: the Republican nomination for Governor

nominee [.nɔmiˈni:] – n. a politician who is running for public office

nonchalance [ˈnɔnʃələns] – n. the trait of remaining calm and seeming not to care; a casual lack of concern

nonchalant [ˈnɔnʃələnt] – adj. marked by blithe unconcern: drove his car with nonchalant abandon

nonconformist [.nɔnkənˈfɔ:mist] – n. a Protestant in England who is not a member of the Church of England

nonconformity [ˈnɔnkənˈfɔ:miti] – n. lack of harmony or correspondence

nondescript [ˈnɔndi.skript] – n. a person is not easily classified and not very interesting

nonentity [nɔˈnentiti] – n. the state of not existing

nonetheless [.nʌnðəˈles] – adv. despite anything to the contrary (usually following a concession)

nonfiction [ˈnɔnˈfikʃən] – n. prose writing that is not fictional

nonhuman [ˈnɔnˈhju:mən] – adj. not human; not belonging to or produced by or appropriate to human beings: nonhuman primates such as chimpanzees

nonpareil [nɔnpəˈrɛl, ˈnɔnpəreil] – n. model of excellence or perfection of a kind; one having no equal

nonprofessional [ˈnɔnprəˈfeʃənl] – adj. not professional; not engaged in a profession or engaging in as a profession or for gain: the nonprofessional wives of his male colleagues

nonsense [ˈnɔnsens] – n. a message that seems to convey no meaning

nontraditional [.nɔntrəˈdiʃənəl] – adj. not conforming to or in accord with tradition: nontraditional designs

nonverbal [ˈnɔnˈvə:bəl] – adj. being other than verbal communication: art like gesture is a form of nonverbal expression

nonviolence [ˈnɔnˈvaiələns] – n. peaceful resistance to a government by fasting or refusing to cooperate

nook [nuk] – n. a sheltered and secluded place

norm [nɔ:m] – n. a standard or model or pattern regarded as typical: the current middle-class norm of two children per family

normal [ˈnɔ:məl] – adj. in accordance with scientific laws

normalcy [ˈnɔ:məlsi] – n. expectedness as a consequence of being usual or regular or common

normally [ˈnɔ:məli] – adv. under normal conditions

Norman [ˈnɔ:mən] – n. United States operatic soprano (born in 1945)

nostalgia [nɔˈstældʒə] – n. longing for something past

nostrum [ˈnɔstrəm] – n. hypothetical remedy for all ills or diseases; once sought by the alchemists

notable [ˈnəutəbl] – adj. worthy of notice

notably [ˈnəʊtbəli] – adv. especially; in particular: notably in the social sciences, the professors teach too much

notate [ˈnəuteit] – v. put into notation, as of music or choreography: Nowadays, you can notate an entire ballet; in the old days, the steps had to be memorized

notation [nəuˈteiʃən] – n. a technical system of symbols used to represent special things

notch [nɔtʃ] – n. a V-shaped indentation: mandibular notch

note [nəut] – n. a brief written record: he made a note of the appointment

noticeable [ˈnəutisəbl] – adj. capable or worthy of being perceived: noticeable shadows under her eyes

notion [ˈnəuʃən] – n. a vague idea in which some confidence is placed

notorious [nəuˈtɔ:riəs] – adj. known widely and usually unfavorably: a notorious gangster

notoriously [nəuˈtɔ:riəsli] – adv. to a notorious degree: European emigres, who notoriously used to repair to the British Museum to write seditious pamphlets

notwithstanding [ˈnɔtwiθˈstændiŋ] – adv. despite anything to the contrary (usually following a concession)

nourish [ˈnʌriʃ] – v. provide with nourishment: This kind of food is not nourishing for young children

nourishment [ˈnʌriʃmənt] – n. the act of nourishing: her nourishment of the orphans saved many lives

novel [ˈnɔvəl] – n. an extended fictional work in prose; usually in the form of a story

novelty [ˈnɔvəlti] – n. originality by virtue of being new and surprising

novice [ˈnɔvis] – n. someone who has entered a religious order but has not taken final vows

nowadays [ˈnauədeiz] – n. the period of time that is happening now; any continuous stretch of time including the moment of speech

nowhere [ˈnəuwɛə] – n. an insignificant place: he came out of nowhere

noxious [ˈnɔkʃəs] – adj. injurious to physical or mental health: noxious chemical wastes

nuance [ˈnju:ɑ:ns, njuˈɑns] – n. a subtle difference in meaning or opinion or attitude: without understanding the finer nuances you can’t enjoy the humor

nuclear [ˈnju:kliə] – adj. (weapons) deriving destructive energy from the release of atomic energy: nuclear war

nucleus [ˈnju:kliəs] – n. a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction

nude [nju:d] – n. a painting of a naked human figure

nugatory [ˈnju:gətəri] – adj. of no real value: a nugatory law

nuisance [ˈnju:sns] – n. a bothersome annoying person

null [nʌl] – n. a quantity of no importance

numb [nʌm] – adj. lacking sensation: numb with cold

numeration [,nju:məˈreiʃən] – n. naming numbers

numerical [nju:ˈmerikəl] – adj. measured or expressed in numbers: numerical value

numerous [ˈnju:mərəs] – adj. amounting to a large indefinite number: numerous times

nunnery [ˈnʌnəri] – n. the convent of a community of nuns

nuptial [ˈnʌpʃəl] – adj. of or relating to a wedding: nuptial day

nurture [ˈnə:tʃə] – v. help develop, help grow: nurture his talents

nutrient [ˈnju:triənt] – n. any substance that can be metabolized by an animal to give energy and build tissue

nutriment [ˈnju:trimənt] – n. a source of materials to nourish the body

nutrition [nju:ˈtriʃən] – n. a source of materials to nourish the body

nutritional [nju: ˈtriʃənəl] – adj. of or relating to or providing nutrition: nutritional information

nutritionist  – n. a specialist in the study of nutrition

nutritious [nju:ˈtriʃəs] – adj. of or providing nourishment

nutritive [ˈnju:tritiv] – adj. of or providing nourishment

oakum [ˈəukəm] – n. loose hemp or jute fiber obtained by unravelling old ropes; when impregnated with tar it was used to caulk seams and pack joints in wooden ships

oath [əuθ] – n. profane or obscene expression usually of surprise or anger

obdurate [ˈɔbdjurit] – adj. stubbornly persistent in wrongdoing

obelisk [ˈɔblisk] – n. a stone pillar having a rectangular cross section tapering towards a pyramidal top

obese [əuˈbi:s] – adj. excessively fat

obesity [əuˈbisiti] – n. more than average fatness

obituary [əˈbitʃuəri] – n. a notice of someone’s death; usually includes a short biography

object [əbˈdʒekt,ˈɔbdʒikt] – n. a tangible and visible entity; an entity that can cast a shadow: it was full of rackets, balls and other objects

objectify  – v. make impersonal or present as an object

objection [əbˈdʒekʃən] – n. the act of expressing earnest opposition or protest

objective [əbˈdʒektiv] – adj. undistorted by emotion or personal bias; based on observable phenomena: an objective appraisal

obligate [ˈɔbligeit] – v. force somebody to do something

obligation [.ɔbliˈgeiʃən] – n. the social force that binds you to the courses of action demanded by that force: every right implies a responsibility; every opportunity, an obligation; every possession, a duty

obligatory [əˈbligə.təri] – adj. morally or legally constraining or binding: attendance is obligatory

oblige [əˈblaidʒ] – v. force somebody to do something

obliging [əˈblaidʒiŋ] – adj. showing a cheerful willingness to do favors for others: the obliging waiter was in no hurry for us to leave

oblique [əˈbli:k] – n. any grammatical case other than the nominative

obliterate [əˈblitəreit] – v. mark for deletion, rub off, or erase

oblivion [əˈbliviən] – n. the state of being disregarded or forgotten

oblivious [əˈbliviəs] – adj. (followed by `to’ or `of’) lacking conscious awareness of: oblivious of the mounting pressures for political reform

oblong [ˈɔblɔŋ] – adj. (of a leaf shape) having a somewhat elongated form with approximately parallel sides

obloquy [ˈɔbləkwi] – n. state of disgrace resulting from public abuse

obnoxious [əbˈnɔkʃəs] – adj. causing disapproval or protest

obsequious [əbˈsi:kwiəs] – adj. attempting to win favor from influential people by flattery

observance [əbˈzə:vəns] – n. a formal event performed on a special occasion

observant [əbˈzə:vənt] – adj. paying close attention especially to details

observation [.ɔbzəˈveiʃən] – n. the act of making and recording a measurement

observatory [əbˈzə:vətəri] – n. a structure commanding a wide view of its surroundings

observe [əbˈzə:v] – v. discover or determine the existence, presence, or fact of

obsess [əbˈses] – v. haunt like a ghost; pursue

obsession [əbˈseʃən] – n. an irrational motive for performing trivial or repetitive actions, even against your will

obsolescence [ɔbsəˈlesns] – n. the process of becoming obsolete; falling into disuse or becoming out of date: a policy of planned obsolescence

obsolescent [.ɔbsəˈlesənt] – adj. becoming obsolete

obsolete [ˈɔbsə.li:t] – adj. no longer in use: obsolete words

obstacle [ˈɔbstəkl] – n. something immaterial that stands in the way and must be circumvented or surmounted: lack of imagination is an obstacle to one’s advancement

obstetrician [ɔbsteˈtriʃən] – n. a physician specializing in obstetrics

obstetrics [əbˈstetriks] – n. the branch of medicine dealing with childbirth and care of the mother

obstinacy [ˈɔbstinəsi] – n. the trait of being difficult to handle or overcome

obstreperous [əbˈstrepərəs] – adj. noisily and stubbornly defiant: obstreperous boys

obstruct [əbˈstrʌkt] – v. hinder or prevent the progress or accomplishment of

obstruction [əbˈstrʌkʃən] – n. any structure that makes progress difficult

obtain [əbˈtein] – v. come into possession of: How did you obtain the visa?

obtainable [əbˈteinəb(ə)l] – adj. capable of being obtained: savings of up to 50 percent are obtainable

obtrude [əbˈtru:d] – v. push to thrust outward

obtrusive [əbˈtru:siv] – adj. undesirably noticeable: the obtrusive behavior of a spoiled child

obviate [ˈɔbvieit] – v. do away with

occasion [əˈkeiʒən] – n. an event that occurs at a critical time: it was needed only on special occasions

occasional [əˈkeiʒənəl] – adj. occurring from time to time: took an occasional glass of wine

occasionally [əˈkeiʒənəli] – adv. now and then or here and there: he was arrogant and occasionally callous

Occident  – n. the countries of (originally) Europe and (now including) North America and South America

occlude [əˈklu:d] – v. block passage through

occult [ɔˈkʌlt] – v. cause an eclipse of (a celestial body) by intervention: Planets and stars often are occulted by other celestial bodies

occupant [ˈɔkju:pənt] – n. someone who lives at a particular place for a prolonged period or who was born there

occupation [.ɔkjuˈpeiʃən] – n. the principal activity in your life that you do to earn money

occupy [ˈɔkjupai] – v. keep busy with

occur [əˈkə:] – v. come to pass: Nothing occurred that seemed important

occurrence [əˈkʌrəns] – n. an event that happens

octagon [ˈɔktəgɔn] – n. an eight-sided polygon

octave [ˈɔkteiv, -tiv] – n. a feast day and the seven days following it

octavo [ɔkˈteivəu] – n. the size of a book whose pages are made by folding a sheet of paper three times to form eight leaves

octogenarian [.ɔktədʒəˈneriən] – n. someone whose age is in the eighties

octopus [ˈɔktəpəs] – n. bottom-living cephalopod having a soft oval body with eight long tentacles

ocular [ˈɔkjulə] – adj. of or relating to or resembling the eye: ocular muscles

oculist [ˈɔkjulist] – n. a person skilled in testing for defects of vision in order to prescribe corrective glasses

odd [ɔd] – adj. not divisible by two

oddity [ˈɔditi] – n. eccentricity that is not easily explained

oddly [ˈɔdli] – adv. in a manner differing from the usual or expected

odds [ɔdz] – n. the ratio by which one better’s wager is greater than that of another: he offered odds of two to one

ode [əud] – n. a lyric poem with complex stanza forms

odious [ˈəudiəs] – adj. unequivocally detestable: consequences odious to those you govern

odium [ˈəudiəm] – n. state of disgrace resulting from detestable behavior

odor [ˈəudə] – n. any property detected by the olfactory system

odoriferous [.ɔdəˈrifərəs] – adj. morally offensive: odoriferous legislation

odorless [ˈəʊdəlis] – adj. having no odor: odorless gas

odorous [ˈəudərəs] – adj. emitting an odor: odorous salt pork and weevily hardtack

off [ɔ:f] – adj. not in operation or operational: the oven is off

off-Broadway  – n. low-budget theaters located outside the Broadway area in Manhattan

offensive [əˈfensiv] – adj. for the purpose of attack rather than defense: offensive weapons

offhand [ˈɔfˈhænd] – adj. with little or no preparation or forethought: offhand excuses

office [ˈɔ:fis] – n. place of business where professional or clerical duties are performed: he rented an office in the new building

officiate [əˈfiʃieit] – v. perform duties attached to a particular office or place or function: His wife officiated as his private secretary

officious [əˈfiʃəs] – adj. intrusive in a meddling or offensive manner: bustling about self-importantly making an officious nuisance of himself

offshoot [ˈɔ:fʃu:t] – n. a natural consequence of development

offshore [.ɔfˈʃɔ:] – adj. (of winds) coming from the land: offshore winds

offspring [ˈɔ:fspriŋ] – n. the immediate descendants of a person: she was the mother of many offspring

ogre [ˈəugə] – n. a cruel wicked and inhuman person

oilskin  – n. a macintosh made from cotton fabric treated with oil and pigment to make it waterproof

ointment [ˈɔintmənt] – n. semisolid preparation (usually containing a medicine) applied externally as a remedy or for soothing an irritation

olfactory [ɔlˈfæktəri] – adj. of or relating to olfaction

ominous [ˈɔminəs] – adj. threatening or foreshadowing evil or tragic developments: ominous rumblings of discontent

omission [əuˈmiʃən] – n. a mistake resulting from neglect

omit [əuˈmit] – v. leave undone or leave out

omnipotence [ɔmˈnipətns] – n. the state of being omnipotent; having unlimited power

omnipotent [ɔmˈnipətənt] – adj. having unlimited power

omniscience [ɔmˈniʃəns] – n. the state of being omniscient; having infinite knowledge

omniscient [ɔmˈnisiənt] – adj. infinitely wise

omnivorous [ɔmˈnivərəs] – adj. feeding on both plants and animals

onerous [ˈɔnərəs] – adj. not easily borne; wearing: my duties weren’t onerous; I only had to greet the guests

ongoing [ˈɔn.gəuiŋ] – adj. currently happening: an ongoing economic crisis

onlooker [ˈɔn.lukə] – n. someone who looks on

onrush [ˈɔnrʌʃ] – n. (military) an offensive against an enemy (using weapons)

onset [ˈɔnset] – n. the beginning or early stages: the onset of pneumonia

onslaught [ˈɔnslɔ:t] – n. a sudden and severe onset of trouble

onus [ˈəunəs] – n. an onerous or difficult concern

ooze [u:z] – n. any thick, viscous matter

opalescence [əupəˈlesns] – n. the visual property of something having a milky brightness and a play of colors from the surface

opaque [əuˈpeik] – adj. not transmitting or reflecting light or radiant energy; impenetrable to sight: opaque windows of the jail

opera [ˈɔpərə] – n. a drama set to music; consists of singing with orchestral accompaniment and an orchestral overture and interludes

operate [ˈɔpəreit] – v. direct or control; projects, businesses, etc.

operation [.ɔpəˈreiʃən] – n. a business especially one run on a large scale: a large-scale farming operation

operative [ˈɔpərətiv, ˈɔpəreitiv] – adj. being in force or having or exerting force: operative regulations

operator [ˈɔpə.reitə] – n. an agent that operates some apparatus or machine: the operator of the switchboard

operetta [.ɔpəˈretə] – n. a short amusing opera

opinion [əˈpinjən] – n. a personal belief or judgment that is not founded on proof or certainty: my opinion differs from yours

opponent [əˈpəunənt] – n. a contestant that you are matched against

opportune [ˈɔpətju:n, .ɔpəˈt-] – adj. suitable or at a time that is suitable or advantageous especially for a particular purpose: an opportune place to make camp

opportunity [.ɔpəˈtju:niti] – n. a possibility due to a favorable combination of circumstances: the holiday gave us the opportunity to visit Washington

oppose [əˈpəuz] – v. fight against or resist strongly: The senator said he would oppose the bill

opposed [əˈpəuzd] – adj. being in opposition or having an opponent: two bitterly opposed schools of thought

opposing [əˈpəuziŋ] – adj. characterized by active hostility: opponent (or opposing) armies

opposite [ˈɔpəzit] – adj. being directly across from each other; facing: And I on the opposite shore will be, ready to ride and spread the alarm

opposition [.ɔpəˈziʃən] – n. the relation between opposed entities

opprobrium [əˈprəubriəm] – n. state of disgrace resulting from public abuse

optic [ˈɔpti] – adj. of or relating to or resembling the eye: the optic (or optical) axis of the eye

optical [ˈɔptikəl] – adj. relating to or using sight: an optical illusion

optician [ɔpˈtiʃən] – n. a worker who makes glasses for remedying defects of vision

optimal [ˈɔptiməl] – adj. most desirable possible under a restriction expressed or implied: optimal concentration of a drug

optimism [ˈɔptimizəm] – n. a general disposition to expect the best in all things

optimist [ˈɔptimist] – n. a person disposed to take a favorable view of things

optimistic [.ɔptiˈmistik] – adj. expecting the best in this best of all possible worlds: in an optimistic mood

optimum [ˈɔptiməm] – n. most favorable conditions or greatest degree or amount possible under given circumstances

option [ˈɔpʃən] – n. one of a number of things from which only one can be chosen: what option did I have?

optional [ˈɔpʃənl] – adj. possible but not necessary; left to personal choice

optometrist [ɔpˈtɔmitrist] – n. a person skilled in testing for defects of vision in order to prescribe corrective glasses

optometry [ɔpˈtɔmitri] – n. the practice of an optometrist

opulence [apjələns] – n. wealth as evidenced by sumptuous living

opulent [ˈɔpjulənt] – adj. rich and superior in quality

oracle [ˈɔrəkl] – n. an authoritative person who divines the future

oral [ˈɔ:rəl] – adj. using speech rather than writing: an oral tradition

orate [ˈɔ:reit] – v. talk pompously

oration [əˈreiʃən] – n. an instance of oratory: he delivered an oration on the decline of family values

orator [ˈɔrətə] – n. a person who delivers a speech or oration

oratorio [.ɔrəˈtɔriəu] – n. a musical composition for voices and orchestra based on a religious text

oratory [ˈɔrətəri] – n. addressing an audience formally (usually a long and rhetorical address and often pompous): he loved the sound of his own oratory

orbit [ˈɔ:bit] – n. the (usually elliptical) path described by one celestial body in its revolution about another: he plotted the orbit of the moon

orbital [ˈɔ:bitl] – adj. of or relating to the eye socket: orbital scale

orchard [ˈɔ:tʃəd] – n. garden consisting of a small cultivated wood without undergrowth

orchestra [ˈɔ:kistrə] – n. a musical organization consisting of a group of instrumentalists including string players

orchid [ˈɔ:kid] – n. any of numerous plants of the orchid family usually having flowers of unusual shapes and beautiful colors

ordeal [ɔ:ˈdi:l] – n. a severe or trying experience

ordinal [ˈɔ:dinl] – adj. of or relating to a taxonomic order: family and ordinal names of animals and plants

ordinance [ˈɔ:dinəns] – n. an authoritative rule

ordination [.ɔ:diˈneiʃən] – n. the status of being ordained to a sacred office

ordnance [ˈɔ:dnəns] – n. military supplies

ore [ɔ:] – n. a mineral that contains metal that is valuable enough to be mined

organ [ˈɔ:gən] – n. a fully differentiated structural and functional unit in an animal that is specialized for some particular function

organic [ɔ:ˈgænik] – adj. relating or belonging to the class of chemical compounds having a carbon basis: hydrocarbons are organic compounds

organically  – adv. as an important constituent: the drapery served organically to cover the Madonna

organism [ˈɔ:gənizəm] – n. a living thing that has (or can develop) the ability to act or function independently

orient [ˈɔ:riənt] – v. determine one’s position with reference to another point: We had to orient ourselves in the forest

oriental [.ɔ(:)riˈentl] – n. a member of an Oriental race; the term is regarded as offensive by Asians (especially by Asian Americans)

orientation [.ɔ:rienˈteiʃən] – n. an integrated set of attitudes and beliefs

oriented  – adj. adjusted or located in relation to surroundings or circumstances; sometimes used in combination: the house had its large windows oriented toward the ocean view

origin [ˈɔridʒin] – n. the place where something begins, where it springs into being: Jupiter was the origin of the radiation

original [əˈridʒənl] – adj. preceding all others in time or being as first made or performed: the original inhabitants of the Americas

originality [.əridʒiˈnæliti] – n. the ability to think and act independently

originally [əˈridʒənəli] – adv. with reference to the origin or beginning

originate [əˈridʒineit] – v. come into existence; take on form or shape: A new religious movement originated in that country

originator  – n. someone who creates new things

ornament [ˈɔ:nəmənt] – n. something used to beautify

ornamental [.ɔ:nəˈmentl] – adj. serving an esthetic rather than a useful purpose

ornamentation [.ɔ:nəmenˈteiʃən] – n. something used to beautify

ornate [ɔ:ˈneit] – adj. marked by elaborate rhetoric and elaborated with decorative details: ornate rhetoric taught out of the rule of Plato

orphanage  – n. the condition of being a child without living parents: his early orphanage shaped his character as an adult

orthodox [ˈɔ:θədɔks] – adj. of or pertaining to or characteristic of Judaism

orthodoxy [ˈɔ:θədɔksi] – n. a belief or orientation agreeing with conventional standards

orthogonal [ɔ:ˈθɔgənl] – adj. not pertinent to the matter under consideration

orthopedic [,ɔ:θəuˈpi:dik] – adj. of or relating to orthopedics: orthopedic shoes

oscillate [ˈɔsileit] – v. be undecided about something; waver between conflicting positions or courses of action: He oscillates between accepting the new position and retirement

osculate [ˈɔskjuleit] – v. be intermediate between two taxonomic groups: These species osculate

osprey [ˈɔsprei] – n. large harmless hawk found worldwide that feeds on fish and builds a bulky nest often occupied for years

ossify [ˈɔsifai] – v. become bony

ostensible [ɔˈstensibəl] – adj. appearing as such but not necessarily so: the ostensible truth of their theories

ostentation [.ɔstenˈteiʃən] – n. a gaudy outward display

ostracism [ˈɔstrəsizəm] – n. the act of excluding someone from society by general consent

ostracize [ˈɔstrəsaiz] – v. expel from a community or group

ounce [auns] – n. a unit of weight equal to one sixteenth of a pound or 16 drams or 28.349 grams

oust [aust] – v. remove from a position or office: The chairman was ousted after he misappropriated funds

out-and-out  – adj. complete and without restriction or qualification; sometimes used informally as intensifiers: out-and-out mayhem

outbreak [ˈautbreik] – n. a sudden violent spontaneous occurrence (usually of some undesirable condition): the outbreak of hostilities

outburst [ˈautbə:st] – n. an unrestrained expression of emotion

outcast [ˈautkɑ:st] – n. a person who is rejected (from society or home)

outcome [ˈautkʌm] – n. something that results

outcry [ˈautkrai] – v. utter aloud; often with surprise, horror, or joy

outdated [.autˈdeitid] – adj. old; no longer valid or fashionable: outdated equipment

outdo [autˈdu:] – v. be or do something to a greater degree: She outdoes all other athletes

outdoors [ˈautˈdɔ:z] – n. where the air is unconfined: he wanted to get outdoors a little

outermost [ˈautəməust] – adj. situated at the farthest possible point from a center

outfit [ˈautfit] – n. any cohesive unit such as a military company

outgoing [ˈautgəuiŋ] – adj. leaving a place or a position: an outgoing steamship

outgrow [autˈgrəu] – v. grow too large or too mature for: I have outgrown these clothes

outgrowth [ˈautgrəuθ] – n. a natural consequence of development

outlandish [autˈlændiʃ] – adj. conspicuously or grossly unconventional or unusual: the outlandish clothes of teenagers

outlast [autˈlɑ:st] – v. live longer than

outlaw [ˈautlɔ:] – adj. contrary to or forbidden by law: an outlaw strike

outlet [ˈautlet] – n. a place of business for retailing goods

outline [ˈautlain] – n. the line that appears to bound an object

outlive [ˈautliv] – v. live longer than: She outlived her husband by many years

outlook [ˈautluk] – n. a habitual or characteristic mental attitude that determines how you will interpret and respond to situations

outlying [ˈaut.lai-iŋ] – adj. relatively far from a center or middle: outlying settlements

outmoded [aʊtˈməʊdid] – adj. out of fashion: demode (or outmoded) attire

out-of-the-way  – adj. out of the ordinary: out-of-the-way information

outpost [ˈautpəust] – n. a station in a remote or sparsely populated location

output [ˈautput] – n. final product; the things produced

outrage [ˈautreidʒ] – n. a feeling of righteous anger

outrageous [autˈreidʒəs] – adj. grossly offensive to decency or morality; causing horror: subjected to outrageous cruelty

outreach [autˈri:tʃ] – n. the act of reaching out: the outreach toward truth of the human spirit

outride [autˈraid] – v. hang on during a trial of endurance

outrigger [ˈautrigə] – n. a stabilizer for a canoe; spars attach to a shaped log or float parallel to the hull

outright [ˈautˈrait] – adv. without restrictions or stipulations or further payments: buy outright

outset [ˈautset] – n. the time at which something is supposed to begin

outskirt [ˈautskə:t] – n. a part of the city far removed from the center: they built a factory on the outskirts of the city

outspoken [autˈspəukən] – adj. given to expressing yourself freely or insistently: outspoken in their opposition to segregation

outstanding [autˈstændiŋ] – adj. distinguished from others in excellence: did outstanding work in human relations

outstrip [autˈstrip] – v. be or do something to a greater degree

outweigh [autˈwei] – v. be heavier than

oval [ˈəuvəl] – n. a closed plane curve resulting from the intersection of a circular cone and a plane cutting completely through it

overall [ˈəuvərɔ:l] – n. (usually plural) work clothing consisting of denim trousers (usually with a bib and shoulder straps)

overbalance [.əuvəˈbæləns] – v. weigh more heavily

overburden [.əuvəˈbə:dn] – n. the surface soil that must be moved away to get at coal seams and mineral deposits

overcast [ˈəuvəkɑ:st] – n. gloomy semidarkness caused by cloud cover

overcharge [.əuvəˈtʃɑ:dʒ] – v. rip off; ask an unreasonable price

overcome [.əuvəˈkʌm] – v. get on top of; deal with successfully

overconfident [ˈəuvəˈkɔnfidənt] – adj. marked by excessive confidence: so overconfident and impudent as to speak to the queen

overcrowd  – v. cause to crowd together too much: The students overcrowded the cafeteria

overdo [ˈəuvəˈdu:] – v. do something to an excessive degree

overdose [ˈəuvədəus] – v. dose too heavily: The rock star overdosed and was found dead in his hotel room

overdue [ˈəuvəˈdju:] – adj. past due; not paid at the scheduled time: an overdue installment

overeat [ˈəuvərˈit] – v. overeat or eat immodestly; make a pig of oneself

overestimate [.əuvəˈesti.meit] – n. an appraisal that is too high

overhang [əuvəˈhæŋ] – v. be suspended over or hang over

overhaul [ˈəuvə.hɔ:l] – n. periodic maintenance on a car or machine: it was time for an overhaul on the tractor

overlap [ˈəuvəˈlæp,ˈəuvəlæp] – n. a representation of common ground between theories or phenomena: there was no overlap between their proposals

overlapping [ˈəuvəˈlæpiŋ] – n. covering with a design in which one element covers a part of another (as with tiles or shingles)

overleap [əuvəˈli:p] – v. defeat (oneself) by going too far

overload [ˈəuvəˈləud] – v. fill to excess so that function is impaired

overlook [.əuvəˈluk] – v. look past, fail to notice

overlord [ˈəuvəlɔ:d] – n. a person who has general authority over others

overnight [ˈəuvəˈnait] – adv. during or for the length of one night: the fish marinates overnight

overpass [.əuvˈpæs] – n. bridge formed by the upper level of a crossing of two highways at different levels

overpower [əuvəˈpauə] – v. overcome by superior force

overreach [.əuvəˈri:tʃ] – v. fail by aiming too high or trying too hard

override [.əuvəˈraid] – v. rule against

overrun [.əuvəˈrʌn] – v. invade in great numbers

oversee [.əuvəˈsi:] – v. watch and direct: Who is overseeing this project?

overseer [ˈəuvəˈsi:ə] – n. a person who directs and manages an organization

overshadow [.əuvəˈʃædəu] – v. be greater in significance than: the tragedy overshadowed the couple’s happiness

oversight [ˈəuvəsait] – n. an unintentional omission resulting from failure to notice something

overt [əuˈvə:t] – adj. open and observable; not secret or hidden: an overt lie

overtax [ˈəuvəˈtæks] – v. tax excessively: Don’t overtax my constituents!

overthrow [.əuvəˈθrəu] – n. the termination of a ruler or institution (especially by force)

overtime [ˈəuvətaim] – n. work done in addition to regular working hours

overtire [ˈəuvəˈtaiə] – v. tire excessively

overtone [ˈəuvətəun] – n. (usually plural) an ulterior implicit meaning or quality: overtones of despair

overture [ˈəuvətʃuə, -tjuə] – n. orchestral music played at the beginning of an opera or oratorio

overturn [.əuvəˈtə:n] – v. turn from an upright or normal position: The big vase overturned

overweight [ˈəuvəweit] – n. the property of excessive fatness

overwhelm [.əuvəˈwelm] – v. overcome, as with emotions or perceptual stimuli

overwhelmingly [.ovəˈhwelmiŋli] – adv. incapable of being resisted: the candy looked overwhelmingly desirable to the dieting man

ox [ɔks] – n. any of various wild bovines especially of the genera Bos or closely related Bibos

oxen [ˈɔksən] – n. domesticated bovine animals as a group regardless of sex or age: a team of oxen

oxygen [ˈɔksidʒən] – n. a nonmetallic bivalent element that is normally a colorless odorless tasteless nonflammable diatomic gas; constitutes 21 percent of the atmosphere by volume; the most abundant element in the earth’s crust

oyster [ˈɔistə] – n. marine mollusks having a rough irregular shell; found on the sea bed mostly in coastal waters

ozone [ˈəuzəun] – n. a colorless gas (O3) soluble in alkalis and cold water; a strong oxidizing agent; can be produced by electric discharge in oxygen or by the action of ultraviolet radiation on oxygen in the stratosphere (where it acts as a screen for ultraviolet radiation)

pace [peis] – n. the rate of moving (especially walking or running)

pacify [ˈpæsifai] – v. cause to be more favorably inclined; gain the good will of

pack [pæk] – v. arrange in a container: pack the books into the boxes

package [ˈpækidʒ] – n. a collection of things wrapped or boxed together

packaging [ˈpækidʒiŋ] – n. the business of packing: his business is packaging for transport

packed [pækt] – adj. pressed together or compressed: packed snow

packer [ˈpækə] – n. a wholesaler in the meat-packing business

packet [ˈpækit] – n. a collection of things wrapped or boxed together

pact [pækt] – n. a written agreement between two states or sovereigns

paddle [ˈpædl] – v. play in or as if in water, as of small children

pagan [ˈpeigən] – n. a person who does not acknowledge your god

pageant [ˈpædʒənt] – n. an elaborate representation of scenes from history etc; usually involves a parade with rich costumes

painstaking [ˈpeinz.teikiŋ] – adj. characterized by extreme care and great effort: painstaking research

painting [ˈpeintiŋ] – n. creating a picture with paints: he studied painting and sculpture for many years

palatable [ˈpælətəbəl] – adj. acceptable to the taste or mind: palatable food

palate [ˈpælit] – n. the upper surface of the mouth that separates the oral and nasal cavities

palatial [pəˈleiʃəl] – adj. suitable for or like a palace: palatial furnishings

pale [peil] – adj. very light colored; highly diluted with white: pale seagreen

paleontologist  – n. a specialist in paleontology

paleontology [,pæliɔnˈtɔlədʒi] – n. the earth science that studies fossil organisms and related remains

palette [ˈpælit] – n. the range of colour characteristic of a particular artist or painting or school of art

pall [pɔ:l] – v. become less interesting or attractive

palliate [ˈpælieit] – v. lessen or to try to lessen the seriousness or extent of

pallid [ˈpælid] – adj. abnormally deficient in color as suggesting physical or emotional distress: the pallid face of the invalid

palpable [ˈpælpəbəl] – adj. capable of being perceived; especially capable of being handled or touched or felt: a barely palpable dust

palpitate [ˈpælpiteit] – v. cause to throb or beat rapidly: Her violent feelings palpitated the young woman’s heart

palsy [ˈpɔ:lzi] – n. loss of the ability to move a body part

pamphlet [ˈpæmflit] – n. a small book usually having a paper cover

pamphleteer [pæmfliˈtiə] – n. a writer of pamphlets (usually taking a partisan stand on public issues)

panacea [.pænəˈsiə] – n. (Greek mythology) the goddess of healing; daughter of Aesculapius and sister of Hygeia

pancreas [ˈpæŋkriəs] – n. a large elongated exocrine gland located behind the stomach; secretes pancreatic juice and insulin

pandemic [pænˈdemik] – adj. epidemic over a wide geographical area: a pandemic outbreak of malaria

pandemonium [.pændiˈməuniəm] – n. a state of extreme confusion and disorder

pane [pein] – n. sheet glass cut in shapes for windows or doors

panegyric [.pæniˈdʒirik] – n. a formal expression of praise

panel [ˈpænl] – n. sheet that forms a distinct (usually flat and rectangular) section or component of something

panic [ˈpænik] – n. an overwhelming feeling of fear and anxiety

panoply [ˈpænəpli] – n. a complete and impressive array

panorama [.pænəˈrɑ:mə] – n. the visual percept of a region

pantheism [ˈpænθi:izəm] – n. (rare) worship that admits or tolerates all gods

pantomime [ˈpæntəmaim] – n. a performance using gestures and body movements without words

pants [pænts] – n. underpants worn by women

papacy [ˈpeipəsi] – n. the government of the Roman Catholic Church

papyrus [pəˈpaiərəs] – n. tall sedge of the Nile valley yielding fiber that served many purposes in historic times

parable [ˈpærəbəl] – n. a short moral story (often with animal characters)

parachute [ˈpærəʃu:t] – n. rescue equipment consisting of a device that fills with air and retards your fall

parade [pəˈreid] – n. a ceremonial procession including people marching

paradox [ˈpærədɔks] – n. (logic) a statement that contradicts itself: `I always lie’ is a paradox because if it is true it must be false

paragon [ˈpærəgən] – n. an ideal instance; a perfect embodiment of a concept

parallel [ˈpærəlel] – n. something having the property of being analogous to something else

parallelism [ˈpærəlelizm] – n. similarity by virtue of corresponding

paralysis [pəˈrælisis] – n. loss of the ability to move a body part

paralyze [ˈpærəlaiz] – v. make powerless and unable to function: The bureaucracy paralyzes the entire operation

parameter [pəˈræmitə] – n. a constant in the equation of a curve that can be varied to yield a family of similar curves

paramount [ˈpærəmaunt] – adj. having superior power and influence

paramour [ˈpærəmuə] – n. a woman’s lover

paraphernalia [.pærəfəˈneiliə] – n. equipment consisting of miscellaneous articles needed for a particular operation or sport etc.

paraphrase [ˈpærəfreiz] – n. rewording for the purpose of clarification

parapsychology [.pærəsaiˈkɔlədʒi] – n. phenomena that appear to contradict physical laws and suggest the possibility of causation by mental processes

parasite [ˈpærəsait] – n. a follower who hangs around a host (without benefit to the host) in hope of gain or advantage

parasitic [.pærəˈsitik] – adj. of or pertaining to epenthesis

parcel [ˈpɑ:sl] – n. a wrapped container

parch [pɑ:tʃ] – v. cause to wither or parch from exposure to heat: The sun parched the earth

pare [peə] – v. decrease gradually or bit by bit

parentage [ˈperəntidʒ] – n. the kinship relation of an offspring to the parents

parental  – adj. designating the generation of organisms from which hybrid offspring are produced

pariah [pəˈraiə, ˈpæriə] – n. a person who is rejected (from society or home)

Paris [ˈpæris] – n. the capital and largest city of France; and international center of culture and commerce

parish [ˈpæriʃ] – n. a local church community

parity [ˈpæriti] – n. (obstetrics) the number of liveborn children a woman has delivered: the parity of the mother must be considered

parlance [ˈpa:ləns] – n. a manner of speaking that is natural to native speakers of a language

parley [ˈpɑ:li] – n. a negotiation between enemies

parliament [ˈpɑ:ləmənt] – n. a legislative assembly in certain countries

parliamentary [.pɑ:ləˈmentəri] – adj. relating to or having the nature of a parliament: parliamentary reform

parlor [ˈpɑ:lə] – n. reception room in an inn or club where visitors can be received

parody [ˈpærədi] – n. a composition that imitates or misrepresents somebody’s style, usually in a humorous way

paroxysm [ˈpærəksizəm] – n. a sudden uncontrollable attack: a paroxysm of giggling

parricide [ˈpærisaid] – n. someone who kills his or her parent

parry [ˈpæri] – n. (fencing) blocking a lunge or deflecting it with a circular motion of the sword

parse [pɑ:z] – v. analyze syntactically by assigning a constituent structure to (a sentence)

parsimonious [.pɑ:siˈməuniəs] – adj. excessively unwilling to spend: parsimonious thrift relieved by few generous impulses

partial [ˈpɑ:ʃəl] – adj. showing favoritism

partially [ˈpɑ:ʃəli] – adv. in part; in some degree; not wholly: He was partially paralyzed

partible  – adj. (of e.g. property) capable of being parted or divided: a partible estate

participant [pɑ:ˈtisipənt] – n. someone who takes part in an activity

participate [pɑ:ˈtisipeit] – v. share in something

participation [pɑ:.tisiˈpeiʃən] – n. the act of sharing in the activities of a group

particle [ˈpɑ:tikl] – n. (nontechnical usage) a tiny piece of anything

particularly [pəˈtikjʊləli] – adv. to a distinctly greater extent or degree than is common: he was particularly fussy about spelling

particulate [pəˈtikjulit, -leit] – adj. composed of distinct particles

partisan [.pɑ:tiˈzæn] – n. a fervent and even militant proponent of something

partition [pɑ:ˈtiʃən] – n. a vertical structure that divides or separates (as a wall divides one room from another)

partner [ˈpɑ:tnə] – n. an associate in an activity or endeavor or sphere of common interest: sexual partners

party [ˈpɑ:ti] – n. an organization to gain political power: in 1992 Perot tried to organize a third party at the national level

passage [ˈpæsidʒ] – n. a section of text; particularly a section of medium length

passion [ˈpæʃən] – n. a strong feeling or emotion

passionate [ˈpæʃənit] – adj. having or expressing strong emotions

passive [ˈpæsiv] – adj. lacking in energy or will: Much benevolence of the passive order may be traced to a disinclination to inflict pain upon oneself

pastel [pæsˈtel, ˈpæstel] – adj. lacking in body or vigor: faded pastel charms of the naive music

pastoral [ˈpɑ:stərəl] – n. a musical composition that evokes rural life

pasture [ˈpæstʃ] – n. a field covered with grass or herbage and suitable for grazing by livestock

patch [pætʃ] – n. a small contrasting part of something: a patch of clouds

patent [ˈpætnt] – v. make open to sight or notice: His behavior has patented an embarrassing fact about him

paternal [pəˈtə:nl] – adj. belonging to or inherited from one’s father: spent his childhood on the paternal farm

paternity [pəˈtə:niti] – n. the state of being a father: tests were conducted to determine paternity

path [pɑ:θ] – n. a course of conduct: the path of virtue

pathogen [ˈpæθədʒ(ə)n] – n. any disease-producing agent (especially a virus or bacterium or other microorganism)

pathos [ˈpeiθɔs] – n. a quality that arouses emotions (especially pity or sorrow): the film captured all the pathos of their situation

pathway [ˈpɑ:θwei] – n. a trodden path

patriarch [ˈpeitrɑ:k] – n. title for the heads of the Eastern Orthodox Churches (in Istanbul and Alexandria and Moscow and Jerusalem)

patriarchal [.peitriˈɑ:kəl] – adj. relating to or characteristic of a man who is older or higher in rank

patrician [pəˈtriʃən] – n. a person of refined upbringing and manners

patricide [ˈpætrisaid] – n. a person who murders their father

patrimony [ˈpætriməni] – n. a church endowment

patriot [ˈpeitriət, ˈpæt-] – n. one who loves and defends his or her country

patriotic [.pætriˈɔtik] – adj. inspired by love for your country

patriotism [ˈpætriətizəm, ˈpei-] – n. love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it: they rode the same wave of popular patriotism

patrol [pəˈtrəul] – n. a detachment used for security or reconnaissance

patron [ˈpeitrən] – n. a regular customer

patronage [ˈpætrənidʒ] – n. the act of providing approval and support

patronize [ˈpætrənaiz] – v. assume sponsorship of

patronizing [ˈpætrənaiziŋ] – adj. (used of behavior or attitude) characteristic of those who treat others with condescension

patronymic [pætrəˈnimik] – adj. of or derived from a personal or family name

patter [ˈpætə] – n. plausible glib talk (especially useful to a salesperson)

pattern [ˈpætən] – n. a perceptual structure: a visual pattern must include not only objects but the spaces between them

paucity [ˈpɔ:siti] – n. an insufficient quantity or number

pauper [ˈpɔ:pə] – n. a person who is very poor

pave [peiv] – n. a setting with precious stones so closely set that no metal shows

pavilion [pəˈviljən] – n. large and often sumptuous tent

paycheck [ˈpeitʃek] – n. a check issued in payment of wages or salary

payee [peiˈi:] – n. a person to whom money is paid

peaceable [ˈpi:səbl] – adj. not disturbed by strife or turmoil or war

peaceful [ˈpi:sfəl] – adj. not disturbed by strife or turmoil or war: a peaceful nation

peak [pi:k] – n. the most extreme possible amount or value: voltage peak

pearly  – n. informal terms for a human `tooth’

pebble [ˈpebl] – n. a small smooth rounded rock

peccadillo [.pekəˈdiləu] – n. a petty misdeed

peccant [ˈpekənt] – adj. liable to sin

peck [pek] – v. hit lightly with a picking motion

pectoral [ˈpektərəl] – n. either of two large muscles of the chest

peculate [ˈpekjuleit] – v. appropriate (as property entrusted to one’s care) fraudulently to one’s own use

peculiar [piˈkju:ljə] – adj. beyond or deviating from the usual or expected: the peculiar aromatic odor of cloves

peculiarity [pi.kju:liˈæriti] – n. an odd or unusual characteristic

pecuniary [piˈkju:niəri] – adj. relating to or involving money: he received thanks but no pecuniary compensation for his services

pedagogic [pedəˈgɔdʒik] – adj. of or relating to pedagogy: pedagogical significance

pedagogical [pedəˈgɔdʒikəl] – adj. of or relating to pedagogy: pedagogical significance

pedagogics  – n. the principles and methods of instruction

pedagogue [ˈpedəgɔg] – n. someone who educates young people

pedagogy [ˈpedəgɔgi] – n. the principles and methods of instruction

pedal [ˈpedl] – n. a sustained bass note

pedant [ˈpedənt] – n. a person who pays more attention to formal rules and book learning than they merit

peddle [ˈpedl] – v. sell or offer for sale from place to place

peddler [ˈpedlə] – n. someone who travels about selling his wares (as on the streets or at carnivals)

pedestal [ˈpedistl] – n. a support or foundation

pedestrian [piˈdestriən] – n. a person who travels by foot

pediatrics [.pi:diˈætriks] – n. the branch of medicine concerned with the treatment of infants and children

pedigree [ˈpedigri:] – n. the descendants of one individual

peer [piə] – n. a person who is of equal standing with another in a group

peerage [ˈpiridʒ] – n. the peers of a kingdom considered as a group

peerless [ˈpiəlis] – adj. eminent beyond or above comparison: a peerless scholar

peevish [ˈpi:viʃ] – adj. easily irritated or annoyed

pellucid [piˈlu:sid] – adj. transmitting light; able to be seen through with clarity: a pellucid brook

penal [ˈpi:nl] – adj. of or relating to punishment: penal reform

penalty [ˈpenəlti] – n. the act of punishing

penance [ˈpenəns] – n. remorse for your past conduct

penchant [ˈpə:ŋʃə:ŋ] – n. a strong liking: the Irish have a penchant for blarney

pendant [ˈpendənt] – n. an adornment that hangs from a piece of jewelry (necklace or earring)

pendulous [ˈpendjuləs] – adj. having branches or flower heads that bend downward: the pendulous branches of a weeping willow

pendulum [ˈpendjuləm] – n. an apparatus consisting of an object mounted so that it swings freely under the influence of gravity

penetrable [ˈpenətrəbl] – adj. capable of being penetrated: penetrable defenses

penetrate [ˈpenitreit] – v. pass into or through, often by overcoming resistance: The bullet penetrated her chest

penetrating [ˈpenitreitiŋ] – adj. having or demonstrating ability to recognize or draw fine distinctions: penetrating insight

penetration [peniˈtreiʃən] – n. clear or deep perception of a situation

peninsula [piˈninsjulə] – n. a large mass of land projecting into a body of water

penitence [ˈpenətəns] – n. remorse for your past conduct

penitential [peniˈtenʃəl] – adj. showing or constituting penance: penitential tears

pennant [ˈpenənt] – n. the award given to the champion

pension [ˈpenʃən] – n. a regular payment to a person that is intended to allow them to subsist without working

pensive [ˈpensiv] – adj. deeply or seriously thoughtful

pentad [ˈpentæd] – n. the cardinal number that is the sum of four and one

pentagon [ˈpentəgən] – n. a government building with five sides that serves as the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense

pentagram [ˈpentəgræm] – n. a star with 5 points; formed by 5 straight lines between the vertices of a pentagon and enclosing another pentagon

pentahedron [pentəˈhedrən] – n. any polyhedron having five plane faces

pentameter [penˈtæmitə] – n. a verse line having five metrical feet

pentathlon [penˈtæθlɔn] – n. an athletic contest consisting of five different events

pentavalent [,pentəˈveilənt] – adj. having a valence of five

penultimate [piˈnʌltimit] – n. the next to last syllable in a word

penurious [piˈnjuəriəs] – adj. not having enough money to pay for necessities

penury [ˈpenjuri] – n. a state of extreme poverty or destitution

perambulate [pəˈræmbjuleit] – v. make an official inspection on foot of (the bounds of a property): Selectmen are required by law to perambulate the bounds every five years

perceive [pəˈsi:v] – v. to become aware of through the senses: I could perceive the ship coming over the horizon

percentage [pəˈsentidʒ] – n. a proportion in relation to a whole (which is usually the amount per hundred)

perceptible [pəˈseptəbl] – adj. capable of being perceived by the mind or senses: a perceptible limp

perception [pəˈsepʃən] – n. a way of conceiving something: Luther had a new perception of the Bible

perceptive [pəˈseptiv] – adj. having the ability to perceive or understand; keen in discernment: a perceptive eye

perch [pə:tʃ] – n. support consisting of a branch or rod that serves as a resting place (especially for a bird)

percipient [pəˈsipiənt] – n. a person who becomes aware (of things or events) through the senses

percolate [ˈpə:kəleit] – v. permeate or penetrate gradually

percolator [ˈpə:kəleitə] – n. a coffeepot in which boiling water ascends through a central tube and filters back down through a basket of ground coffee beans

percuss  – v. strike or tap firmly: the doctor percussed his chest and back

percussion [pəˈkʌʃən] – n. tapping a part of the body for diagnostic purposes

percussive  – adj. involving percussion or featuring percussive instruments: percussive music

peremptory [pəˈremptəri] – adj. offensively self-assured or given to exercising usually unwarranted power: a swaggering peremptory manner

perennial [pəˈreniəl] – adj. lasting three seasons or more: the common buttercup is a popular perennial plant

perennially [pəˈrɛniəli] – adv. in a perennial manner; repeatedly: We want to know what is perennially new about the world

perfect [ˈpə:fikt] – adj. being complete of its kind and without defect or blemish: a perfect circle

perfectible [pə:ˈfektəbl] – adj. capable of becoming or being made perfect

perfection [pəˈfekʃən] – n. the state of being without a flaw or defect

perfidy [ˈpə:fidi] – n. betrayal of a trust

perforate [ˈpə:fəreit] – v. make a hole into or between, as for ease of separation: perforate the sheets of paper

perform [pəˈfɔ:m] – v. get (something) done

performance [pəˈfɔ:məns] – n. a dramatic or musical entertainment: they listened to ten different performances

performer [pəˈfɔ:mə(r)] – n. an entertainer who performs a dramatic or musical work for an audience

perfume [ˈpə:fju:m,pəˈfju:m] – n. a distinctive odor that is pleasant

perfumery [pəˈfju:məri] – n. store where perfumes are sold

perfunctory [pəˈfʌŋktəri] – adj. hasty and without attention to detail; not thorough: perfunctory courtesy

perhaps [pəˈhæps] – adv. by chance: perhaps she will call tomorrow

perigee [ˈperidʒi:] – n. periapsis in Earth orbit; the point in its orbit where a satellite is nearest to the Earth

perimeter [pəˈrimitə] – n. the boundary line or the area immediately inside the boundary

period [ˈpiəriəd] – n. an amount of time: a time period of 30 years

periodic [piəriˈɔdik] – adj. happening or recurring at regular intervals: the periodic appearance of the seventeen-year locust

periodical [.piəriˈɔdikəl] – n. a publication that appears at fixed intervals

periodicity [piriəˈdisiti] – n. the quality of recurring at regular intervals

peripatetic [.peripəˈtetik] – n. a person who walks from place to place

peripheral [pəˈrifərəl] – adj. on or near an edge or constituting an outer boundary; the outer area: Russia’s peripheral provinces

periphery [pəˈrifəri] – n. the outside boundary or surface of something

perishable [ˈperiʃəbəl] – n. food that will decay rapidly if not refrigerated

perjure [ˈpə:dʒə] – v. knowingly tell an untruth in a legal court and render oneself guilty of perjury

perjury [ˈpə:dʒəri] – n. criminal offense of making false statements under oath

permanence [ˈpə:mənəns] – n. the property of being able to exist for an indefinite duration

permanent [ˈpə:mənənt] – adj. continuing or enduring without marked change in status or condition or place: permanent secretary to the president

permanently [ˈpɜ:məntli] – adv. for a long time without essential change: he is permanently disabled

permeable [ˈpə:miəbl] – adj. allowing fluids or gases to pass or diffuse through: permeable membranes

permeate [ˈpə:mieit] – v. spread or diffuse through: An atmosphere of distrust has permeated this administration

permissible [pəˈmisəbəl] – adj. that may be permitted especially as according to rule: permissible behavior in school

permission [pəˈmiʃən] – n. approval to do something: he asked permission to leave

permissive [pə(:)ˈmisiv] – adj. not preventive

permutation [.pə:mjuˈteiʃən] – n. an event in which one thing is substituted for another

pernicious [pəˈniʃəs] – adj. exceedingly harmful

perpendicular [.pə:pənˈdikjulə] – n. a straight line at right angles to another line

perpetual [pəˈpetjuəl] – adj. continuing forever or indefinitely: hell’s perpetual fires

perpetuate [pəˈpetjueit] – v. cause to continue or prevail: perpetuate a myth

perplex [pəˈpleks] – v. be a mystery or bewildering to

perquisite [ˈpə:kwizit] – n. an incidental benefit awarded for certain types of employment (especially if it is regarded as a right)

persecution [.pə:siˈkju:ʃən] – n. the act of persecuting (especially on the basis of race or religion)

perseverance [.pə:siˈviərəns] – n. persistent determination

persevere [.pə:siˈviə] – v. be persistent, refuse to stop

persiflage [ˈpə:siflɑ:ʒ] – n. light teasing

persist [pəˈsist] – v. continue to exist

persistence [pəˈsistəns, -ˈzis-] – n. the property of a continuous and connected period of time

persistent [pəˈsistənt] – adj. never-ceasing

personage [ˈpə:sənidʒ] – n. a person whose actions and opinions strongly influence the course of events

personal [ˈpə:sənl] – adj. particular to a given individual

personality [.pə:səˈnæliti] – n. a person of considerable prominence: she is a Hollywood personality

personalize  – v. make personal or more personal: personalized service

personnel [.pə:səˈnel] – n. group of people willing to obey orders

perspective [pəˈspektiv] – n. a way of regarding situations or topics etc.

perspicacious [.pə:spiˈkeiʃəs] – adj. acutely insightful and wise: much too perspicacious to be taken in by such a spurious argument

perspicacity [pə:spiˈkæsiti] – n. intelligence manifested by being astute (as in business dealings)

perspicuous [pəˈspikjuəs] – adj. (of language) transparently clear; easily understandable: a perspicuous argument

perspiration [.pə:spəˈreiʃən] – n. salty fluid secreted by sweat glands

perspire [pəˈspaiə] – v. excrete perspiration through the pores in the skin

persuadable [pəˈsweidəbl] – adj. being susceptible to persuasion

persuade [pəˈsweid] – v. win approval or support for

persuasive [pəˈsweisiv] – adj. intended or having the power to induce action or belief: persuasive eloquence

pertinacious [.pə:tiˈneiʃəs] – adj. stubbornly unyielding: the most vocal and pertinacious of all the critics

pertinent [ˈpə:tinənt] – adj. having precise or logical relevance to the matter at hand: a list of articles pertinent to the discussion

perturb [pəˈtə:b] – v. disturb in mind or make uneasy or cause to be worried or alarmed: She was rather perturbed by the news that her father was seriously ill

perturbation [.pə:tə:ˈbeiʃən] – n. an unhappy and worried mental state

peruse [pəˈru:z] – v. examine or consider with attention and in detail: Please peruse this report at your leisure

pervade [pəˈveid] – v. spread or diffuse through

pervasion [pəˈveiʒən] – n. the process of permeating or infusing something with a substance

pervasive [pəˈveisiv] – adj. spreading or spread throughout: the pervasive odor of garlic

perverse [pəˈvə:s] – adj. marked by a disposition to oppose and contradict: took perverse satisfaction in foiling her plans

perversion [pəˈvə:ʃən] – n. a curve that reverses the direction of something: the tendrils of the plant exhibited perversion

perversity [pə(:)ˈvə:siti] – n. deliberate and stubborn unruliness and resistance to guidance or discipline

pervert [pəˈvə:t, ˈpə:vət] – v. corrupt morally or by intemperance or sensuality

pervious [ˈpə:viəs] – adj. admitting of passage or entrance: pervious soil

pest [pest] – n. any epidemic disease with a high death rate

pester [ˈpestə] – v. annoy persistently

pesticide [ˈpestisaid] – n. a chemical used to kill pests (as rodents or insects)

pestilence [ˈpestiləns] – n. any epidemic disease with a high death rate

pestilent [ˈpestilənt] – adj. exceedingly harmful

pestilential [.pestiˈlenʃəl] – adj. likely to spread and cause an epidemic disease: a pestilential malignancy in the air

pet [pet] – n. a domesticated animal kept for companionship or amusement

petal [ˈpetl] – n. part of the perianth that is usually brightly colored

peter [ˈpi:tə] – n. disciple of Jesus and leader of the Apostles; regarded by Catholics as the vicar of Christ on earth and first Pope

petition [piˈtiʃən] – n. a formal message requesting something that is submitted to an authority

petrifaction [.petriˈfækʃən] – n. the process of turning some plant material into stone by infiltration with water carrying mineral particles without changing the original shape

petrify [ˈpetrifai] – v. cause to become stonelike or stiff or dazed and stunned

petroleum [piˈtrəuliəm] – n. a dark oil consisting mainly of hydrocarbons

petulance [ˈpetjuləns] – n. an irritable petulant feeling

petulant [ˈpetʃulənt] – adj. easily irritated or annoyed

pharmacopoeia [,fɑ:məkəˈpi:ə] – n. a collection or stock of drugs

pharmacy [ˈfɑ:məsi] – n. the art and science of preparing and dispensing drugs and medicines,

phase [feiz] – n. any distinct time period in a sequence of events

phenomenal [fiˈnɔminəl] – adj. exceedingly or unbelievably great

phenomenally [fiˈnɔminəli] – adv. to a phenomenal degree: his reaction was phenomenally quick

phenomenon [fəˈnɑ:minən] – n. any state or process known through the senses rather than by intuition or reasoning

philander [fiˈlændə] – v. have amorous affairs; of men

philanthropic [fiˈlænθrəpic] – adj. generous in assistance to the poor: philanthropic contributions

philanthropist [fiˈlænθrəpist] – n. someone who makes charitable donations intended to increase human well-being

philanthropy [fiˈlænθrəpi] – n. voluntary promotion of human welfare

philately [fiˈlætəli] – n. the collection and study of postage stamps

philharmonic [filɑ:ˈmɔnik, filhɑ:ˈ-] – adj. composing or characteristic of an orchestral group: philharmonic players

philology [fiˈlɔlədʒi] – n. the humanistic study of language and literature

philosophize [filəˈsɔfaiz] – v. reason philosophically

philosophy [fiˈlɔsəfi] – n. a belief (or system of beliefs) accepted as authoritative by some group or school

phlegmatic [flegˈmætik] – adj. showing little emotion: a phlegmatic…and certainly undemonstrative man

phonetic [fəˈnetik] – adj. of or relating to speech sounds: phonetic transcription

phonetics [fəuˈnetiks] – n. the branch of acoustics concerned with speech processes including its production and perception and acoustic analysis

phonic [ˈfəunik] – adj. relating to speech

phonogram [ˈfəunəgræm] – n. any written symbol standing for a sound or syllable or morpheme or word

phonology [fəuˈnɔlədʒi] – n. the study of the sound system of a given language and the analysis and classification of its phonemes

phosphorescence [,fɔsfəˈresns] – n. a fluorescence that persists after the bombarding radiation has ceased

photoconductive  – adj. of or relating to photoconductivity: selenium is a photoconductive substance

photoelectric [fəutəuiˈlektrik] – adj. of or pertaining to photoelectricity: the photoelectric effect

photograph [ˈfəutəgrɑ:f, -græf] – n. a representation of a person or scene in the form of a print or transparent slide; recorded by a camera on light-sensitive material

photometer [fəuˈtɔmitə] – n. photographic equipment that measures the intensity of light

photometry [fəuˈtɔmitri] – n. measurement of the properties of light (especially luminous intensity)

photosensitive [.fəutəuˈsensitiv] – adj. sensitive to visible light

photosphere [ˈfəutəusfiə] – n. the intensely luminous surface of a star (especially the sun)

photosynthesis [.fəutəuˈsinθəsis] – n. synthesis of compounds with the aid of radiant energy (especially in plants)

photosynthetic  – adj. relating to or using or formed by photosynthesis

physical [ˈfizikəl] – adj. involving the body as distinguished from the mind or spirit: physical exercise

physicist [ˈfizisist] – n. a scientist trained in physics

physiognomy [fiziˈɔgnəmi] – n. the human face (`kisser’ and `smiler’ and `mug’ are informal terms for `face’ and `phiz’ is British)

physiography  – n. the study of physical features of the earth’s surface

physiological [.fiziəˈlɔdʒikəl] – adj. of or consistent with an organism’s normal functioning: physiological processes

physiology [.fiziˈɔlədʒi] – n. the branch of the biological sciences dealing with the functioning of organisms

physique [fiˈzi:k] – n. constitution of the human body

picayune [,pikəˈju:n] – adj. (informal) small and of little importance: giving a police officer a free meal may be against the law, but it seems to be a picayune infraction

piccolo [ˈ pikələu] – n. a small flute; pitched an octave above the standard flute

pickax  – n. a heavy iron tool with a wooden handle and a curved head that is pointed on both ends

pictograph  – n. a graphic character used in picture writing

picture [ˈpiktʃə] – n. a visual representation (of an object or scene or person or abstraction) produced on a surface: they showed us the pictures of their wedding

picturesque [.piktʃəˈresk] – adj. strikingly expressive: a picturesque description of the rainforest

piece [pi:s] – n. a separate part of a whole: an important piece of the evidence

piecemeal [ˈpi:smi:l] – adj. one thing at a time

pierce [piəs] – v. cut or make a way through: The path pierced the jungle

piggery  – n. a farm where pigs are raised or kept

pigment [ˈpigmənt] – n. dry coloring material (especially a powder to be mixed with a liquid to produce paint, etc.)

pile [pail] – n. a collection of objects laid on top of each other

piling  – n. a column of wood or steel or concrete that is driven into the ground to provide support for a structure

pill [pil] – n. something that resembles a tablet of medicine in shape or size

pillage [ˈpilidʒ] – n. goods or money obtained illegally

pillar [ˈpilə] – n. a fundamental principle or practice: science eroded the pillars of superstition

pillory [ˈpiləri] – v. expose to ridicule or public scorn

pillow [ˈpiləu] – n. a cushion to support the head of a sleeping person

pilot [ˈpailət] – n. someone who is licensed to operate an aircraft in flight

pinch [pintʃ] – n. a painful or straitened circumstance: the pinch of the recession

pine [pain] – n. a coniferous tree

pineapple [ˈpainæpl] – n. large sweet fleshy tropical fruit with a terminal tuft of stiff leaves; widely cultivated

pinhead  – n. an ignorant or foolish person

pinion [ˈpiniən] – n. a gear with a small number of teeth designed to mesh with a larger wheel or rack

pinnacle [ˈpinəkl] – n. (architecture) a slender upright spire at the top of a buttress of tower

pinpoint [ˈpinpɔint] – n. a very brief moment: they were strangers sharing a pinpoint of time together

pioneer [.paiəˈniə] – v. open up an area or prepare a way: She pioneered a graduate program for women students

pious [ˈpaiəs] – adj. having or showing or expressing reverence for a deity: pious readings

pique [pi:k] – n. tightly woven fabric with raised cords

piston [ˈpistən] – n. United States neoclassical composer (1894-1976)

pit [pit] – n. a sizeable hole (usually in the ground): they dug a pit to bury the body

pitch  – v. throw or toss with a light motion

pitcher [ˈpitʃə] – n. an open vessel with a handle and a spout for pouring

piteous [ˈpitiəs] – adj. deserving or inciting pity: piteous appeals for help

pitiable [ˈpitiəbl] – adj. inspiring mixed contempt and pity: pitiable lack of character

pitiful [ˈpitiful] – adj. inspiring mixed contempt and pity: pitiful exhibition of cowardice

pitiless [ˈpitilis] – adj. without mercy or pity

pittance [ˈpitəns] – n. an inadequate payment: they work all day for a mere pittance

pivot [ˈpivət] – n. the person in a rank around whom the others wheel and maneuver

pivotal [ˈpivətəl] – adj. being of crucial importance: a pivotal event

placate [pləˈkeit] – v. cause to be more favorably inclined; gain the good will of

place [pleis] – n. a point located with respect to surface features of some region: this is a nice place for a picnic

placid [ˈplæsid] – adj. (of a body of water) free from disturbance by heavy waves: a ribbon of sand between the angry sea and the placid bay

plagiarism [ˈpleidʒiərizəm] – n. a piece of writing that has been copied from someone else and is presented as being your own work

plague [pleig] – n. any epidemic disease with a high death rate

plain [plein] – adj. clearly revealed to the mind or the senses or judgment: made his meaning plain

plainly [ˈpleinli] – adv. in a simple manner; without extravagance or embellishment: she was dressed plainly

plainspoken  – adj. using simple and direct language: a plainspoken country doctor

plane [plein] – n. an aircraft that has a fixed wing and is powered by propellers or jets: the flight was delayed due to trouble with the airplane

planet [ˈplænit] – n. a person who follows or serves another

planetary  – adj. of or relating to or characteristic of the planet Earth or its inhabitants: planetary rumblings and eructations

plank [plæŋk] – v. set (something or oneself) down with or as if with a noise: He planked the money on the table

plankton [ˈplæŋktən] – n. the aggregate of small plant and animal organisms that float or drift in great numbers in fresh or salt water

plantation [plænˈteiʃən] – n. an estate where cash crops are grown on a large scale (especially in tropical areas)

plaque [plæk] – n. (pathology) a small abnormal patch on or inside the body

plash [plæʃ] – v. interlace the shoots of

plasma [ˈplæzmə] – n. a green slightly translucent variety of chalcedony used as a gemstone

plaster [ˈplɑ:stə] – v. apply a heavy coat to

plasticity [plæsˈtisiti] – n. the property of being physically malleable; the property of something that can be worked or hammered or shaped without breaking

plate [pleit] – n. a sheet of metal or wood or glass or plastic

plateau [ˈplætəu] – n. a relatively flat highland

platform [ˈplætfɔ:m] – n. a raised horizontal surface: the speaker mounted the platform

platitude [ˈplætitju:d] – n. a trite or obvious remark

platitudinous [.plætiˈtju:dinəs] – adj. dull and tiresome but with pretensions of significance or originality

platypus  – n. small densely furred aquatic monotreme of Australia and Tasmania having a broad bill and tail and webbed feet; only species in the family Ornithorhynchidae

plaudit [ˈplɔ:dit] – n. enthusiastic approval: he acknowledged the plaudits of the crowd

plausible [ˈplɔ:zəbl] – adj. apparently reasonable and valid, and truthful: a plausible excuse

playful [ˈpleiful] – adj. full of fun and high spirits: playful children just let loose from school

playground [ˈpleigraund] – n. an area where many people go for recreation

playwright [ˈpleirait] – n. someone who writes plays

plea [pli:] – n. a humble request for help from someone in authority

pleasant [ˈpleznt] – adj. (of persons) having pleasing manners or behavior: I didn’t enjoy it and probably wasn’t a pleasant person to be around

pleasing [ˈpli:ziŋ] – n. the act of one who pleases

pleasurable [ˈpleʒərəbl] – adj. affording satisfaction or pleasure: full of happiness and pleasurable excitement

pleasure [ˈpleʒə] – n. a fundamental feeling that is hard to define but that people desire to experience: he was tingling with pleasure

plebeian [pliˈbi:ən] – n. one of the common people

plebiscite [ˈplebisit] – n. a vote by the electorate determining public opinion on a question of national importance

pledge [pledʒ] – v. promise solemnly and formally: I pledge that I will honor my wife

pledgee  – n. someone to whom a pledge is made or someone with whom something is deposited as a pledge

plenary [ˈpli:nəri] – adj. full in all respects: a plenary session of the legislature

plenipotentiary [plenipəˈtenʃəri] – n. a diplomat who is fully authorized to represent his or her government

plenitude [ˈplenitju:d] – n. a full supply

plenteous [ˈplentjəs] – adj. affording an abundant supply: a plenteous grape harvest

pliable [ˈplaiəbəl] – adj. susceptible to being led or directed

pliant [ˈplaiənt] – adj. capable of being influenced or formed: a pliant nature

plight [plait] – n. a situation from which extrication is difficult especially an unpleasant or trying one: the woeful plight of homeless people

plot [plɔt] – n. a secret scheme to do something (especially something underhand or illegal): they concocted a plot to discredit the governor

plow [plau] – v. act on verbally or in some form of artistic expression

pluck [plʌk] – v. pull or pull out sharply: pluck the flowers off the bush

plum [plʌm] – n. any of several trees producing edible oval fruit having a smooth skin and a single hard stone

plumage [ˈplu:midʒ] – n. the light horny waterproof structure forming the external covering of birds

plumb [plʌm] – v. measure the depth of something

plumber [ˈplʌmə] – n. a craftsman who installs and repairs pipes and fixtures and appliances

plumbing [ˈplʌmiŋ] – n. the occupation of a plumber (installing and repairing pipes and fixtures for water or gas or sewage in a building)

plummet [ˈplʌmit] – n. the metal bob of a plumb line

plump [plʌmp] – v. drop sharply

plunder [ˈplʌndə] – v. take illegally; of intellectual property: This writer plundered from famous authors

plunge [plʌndʒ] – v. thrust or throw into

pluperfect [plu:ˈpə:fikt] – n. a perfective tense used to express action completed in the past

plural [ˈpluərəl] – adj. composed of more than one member, set, or kind

plurality [pluəˈræliti] – n. a large indefinite number: a plurality of religions

plutocracy [plu:ˈtɔkrəsi] – n. a political system governed by the wealthy people

ply [plai] – v. give what is desired or needed, especially support, food or sustenance

pneumatic [nju(:)ˈmætik] – adj. of or relating to or using air (or a similar gas): pneumatic drill

pocketbook [ˈpɔkit.buk] – n. your personal financial means: that car is too expensive for my pocketbook

poesy [ˈpəuizi] – n. literature in metrical form

poetic [pəuˈetik] – adj. characterized by romantic imagery: Turner’s vision of the rainbow…was poetic

poetics [pəuˈetiks] – n. study of poetic works

poignancy [ˈpɔinənsi] – n. a state of deeply felt distress or sorrow: a moment of extraordinary poignancy

poignant [ˈpɔinjənt] – adj. arousing affect: poignant grief cannot endure forever

poikilotherm  – n. an animal whose body temperature varies with the temperature of its surroundings; any animal except birds and mammals

poikilothermic  – adj. of animals except birds and mammals; having body temperature that varies with the environment

poise [pɔiz] – v. be motionless, in suspension: The bird poised for a few moments before it attacked

poisonous [ˈpɔizənəs] – adj. not safe to eat

polar [ˈpəulə] – adj. having a pair of equal and opposite charges

polarity [pəuˈlæriti] – n. a relation between two opposite attributes or tendencies: he viewed it as a balanced polarity between good and evil

polarize [ˈpəʊləraiz] – v. cause to vibrate in a definite pattern: polarize light waves

pole [pəul] – n. a long (usually round) rod of wood or metal or plastic

polish [ˈpɔliʃ] – n. the property of being smooth and shiny

politics [ˈpɔlitiks] – n. social relations involving intrigue to gain authority or power: office politics is often counterproductive

poll [pəul] – n. an inquiry into public opinion conducted by interviewing a random sample of people

pollen [ˈpɔlin] – n. the fine spores that contain male gametes and that are borne by an anther in a flowering plant

pollinate [ˈpɔlineit] – v. fertilize by transfering pollen

pollination [pɔliˈneiʃən] – n. transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma of a plant

pollutant [pəˈlu:tənt] – n. waste matter that contaminates the water or air or soil

pollute [pəˈlu:t] – v. make impure: The industrial wastes polluted the lake

pollution [pəˈlu:ʃən] – n. the state of being polluted

polygamy [pəˈligəmi] – n. having more than one spouse at a time

polyglot [ˈpɔliglɔt] – n. a person who speaks more than one language

polygon [ˈpɔligən] – n. a closed plane figure bounded by straight sides

polygonal [ˈpɔligənl] – adj. having many sides or relating to a surface marked by polygons: polygonal structure

polyhedron [pɔliˈhedrən] – n. a solid figure bounded by plane polygons or faces

polysyllable [ˈpɔlisiləbl] – n. a word of more than three syllables

polytechnic [pɔliˈteknik] – n. a technical school offering instruction in many industrial arts and applied sciences

polytheism [ˈpɔliθi:izm] – n. belief in multiple Gods

pommel [ˈpʌml] – n. handgrip formed by the raised front part of a saddle

pomposity [pɔmˈpɔsiti] – n. lack of elegance as a consequence of being pompous and puffed up with vanity

pompous [ˈpɔmpəs] – adj. puffed up with vanity: a pompous speech

ponder [ˈpɔndə] – v. reflect deeply on a subject

ponderous [ˈpɔndərəs] – adj. slow and laborious because of weight: ponderous prehistoric beasts

pontiff [ˈpɔntif] – n. the head of the Roman Catholic Church

ponytail  – n. a hair style that draws the hair back so that it hangs down in back of the head like a pony’s tail

pool [pu:l] – n. an excavation that is (usually) filled with water

popcorn [ˈpɔpkɔ:n] – n. corn having small ears and kernels that burst when exposed to dry heat

populace [ˈpɔpjuləs] – n. people in general considered as a whole

popular [ˈpɔpjulə] – adj. regarded with great favor, approval, or affection especially by the general public: a popular tourist attraction

popularity [.pɔpjuˈlæriti] – n. the quality of being widely admired or accepted or sought after: his charm soon won him affection and popularity

populated  – adj. furnished with inhabitants: the area is well populated

populous [ˈpɔpjuləs] – adj. densely populated

porcelain [ˈpɔ:slin] – n. ceramic ware made of a more or less translucent ceramic

porcupine [ˈpɔ:kjupain] – n. relatively large rodents with sharp erectile bristles mingled with the fur

pore [pɔ:, pɔə] – n. any tiny hole admitting passage of a liquid (fluid or gas)

porous [ˈpɔ:rəs] – adj. able to absorb fluids: the partly porous walls of our digestive system

porpoise  – n. any of several small gregarious cetacean mammals having a blunt snout and many teeth

portable [ˈpɔ:təbl] – adj. of a motor designed to be attached to the outside of a boat’s hull: a portable outboard motor

portend [pɔ:ˈtend] – v. indicate by signs

portent [ˈpɔ:tent] – n. a sign of something about to happen

portfolio [pɔ:tˈfəuliəu] – n. a large, flat, thin case for carrying loose papers or drawings or maps; usually leather: he remembered her because she was carrying a large portfolio

portion [ˈpɔ:ʃən] – n. something determined in relation to something that includes it: I read a portion of the manuscript

portrait [ˈpɔ:trit] – n. a word picture of a person’s appearance and character

portraitist [ˈpɔ:tritist, -trei-, ˈpəʊ-] – n. a painter or drawer of portraits

portraiture [ˈpɔ:tritʃə] – n. a word picture of a person’s appearance and character

portray [pɔ:ˈtrei] – v. make a portrait of: Goya wanted to portray his mistress, the Duchess of Alba

portrayal [pɔ:ˈtreiəl] – n. a word picture of a person’s appearance and character

pose [pəuz] – v. introduce: This poses an interesting question

posit [ˈpɔzit] – v. put (something somewhere) firmly: She posited her hand on his shoulder

position [pəˈziʃən] – n. the particular portion of space occupied by something

positive [ˈpɔzitiv] – adj. characterized by or displaying affirmation or acceptance or certainty etc.: a positive attitude

posse [ˈpɔsi] – n. a temporary police force

possess [pəˈzes] – v. have as an attribute, knowledge, or skill: he possesses great knowledge about the Middle East

possession [pəˈzeʃən] – n. the act of having and controlling property

possessive [pəˈzesiv] – adj. desirous of owning: small children are so possessive they will not let others play with their toys

possible [ˈpɔsəbl] – n. something that can be done: politics is the art of the possible

post [pəust] – v. affix in a public place or for public notice: post a warning

postage [ˈpəustidʒ] – n. the charge for mailing something

postal [ˈpəustəl] – adj. of or relating to the system for delivering mail: postal delivery

postcard [ˈpəust.kɑ:d] – n. a card for sending messages by post without an envelope

postdate [ˈpəustˈdeit] – v. be later in time

poster [ˈpəustə] – n. someone who pastes up bills or placards on walls or billboards

posterior [pɔˈstiəriə] – n. the fleshy part of the human body that you sit on

postgraduate [pəustˈgrædjuit] – n. a student who continues studies after graduation

posthumous [ˈpɔstjuməs] – adj. occurring or coming into existence after a person’s death: a posthumous award

postmaster [ˈpəʊstmɑ:stər; -mæstər] – n. the person in charge of a post office

postmodern  – adj. of or relating to postmodernism: postmodernist architecture

postoperative [ˈpəustˈɔpərətiv] – adj. happening or done after a surgical operation: postoperative complications

postpone [pəustˈpəun] – v. hold back to a later time: let’s postpone the exam

postscript [ˈpəust.skript] – n. a note appended to a letter after the signature

postulate [ˈpɔstjuleit] – v. maintain or assert

posture [ˈpɔstʃə] – n. the arrangement of the body and its limbs

postwar [ˈpəustˈwɔ:] – adj. belonging to the period after a war: postwar resettlement

pot [pɔt] – n. metal or earthenware cooking vessel that is usually round and deep; often has a handle and lid

potency [ˈpoutənsi] – n. the power or right to give orders or make decisions: a place of potency in the state

potent [ˈpəutənt] – adj. having great influence

potentate [ˈpəutənteit] – n. a ruler who is unconstrained by law

potential [pəˈtenʃəl] – n. the inherent capacity for coming into being

potentiality [pə.tenʃiˈæliti] – n. the inherent capacity for coming into being

potion [ˈpəuʃən] – n. a medicinal or magical or poisonous beverage

potted [ˈpɔtid] – adj. preserved in a pot or can or jar: potted meat

potter [ˈpɔtə] – v. do random, unplanned work or activities or spend time idly

pottery [ˈpɔtəri] – n. ceramic ware made from clay and baked in a kiln

pound [paund] – n. 16 ounces avoirdupois: he got a hernia when he tried to lift 100 pounds

pour [pɔ:] – v. cause to run: pour water over the floor

poverty [ˈpɔvəti] – n. the state of having little or no money and few or no material possessions

powerless [ˈpauəlis] – adj. lacking power

practicable [ˈpræktikəbl] – adj. usable for a specific purpose: a practicable solution

practical [ˈpræktikəl] – adj. concerned with actual use or practice: he is a very practical person

practicality [.præktiˈkæliti] – n. concerned with actual use rather than theoretical possibilities

practically [ˈpræktikəli] – adv. almost; nearly: practically the first thing I saw when I got off the train

practice [ˈpræktis] – n. a customary way of operation or behavior: it is their practice to give annual raises

prairie [ˈprɛəri] – n. a treeless grassy plain

prate [preit] – n. idle or foolish and irrelevant talk

prattle [ˈprætl] – n. idle or foolish and irrelevant talk

preach [pri:tʃ] – v. deliver a sermon: The minister is not preaching this Sunday

preamble [ˈpri:æmbəl] – n. a preliminary introduction to a statute or constitution (usually explaining its purpose)

prearrange  – v. arrange beforehand

precarious [priˈkeəriəs] – adj. affording no ease or reassurance: a precarious truce

precaution [priˈkɔ:ʃən] – n. the trait of practicing caution in advance

precede [pri:ˈsi:d] – v. be earlier in time; go back further: Stone tools precede bronze tools

precedence [ˈpresidəns] – n. status established in order of importance or urgency: …its precedence as the world’s leading manufacturer of pharmaceuticals

precedent [ˈpresidənt] – n. an example that is used to justify similar occurrences at a later time

preceding [priˈsi:diŋ] – adj. existing or coming before

precession [priˈseʃən] – n. the motion of a spinning body (as a top) in which it wobbles so that the axis of rotation sweeps out a cone

precious [ˈpreʃəs] – adj. characterized by feeling or showing fond affection for: children are precious

precipice [ˈpresipis] – n. a very steep cliff

precipitant [priˈsipitənt] – n. an agent that causes a precipitate to form

precipitate [priˈsipiteit] – v. bring about abruptly: The crisis precipitated by Russia’s revolution

precipitation [pri.sipiˈteiʃən] – n. the quantity of water falling to earth at a specific place within a specified period of time: the storm brought several inches of precipitation

precipitous [priˈsipitəs] – adj. done with very great haste and without due deliberation

precise [priˈsais] – adj. sharply exact or accurate or delimited: a precise mind

precisely [priˈsaisli] – adv. in a precise manner: she always expressed herself precisely

precision [priˈsiʒən] – n. the quality of being reproducible in amount or performance: note the meticulous precision of his measurements

preclude [priˈklu:d] – v. keep from happening or arising; make impossible: Your role in the projects precludes your involvement in the competitive project

precocious [priˈkəuʃəs] – adj. characterized by or characteristic of exceptionally early development or maturity (especially in mental aptitude): a precocious child

precursor [pri(:)ˈkə:sə] – n. a substance from which another substance is formed (especially by a metabolic reaction)

predator [ˈpredətə] – n. someone who attacks in search of booty

predatory [ˈpredətəri] – adj. characterized by plundering or pillaging or marauding: predatory warfare

predecessor [ˈpri:disesə] – n. one who precedes you in time (as in holding a position or office)

predicament [priˈdikəmənt] – n. a situation from which extrication is difficult especially an unpleasant or trying one: finds himself in a most awkward predicament

predicate [ˈpredikit] – v. affirm or declare as an attribute or quality of: The speech predicated the fitness of the candidate to be President

predict [priˈdikt] – v. indicate by signs

predictability [pri.diktəˈbiliti] – n. the quality of being predictable

predictable [priˈdiktəbəl] – adj. capable of being foretold

prediction [priˈdikʃən] – n. a statement made about the future

predictive [priˈdiktiv] – adj. of or relating to prediction; having value for making predictions

predilection [pri:diˈlekʃən] – n. a predisposition in favor of something: a predilection for expensive cars

predominance [priˈdɔminəns] – n. the quality of being more noticeable than anything else

predominant [priˈdɔminənt] – adj. most frequent or common

predominantly [priˈdɔminəntli] – adv. much greater in number or influence: the patients are predominantly indigenous

predominate [priˈdɔmineit] – v. be larger in number, quantity, power, status or importance: Hispanics predominate in this neighborhood

preeminence [pri(:)ˈeminəns] – n. high status importance owing to marked superiority

preeminent [pri(:)ˈeminənt] – adj. greatest in importance or degree or significance or achievement: a preeminent archeologist

preempt [pri:ˈempt] – v. acquire for oneself before others can do so

preemption [pri:ˈempʃən] – n. the judicial principle asserting the supremacy of federal over state legislation on the same subject

preexist [pri:igˈzist] – v. exist beforehand or prior to a certain point in time

preexistence [pri:ig`zistLns] – n. existing in a former state or previous to something else

prefabricate  – v. produce synthetically, artificially, or stereotypically and unoriginally

preface [ˈprefis] – n. a short introductory essay preceding the text of a book

prefatory [ˈprefətəri] – adj. serving as an introduction or preface

prefer [priˈfə:] – v. like better; value more highly: Some people prefer camping to staying in hotels

preferable [ˈprefərəbl] – adj. more desirable than another: coffee is preferable to tea

preference [ˈprefərəns] – n. a strong liking: my own preference is for good literature

preferential [.prefəˈrenʃəl] – adj. manifesting partiality: preferential tariff rates

preferment [priˈfə:mənt] – n. the act of making accusations: preferment of charges

prefix [ˈpri:fiks] – n. an affix that is added in front of the word

pregnant [ˈpregnənt] – adj. carrying developing offspring within the body or being about to produce new life

prehensile [priˈhensl] – adj. adapted for grasping especially by wrapping around an object: a monkey’s prehensile tail

prehension  – n. the act of gripping something firmly with the hands (or the tentacles)

prehistoric [ˈpri:hisˈtɔrik] – adj. belonging to or existing in times before recorded history: prehistoric settlements

prehistory  – n. the time during the development of human culture before the appearance of the written word

prejudice [ˈpredʒudis] – v. influence (somebody’s) opinion in advance

prelacy [ˈpreləsi] – n. the office or station of a prelate

prelate [ˈprelit] – n. a senior clergyman and dignitary

preliminary [priˈliminəri] – n. a minor match preceding the main event

prelude [ˈprelju:d] – n. something that serves as a preceding event or introduces what follows

premature [.preməˈtʃuə] – adj. born after a gestation period of less than the normal time: a premature infant

premier [ˈpremjə] – n. the person who holds the position of head of the government in the United Kingdom

premise [ˈpremis] – v. set forth beforehand, often as an explanation: He premised these remarks so that his readers might understand

premium [ˈpri:miəm] – n. payment for insurance

premonition [pri:məˈniʃən] – n. a feeling of evil to come

preoccupation [pri(:).ɔkjuˈpeiʃən] – n. the mental state of being preoccupied by something

preoccupy [pri(:)ˈɔkjupai] – v. engage or engross the interest or attention of beforehand or occupy urgently or obsessively

preordain [ˈpri:ɔ:ˈdein] – v. foreordain or determine beforehand

preparation [.prepəˈreiʃən] – n. the activity of putting or setting in order in advance of some act or purpose: preparations for the ceremony had begun

preparatory [priˈpærətəri] – adj. preceding and preparing for something: preparatory steps

preponderance [priˈpɔndərɚns] – n. superiority in power or influence: the preponderance of good over evil

preponderant [priˈpɔndərənt] – adj. having superior power and influence

preponderate [priˈpɔndəreit] – v. weigh more heavily

prepossession [ˈpri:pəˈzeʃn] – n. an opinion formed beforehand without adequate evidence

preposterous [priˈpɔstərəs] – adj. incongruous;inviting ridicule: a preposterous attempt to turn back the pages of history

prerequisite [ˈpri:ˈrekwizit] – n. something that is required in advance: Latin was a prerequisite for admission

prerogative [priˈrɔgətiv] – n. a right reserved exclusively by a particular person or group (especially a hereditary or official right): suffrage was the prerogative of white adult males

presage [ˈpresidʒ] – n. a foreboding about what is about to happen

prescience [ˈpresiəns] – n. the power to foresee the future

prescient [ˈpreʃiənt] – adj. perceiving the significance of events before they occur: extraordinarily prescient memoranda on the probable course of postwar relations

prescribe [prisˈkraib] – v. issue commands or orders for

prescribed [priˈskraibd] – adj. set down as a rule or guide

prescript [ˈpri:skript] – n. prescribed guide for conduct or action

prescription [prisˈkripʃən] – n. a drug that is available only with written instructions from a doctor or dentist to a pharmacist: he told the doctor that he had been taking his prescription regularly

presence [ˈprezns] – n. the immediate proximity of someone or something: she blushed in his presence

present [ˈpreznt,priˈzent] – v. give an exhibition of to an interested audience

presentation [.prezenˈteiʃən] – n. a show or display; the act of presenting something to sight or view: the presentation of new data

presentiment [priˈzentimənt] – n. a feeling of evil to come: the lawyer had a presentiment that the judge would dismiss the case

presentment [priˈzentmənt] – n. an accusation of crime made by a grand jury on its own initiative

preservation [.prezə(:)ˈveiʃən] – n. the activity of protecting something from loss or danger

preservative [priˈzə:vətiv] – n. a chemical compound that is added to protect against decay or decomposition

preserve [priˈzə:v] – v. keep or maintain in unaltered condition; cause to remain or last: preserve the peace in the family

presidency [ˈprezidənsi] – n. the office and function of president: Andrew Jackson expanded the power of the presidency beyond what was customary before his time

pressure [ˈpreʃə] – n. the force applied to a unit area of surface; measured in pascals (SI unit) or in dynes (cgs unit): the compressed gas exerts an increased pressure

prestige [presˈti:ʒ] – n. a high standing achieved through success or influence or wealth etc.: he wanted to achieve power and prestige

prestigious [preˈstidʒəs] – adj. having an illustrious reputation; respected: a prestigious author

presumably [priˈzju:məbli] – adv. by reasonable assumption: presumably, he missed the train

presumption [priˈzʌmpʃən] – n. an assumption that is taken for granted

presumptuous [priˈzʌmptjuəs] – adj. excessively forward: the duchess would not put up with presumptuous servants

pretense [priˈtens] – n. the act of giving a false appearance

pretension [pri:ˈtenʃən] – n. a false or unsupportable quality

pretentious [priˈtenʃəs] – adj. making claim to or creating an appearance of (often undeserved) importance or distinction: a pretentious country house

preternatural [.pri:təˈnætʃərəl] – adj. surpassing the ordinary or normal: Beyond his preternatural affability there is some acid and some steel

pretext [ˈpri:tekst] – n. something serving to conceal plans; a fictitious reason that is concocted in order to conceal the real reason

prevail [priˈveil] – v. be larger in number, quantity, power, status or importance

prevalence [ˈprevələns] – n. the quality of prevailing generally; being widespread: he was surprised by the prevalence of optimism about the future

prevalent [ˈprevələnt] – adj. most frequent or common

prevaricate [priˈværikeit] – v. be deliberately ambiguous or unclear in order to mislead or withhold information

prevention [priˈvenʃən] – n. the act of preventing: money was allocated to study the cause and prevention of influenza

previous [ˈpri:vjəs] – adj. just preceding something else in time or order: the previous owner

previously [ˈpri:vju:sli] – adv. at an earlier time or formerly: she had previously lived in Chicago

prey [prei] – n. animal hunted or caught for food

prickle [ˈprikəl] – v. cause a stinging or tingling sensation

prim [prim] – v. contract one’s lips: She primmed her lips after every bite of food

primal [ˈpraiməl] – adj. serving as an essential component

primarily [praiˈmərili] – adv. for the most part

primary [ˈpraiməri] – adj. of first rank or importance or value; direct and immediate rather than secondary: primary goals

primate [ˈpraimit] – n. a senior clergyman and dignitary

prime [praim] – adj. first in rank or degree: the prime minister

primer [ˈpraimə] – n. an introductory textbook

primeval [praiˈmi:vəl] – adj. having existed from the beginning; in an earliest or original stage or state: the forest primeval

primitive [ˈprimitiv] – adj. belonging to an early stage of technical development; characterized by simplicity and (often) crudeness: primitive movies of the 1890s

primordial [praiˈmɔ:djəl] – adj. having existed from the beginning; in an earliest or original stage or state: primordial matter

principal [ˈprinsəpəl] – n. the original amount of a debt on which interest is calculated

principality [prinsiˈpæliti] – n. territory ruled by a prince

principle [ˈprinsəpl] – n. a basic generalization that is accepted as true and that can be used as a basis for reasoning or conduct: their principles of composition characterized all their works

priority [praiˈɔriti] – n. status established in order of importance or urgency: national independence takes priority over class struggle

priory [ˈpraiəri] – n. religious residence in a monastery governed by a prior or a convent governed by a prioress

pristine [ˈpristain] – adj. completely free from dirt or contamination: pristine mountain snow

privateer [praiəˈtiə] – n. a privately owned warship commissioned to prey on the commercial shipping or warships of an enemy nation

privately  – adv. by a private person or interest: a privately financed campaign

privet  – n. any of various Old World shrubs having smooth entire leaves and terminal panicles of small white flowers followed by small black berries; many used for hedges

privilege [ˈprivilidʒ] – n. a special advantage or immunity or benefit not enjoyed by all

privy [ˈprivi] – n. a room or building equipped with one or more toilets

probate [ˈprəubeit] – n. a judicial certificate saying that a will is genuine and conferring on the executors the power to administer the estate

probation [prəˈbeiʃən] – n. a trial period during which an offender has time to redeem himself or herself

probe [prəub] – n. an inquiry into unfamiliar or questionable activities: there was a congressional probe into the scandal

probity [ˈprəubəti] – n. complete and confirmed integrity; having strong moral principles: in a world where financial probity may not be widespread

procedure [prəˈsi:dʒə] – n. a particular course of action intended to achieve a result: the procedure of obtaining a driver’s license

proceed [prəˈsi:d] – v. continue talking

proceeds [ˈprəʊsi:dz] – n. the income or profit arising from such transactions as the sale of land or other property

process [ˈprɑ:ses] – v. deal with in a routine way: process a loan

proclaim [prəˈkleim] – v. declare formally; declare someone to be something; of titles: He was proclaimed King

proclamation [prɔkləˈmeiʃən] – n. a formal public statement

proclivity [prəˈkliviti] – n. a natural inclination: he has a proclivity for exaggeration

procrastinate [prəuˈkræstineit] – v. postpone doing what one should be doing: He did not want to write the letter and procrastinated for days

procrastination [prəuˈkræstiˈneiʃn] – n. slowness as a consequence of not getting around to it

proctor [ˈprɔktə] – n. someone who supervises (an examination)

prod [prɔd] – v. to push against gently

prodigal [ˈprɔdigəl] – n. a recklessly extravagant consumer

prodigious [prəˈdidʒəs] – adj. so great in size or force or extent as to elicit awe: a prodigious storm

prodigy [ˈprɔdidʒi] – n. an unusually gifted or intelligent (young) person; someone whose talents excite wonder and admiration: she is a chess prodigy

produce [prəˈdju:s] – v. bring forth or yield: The tree would not produce fruit

production [prəˈdʌkʃən] – n. a presentation for the stage or screen or radio or television: have you seen the new production of Hamlet?

productive [prəˈdʌktiv] – adj. having the ability to produce or originate

profane [prəˈfein] – adj. not concerned with or devoted to religion: sacred and profane music

profession [prəˈfeʃən] – n. the body of people in a learned occupation: the news spread rapidly through the medical profession

professional [prəˈfeʃənəl] – adj. of or relating to or suitable as a profession: professional organizations

professionalism [prəˈfeʃənə.lizəm] – n. the expertness characteristic of a professional person

professor [prəˈfesə] – n. someone who is a member of the faculty at a college or university

proffer [ˈprɔfə] – n. a proposal offered for acceptance or rejection

proficiency [prəˈfiʃənsi] – n. the quality of having great facility and competence

proficient [prəˈfiʃənt] – adj. having or showing knowledge and skill and aptitude: a proficient engineer

profile [ˈprəufail] – n. an analysis (often in graphical form) representing the extent to which something exhibits various characteristics: a biochemical profile of blood

profiteer [.prɔfiˈtiə] – n. someone who makes excessive profit (especially on goods in short supply)

profitless [ˈprafitlis] – adj. without profit or reward: let us have no part in profitless quarrels

profligacy [ˈprɔfləgəsi] – n. the trait of spending extravagantly

profligate [ˈprɔfligit] – n. a dissolute man in fashionable society

profound [prəˈfaund] – adj. showing intellectual penetration or emotional depth: the differences are profound

profoundly [prəˈfaʊndli] – adv. to a great depth psychologically

profuse [prəˈfju:s] – adj. produced or growing in extreme abundance

progenitor [prəuˈdʒenitə] – n. an ancestor in the direct line

progeny [ˈprɔdʒini] – n. the immediate descendants of a person

prognostic [prɔgˈnɔstik] – n. a sign of something about to happen

prognosticate [prɔgˈnɔstikeit] – v. make a prediction about; tell in advance

programming [ˈprəugræmiŋ] – n. setting an order and time for planned events

progress [prəuˈgres] – n. gradual improvement or growth or development: great progress in the arts

progression [prəˈgreʃən] – n. a series with a definite pattern of advance

progressive [prəˈgresiv] – adj. favoring or promoting reform (often by government action)

prohibit [prəˈhibit] – v. command against

prohibition [prəuhiˈbiʃən] – n. a law forbidding the sale of alcoholic beverages: in 1920 the 18th amendment to the Constitution established prohibition in the US

prohibitionist  – n. a reformer who opposes the use of intoxicating beverages

prohibitive [prəˈhibitiv, prəu-] – adj. tending to discourage (especially of prices): the price was prohibitive

prohibitory [prəˈhibitəri] – adj. tending to discourage (especially of prices)

project [prəˈdʒekt] – v. communicate vividly: He projected his feelings

projecting [prəʊˈdʒektiŋ] – adj. extending out above or beyond a surface or boundary

projection [prəˈdʒekʃən] – n. a prediction made by extrapolating from past observations

projectionist [prəˈdʒekʃənist] – n. the person who operates the projector in a movie house

projector [prəˈdʒektə] – n. an optical instrument that projects an enlarged image onto a screen

proletarian [.prəuleˈtɛəriən] – n. a member of the working class (not necessarily employed)

proletariat  – n. a social class comprising those who do manual labor or work for wages

proliferate [prəˈlifəreit] – v. grow rapidly: Pizza parlors proliferate in this area

proliferation [prəu.lifəˈreiʃən] – n. growth by the rapid multiplication of parts

prolific [prəˈlifik] – adj. intellectually productive: a prolific writer

prolix [ˈprəuliks] – adj. tediously prolonged or tending to speak or write at great length: editing a prolix manuscript

prologue [ˈprəulɔg] – n. an introduction to a play

prolong [prəˈlɔŋ] – v. lengthen in time; cause to be or last longer: We prolonged our stay

promenade [.prɔməˈnɑ:d] – n. a formal ball held for a school class toward the end of the academic year

prominence [ˈprɔminəns] – n. relative importance

prominent [ˈprɔminənt] – adj. having a quality that thrusts itself into attention: a new theory is the most prominent feature of the book

promiscuous [prəˈmiskjuəs] – adj. not selective of a single class or person: Clinton was criticized for his promiscuous solicitation of campaign money

promising [ˈprɔmisiŋ] – adj. showing possibility of achievement or excellence: a promising young man

promissory [ˈprɔmisəri] – adj. relating to or having the character of a promise: promissory note

promontory [ˈprɔməntəri] – n. a natural elevation (especially a rocky one that juts out into the sea)

promote [prəˈməut] – v. contribute to the progress or growth of

promoter [prəˈməutə] – n. someone who is an active supporter and advocate

prompt [prɔmpt] – v. give an incentive for action

promptly [ˈprɔmptli] – adv. with little or no delay: the rescue squad arrived promptly

promulgate [ˈprɔməlgeit] – v. state or announce

prone [prəun] – adj. having a tendency (to); often used in combination: a child prone to mischief

pronghorn [ˈprɔŋhɔ:n] – n. fleet antelope-like ruminant of western North American plains with small branched horns

pronounced [ˈnaunst] – adj. strongly marked; easily noticeable: a pronounced flavor of cinnamon

proof [pru:f] – n. any factual evidence that helps to establish the truth of something: if you have any proof for what you say, now is the time to produce it

proofread [ˈpru:fri:d] – v. read for errors: I should proofread my manuscripts

propaganda [,prɔpəˈgændə] – n. information that is spread for the purpose of promoting some cause

propagate [ˈprɔpəgeit] – v. transmit from one generation to the next: propagate these characteristics

propel [prəˈpel] – v. cause to move forward with force: Steam propels this ship

propellant [prəˈpelənt] – n. any substance that propels

propeller [prəˈpelə] – n. a mechanical device that rotates to push against air or water

propensity [prəˈpensiti] – n. an inclination to do something

proper [ˈprɔpə] – adj. having all the qualities typical of the thing specified: wanted a proper dinner; not just a snack

property [ˈprɔpəti] – n. something owned; any tangible or intangible possession that is owned by someone: that hat is my property

prophecy [ˈprɔfisi] – n. knowledge of the future (usually said to be obtained from a divine source)

propitiate [prəˈpiʃieit] – v. make peace with

propitious [prəˈpiʃəs] – adj. presenting favorable circumstances; likely to result in or show signs of success: propitious omens

proponent [prəˈpəunənt] – n. a person who pleads for a cause or propounds an idea

proportion [prəˈpɔ:ʃən] – n. the quotient obtained when the magnitude of a part is divided by the magnitude of the whole

proportionate [prəˈpɔ:ʃənit] – adj. agreeing in amount, magnitude, or degree

proposal [prəˈpəuzəl] – n. an offer of marriage

propose [prəˈpəuz] – v. present for consideration, examination, criticism, etc.: He proposed a new plan for dealing with terrorism

propound [prəˈpaund] – v. put forward, as of an idea

proprietor [prəˈpraiətə] – n. (law) someone who owns (is legal possessor of) a business

proprietorship [prəˈpraiətə.ʃip] – n. an unincorporated business owned by a single person who is responsible for its liabilities and entitled to its profits

propriety [prəˈpraiəti] – n. correct or appropriate behavior

propulsion [prəˈpʌlʃən] – n. a propelling force

prorogue [prəuˈrəug, prə-] – v. hold back to a later time

prosaic [prəuˈzeiik] – adj. not fanciful or imaginative: a prosaic and unimaginative essay

proscenium [prəuˈsi:njəm] – n. the part of a modern theater stage between the curtain and the orchestra (i.e., in front of the curtain)

proscribe [prəuˈskraib] – v. command against

proscription [prəuˈskripʃən] – n. a decree that prohibits something

prose [prəuz] – n. ordinary writing as distinguished from verse

prosecute [ˈprɔsikju:t] – v. bring a criminal action against (in a trial): The State of California prosecuted O.J. Simpson

proselyte [ˈprɔsilait] – n. a new convert; especially a gentile converted to Judaism

prosody [ˈprɔsədi] – n. the patterns of stress and intonation in a language

prospect [ˈprɔspekt] – n. the possibility of future success: his prospects as a writer are excellent

prospector [prɔˈspektə(r)] – n. someone who explores an area for mineral deposits

prospectus [prəˈspektəs] – n. a catalog listing the courses offered by a college or university

prosper [ˈprɔspə] – v. make steady progress; be at the high point in one’s career or reach a high point in historical significance or importance

prosperity [prɔsˈperiti] – n. an economic state of growth with rising profits and full employment

prosperous [ˈprɔspərəs] – adj. in fortunate circumstances financially; moderately rich: a prosperous family

prostrate [ˈprɔstreit, prɔˈstreit] – v. render helpless or defenseless: They prostrated the enemy

protagonist [prəuˈtægənist] – n. a person who backs a politician or a team etc.

protection [prəˈtekʃən] – n. a covering that is intend to protect from damage or injury: they had no protection from the fallout

protectionist [prəʊˈtekʃənist] – n. an advocate of protectionism

protector [prəˈtektə] – n. a person who cares for persons or property

protein [ˈprəuti:n] – n. any of a large group of nitrogenous organic compounds that are essential constituents of living cells; consist of polymers of amino acids; essential in the diet of animals for growth and for repair of tissues; can be obtained from meat and eggs and milk and legumes: a diet high in protein

protest [ˈprəutest,prəˈtest] – n. a formal and solemn declaration of objection: they finished the game under protest to the league president

Protestant  – adj. of or relating to Protestants or Protestantism: Protestant churches

protocol [ˈprɔtəkɔl] – n. (computer science) rules determining the format and transmission of data

protoplasm [ˈprəutəplæzm] – n. the substance of a living cell (including cytoplasm and nucleus)

prototype [ˈprəutətaip] – n. a standard or typical example: he is the prototype of good breeding

prototypical [.prəutəˈtipikl] – adj. representing or constituting an original type after which other similar things are patterned

protract [prəˈtrækt] – v. lengthen in time; cause to be or last longer

protrude [prəˈtru:d] – v. extend out or project in space

protrusion [prəuˈtru:ʒən] – n. something that bulges out or is protuberant or projects from its surroundings

protuberance [prəˈtju:bərəns] – n. the condition of being protuberant; the condition of bulging out: the protuberance of his belly

protuberant [prəˈtju:bərənt] – adj. curving outward

proverb [ˈprɔvə:b] – n. a condensed but memorable saying embodying some important fact of experience that is taken as true by many people

providence [ˈprɔvidəns] – n. the guardianship and control exercised by a deity: divine providence

provident [ˈprɔvidənt] – adj. careful in regard to your own interests: wild squirrels are provident

providential [prɔviˈdenʃəl] – adj. peculiarly fortunate or appropriate; as if by divine intervention: a providential recovery

province [ˈprɔvins] – n. the territory occupied by one of the constituent administrative districts of a nation

provincial [prəˈvinʃəl] – n. a country person

provincialism [prəˈvinʃəlizəm] – n. a lack of sophistication

provision [prəˈviʒən] – n. a stipulated condition: he accepted subject to one provision

provisional [prəˈviʒənl] – adj. under terms not final or fully worked out or agreed upon: a provisional government

proviso [prəˈvaizəu] – n. a stipulated condition

provocation [prɔvəˈkeiʃən] – n. unfriendly behavior that causes anger or resentment

provocative [prəˈvɔkətiv] – adj. serving or tending to provoke, excite, or stimulate; stimulating discussion or exciting controversy: a provocative remark

provoke [prəˈvəuk] – v. call forth (emotions, feelings, and responses)

prowess [ˈprauis] – n. a superior skill that you can learn by study and practice and observation

proximity [prɔkˈsimiti] – n. the property of being close together

proxy [ˈprɔksi] – n. a person authorized to act for another

prudence [ˈpru:dəns] – n. discretion in practical affairs

prudent [ˈpru:dənt] – adj. careful and sensible; marked by sound judgment: a prudent manager

prudential [pru:ˈdenʃəl] – adj. arising from or characterized by prudence especially in business matters: he abstained partly for prudential reasons

prudery [ˈpru:dəri] – n. excessive or affected modesty

prurient [ˈpruəriənt] – adj. characterized by lust: prurient literature

pseudonym [ˈsju:dənim] – n. a fictitious name used when the person performs a particular social role

psyche [ˈsaiki] – n. that which is responsible for one’s thoughts and feelings; the seat of the faculty of reason

psychiatry [saiˈkaiətri] – n. the branch of medicine dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders

psychic [ˈsaikik] – adj. affecting or influenced by the human mind: psychic energy

psychoanalysis [.saikəuəˈnæləsis] – n. a set of techniques for exploring underlying motives and a method of treating various mental disorders; based on the theories of Sigmund Freud: his physician recommended psychoanalysis

psychologist [saiˈkɔlədʒist] – n. a scientist trained in psychology

psychology [saiˈkɔlədʒi] – n. the science of mental life

psychopathic [saikəˈpæθik] – adj. suffering from an undiagnosed mental disorder

psychotherapy [ˈsaikəuˈθerəpi] – n. the branch of psychiatry concerned with psychological methods

publicity [pʌbˈlisiti] – n. a message issued in behalf of some product or cause or idea or person or institution

publicize [ˈpʌblisaiz] – v. call attention to

publicized  – adj. made known; especially made widely known

publisher [ˈpʌbliʃə(r)] – n. a person engaged in publishing periodicals or books or music

puddle [ˈpʌdl] – v. subject to puddling or form by puddling: puddle iron

pudgy [ˈpɔdʒi] – adj. short and plump

pueblo [pju:ˈebləu] – n. a city in Colorado to the south of Colorado Springs

puerile [ˈpjuərail] – adj. of or characteristic of a child: puerile breathing

pugnacious [pʌgˈneiʃəs] – adj. tough and callous by virtue of experience

puissant [ˈpju:isənt] – adj. powerful

pulmonary [ˈpʌlmənəri] – adj. relating to or affecting the lungs: pulmonary disease

pulp [pʌlp] – n. any soft or soggy mass: he pounded it to a pulp

pulsate [pʌlˈseit, ˈpʌlset] – v. expand and contract rhythmically; beat rhythmically

pulse [pʌls] – n. (electronics) a sharp transient wave in the normal electrical state (or a series of such transients)

pump [pʌmp] – v. deliver forth: pump bullets into the dummy

pumpkin [ˈpʌmpkin] – n. usually large pulpy deep-yellow round fruit of the squash family maturing in late summer or early autumn

punch [pʌntʃ] – n. (boxing) a blow with the fist

punctilious [pʌŋkˈtiliəs] – adj. marked by precise accordance with details: punctilious in his attention to rules of etiquette

punctual [ˈpʌŋktjuəl] – adj. acting or arriving or performed exactly at the time appointed: she expected guests to be punctual at meals

puncture [ˈpʌŋktʃə] – v. pierce with a pointed object; make a hole into: puncture a tire

pungency [ˈpʌndʒənsi] – n. wit having a sharp and caustic quality: he commented with typical pungency

pungent [ˈpʌndʒənt] – adj. strong and sharp: the pungent taste of radishes

punitive [ˈpju:nitiv] – adj. inflicting punishment: punitive justice

pupil [ˈpju:pl] – n. a learner who is enrolled in an educational institution

purchase [ˈpə:tʃəs] – n. the acquisition of something for payment: they closed the purchase with a handshake

purgatory [ˈpə:gətəri] – n. a temporary condition of torment or suffering: a purgatory of drug abuse

purge [pə:dʒ] – v. oust politically: Deng Xiao Ping was purged several times throughout his lifetime

purification [.pjuərifiˈkeiʃən] – n. the act of cleaning by getting rid of impurities

purify [ˈpjuərifai] – v. make pure or free from sin or guilt

purl [pə:l] – v. flow in a circular current, of liquids

purloin [pə:ˈlɔin] – v. make off with belongings of others

purple [ˈpə:pl] – adj. of a color intermediate between red and blue

purport [ˈpə:pɔ:t, -pət] – n. the intended meaning of a communication

pursue [pəˈsju:] – v. carry out or participate in an activity; be involved in: She pursued many activities

pursuit [pəˈsju:t] – n. a search for an alternative that meets cognitive criteria: the pursuit of love

purveyor [pəˈveiə] – n. someone who supplies provisions (especially food)

pusillanimous [pju:siˈlæniməs] – adj. lacking in courage and manly strength and resolution; contemptibly fearful

putrescent [pju:ˈtresnt] – adj. becoming putrid: a trail lined by putrescent carcasses

puzzle [ˈpʌzl] – n. a particularly baffling problem that is said to have a correct solution: he loved to solve chessmate puzzles

puzzling [ˈpʌzliŋ] – adj. not clear to the understanding

pyramid [ˈpirəmid] – v. enlarge one’s holdings on an exchange on a continued rise by using paper profits as margin to buy additional amounts

pyre [paiə] – n. wood heaped for burning a dead body as a funeral rite

pyromania [.paiərəuˈmeiniə] – n. an uncontrollable desire to set fire to things

pyrotechnic [,pairəuˈteknik] – adj. of or relating to the craft of making fireworks: pyrotechnic smokes

pyx  – n. a chest in which coins from the mint are held to await assay

quackery [ˈkwækəri] – n. medical practice and advice based on observation and experience in ignorance of scientific findings

quadrate [ˈkwɔdrit] – n. a cubelike object

quadrilateral  – n. a four-sided polygon

quadruple [ˈkwɔdrupl] – n. a set of four similar things considered as a unit

quail [kweil] – n. small gallinaceous game birds

quaint [kweint] – adj. strange in an interesting or pleasing way: quaint dialect words

qualification [.kwɔlifiˈkeiʃən] – n. an attribute that must be met or complied with and that fits a person for something: her qualifications for the job are excellent

qualified [ˈkwɔlifaid] – adj. meeting the proper standards and requirements and training for an office or position or task: many qualified applicants for the job

qualify [ˈkwɔlifai] – v. prove capable or fit; meet requirements

qualitative [ˈkwɔlitətiv] – adj. relating to or involving comparisons based on qualities

quality [ˈkwɔliti] – n. an essential and distinguishing attribute of something or someone: the quality of mercy is not strained

qualm [kwɑ:m] – n. uneasiness about the fitness of an action

quandary [ˈkwɔndəri] – n. a situation from which extrication is difficult especially an unpleasant or trying one

quantitative [ˈkwɔntitətiv] – adj. relating to the measurement of quantity: quantitative studies

quantity [ˈkwɔntiti] – n. an adequate or large amount: he had a quantity of ammunition

quarantine [ˈkwɔrən.ti:n] – n. enforced isolation of patients suffering from a contagious disease in order to prevent the spread of disease

quarrelsome [ˈkwɑ:əlsəm] – adj. given to quarreling: quarrelsome when drinking

quarry [ˈkwɔri] – n. a surface excavation for extracting stone or slate: a British term for `quarry’ is `stone pit’

quarter [ˈkwɔ:tə] – n. one of four equal parts: a quarter of a pound

quarterly [ˈkwɔ:təli] – adv. in three month intervals: interest is compounded quarterly

quarters  – n. housing available for people to live in: he found quarters for his family

quartet [kwɔ:ˈtet] – n. the cardinal number that is the sum of three and one

quarto [ˈkwɔ:təu] – n. the size of a book whose pages are made by folding a sheet of paper twice to form four leaves

quartz [kwɔ:ts] – n. colorless glass made of almost pure silica

quash [kwɔʃ] – v. put down by force or intimidation: The government quashes any attempt of an uprising

quay [ki:] – n. wharf usually built parallel to the shoreline

quench [kwentʃ] – v. satisfy (thirst): The cold water quenched his thirst

querulous [ˈkwɛrələs] – adj. habitually complaining

query [ˈkwiəri] – n. an instance of questioning

quest [kwest] – v. make a search (for): Things that die with their eyes open and questing

questionable [ˈkwestʃənəb(ə)l] – adj. able to be refuted

questionnaire [.kwestʃənˈɛ] – n. a form containing a set of questions; submitted to people to gain statistical information

queue [kju:] – n. a line of people or vehicles waiting for something

quibble [ˈkwibəl] – v. evade the truth of a point or question by raising irrelevant objections

quiescence [kwaiˈesns] – n. a state of quiet (but possibly temporary) inaction

quiescent [kwaiˈesənt] – adj. not active or activated: the quiescent level of centimeter wave-length solar radiation

quiet [ˈkwaiət] – adj. characterized by an absence or near absence of agitation or activity: a quiet life

quietus [kwaiˈi:təs] – n. euphemisms for death (based on an analogy between lying in a bed and in a tomb)

quilt [kwilt] – v. stitch or sew together: quilt the skirt

quintessence [kwinˈtesəns] – n. the purest and most concentrated essence of something

quintet [kwinˈtet] – n. a musical composition for five performers

quite [kwait] – adv. to a degree (not used with a negative): quite tasty

quiver [ˈkwivə] – n. an almost pleasurable sensation of fright

quota [ˈkwəutə] – n. a prescribed number: all the salesmen met their quota for the month

quotation [kwəuˈteiʃən] – n. a short note recognizing a source of information or of a quoted passage

quote [kwəut] – v. repeat a passage from: He quoted the Bible to her

rabid [ˈræbid] – adj. marked by excessive enthusiasm for and intense devotion to a cause or idea: rabid isolationist

rack [ræk] – v. stretch to the limits: rack one’s brains

raconteur [.rækɑnˈtə] – n. a person skilled in telling anecdotes

racy [ˈreisi] – adj. full of zest or vigor: a racy literary style

radar [ˈreidɑ:] – n. measuring instrument in which the echo of a pulse of microwave radiation is used to detect and locate distant objects

radiance [ˈreidjəns] – n. the quality of being bright and sending out rays of light

radiant [ˈreidjənt] – adj. radiating or as if radiating light: a radiant sunrise

radiate [ˈreidieit] – v. send out rays or waves: The sun radiates heat

radiation [.reidiˈeiʃən] – n. the act of spreading outward from a central source

radical [ˈrædikəl,ˈrædikl] – n. (chemistry) two or more atoms bound together as a single unit and forming part of a molecule

radically [ˈrædikəli] – adv. in a radical manner: she took a radically different approach

radioactive [.reidiəuˈæktiv] – adj. exhibiting or caused by radioactivity: radioactive isotope

radius [ˈreidiəs] – n. the length of a line segment between the center and circumference of a circle or sphere

radix [ˈreidiks] – n. (numeration system) the positive integer that is equivalent to one in the next higher counting place: 10 is the radix of the decimal system

raft [rɑ:ft] – n. (often followed by `of’) a large number or amount or extent

rage [reidʒ] – n. a feeling of intense anger: his face turned red with rage

ragged [ˈrægid] – adj. being or dressed in clothes that are worn or torn: clothes as ragged as a scarecrow’s

ragtime [ˈrægtaim] – n. music with a syncopated melody (usually for the piano)

raid [reid] – v. search without warning, make a sudden surprise attack on: The police raided the crack house

rail [reil] – v. complain bitterly

railhead  – n. the end of the completed track on an unfinished railway

raillery [ˈreiləri] – n. light teasing repartee

rainbow [ˈreinbəu] – n. an illusory hope: chasing rainbows

rainfall [ˈrein.fɔ:l] – n. water falling in drops from vapor condensed in the atmosphere

raise [reiz] – v. cause to be heard or known; express or utter: raise a shout

rally [ˈræli] – n. a large gathering of people intended to arouse enthusiasm

ramification [.ræmifəˈkeʃən] – n. the act of branching out or dividing into branches

ramify [ˈræmifai] – v. have or develop complicating consequences: These actions will ramify

ramose [`reiməus] – adj. having branches

ramp [ræmp] – v. behave violently, as if in state of a great anger

rampant [ˈræmpənt] – adj. unrestrained and violent: rampant aggression

rampart [ˈræmpɑ:t] – n. an embankment built around a space for defensive purposes: they stormed the ramparts of the city

ranch [ræntʃ, rɑ:ntʃ] – n. farm consisting of a large tract of land along with facilities needed to raise livestock (especially cattle)

rancher [ˈræntʃə] – n. a person who owns or operates a ranch

rancor [ˈræŋkə] – n. a feeling of deep and bitter anger and ill-will

random [ˈrændəm] – adj. lacking any definite plan or order or purpose; governed by or depending on chance: a random choice

range [reindʒ] – n. an area in which something acts or operates or has power or control:: the range of a supersonic jet

rank [ræŋk] – n. a row or line of people (especially soldiers or police) standing abreast of one another: the entrance was guarded by ranks of policemen

rankle [ˈræŋkəl] – v. gnaw into; make resentful or angry: The injustice rankled her

ransom [ˈrænsəm] – n. money demanded for the return of a captured person

rant [rænt] – n. a loud bombastic declamation expressed with strong emotion

rapacious [rəˈpeiʃəs] – adj. living by preying on other animals especially by catching living prey: the rapacious wolf

rapid [ˈræpid] – adj. done or occurring in a brief period of time: a rapid rise through the ranks

rapine [ˈræpain] – n. the act of despoiling a country in warfare

raptorial [ræpˈtɔ:riəl] – adj. relating to or characteristic of birds of prey: raptorial claws and bill for seizing prey

rapture [ˈræptʃə] – n. a state of being carried away by overwhelming emotion: listening to sweet music in a perfect rapture

rare [rɛə] – adj. not widely known; especially valued for its uncommonness: a rare word

rarefy [ˈrɛərifai] – v. lessen the density or solidity of

rarely [ˈrɛəli] – adv. not often: we rarely met

rascal [ˈrɑ:skəl] – n. a deceitful and unreliable scoundrel

ratchet  – v. move by degrees in one direction only: a ratcheting lopping tool

ratify [ˈrætifai] – v. approve and express assent, responsibility, or obligation

rating [ˈreitiŋ] – n. an appraisal of the value of something

ratio [ˈreiʃiəu] – n. the relative magnitudes of two quantities (usually expressed as a quotient)

ration [ˈræʃən] – n. the food allowance for one day (especially for service personnel): the rations should be nutritionally balanced

rational [ˈræʃənəl] – adj. consistent with or based on or using reason: rational behavior

rationalism [ˈræʃənəlizəm] – n. (philosophy) the doctrine that knowledge is acquired by reason without resort to experience

rationing [ˈræʃəniŋ] – n. the act of rationing: during the war the government imposed rationing of food and gasoline

rattle [ˈrætl] – n. a baby’s toy that makes percussive noises when shaken

rattlesnake [ˈræt(ə)lsneik] – n. pit viper with horny segments at the end of the tail that rattle when shaken

raucous [ˈrɔ:kəs] – adj. unpleasantly loud and harsh

ravage [ˈrævidʒ] – v. make a pillaging or destructive raid on (a place), as in wartimes

raven [ˈreivən] – v. obtain or seize by violence

ravenous [ˈrævənəs] – adj. extremely hungry: a ravenous boy

ravine [rəˈvi:n] – n. a deep narrow steep-sided valley (especially one formed by running water)

rawhide [ˈrɔ:haid] – n. untanned hide especially of cattle; cut in strips it is used for whips and ropes

ray [rei] – n. a column of light (as from a beacon)

rayon [ˈreiɔn] – n. a synthetic silklike fabric

raze [reiz] – v. tear down so as to make flat with the ground

reach [ri:tʃ] – v. move forward or upward in order to touch; also in a metaphorical sense: Government reaches out to the people

reaction [riˈækʃən] – n. (chemistry) a process in which one or more substances are changed into others: there was a chemical reaction of the lime with the ground water

reactionary [ri(:)ˈækʃənəri] – n. an extreme conservative; an opponent of progress or liberalism

readily [ˈredili] – adv. without much difficulty: these snakes can be identified readily

readjust [ri:əˈdʒʌst] – v. adjust anew: After moving back to America, he had to readjust

ready [ˈredi] – adj. completely prepared or in condition for immediate action or use or progress: get ready

realism [ˈriəlizəm, ˈri:-] – n. the attribute of accepting the facts of life and favoring practicality and literal truth

realistic [riəˈlistik] – adj. aware or expressing awareness of things as they really are: a realistic description

reality [riˈæləti] – n. all of your experiences that determine how things appear to you: for them demons were as much a part of reality as trees were

realization [.riəlaiˈzeiʃən] – n. coming to understand something clearly and distinctly: a growing realization of the risk involved

realm [relm] – n. a domain in which something is dominant: the rise of the realm of cotton in the south

reap [ri:p] – v. gather, as of natural products

rear [riə] – n. the back of a military formation or procession: infantrymen were in the rear

reason [ˈri:zn] – n. a rational motive for a belief or action: the reason that war was declared

reassure [.ri:əˈʃuə] – v. give or restore confidence in; cause to feel sure or certain: I reassured him that we were safe

rebate [ˈri:beit] – v. give a reduction in the price during a sale

rebel [ˈrebl,riˈbel] – n. someone who exhibits great independence in thought and action

rebellion [riˈbeljən] – n. refusal to accept some authority or code or convention: each generation must have its own rebellion

rebellious [riˈbeljəs] – adj. resisting control or authority: temperamentally rebellious

rebroadcast [ri:ˈbrɔ:dkɑ:st] – n. a broadcast that repeated at a later time

rebuff [riˈbʌf] – n. a deliberate discourteous act (usually as an expression of anger or disapproval)

rebuild [ri:ˈbild] – v. build again: The house was rebuild after it was hit by a bomb

rebuke [riˈbju:k] – n. an act or expression of criticism and censure: he had to take the rebuke with a smile on his face

rebut [riˈbʌt] – v. overthrow by argument, evidence, or proof

recall [riˈkɔ:l] – v. go back to something earlier

recant [riˈkænt] – v. formally reject or disavow a formerly held belief, usually under pressure

recapitulate [.ri:kəˈpitjuleit] – v. summarize briefly: Let’s recapitulate the main ideas

recapture [ri:ˈkæptʃə] – v. experience anew: She could not recapture that feeling of happiness

recede [riˈsi:d] – v. pull back or move away or backward

receivable [riˈsi:vəbl] – adj. awaiting payment: accounts receivable

receptacle [riˈseptəkl] – n. a container that is used to put or keep things in

reception [riˈsepʃən] – n. the manner in which something is greeted: she did not expect the cold reception she received from her superiors

receptionist [riˈsepʃənist] – n. a secretary whose main duty is to answer the telephone and receive visitors

receptive [riˈseptiv] – adj. open to arguments, ideas, or change: receptive to reason and the logic of facts

receptor [riˈseptə] – n. an organ having nerve endings (in the skin or viscera or eye or ear or nose or mouth) that respond to stimulation

recession [riˈseʃən] – n. a small concavity

recessive [riˈsesiv] – adj. (of genes) producing its characteristic phenotype only when its allele is identical

recidivist [riˈsidivist] – n. someone who is repeatedly arrested for criminal behavior (especially for the same criminal behavior)

recipe [ˈresipi] – n. directions for making something

recipient [riˈsipiənt] – n. a person who receives something

reciprocal [riˈsiprəkəl] – n. hybridization involving a pair of crosses that reverse the sexes associated with each genotype

reciprocate [riˈsiprəkeit] – v. act, feel, or give mutually or in return: We always invite the neighbors and they never reciprocate!

reciprocity [.resiˈprɔsiti] – n. a relation of mutual dependence or action or influence

recital [riˈsaitl] – n. the act of giving an account describing incidents or a course of events

recitation [resiˈteiʃ(ə)n] – n. a public instance of reciting or repeating (from memory) something prepared in advance: the program included songs and recitations of well-loved poems

reckless [ˈreklis] – adj. marked by defiant disregard for danger or consequences: became the fiercest and most reckless of partisans

reckon [ˈrekən] – v. expect, believe, or suppose

reclaim [riˈkleim] – v. claim back

reclamation [.rekləˈmeiʃən] – n. the conversion of wasteland into land suitable for use of habitation or cultivation

recline [riˈklain] – v. move the upper body backwards and down

recluse [riˈklu:s] – n. one who lives in solitude

recognise  – v. show approval or appreciation of

recognition [.rekəgˈniʃən] – n. the process of recognizing something or someone by remembering: a politician whose recall of names was as remarkable as his recognition of faces

recognizance [riˈkɔgnizəns] – n. (law) a security entered into before a court with a condition to perform some act required by law; on failure to perform that act a sum is forfeited

recognize [ˈrekəgnaiz] – v. accept (someone) to be what is claimed or accept his power and authority: We do not recognize your gods

recoil [riˈkɔil] – v. draw back, as with fear or pain

recollect [.rekəˈlekt] – v. recall knowledge from memory; have a recollection

recollection [.rekəˈlekʃən] – n. the ability to recall past occurrences

recommend [.rekəˈmend] – v. push for something: The travel agent recommended strongly that we not travel on Thanksgiving Day

recommendation [.rekəmenˈdeiʃən] – n. something that recommends (or expresses commendation of) a person or thing as worthy or desirable

reconcile [ˈrekənsail] – v. make (one thing) compatible with (another)

reconnoiter [,rekəˈnɔitə] – v. explore, often with the goal of finding something or somebody

reconsider [ri:kənˈsidə] – v. consider again; give new consideration to; usually with a view to changing: Won’t you reconsider your decision?

reconstitute  – v. construct or form anew or provide with a new structure: The governing board was reconstituted

reconstruct [ˈri:kənˈstrʌkt] – v. reassemble mentally: reconstruct the events of 20 years ago

reconstruction [ˈri:kənˈstrʌkʃən] – n. the activity of constructing something again

record [ˈrekɔ:d,riˈkɔ:d] – n. the number of wins versus losses and ties a team has had: at 9-0 they have the best record in their league

recount [riˈkaunt] – v. narrate or give a detailed account of

recourse [riˈkɔ:s] – n. act of turning to for assistance: have recourse to the courts

recover [riˈkʌvə] – v. get over an illness or shock

recreant [ˈrekriənt] – n. an abject coward

recreate [ˈrekrieit] – v. give new life or energy to

recreation [.rekriˈeiʃən] – n. an activity that diverts or amuses or stimulates: for recreation he wrote poetry and solved crossword puzzles

recreational [.rekriˈeiʃənəl, -kri:-] – adj. engaged in as a pastime: recreational golfers

recrudescence [ri:kru:ˈdesns] – n. a return of something after a period of abatement: a recrudescence of racism

recrudescent [ri:krU:`desənt] – adj. the revival of an unfortunate situation after a period of abatement: the patient presented with a case of recrudescent gastralgia

recruit [riˈkru:t] – v. register formally as a participant or member: The party recruited many new members

rectangle [ˈrektæŋgl] – n. a parallelogram with four right angles

rectangular [rekˈtæŋgjulə] – adj. having four right angles: a rectangular figure twice as long as it is wide

rectify [ˈrektifai] – v. math: determine the length of: rectify a curve

rectitude [ˈrektitju:d] – n. righteousness as a consequence of being honorable and honest

recumbent [riˈkʌmbənt] – adj. lying down; in a position of comfort or rest

recuperate [riˈkju:pəreit] – v. regain or make up for: recuperate one’s losses

recur [riˈkə:] – v. happen or occur again: This is a recurring story

recurrent [riˈkʌrənt] – adj. recurring again and again

recurring [riˈkə:riŋ] – adj. coming back

recycle [ri:ˈsaikl] – v. cause to repeat a cycle

reddish  – adj. of a color at the end of the color spectrum (next to orange); resembling the color of blood or cherries or tomatoes or rubies

redefine  – v. give a new or different definition to: She redefined his duties

redemption [riˈdempʃən] – n. (theology) the act of delivering from sin or saving from evil

redirect [ˈri:diˈrekt] – v. channel into a new direction: redirect your attention to the danger from the fundamentalists

redolence [`redəuləns] – n. a pleasingly sweet olfactory property

redolent [ˈredələnt] – adj. serving to bring to mind: cannot forbear to close on this redolent literary note

redoubtable [riˈdautəbəl] – adj. inspiring fear: a tougher and more redoubtable adversary than the heel-clicking, jackbooted fanatic

redound [riˈdaund] – v. return or recoil: Fame redounds to the heroes

redress [riˈdres] – n. a sum of money paid in compensation for loss or injury

reduce [riˈdju:s] – v. make less complex: reduce a problem to a single question

reduction [riˈdʌkʃən] – n. the act of decreasing or reducing something

redundant [riˈdʌndənt] – adj. more than is needed, desired, or required: yet another book on heraldry might be thought redundant

reed [ri:d] – n. tall woody perennial grasses with hollow slender stems especially of the genera Arundo and Phragmites

reef [ri:f] – n. a submerged ridge of rock or coral near the surface of the water

reek [ri:k] – v. have an element suggestive (of something)

reelect  – v. elect again

reelection  – n. election again: he did not run for reelection

refer [riˈfə:] – v. be relevant to: There were lots of questions referring to her talk

referee [.refəˈri:] – n. (sports) the chief official (as in boxing or American football) who is expected to ensure fair play

refine [riˈfain] – v. improve or perfect by pruning or polishing: refine one’s style of writing

refined [riˈfaind] – adj. (used of persons and their behavior) cultivated and genteel: she was delicate and refined and unused to hardship

refinement [riˈfainmənt] – n. a highly developed state of perfection; having a flawless or impeccable quality: I admired the exquisite refinement of his prose

refinery [riˈfainəri] – n. an industrial plant for purifying a crude substance

reflect [riˈflekt] – v. manifest or bring back: This action reflects his true beliefs

reflection [riˈflekʃən] – n. a calm, lengthy, intent consideration

reflector [riˈflektər] – n. optical telescope consisting of a large concave mirror that produces an image that is magnified by the eyepiece

reform [riˈfɔ:rm] – v. make changes for improvement in order to remove abuse and injustices: reform a political system

reformer [riˈfɔ:mə] – n. an apparatus that reforms the molecular structure of hydrocarbons to produce richer fuel: a catalytic reformer

reformism [riˈfɔ:miz(ə)m] – n. a doctrine of reform

refract [riˈfrækt] – v. subject to refraction: refract a light beam

refraction [riˈfrækʃən] – n. the change in direction of a propagating wave (light or sound) when passing from one medium to another

refractory [riˈfræktəri] – adj. not responding to treatment: a refractory case of acne

refreshing [riˈfreʃiŋ] – adj. imparting vitality and energy

refreshment [riˈfreʃmənt] – n. snacks and drinks served as a light meal

refrigerant [riˈfridʒərənt] – n. any substance used to provide cooling (as in a refrigerator)

refrigerate [riˈfridʒəreit] – v. preserve by chilling: many foods must be refrigerated or else they will spoil

refrigeration [ri.fridʒəˈreiʃən] – n. the process of cooling or freezing (e.g., food) for preservative purposes

refrigerator [riˈfridʒə.reitə] – n. white goods in which food can be stored at low temperatures

refurbish [ri:ˈfə:biʃ] – v. make brighter and prettier: we refurbished the guest wing

refusal [riˈfju:zəl] – n. a message refusing to accept something that is offered

refuse [ˈrefju:s,riˈfju:z] – v. show unwillingness towards

refute [riˈfju:t] – v. overthrow by argument, evidence, or proof: The speaker refuted his opponent’s arguments

regale [riˈgeil] – v. provide with choice or abundant food or drink

regardless [riˈgɑ:dlis] – adj. (usually followed by `of’) without due thought or consideration: crushing the blooms with regardless tread

regenerate [riˈdʒenərit] – v. reestablish on a new, usually improved, basis or make new or like new

regeneration [ri.dʒenəˈreiʃən] – n. (biology) growth anew of lost tissue or destroyed parts or organs

regent [ˈri:dʒənt] – n. members of a governing board

regicide [ˈredʒisaid] – n. the act of killing a king

regime [reiˈʒi:m] – n. the organization that is the governing authority of a political unit

regimen [ˈredʒəmən] – n. (medicine) a systematic plan for therapy (often including diet)

regiment [ˈredʒimənt] – v. subject to rigid discipline, order, and systematization: regiment one’s children

regimentation [.redʒimenˈteiʃən] – n. the imposition of order or discipline

register [ˈredʒistə] – v. record in writing; enter into a book of names or events or transactions

regnant [ˈregnənt] – adj. exercising power or authority

regress [ˈri:gres] – v. go back to a statistical means

regretful [riˈgretful] – adj. feeling or expressing regret or sorrow or a sense of loss over something done or undone: felt regretful over his vanished youth

regulate [ˈregju.leit,ˈregjuleit] – v. fix or adjust the time, amount, degree, or rate of: regulate the temperature

regulation [.regjuˈleiʃən] – n. an authoritative rule

regulatory [ˈregjulətəri] – adj. restricting according to rules or principles: a regulatory gene

rehabilitate [.ri:həˈbiliteit] – v. help to readapt, as to a former state of health or good repute: The prisoner was successfully rehabilitated

rehabilitation [ˈri:(h)ə.biliˈteiʃən] – n. the restoration of someone to a useful place in society

rehearse [riˈhə:s] – v. engage in a rehearsal (of)

reheat  – v. heat again: Please reheat the food from last night

reign [rein] – n. a period during which something or somebody is dominant or powerful: he was helpless under the reign of his egotism

reimburse [.ri:imˈbə:s] – v. pay back for some expense incurred: Can the company reimburse me for my professional travel?

rein [rein] – v. keep in check

reinforce [.ri:inˈfɔ:s] – v. make stronger: he reinforced the concrete

reinstate [.ri:inˈsteit] – v. restore to the previous state or rank

reinterpret  – v. interpret from a different viewpoint

reiterate [ri:ˈitəreit] – v. to say, state, or perform again

reject [riˈdʒekt] – v. refuse to accept or acknowledge: I reject the idea of starting a war

rejection [riˈdʒekʃən] – n. the state of being rejected

rejoin [ri:ˈdʒɔin] – v. join again

rejuvenate [riˈdʒu:vəneit] – v. cause (a stream or river) to erode, as by an uplift of the land

rekindle [ˈri:ˈkindl] – v. kindle anew, as of a fire

relapse [riˈlæps] – v. deteriorate in health: he relapsed

relative [ˈrelətiv] – n. a person related by blood or marriage: police are searching for relatives of the deceased

relatively [ˈrelətivli] – adv. in a relative manner; by comparison to something else: the situation is relatively calm now

relax [riˈlæks] – v. become less tense, rest, or take one’s ease: He relaxed in the hot tub

relaxation [.ri:lækˈseiʃən] – n. (physiology) the gradual lengthening of inactive muscle or muscle fibers

relaxed [riˈlækst] – adj. without strain or anxiety: gave the impression of being quite relaxed

relay [riˈlei] – n. the act of passing something along from one person or group to another: the relay was successful

release [riˈli:s] – n. merchandise issued for sale or public showing (especially a record or film): a new release from the London Symphony Orchestra

relegate [ˈreligeit] – v. refer to another person for decision or judgment: She likes to relegate difficult questions to her colleagues

relent [riˈlent] – v. give in, as to influence or pressure

relevance [ˈrelivəns] – n. the relation of something to the matter at hand

relevant [ˈrelivənt] – adj. having a bearing on or connection with the subject at issue: the scientist corresponds with colleagues in order to learn about matters relevant to her own research

reliability [ri.laiəˈbiliti] – n. the quality of being dependable or reliable

reliable [riˈlaiəbl] – adj. worthy of being depended on: a reliable sourcSFLe of information

reliance [riˈlaiəns] – n. certainty based on past experience: he wrote the paper with considerable reliance on the work of other scientists

reliant [riˈlaiənt] – adj. relying on another for support

relic [ˈrelik] – n. an antiquity that has survived from the distant past

relieve [riˈli:v] – v. free someone temporarily from his or her obligations

relieved [riˈli:vd] – adj. (of pain or sorrow) made easier to bear

religion [riˈlidʒən] – n. a strong belief in a supernatural power or powers that control human destiny

religious [riˈlidʒəs] – adj. having or showing belief in and reverence for a deity: a religious man

relinquish [riˈliŋkwiʃ] – v. part with a possession or right: I am relinquishing my bedroom to the long-term house guest

reliquary [ˈrelikwəri] – n. a container where religious relics are stored or displayed (especially relics of saints)

relish [ˈreliʃ] – n. vigorous and enthusiastic enjoyment

reluctance [riˈlʌktəns] – n. (physics) opposition to magnetic flux (analogous to electric resistance)

reluctant [riˈlʌktənt] – adj. unwillingness to do something contrary to your custom: a reluctant smile

remainder [riˈmeində] – n. something left after other parts have been taken away: there was no remainder

remaining [riˈmeiniŋ] – adj. not used up: saved the remaining sandwiches for supper

remains [riˈmeins] – n. any object that is left unused or still extant: I threw out the remains of my dinner

remark [riˈmɑ:k] – n. a statement that expresses a personal opinion or belief or adds information

remarkable [riˈmɑ:kəbl] – adj. unusual or striking: a remarkable sight

remarkably [riˈmɑ:kəb(ə)li] – adv. in a signal manner

remedy [ˈremidi] – n. act of correcting an error or a fault or an evil

remembrance [riˈmembrəns] – n. the ability to recall past occurrences

remind [riˈmaind] – v. put in the mind of someone

reminder [riˈmaində] – n. a message that helps you remember something: he ignored his wife’s reminders

reminiscence [.remiˈnisns] – n. a mental impression retained and recalled from the past

reminiscent [remiˈnis(ə)nt] – adj. serving to bring to mind

remiss [riˈmis] – adj. failing in what duty requires: remiss of you not to pay your bills

remission [riˈmiʃən] – n. an abatement in intensity or degree (as in the manifestations of a disease): his cancer is in remission

remnant [ˈremnənt] – n. a small part or portion that remains after the main part no longer exists

remodel [.ri:ˈmɔdl] – v. do over, as of (part of) a house: We are remodeling these rooms

remonstrance [riˈmɔnstrəns] – n. the act of expressing earnest opposition or protest

remonstrate [riˈmɔnstreit, ˈremənstreit] – v. argue in protest or opposition

remote [riˈməut] – adj. located far away spatially: remote stars

remove [riˈmu:v] – v. dispose of

remunerate [riˈmju:nəreit] – v. make payment to; compensate: My efforts were not remunerated

remuneration [ri.mju:nəˈreiʃən] – n. the act of paying for goods or services or to recompense for losses: adequate remuneration for his work

remunerative [riˈmju:nərətiv] – adj. for which money is paid: remunerative work

Renaissance  – n. the revival of learning and culture

rend [rend] – v. tear or be torn violently

render [ˈrendə] – v. cause to become: The shot rendered her immobile

rendezvous [ˈrɔndivu:] – n. a meeting planned at a certain time and place

rendition [renˈdiʃən] – n. a performance of a musical composition or a dramatic role etc.: they heard a live rendition of three pieces by Schubert

renegade [ˈrenigeid] – n. someone who rebels and becomes an outlaw

renew [riˈnju:] – v. reestablish on a new, usually improved, basis or make new or like new: We renewed our friendship after a hiatus of twenty years

renewable [riˈnju(:)əbl] – adj. capable of being renewed; replaceable: renewable energy such as solar energy is theoretically inexhaustible

renewal [riˈnju:əl] – n. the conversion of wasteland into land suitable for use of habitation or cultivation

renin  – n. a proteolytic enzyme secreted by the kidneys; catalyzes the formation of angiotensin and thus affects blood pressure

renounce [riˈnauns] – v. give up, such as power, as of monarchs and emperors, or duties and obligations

renovate [ˈrenə.veit] – v. restore to a previous or better condition: They renovated the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel

renovation [.renəˈveʃən] – n. the act of improving by renewing and restoring: they are pursuing a general program of renovation to the entire property

rent [rent] – n. a payment or series of payments made by the lessee to an owner for use of some property, facility, equipment, or service

rentable  – adj. that is able or fit be rented

rental [ˈrentl] – n. the act of paying for the use of something (as an apartment or house or car)

renunciation [ri.nʌnsiˈeiʃən] – n. rejecting or disowning or disclaiming as invalid

reorganize [ˈri:ˈɔ:gənaiz] – v. organize anew: We must reorganize the company if we don’t want to go under

reorient [ˈri:ˈɔ:rient] – v. orient once again, after a disorientation

reparable [ˈrepərəbəl] – adj. capable of being repaired or rectified: reparable damage to the car

reparation [.repəˈreiʃən] – n. compensation (given or received) for an insult or injury: an act for which there is no reparation

repartee [.repɑ:ˈti:] – n. adroitness and cleverness in reply

repeal [riˈpi:l] – n. the act of abrogating; an official or legal cancellation

repel [riˈpel] – v. cause to move back by force or influence: repel the enemy

repellent [riˈpelənt] – n. a chemical substance that repels animals

repentance [riˈpentəns] – n. remorse for your past conduct

repertoire [ˈrepətwɑ:] – n. the entire range of skills or aptitudes or devices used in a particular field or occupation

repertory [ˈrepətəri] – n. a storehouse where a stock of things is kept

repetition [.repiˈtiʃən] – n. an event that repeats

repetitive [riˈpetitiv] – adj. characterized by repetition: repetitive movement

repine [riˈpain] – v. express discontent

replace [riˈpleis] – v. take the place or move into the position of: Smith replaced Miller as CEO after Miller left

replenish [riˈpleniʃ] – v. fill something that had previously been emptied

replete [riˈpli:t] – adj. filled to satisfaction with food or drink

replica [ˈreplikə, riˈpli:kə] – n. copy that is not the original; something that has been copied

replicate [ˈreplikit] – v. bend or turn backward

repository [riˈpɔzitəri] – n. a facility where things can be deposited for storage or safekeeping

reprehend [.repriˈhend] – v. express strong disapproval of

reprehensible [.repriˈhensəbəl] – adj. bringing or deserving severe rebuke or censure: adultery is as reprehensible for a husband as for a wife

reprehension [,repriˈhenʃən] – n. an act or expression of criticism and censure

represent [.repriˈzent] – v. take the place of or be parallel or equivalent to

representation [.reprizenˈteiʃən] – n. a presentation to the mind in the form of an idea or image

representative [repriˈzentətiv] – n. an advocate who represents someone else’s policy or purpose

repress [riˈpres] – v. put down by force or intimidation

reprieve [riˈpri:v] – n. a (temporary) relief from harm or discomfort

reprimand [ˈreprima:nd] – v. rebuke formally

reprisal [riˈpraizəl] – n. a retaliatory action against an enemy in wartime

reprobate [ˈreprəbeit] – v. reject (documents) as invalid

reproduce [.ri:prəˈdju:s] – v. make a copy or equivalent of: reproduce the painting

reproduction [.ri:prəˈdʌkʃən] – n. the process of generating offspring

reproductive [ˈri:prəˈdʌktiv] – adj. producing new life or offspring: the reproductive potential of a species is its relative capacity to reproduce itself under optimal conditions

reproof [riˈpru:f] – n. an act or expression of criticism and censure

reptile [ˈreptail] – n. any cold-blooded vertebrate of the class Reptilia including tortoises, turtles, snakes, lizards, alligators, crocodiles, and extinct forms

repudiate [riˈpju:dieit] – v. cast off: The parents repudiated their son

repugnance [riˈpʌgnəns] – n. intense aversion

repugnant [riˈpʌgnənt] – adj. offensive to the mind: morally repugnant customs

repulse [riˈpʌls] – v. force or drive back

repulsive [riˈpʌlsiv] – adj. offensive to the mind: repulsive behavior

reputation [.repjuˈteiʃən] – n. the state of being held in high esteem and honor

repute [riˈpju:t] – n. the state of being held in high esteem and honor

request [riˈkwest] – v. express the need or desire for; ask for: She requested an extra bed in her room

requiem [ˈrekwiem] – n. a song or hymn of mourning composed or performed as a memorial to a dead person

requisite [ˈrekwizit] – n. anything indispensable: a place where the requisites of water fuel and fodder can be obtained

requital [riˈkwaitl] – n. a justly deserved penalty

requite [riˈkwait] – v. make repayment for or return something

reschedule [ri:ʃedju:l] – v. assign a new time and place for an event: We had to reschedule the doctor’s appointment

rescind [riˈsind] – v. cancel officially

rescue [ˈreskju:] – v. free from harm or evil

resemblance [riˈzembləns] – n. similarity in appearance or external or superficial details

resemble [riˈzembl] – v. appear like; be similar or bear a likeness to: She resembles her mother very much

resent [riˈzent] – v. feel bitter or indignant about: She resents being paid less than her co-workers

resentful [riˈzentful] – adj. full of or marked by resentment or indignant ill will: resentful at the way he was treated

resentment [riˈzentmənt] – n. a feeling of deep and bitter anger and ill-will

reservoir [ˈrezəvwɑ:] – n. a large or extra supply of something: a reservoir of talent

resettle  – v. settle in a new place: The immigrants had to resettle

reshape  – v. shape anew or differently: The new foreign minister reshaped the foreign policy of his country

reside [riˈzaid] – v. make one’s home in a particular place or community: may parents reside in Florida

residence [ˈrezidəns] – n. any address at which you dwell more than temporarily: a person can have several residences

residency  – n. the act of dwelling in a place

resident [ˈrezidənt] – n. someone who lives at a particular place for a prolonged period or who was born there

residential [.reziˈdenʃəl] – adj. of or relating to or connected with residence: a residential requirement for the doctorate

residual [riˈzidjuəl] – n. something left after other parts have been taken away

residue [ˈrezidju:] – n. matter that remains after something has been removed

resilience [riˈziliəns] – n. an occurrence of rebounding or springing back

resilient [riˈziliənt] – adj. recovering readily from adversity, depression, or the like

resist [riˈzist] – v. elude, especially in a baffling way

resistance [riˈzistəns] – n. the action of opposing something that you disapprove or disagree with: he encountered a general feeling of resistance from many citizens

resistant [riˈzistənt] – adj. relating to or conferring immunity (to disease or infection)

resistive [riˈzistiv] – adj. disposed to or engaged in defiance of established authority

resistless [riˈzistlis] – adj. offering no resistance: resistless hostages

resolute [ˈrezə.lu:t] – adj. firm in purpose or belief; characterized by firmness and determination: stood resolute against the enemy

resolution [.rezəˈlu:ʃən] – n. a formal expression by a meeting; agreed to by a vote

resonance [ˈrezənəns] – n. an excited state of a stable particle causing a sharp maximum in the probability of absorption of electromagnetic radiation

resonate [ˈrezəneit] – v. be received or understood

resort [riˈzɔ:t] – n. a frequently visited place

resource [riˈsɔ:s] – n. available source of wealth; a new or reserve supply that can be drawn upon when needed

resourcefulness  – n. the quality of being able to cope with a difficult situation: a man of great resourcefulness

respect [riˈspekt] – n. (usually preceded by `in’) a detail or point: it differs in that respect

respective [riˈspektiv] – adj. considered individually: the respective club members

respectively [riˈspektivli] – adv. in the order given: the brothers were called Felix and Max, respectively

respiration [.respəˈreiʃən] – n. a single complete act of breathing in and out: thirty respirations per minute

respiratory [ˈrespərəˈtɔri:] – adj. pertaining to respiration: respiratory assistance

respite [ˈrespait] – n. a (temporary) relief from harm or discomfort

resplendent [riˈsplendənt] – adj. having great beauty and splendor

respond [riˈspɔnd] – v. react verbally

respondent [riˈspɔndənt] – n. someone who responds

responsibility [ri.spɔnsəˈbiliti] – n. the social force that binds you to the courses of action demanded by that force: every right implies a responsibility; every opportunity, an obligation; every possession, a duty

responsible [riˈspɔnsəbl] – adj. being the agent or cause: determined who was the responsible party

responsive [riˈspɑnsiv] – adj. readily reacting or replying to people or events or stimuli; showing emotion: children are often the quickest and most responsive members of the audience

restitution [.restiˈtju:ʃən] – n. a sum of money paid in compensation for loss or injury

restoration [ˈrestəˈreiʃən] – n. the reign of Charles II in England; 1660-1685

restore [riˈstɔ:] – v. return to its original or usable and functioning condition: restore the forest to its original pristine condition

restrain [riˈstrein] – v. keep under control; keep in check

restraint [riˈstreint] – n. discipline in personal and social activities: he was a model of polite restraint

restrict [riˈstrikt] – v. place limits on (extent or access): restrict the use of this parking lot

restriction [risˈtrikʃən] – n. a principle that limits the extent of something: I am willing to accept certain restrictions on my movements

restrictive [risˈtriktiv] – adj. (of tariff) protective of national interests by restricting imports

resultant [riˈzʌltənt] – n. the final point in a process

resume [riˈzju:m] – v. take up or begin anew: We resumed the negotiations

resumption [riˈzʌmpʃən] – n. beginning again

resurgent [riˈsə:dʒənt] – adj. rising again as to new life and vigor: resurgent nationalism

resurrection [.rezəˈrekʃən] – n. (New Testament) the rising of Christ on the third day after the Crucifixion

resuscitate [riˈsʌsiteit] – v. cause to regain consciousness

retail [ˈri:teil] – n. the selling of goods to consumers; usually in small quantities and not for resale

retailer [ˈri:teilə,riˈteilə] – n. a merchant who sells goods at retail

retain [riˈtein] – v. hold back within: This soil retains water

retaliate [riˈtælieit] – v. take revenge for a perceived wrong

retch [ri:tʃ] – v. eject the contents of the stomach through the mouth

retention [riˈtenʃən] – n. the act of retaining something

retentive [riˈtentiv] – adj. good at remembering: a retentive mind

reticence [ˈretisəns] – n. the trait of being uncommunicative; not volunteering anything more than necessary

reticent [ˈretisənt] – adj. temperamentally disinclined to talk

retinue [ˈretinju:] – n. the group following and attending to some important person

retire [riˈtaiə] – v. withdraw from active participation: He retired from chess

retired  – adj. no longer active in your work or profession

retirement [riˈtaiəmənt] – n. withdrawal from your position or occupation

retool [ˈri:ˈtu:l] – v. revise or reorganize, especially for the purpose of updating and improving: We must retool the town’s economy

retort [riˈtɔ:t] – n. a quick reply to a question or remark (especially a witty or critical one)

retouch [ri:ˈtʌtʃ] – v. alter so as to produce a more desirable appearance: This photograph has been retouched!

retract [riˈtrækt] – v. formally reject or disavow a formerly held belief, usually under pressure: He retracted his earlier statements about his religion

retreat [riˈtri:t] – n. (military) withdrawal of troops to a more favorable position to escape the enemy’s superior forces or after a defeat: the disorderly retreat of French troops

retrench [riˈtrentʃ] – v. tighten one’s belt; use resources carefully

retribution [.retriˈbju:ʃən] – n. a justly deserved penalty

retrieve [riˈtri:v] – v. get or find back; recover the use of

retriever [riˈtri:və] – n. a dog with heavy water-resistant coat that can be trained to retrieve game

retroactive [retrəʊˈæktiv] – adj. affecting things past: retroactive tax increase

retrograde [ˈretrəgreid] – v. move backward in an orbit, of celestial bodies

retrogression [retrəˈgreʃən] – n. passing from a more complex to a simpler biological form

retrospect [ˈretrəu.spekt] – n. contemplation of things past: in retrospect

retrospective [.retrəuˈspektiv] – n. an exhibition of a representative selection of an artist’s life work

reunite [ˈri:ju:ˈnait] – v. unify again, as of a country

reveal [riˈvi:l] – v. make visible

revelation [.revəˈleiʃən] – n. the speech act of making something evident

reverberate [riˈvə:bəreit] – v. ring or echo with sound

revere [riˈviə] – n. a lapel on a woman’s garment; turned back to show the reverse side

reverence [ˈrevərəns] – n. a feeling of profound respect for someone or something: the Chinese reverence for the dead

reverend  – n. a member of the clergy and a spiritual leader of the Christian Church

reverent [ˈrevərənt] – adj. feeling or showing profound respect or veneration: maintained a reverent silence

reverently [ˈrevərəntli] – adv. with reverence; in a reverent manner: he gazed reverently at the handiwork

reverse [riˈvə:s] – n. a relation of direct opposition: we thought Sue was older than Bill but just the reverse was true

reversible [riˈvə:səbl] – adj. capable of being reversed or used with either side out: a reversible jacket

reversion [riˈvə:ʃən] – n. (genetics) a return to a normal phenotype (usually resulting from a second mutation)

revert [riˈvə:t] – v. undergo reversion, as in a mutation

review [riˈvju:] – n. a new appraisal or evaluation

revile [riˈvail] – v. spread negative information about

revisal [riˈvaizl] – n. the act of rewriting something

revise [riˈvaiz] – v. make revisions in: revise a thesis

revision [riˈviʒən] – n. the act of rewriting something

revitalization [ri:.vaitɚlaiˈzeiʃɚn;-liˈz-] – n. bringing again into activity and prominence

revival [riˈvaivəl] – n. bringing again into activity and prominence: the revival of trade

revive [riˈvaiv] – v. cause to regain consciousness: The doctors revived the comatose man

revocation [.revəˈkeiʃən] – n. the state of being cancelled or annulled

revoke [riˈvəuk] – v. fail to follow suit when able and required to do so

revolt [riˈvəult] – v. fill with distaste

revolution [.revəˈlu:ʃən] – n. a drastic and far-reaching change in ways of thinking and behaving: the industrial revolution was also a cultural revolution

revolutionary [.revəˈlu:ʃənəri] – adj. markedly new or introducing radical change: a revolutionary discovery

revolutionize [.revəˈl(j)u:ʃənaiz] – v. change radically: E-mail revolutionized communication in academe

rhapsody [ˈræpsədi] – n. an epic poem adapted for recitation

rhetoric [ˈretərik] – n. using language effectively to please or persuade

rhetorician [retəˈriʃən] – n. a person who delivers a speech or oration

rhinoceros  – n. massive powerful herbivorous odd-toed ungulate of southeast Asia and Africa having very thick skin and one or two horns on the snout

rhythm [ˈriðəm] – n. recurring at regular intervals

rhythmic [ˈriðmik] – adj. recurring with measured regularity: the rhythmic chiming of church bells

rhythmical [ˈriðmikɚl, ˈriθ-] – adj. recurring with measured regularity: rhythmical prose

ribald [ˈribəld] – adj. humorously vulgar: ribald language

riddance [ˈridns] – n. the act of removing or getting rid of something

riddle [ˈridl] – v. pierce with many holes: The bullets riddled his body

ridge [ridʒ] – n. a long narrow natural elevation or striation

ridicule [ˈridikju:l] – n. language or behavior intended to mock or humiliate

ridiculous [riˈdikjuləs] – adj. inspiring scornful pity

rife [raif] – adj. most frequent or common

rifle [ˈraifl] – v. steal goods; take as spoils

rift [rift] – n. a gap between cloud masses: the sun shone through a rift in the clouds

rightful [ˈraitful] – adj. legally valid: a rightful inheritance

rigid [ˈridʒid] – adj. incapable of or resistant to bending: a rigid strip of metal

rigidity [riˈdʒiditi] – n. the physical property of being stiff and resisting bending

rigmarole [ˈrigmərəul] – n. a set of confused and meaningless statements

rigor [ˈrigə] – n. something hard to endure

rigorous [ˈrigərəs] – adj. rigidly accurate; allowing no deviation from a standard: rigorous application of the law

rinse [rins] – n. a liquid preparation used on wet hair to give it a tint

riot [ˈraiət] – n. a public act of violence by an unruly mob

rip [rip] – n. a dissolute man in fashionable society

ripe [raip] – adj. fully developed or matured and ready to be eaten or used: ripe peaches

ripen [ˈraipən] – v. grow ripe: The plums ripen in July

risible [ˈrizəbəl] – adj. arousing or provoking laughter: risible courtroom antics

risk [risk] – n. a venture undertaken without regard to possible loss or injury: he saw the rewards but not the risks of crime

risky [ˈriski] – adj. not financially safe or secure: anything that promises to pay too much can’t help being risky

rite [rait] – n. any customary observance or practice

ritual [ˈritjuəl] – n. any customary observance or practice

rival [ˈraivəl] – v. be equal to in quality or ability: Nothing can rival cotton for durability

rivalry [ˈraivəlri] – n. the act of competing as for profit or a prize

rivulet [ˈrivjulit] – n. a small stream

roam [rəum] – v. move about aimlessly or without any destination, often in search of food or employment: The gypsies roamed the woods

roar [rɔ:] – v. make a loud noise, as of wind, water, or vehicles: The water roared down the chute

roast [rəust] – n. negative criticism

robust [rəuˈbʌst] – adj. sturdy and strong in form, constitution, or construction: a robust body

rock [rɔk] – n. a lump or mass of hard consolidated mineral matter: he threw a rock at me

rod [rɔd] – n. a long thin implement made of metal or wood

rodent [ˈrəudnt] – n. relatively small placental mammals having a single pair of constantly growing incisor teeth specialized for gnawing

rodeo  – n. an exhibition of cowboy skills

rod-shaped  – adj. formed like a bacillus

roe [rəu] – n. fish eggs or egg-filled ovary; having a grainy texture

role [rəul] – n. an actor’s portrayal of someone in a play

roll [rəul] – v. move along on or as if on wheels or a wheeled vehicle: The President’s convoy rolled past the crowds

romance [rəuˈmæns] – n. a relationship between two lovers

rondo [ˈrɔndəu] – n. a musical form that is often the last movement of a sonata

rookery [ˈrukəri] – n. a breeding ground for gregarious birds (such as rooks)

roost [ru:st] – n. a shelter with perches for fowl or other birds

rooster [ˈru:stə] – n. adult male chicken

root [ru:t] – n. the place where something begins, where it springs into being: communism’s Russian root

rosy [ˈrəuzi] – adj. reflecting optimism: a rosy future

rot [rɔt] – n. a state of decay usually accompanied by an offensive odor

rotary [ˈrəutəri] – n. a road junction at which traffic streams circularly around a central island: the accident blocked all traffic at the rotary

rotate [rəuˈteit] – v. turn on or around an axis or a center: The lamb roast rotates on a spit over the fire

rotation [rəuˈteiʃən] – n. (mathematics) a transformation in which the coordinate axes are rotated by a fixed angle about the origin

rotational  – adj. of or pertaining to rotation: rotational inertia

rote [rəut] – n. memorization by repetition

rotund [rəuˈtʌnd] – adj. spherical in shape

rough [rʌf] – adj. having or caused by an irregular surface: trees with rough bark

roughly [ˈrʌfli] – adv. (of quantities) imprecise but fairly close to correct: roughly $3,000

routine [ru:ˈti:n] – n. an unvarying or habitual method or procedure

routinely [ru:ˈti:nli] – adv. according to routine or established practice: he routinely parked in a no-parking zone

row [rəu,rau] – n. an arrangement of objects or people side by side in a line: a row of chairs

rub [rʌb] – v. move over something with pressure: rub my hands

rubbery [ˈrʌbəri] – adj. difficult to chew

rubble [ˈrʌbl] – n. the remains of something that has been destroyed or broken up

rudiment  – n. the elementary stages of any subject (usually plural): he mastered only the rudiments of geometry

rudimentary [ru:diˈmentəri] – adj. being or involving basic facts or principles: these rudimentary truths

rue [ru:] – n. European strong-scented perennial herb with grey-green bitter-tasting leaves; an irritant similar to poison ivy

ruffian [ˈrʌfiən] – n. a cruel and brutal fellow

ruffle [ˈrʌfl] – v. stir up (water) so as to form ripples

rugged [ˈrʌgid] – adj. sturdy and strong in constitution or construction; enduring: with a house full of boys you have to have rugged furniture

ruin [ˈruin] – n. an irrecoverable state of devastation and destruction: you have brought ruin on this entire family

ruinous [ˈruinəs, ˈru:i-] – adj. causing injury or blight; especially affecting with sudden violence or plague or ruin: a ruinous war

rumble [ˈrʌmbl] – n. a loud low dull continuous noise

ruminant [ˈru:minənt] – n. any of various cud-chewing hoofed mammals having a stomach divided into four (occasionally three) compartments

ruminate [ˈru:mineit] – v. chew the cuds: cows ruminate

rumor [ˈru:mə] – n. gossip (usually a mixture of truth and untruth) passed around by word of mouth

run [rʌn] – v. move fast by using one’s feet, with one foot off the ground at any given time: Don’t run–you’ll be out of breath

runoff  – n. the occurrence of surplus liquid (as water) exceeding the limit or capacity

rupture [ˈrʌptʃə] – n. state of being torn or burst open

rural [ˈru:rəl] – adj. living in or characteristic of farming or country life: rural people

rust [rʌst] – n. a red or brown oxide coating on iron or steel caused by the action of oxygen and moisture

rustic [ˈrʌstik] – adj. characteristic of rural life: rustic awkwardness

rustproof  – adj. treated against rusting

rusty [ˈrʌsti] – adj. of the brown color of rust

ruth  – n. the great-grandmother of king David whose story is told in the Book of Ruth in the Old Testament

sac [sæk] – n. an enclosed space

sack [sæk] – n. a bag made of paper or plastic for holding customer’s purchases

sacred [ˈseikrid] – adj. concerned with religion or religious purposes: sacred texts

sacrifice [ˈsækrifais] – n. the act of losing or surrendering something as a penalty for a mistake or fault or failure to perform etc.

sacrificial [sækriˈfiʃəl] – adj. used in or connected with a sacrifice: sacrificial lamb

sacrilege [ˈsækrilidʒ] – n. blasphemous behavior; the act of depriving something of its sacred character

sacrilegious [sækriˈlidʒəs] – adj. grossly irreverent toward what is held to be sacred: it is sacrilegious to enter with shoes on

sacrosanct [ˈsækrəusæŋkt] – adj. must be kept sacred

saddle [ˈsædl] – n. a seat for the rider of a horse or camel

safeguard [ˈseifgɑ:d] – n. a precautionary measure warding off impending danger or damage or injury etc.: an insurance policy is a good safeguard

saga [ˈsɑ:gə] – n. a narrative telling the adventures of a hero or a family; originally (12th to 14th centuries) a story of the families that settled Iceland and their descendants but now any prose narrative that resembles such an account

sagacious [səˈgeiʃəs] – adj. acutely insightful and wise: observant and thoughtful, he was given to asking sagacious questions

saguaro  – n. extremely large treelike cactus of desert regions of southwestern United States having a thick columnar sparsely branched trunk bearing white flowers and edible red pulpy fruit

sake [seik] – n. a reason for wanting something done: for your sake

salacious [səˈleiʃəs] – adj. characterized by lust: a salacious rooster of a little man

salience [`seiliəns] – n. the state of being salient

salient [ˈseiljənt] – adj. having a quality that thrusts itself into attention: salient traits

saline [ˈseilain] – n. an isotonic solution of sodium chloride and distilled water

salinity [səˈliniti] – n. the taste experience when common salt is taken into the mouth

saliva [səˈlaivə] – n. a clear liquid secreted into the mouth by the salivary glands and mucous glands of the mouth; moistens the mouth and starts the digestion of starches

sallow [ˈsæləu] – adj. unhealthy looking

sally  – n. witty remark

salmon [ˈsæmən] – n. a tributary of the Snake River in Idaho

saltiness [ˈsɔ:ltinis] – n. language or humor that is down-to-earth: the saltiness of their language was inappropriate

salutary [ˈsæljuətəri, -jəteri] – adj. tending to promote physical well-being; beneficial to health: the salutary influence of pure air

salutation [.sæljuˈteiʃ(ə)n] – n. an act of honor or courteous recognition

salutatory [səˈlu:tətəri] – n. an opening or welcoming statement (especially one delivered at graduation exercises)

salvage [ˈsælvidʒ] – n. property or goods saved from damage or destruction

salvo [ˈsælvəu] – n. an outburst resembling the discharge of firearms or the release of bombs

sample [ˈsæmpl] – n. a small part of something intended as representative of the whole

sanctimonious [.sæŋktiˈməuniəs] – adj. excessively or hypocritically pious: a sickening sanctimonious smile

sanction [ˈsæŋkʃən] – n. formal and explicit approval

sanctity [ˈsæŋktiti] – n. the quality of being holy

sanctuary [ˈsæŋktjuəri] – n. a consecrated place where sacred objects are kept

sandy [ˈsændi] – adj. of hair color; pale yellowish to yellowish brown

sanguinary [ˈsæŋgwinəri] – adj. accompanied by bloodshed: this bitter and sanguinary war

sanguine [ˈsæŋgwin] – adj. confidently optimistic and cheerful

sanguineous [sæŋgwiniəs] – adj. accompanied by bloodshed

sanitary [ˈsænitəri, -teri] – adj. free from filth and pathogens: sanitary conditions for preparing food

sanitation [sæniˈteiʃən] – n. the state of being clean and conducive to health

sanity [ˈsæniti] – n. normal or sound powers of mind

sap [sæp] – n. a person who lacks good judgment

sapid [ˈsæpid] – adj. full of flavor

sapience [ˈsepiəns] – n. ability to apply knowledge or experience or understanding or common sense and insight

sapient [ˈseipiənt] – adj. acutely insightful and wise: a source of valuable insights and sapient advice to educators

saponaceous [ˈsæpəuˈneiʃəs] – adj. resembling or having the qualities of soap

sapphire [ˈsæfaiə] – n. a precious transparent stone of rich blue corundum valued as a gemstone

sarcasm [ˈsɑ:kæzəm] – n. witty language used to convey insults or scorn: he used sarcasm to upset his opponent

sarcastic [sɑ:ˈkæstik] – adj. expressing or expressive of ridicule that wounds

sarcophagus [sɑ:ˈkɔfəgəs] – n. a stone coffin (usually bearing sculpture or inscriptions)

sardonic [sɑ:ˈdɔnik, sɑrˈdɑnik] – adj. disdainfully or ironically humorous; scornful and mocking: his rebellion is the bitter, sardonic laughter of all great satirists

sartorial [sɑ:ˈtɔ:riəl] – adj. of or relating to a tailor or to tailoring

satellite [ˈsætəlait] – n. man-made equipment that orbits around the earth or the moon

satiate [ˈseiʃieit] – v. overeat or eat immodestly; make a pig of oneself

satire [ˈsætaiə] – n. witty language used to convey insults or scorn

satiric [səˈtirik] – adj. exposing human folly to ridicule: a persistent campaign of mockery by the satirical fortnightly magazine

satirist [ˈsætirist] – n. a humorist who uses ridicule and irony and sarcasm

satirize [ˈsætəraiz] – v. ridicule with satire: The writer satirized the politician’s proposal

satisfaction [.sætisˈfækʃən] – n. the contentment one feels when one has fulfilled a desire, need, or expectation: the chef tasted the sauce with great satisfaction

satisfactory [.sætisˈfæktəri] – adj. meeting requirements: the step makes a satisfactory seat

saturate [ˈsætʃəreit] – v. infuse or fill completely

saturated [ˈsætʃəreitid] – adj. being the most concentrated solution possible at a given temperature; unable to dissolve still more of a substance: a saturated solution

satyr [ˈsætə] – n. man with strong sexual desires

saucer [ˈsɔ:sə] – n. something with a round shape resembling a flat circular plate

savage [ˈsævidʒ] – adj. (of persons or their actions) able or disposed to inflict pain or suffering: a savage slap

save [seiv] – v. to keep up and reserve for personal or special use: She saved the old family photographs in a drawer

savings [ˈseiviŋz] – n. a fund of money put by as a reserve

savor [ˈseivə] – v. derive or receive pleasure from; get enjoyment from; take pleasure in

scabbard [ˈskæbəd, -ərd] – n. a sheath for a sword or dagger or bayonet

scale [skeil] – n. an ordered reference standard: judging on a scale of 1 to 10

scaled [skeild] – adj. having the body covered or partially covered with thin horny plates, as some fish and reptiles

scan [skæn] – v. examine minutely or intensely: the surgeon scanned the X-ray

scandal [ˈskændl] – n. disgraceful gossip about the private lives of other people

scapegoat [ˈskeipgəut] – n. someone who is punished for the errors of others

scar [skɑ:] – n. a mark left (usually on the skin) by the healing of injured tissue

scarce [skɛəs] – adj. deficient in quantity or number compared with the demand: fresh vegetables were scarce during the drought

scarcely [ˈskɛəsli] – adv. only a very short time before: had scarcely rung the bell when the door flew open

scarcity [ˈskɛəsiti] – n. a small and inadequate amount

scare [skɛə] – n. sudden mass fear and anxiety over anticipated events: a war scare

scarlet [ˈskɑ:lit] – n. a variable color that is vivid red but sometimes with an orange tinge

scathe [skeið] – n. the act of damaging something or someone

scatter [ˈskætə] – v. to cause to separate and go in different directions: She waved her hand and scattered the crowds

scatterbrain [ˈskætəbrein] – n. a flighty and disorganized person

scavenge [ˈskævindʒ] – v. clean refuse from

scavenger [ˈskævindʒə] – n. a chemical agent that is added to a chemical mixture to counteract the effects of impurities

scene [si:n] – n. the place where some action occurs: the police returned to the scene of the crime

scenery [ˈsi:nəri] – n. the painted structures of a stage set that are intended to suggest a particular locale: they worked all night painting the scenery

scenic [ˈsi:nik] – adj. of or relating to the stage or stage scenery: scenic design

scent [sent] – n. a distinctive odor that is pleasant

schedule [ˈskedʒul] – n. a temporally organized plan for matters to be attended to

scheme [ski:m] – n. an elaborate and systematic plan of action

schism [ˈsizəm, ˈskizəm] – n. division of a group into opposing factions: another schism like that and they will wind up in bankruptcy

scholar [ˈskɔlə] – n. a learned person (especially in the humanities); someone who by long study has gained mastery in one or more disciplines

scholarly [ˈskɔləli] – adj. characteristic of scholars or scholarship: scholarly pursuits

scholarship [ˈskɔləʃip] – n. financial aid provided to a student on the basis of academic merit

scholastic [skəˈlæstik] – n. a person who pays more attention to formal rules and book learning than they merit

school [sku:l] – n. an educational institution: the school was founded in 1900

scintilla [sinˈtilə] – n. a tiny or scarcely detectable amount

scintillate [ˈsintileit] – v. give off: the substance scintillated sparks and flashes

scissors [ˈsizəz] – n. an edge tool having two crossed pivoting blades

scoff [skɔf] – v. laugh at with contempt and derision

scold [skəuld] – v. censure severely or angrily: The mother scolded the child for entering a stranger’s car

scoop [sku:p] – n. a hollow concave shape made by removing something

scope [skəup] – n. an area in which something acts or operates or has power or control:: within the scope of an investigation

score [skɔ:] – n. a number or letter indicating quality (especially of a student’s performance): what was your score on your homework?

scotch [skɔtʃ] – n. a slight surface cut (especially a notch that is made to keep a tally)

scoundrel [ˈskaundrəl] – n. a wicked or evil person; someone who does evil deliberately

scour [ˈskauə] – v. examine minutely: The police scoured the country for the fugitive

scourge [skə:dʒ] – n. a whip used to inflict punishment (often used for pedantic humor)

scout [skaut] – n. a person employed to keep watch for some anticipated event

scramble [ˈskræmbl] – v. to move hurriedly: The friend scrambled after them

scrap [skræp] – n. a small fragment of something broken off from the whole

scrape [skreip] – v. make by scraping: They scraped a letter into the stone

scraping [ˈskreipiŋ] – n. (usually plural) a fragment scraped off of something and collected: they collected blood scrapings for analysis

scratch [skrætʃ] – n. an abraded area where the skin is torn or worn off

screed [skri:d] – n. a long monotonous harangue

screen [skri:n] – n. a white or silvered surface where pictures can be projected for viewing

screw [skru:] – n. someone who guards prisoners

screwdriver [ˈskru:.draivə] – n. a hand tool for driving screws; has a tip that fits into the head of a screw

scribble [ˈskribəl] – n. poor handwriting

scribe [skraib] – n. French playwright (1791-1861)

script [skript] – n. a written version of a play or other dramatic composition; used in preparing for a performance

scripture [ˈskriptʃə] – n. the sacred writings of the Christian religions

scroll [skrəul] – n. a round shape formed by a series of concentric circles (as formed by leaves or flower petals)

scrub [skrʌb] – v. clean with hard rubbing: She scrubbed his back

scruple [ˈskru:pl] – n. a unit of apothecary weight equal to 20 grains

scrupulous [ˈskru:pjuləs] – adj. characterized by extreme care and great effort: scrupulous attention to details

scrupulously [ˈskru:pjuləsli] – adv. with extreme conscientiousness

scrutinize [ˈskru:tinaiz] – v. to look at critically or searchingly, or in minute detail: he scrutinized his likeness in the mirror

scrutiny [ˈskru:tini] – n. the act of examining something closely (as for mistakes)

scuba [ˈsku:bə] – n. a device (trade name Aqua-Lung) that lets divers breathe under water; scuba is an acronym for self-contained underwater breathing apparatus

scud [skʌd] – v. run or move very quickly or hastily

scuff [skʌf] – v. walk without lifting the feet

scuffle [ˈskʌfəl] – n. disorderly fighting

sculpt [skʌlpt] – v. create by shaping stone or wood or any other hard material: sculpt a swan out of a block of ice

sculptor [ˈskʌlptə(r)] – n. a faint constellation in the southern hemisphere near Phoenix and Cetus

sculptural [ˈskʌlptʃərəl] – adj. resembling sculpture: rendered with…vivid sculptural effect

sculpture [ˈskʌlptʃə] – n. a three-dimensional work of plastic art

scurrilous [ˈskʌriləs] – adj. expressing offensive reproach

scurry [ˈskʌri] – n. rushing about hastily in an undignified way

scuttle [ˈskʌtl] – n. container for coal; shaped to permit pouring the coal onto the fire

scythe [saið] – n. an edge tool for cutting grass; has a long handle that must be held with both hands and a curved blade that moves parallel to the ground

seabed [ˈsi:bed] – n. the bottom of a sea or ocean

sea-ear  – n. an abalone found near the Channel Islands

seal [si:l] – n. a device incised to make an impression; used to secure a closing or to authenticate documents

seam [si:m] – n. joint consisting of a line formed by joining two pieces

seamount [ˈsi:maʊnt] – n. an underwater mountain rising above the ocean floor

seance [ˈseiɔŋs] – n. a meeting of spiritualists: the seance was held in the medium’s parlor

seaport [ˈsi:pɔ:t] – n. a sheltered port where ships can take on or discharge cargo

sear [siə] – v. make very hot and dry

seashore [ˈsi:ʃɔ:] – n. the shore of a sea or ocean

seasonal [ˈsi:zənl] – n. a worker who finds employment only in certain seasons

seasoning [ˈsi:zniŋ] – n. something added to food primarily for the savor it imparts

seat [si:t] – n. the fleshy part of the human body that you sit on

seaweed [ˈsi:wi:d] – n. plant growing in the sea, especially marine algae

sebaceous [siˈbeiʃəs] – adj. containing an unusual amount of grease or oil

secant [ˈsi:kənt] – n. ratio of the hypotenuse to the adjacent side of a right-angled triangle

secede [siˈsi:d] – v. withdraw from an organization or communion

secession [siˈseʃən] – n. an Austrian school of art and architecture parallel to the French art nouveau in the 1890s

seclude [siˈklu:d] – v. keep away from others

seclusion [siˈklu:ʒən] – n. the act of secluding yourself from others

second [ˈsekənd] – n. 1/60 of a minute; the basic unit of time adopted under the Systeme International d’Unites

secondary [ˈsekənderi] – adj. inferior in rank or status

second-rate  – adj. moderate to inferior in quality

secrecy [ˈsi:krisi] – n. the condition of being concealed or hidden

secret [ˈsi:krit] – adj. not open or public; kept private or not revealed: a secret formula

secretary [ˈsekrətri] – n. a person who is head of an administrative department of government

secrete [siˈkri:t] – v. generate and separate from cells or bodily fluids: secrete digestive juices

secretin [siˈkri:tin] – n. a gastrointestinal hormone that stimulates the secretion of water and bicarbonate from the pancreas and bile ducts whenever the stomach empties too much acid into the small intestine

secretive [siˈkri:tiv] – adj. inclined to secrecy or reticence about divulging information

sect [sekt] – n. a subdivision of a larger religious group

section [ˈsekʃən] – n. a self-contained part of a larger composition (written or musical): he always turns first to the business section

sectional [ˈsekʃənəl] – adj. consisting of or divided into sections: a sectional sofa

sector [ˈsektə] – n. a plane figure bounded by two radii and the included arc of a circle

secular [ˈsekjulə] – adj. of or relating to the doctrine that rejects religion and religious considerations

secure [siˈkjuə] – v. get by special effort

securely [siˈkjʊəli] – adv. in a confident and unselfconscious manner: he acts very securely in front of the camera

security [siˈkju:riti] – n. the state of being free from danger or injury: we support the armed services in the name of national security

sedate [siˈdeit] – adj. characterized by dignity and propriety

sedentary [ˈsedəntəri] – adj. requiring sitting or little activity: forced by illness to lead a sedentary life

sediment [ˈsedimənt] – n. matter that has been deposited by some natural process

sedimentary [sediˈmentəri] – adj. produced by the action of water

sedimentation  – n. the phenomenon of sediment or gravel accumulating

sedition [siˈdiʃən] – n. an illegal action inciting resistance to lawful authority and tending to cause the disruption or overthrow of the government

seditious [siˈdiʃəs] – adj. arousing to action or rebellion

seduce [siˈdju:s] – v. induce to have sex: Harry finally seduced Sally

sedulous [ˈsedjuləs] – adj. marked by care and persistent effort: sedulous pursuit of legal and moral principles

seed [si:d] – v. distribute (players or teams) so that outstanding teams or players will not meet in the early rounds

seedling [ˈsi:dliŋ] – n. young plant or tree grown from a seed

seek [si:k] – v. try to get or reach: seek a position

seemingly [ˈsi:miŋli] – adv. from appearances alone: the child is seemingly healthy but the doctor is concerned

seep [si:p] – v. pass gradually or leak through or as if through small openings

seepage  – n. the process of seeping

seer [ˈsiə] – n. a person with unusual powers of foresight

seethe [si:ð] – v. be noisy with activity

segment [ˈsegmənt] – n. one of several parts or pieces that fit with others to constitute a whole object: finished the final segment of the road

segregate [ˈsegrigeit] – v. divide from the main body or mass and collect: Many towns segregated into new counties

seignior [ˈseinjə] – n. a man of rank in the ancient regime

seismal  – adj. subject to or caused by an earthquake or earth vibration

seismic [ˈsaizmik] – adj. subject to or caused by an earthquake or earth vibration

seismograph [ˈsaizməgrɑ:f] – n. a measuring instrument for detecting and measuring the intensity and direction and duration of movements of the ground (as an earthquake)

seismology [saizˈmɔlədʒi] – n. the branch of geology that studies earthquakes

seize [si:z] – v. take hold of; grab: The sales clerk quickly seized the money on the counter

selection [siˈlekʃən] – n. an assortment of things from which a choice can be made: the store carried a large selection of shoes

selective [siˈlektiv] – adj. characterized by very careful or fastidious selection: the school was very selective in its admissions

selenium  – n. a toxic nonmetallic element related to sulfur and tellurium; occurs in several allotropic forms; a stable grey metallike allotrope conducts electricity better in the light than in the dark and is used in photocells; occurs in sulfide ores (as pyrite)

self-expression  – n. the expression of one’s individuality (usually through creative activities)

selfishness [ˈselfiʃnis] – n. stinginess resulting from a concern for your own welfare and a disregard of others

self-realization  – n. the fulfillment of your capacities

self-respect [ˈselfrisˈpekt] – n. the quality of being worthy of esteem or respect

self-sufficient [ˈselfsəˈfiʃənt] – adj. able to provide for your own needs without help from others

self-winding  – adj. designed so that manual winding is unnecessary: a self-winding watch

semblance [ˈsembləns] – n. an outward or token appearance or form that is deliberately misleading: he hoped his claims would have a semblance of authenticity

semester [siˈmestə] – n. one of two divisions of an academic year

semiannual [ˈsemiˈænjuəl] – adj. occurring or payable twice each year

semiarid [ˈsemiˈærid] – adj. somewhat arid: a semiarid region with little annual rainfall

semicircle [ˈsemisə:kl] – n. a plane figure with the shape of half a circle

semiconscious [semiˈkɔnʃəs] – adj. partially conscious; not completely aware of sensations

semiliterate [ˈsemiˈlitərit] – adj. literate but poorly informed

seminar [ˈseminɑ:] – n. any meeting for an exchange of ideas

seminary [ˈseminəri] – n. a private place of education for the young

senate [ˈsenit] – n. assembly possessing high legislative powers

senator [ˈsenətə] – n. a member of a senate

senile [ˈsi:nail] – adj. mentally or physically infirm with age

sensation [senˈseiʃən] – n. an unelaborated elementary awareness of stimulation: a sensation of touch

sensational [senˈseiʃənəl] – adj. causing intense interest, curiosity, or emotion

sense [sens] – n. a general conscious awareness: a sense of security

sensibility [.sensiˈbiliti] – n. mental responsiveness and awareness

sensible [ˈsensəbl] – adj. showing reason or sound judgment: a sensible choice

sensitive [ˈsensitiv] – adj. responsive to physical stimuli: a mimosa’s leaves are sensitive to touch

sensitivity [ˈsensiˈtiviti] – n. (physiology) responsiveness to external stimuli; the faculty of sensation: sensitivity to pain

sensorium [senˈsɔ:riəm] – n. the areas of the brain that process and register incoming sensory information and make possible the conscious awareness of the world

sensory [ˈsensəri] – adj. of a nerve fiber or impulse originating outside and passing toward the central nervous system: sensory neurons

sensual [ˈsenʃuəl] – adj. marked by the appetites and passions of the body: a sensual delight in eating

sensuous [ˈsɛnʃuəs] – adj. taking delight in beauty: the sensuous joy from all things fair

sentence [ˈsentəns] – n. a string of words satisfying the grammatical rules of a language: he always spoke in grammatical sentences

sentience [`senʃiəns] – n. state of elementary or undifferentiated consciousness

sentient [ˈsenʃənt] – adj. endowed with feeling and unstructured consciousness: the living knew themselves just sentient puppets on God’s stage

sentimental [.sentiˈmentl] – adj. effusively or insincerely emotional: sentimental soap operas

sentimentalism [.sentiˈmentɚlizɚm] – n. the excessive expression of tender feelings, nostalgia, or sadness in any form

sentimentalize [.sentiˈmentəlaiz] – v. make (someone or something) sentimental or imbue with sentimental qualities: Too much poetry sentimentalizes the mind

sentinel [ˈsentinl] – n. a person employed to keep watch for some anticipated event

sentry [ˈsentri] – n. a person employed to keep watch for some anticipated event

separable [ˈsepərəbl] – adj. capable of being divided or dissociated: the siamese twins were not considered separable

separate [ˈsepəreit] – v. act as a barrier between; stand between

separatist  – n. an advocate of secession or separation from a larger group (such as an established church or a national union)

sequel [ˈsi:kwəl] – n. something that follows something else

sequence [ˈsi:kwəns] – n. serial arrangement in which things follow in logical order or a recurrent pattern: the sequence of names was alphabetical

sequent [ˈsi:kwənt] – adj. in regular succession without gaps

sequential [siˈkwenʃəl] – adj. in regular succession without gaps

sequester [siˈkwestə] – v. requisition forcibly, as of enemy property: the estate was sequestered

sequestrate [siˈkwestreit] – v. keep away from others

sequoia  – n. either of two huge coniferous California trees that reach a height of 300 feet; sometimes placed in the Taxodiaceae

serene [siˈri:n] – adj. not agitated; without losing self-possession: he remained serene in the midst of turbulence

serenity [siˈreniti] – n. a disposition free from stress or emotion

sergeant [ˈsɑ:dʒənt] – n. any of several noncommissioned officer ranks in the Army or Air Force or Marines ranking above a corporal

serious [ˈsiəriəs] – adj. concerned with work or important matters rather than play or trivialities: a serious student of history

seriously [ˈsiəriəsli] – adv. to a severe or serious degree: was seriously ill

serrate  – v. make saw-toothed or jag the edge of: serrate the edges of the teeth

serrated [seˈreitid] – adj. notched like a saw with teeth pointing toward the apex

service [ˈsə:vis] – n. work done by one person or group that benefits another: budget separately for goods and services

serviceable [ˈsə:visəbl] – adj. capable of being put to good use: a serviceable kitchen gadget

servitude [ˈsə:vitju:d] – n. state of subjection to an owner or master or forced labor imposed as punishment: penal servitude

set [set] – v. put into a certain place or abstract location

setting [ˈsetiŋ] – n. the context and environment in which something is set: the perfect setting for a ghost story

settle [ˈsetl] – v. take up residence and become established: The immigrants settled in the Midwest

settlement [ˈsetlmənt] – n. a community of people smaller than a town

severance [ˈsevərəns] – n. a personal or social separation (as between opposing factions)

severe [siˈviə] – adj. intensely or extremely bad or unpleasant in degree or quality: severe pain

sew [səu] – v. create (clothes) with cloth: Can the seamstress sew me a suit by next week?

sewage  – n. waste matter carried away in sewers or drains

sewer [ˈsju:ə, ˈsu:ə] – n. someone who sews: a sewer of fine gowns

sewerage [ˈsjuəridʒ] – n. a waste pipe that carries away sewage or surface water

sextet [seksˈtet] – n. a musical composition written for six performers

sexton  – n. United States poet (1928-1974)

sextuple [ˈsekstjupl] – adj. having six units or components

shackle [ˈʃækəl] – n. a restraint that confines or restricts freedom (especially something used to tie down or restrain a prisoner)

shade [ʃeid] – n. relative darkness caused by light rays being intercepted by an opaque body: it is much cooler in the shade

shadow [ˈʃædəu] – n. an unilluminated area

shaft [ʃɑ:ft] – n. a line that forms the length of an arrow pointer

shale [ʃeil] – n. a sedimentary rock formed by the deposition of successive layers of clay

shallow [ˈʃæləu] – adj. not deep or strong; not affecting one deeply: shallow breathing

shape [ʃeip] – n. any spatial attributes (especially as defined by outline): he could barely make out their shapes

sharpen [ˈʃɑ:pən] – v. make crisp or more crisp and precise: We had to sharpen our arguments

sharply [ˈʃɑ:pli] – adv. in an aggressive manner: she was being sharply questioned

shatter [ˈʃætə] – v. break into many pieces: The wine glass shattered

shear [ʃiə] – n. a large edge tool that cuts sheet metal by passing a blade through it

sheath [ʃi:θ] – n. a protective covering (as for a knife or sword)

sheathe [ʃi:ð] – v. enclose with a sheath: sheathe a sword

shed [ʃed] – v. get rid of: he shed his image as a pushy boss

sheer [ʃiə] – adj. complete and without restriction or qualification; sometimes used informally as intensifiers: got the job through sheer persistence

shell [ʃel] – n. the material that forms the hard outer covering of many animals

shellfish [ˈʃelfiʃ] – n. invertebrate having a soft unsegmented body usually enclosed in a shell

shelter [ˈʃeltə] – n. a structure that provides privacy and protection from danger

shepherd [ˈʃepəd] – n. a clergyman who watches over a group of people

shibboleth [ˈʃibəleθ] – n. a favorite saying of a sect or political group

shield [ˈʃi:ld] – n. a protective covering or structure

shift [ʃift] – v. change place or direction

shiftless [ˈʃiftlis] – adj. lacking or characterized by lack of ambition or initiative; lazy: a shiftless student

shine [ʃain] – v. be bright by reflecting or casting light

shingle [ˈʃiŋgl] – n. building material used as siding or roofing

shining [ˈʃainiŋ] – adj. marked by exceptional merit: had shining virtues and few faults

shiny [ˈʃaini] – adj. reflecting light: saw the moon like a shiny dime on a deep blue velvet carpet

ship [ʃip] – v. transport commercially

shipment [ˈʃipmənt] – n. goods carried by a large vehicle

shipwreck [ˈʃiprek] – v. ruin utterly: You have shipwrecked my career

shipwright [ˈʃiprait] – n. a carpenter who helps build and launch wooden vessels

shock [ʃɔk] – n. the feeling of distress and disbelief that you have when something bad happens accidentally: he was numb with shock

shortage [ˈʃɔ:tidʒ] – n. the property of being an amount by which something is less than expected or required

shortcut [ˈʃɔ:tkʌt] – n. a route shorter than the usual one

short-range [ˈʃɔ:tˈreindʒ] – adj. relating to the near future: a short-range policy

shot [ʃɔt] – n. the act of firing a projectile

shove [ʃʌv] – v. come into rough contact with while moving

shovel [ˈʃʌvl] – n. a hand tool for lifting loose material; consists of a curved container or scoop and a handle

show [ʃəu] – v. give an exhibition of to an interested audience: She shows her dogs frequently

shred [ʃred] – n. a tiny or scarcely detectable amount

shrewd [ʃru:d] – adj. marked by practical hardheaded intelligence: he was too shrewd to go along with them on a road that could lead only to their overthrow

shriek [ʃri:k] – n. sharp piercing cry

shrill [ʃril] – adj. having or emitting a high-pitched and sharp tone or tones: a shrill whistle

shrimp [ʃrimp] – n. disparaging terms for small people

shrink [ʃriŋk] – v. wither, as with a loss of moisture

shrinkage [ˈʃrinkidʒ] – n. process or result of becoming less or smaller: the material lost 2 inches per yard in shrinkage

shrivel [ˈʃrivl] – v. wither, as with a loss of moisture: The fruit dried and shriveled

shrub [ʃrʌb] – n. a low woody perennial plant usually having several major stems

shuffle [ˈʃʌfl] – v. walk by dragging one’s feet: he shuffled out of the room

shun [ʃʌn] – v. avoid and stay away from deliberately; stay clear of

shutter [ˈʃʌtə] – n. a mechanical device on a camera that opens and closes to control the time of a photographic exposure

shuttle [ˈʃʌtl] – n. badminton equipment consisting of a ball of cork or rubber with a crown of feathers

shy [ʃai] – adj. lacking self-confidence

shyness [ˈʃainis] – n. a feeling of fear of embarrassment

sibilant [ˈsibilənt] – n. a consonant characterized by a hissing sound (like s or sh)

sibilate [ˈsibileit] – v. utter a sibilant

sick [sik] – adj. feeling nausea; feeling about to vomit

sickness [ˈsiknis] – n. impairment of normal physiological function affecting part or all of an organism

sidelong [ˈsaidlɔŋ] – adj. (used especially of glances) directed to one side with or as if with doubt or suspicion or envy: sidelong glances

sidereal [saiˈdiəriəl] – adj. of or relating to the stars or constellations: sidereal bodies

sidestep [ˈsaidstep] – n. a step to one side (as in boxing or dancing)

sideways [ˈsaidweiz] – adv. from the side; obliquely: a picture lit sideways

siege [si:dʒ] – n. the action of an armed force that surrounds a fortified place and isolates it while continuing to attack

signal [ˈsignəl] – n. any nonverbal action or gesture that encodes a message: signals from the boat suddenly stopped

signature [ˈsignitʃə] – n. your name written in your own handwriting

significance [sigˈnifikəns] – n. a meaning that is not expressly stated but can be inferred: the significance of his remark became clear only later

significant [sigˈnifikənt] – adj. important in effect or meaning: a significant change in tax laws

signification [signifiˈkeiʃən] – n. the message that is intended or expressed or signified: the signification of Chinese characters

signify [ˈsignifai] – v. denote or connote

silhouette  – n. an outline of a solid object (as cast by its shadow)

silica [ˈsilikə] – n. a white or colorless vitreous insoluble solid (SiO2); various forms occur widely in the earth’s crust as quartz or cristobalite or tridymite or lechatelierite

silicate [ˈsilikit] – n. a salt or ester derived from silicic acid

siliceous  – adj. relating to or containing or resembling silica: gritrock is siliceous sandstone

silicon [ˈsilikən] – n. a tetravalent nonmetallic element; next to oxygen it is the most abundant element in the earth’s crust; occurs in clay and feldspar and granite and quartz and sand; used as a semiconductor in transistors

silly [ˈsili] – adj. ludicrous, foolish: a silly idea

silt [silt] – n. mud or clay or small rocks deposited by a river or lake

silversmith [ˈsilvəsmiθ] – n. someone who makes or repairs articles of silver

silverware  – n. tableware made of silver or silver plate or pewter or stainless steel

similar [ˈsimilə] – adj. marked by correspondence or resemblance: similar food at similar prices

simile [ˈsimili] – n. a figure of speech that expresses a resemblance between things of different kinds (usually formed with `like’ or `as’)

similitude [siˈmilitju:d] – n. a duplicate copy

simper [ˈsimpə] – n. a silly self-conscious smile

simplicity [simˈplisiti] – n. a lack of penetration or subtlety: they took advantage of her simplicity

simplify [ˈsimplifai] – v. make simpler or easier or reduce in complexity or extent: We had to simplify the instructions

simulate [ˈsimjuleit] – v. reproduce someone’s behavior or looks

simultaneous [.saiməlˈteinjəs] – adj. occurring or operating at the same time

sin [sin] – n. estrangement from god

sinecure [ˈsainikjuə, ˈsin-] – n. a benefice to which no spiritual or pastoral duties are attached

singe [sindʒ] – v. burn superficially or lightly: I singed my eyebrows

sinister [ˈsinistə] – adj. threatening or foreshadowing evil or tragic developments: sinister storm clouds

sinuosity [sinjuˈɔsiti] – n. having curves: he hated the sinuosity of mountain roads

sinuous [ˈsinjuəs] – adj. curved or curving in and out

sinus [ˈsainəs] – n. an abnormal passage leading from a suppurating cavity to the body surface

siren [ˈsaiərin] – n. a sea nymph (part woman and part bird) supposed to lure sailors to destruction on the rocks where the nymphs lived

sirocco [səˈrɔkəu] – n. a windstorm that lifts up clouds of dust or sand

sisterhood [ˈsistəhud] – n. the kinship relation between a female offspring and the siblings

site [sait] – n. the piece of land on which something is located (or is to be located): a good site for the school

skeleton [ˈskelitn] – n. something reduced to its minimal form: the battalion was a mere skeleton of its former self

skeptic [ˈskeptik] – n. someone who habitually doubts accepted beliefs

skeptical [ˈskeptikəl] – adj. denying or questioning the tenets of especially a religion: a skeptical approach to the nature of miracles

skepticism [ˈskeptisizəm] – n. doubt about the truth of something

sketch [sketʃ] – n. preliminary drawing for later elaboration

skiff [skif] – n. any of various small boats propelled by oars or by sails or by a motor

skim [skim] – v. travel on the surface of water

skimp [skimp] – v. work hastily or carelessly; deal with inadequately and superficially

skip [skip] – v. bypass: He skipped a row in the text and so the sentence was incomprehensible

skirmish [ˈskə:miʃ] – n. a minor short-term fight

skulk [skʌlk] – v. lie in wait, lie in ambush, behave in a sneaky and secretive manner

skull [skʌl] – n. the bony skeleton of the head of vertebrates

skylight  – n. a window in a roof to admit daylight

skyrocket [ˈskai.rɔkit] – n. propels bright light high in the sky, or used to propel a lifesaving line or harpoon

skyscraper [ˈskaiskreipə(r)] – n. a very tall building with many stories

slab [slæb] – n. block consisting of a thick piece of something

slag [slæg] – n. the scum formed by oxidation at the surface of molten metals

slake [sleik] – v. satisfy (thirst)

slander [ˈslɑ:ndə] – n. words falsely spoken that damage the reputation of another

slant [slɑ:nt] – v. lie obliquely: A scar slanted across his face

slap [slæp] – n. a blow from a flat object (as an open hand)

slash [slæʃ] – v. cut with sweeping strokes; as with an ax or machete

slavish [ˈsleiviʃ] – adj. blindly imitative: a slavish copy of the original

sleazy [ˈsli:zi] – adj. of cloth; thin and loosely woven: the coat has a sleazy lining

sleight [slait] – n. adroitness in using the hands

slender [ˈslendə] – adj. very narrow

slice [slais] – n. a share of something: a slice of the company’s revenue

slide [slaid] – n. a small flat rectangular piece of glass on which specimens can be mounted for microscopic study

slight [slait] – adj. (quantifier used with mass nouns) small in quantity or degree; not much or almost none or (with `a’) at least some: there’s slight chance that it will work

slightly [ˈslaitli] – adv. to a small degree or extent: the children argued because one slice of cake was slightly larger than the other

slime [slaim] – n. any thick, viscous matter

slimy [ˈslaimi] – adj. morally reprehensible: a slimy little liar

slip [slip] – n. a socially awkward or tactless act

slipper [ˈslipə] – n. a person who slips or slides because of loss of traction

slippery [ˈslipəri] – adj. not to be trusted: how extraordinarily slippery a liar the camera is

slit [slit] – n. a long narrow opening

sloop [slu:p] – n. a sailing vessel with a single mast set about one third of the boat’s length aft of the bow

slope [sləup] – n. an elevated geological formation: he climbed the steep slope

sloping [ˈsləʊpiŋ] – adj. having an oblique or slanted direction

sloth [sləuθ] – n. a disinclination to work or exert yourself

slothful [ˈsləʊθfʊl] – adj. disinclined to work or exertion: slothful employees

slovenly [ˈslʌvənli] – adj. negligent of neatness especially in dress and person; habitually dirty and unkempt: slovenly appearance

sluggard [ˈslʌgəd] – n. an idle slothful person

sluggish [ˈslʌgiʃ] – adj. moving slowly: a sluggish stream

slum [slʌm] – n. a district of a city marked by poverty and inferior living conditions

slumber [ˈslʌmbə] – n. a natural and periodic state of rest during which consciousness of the world is suspended: calm as a child in dreamless slumber

smack [smæk] – n. a blow from a flat object (as an open hand)

smart [smɑ:t] – adj. showing mental alertness and calculation and resourcefulness

smash [smæʃ] – v. hit hard: He smashed a 3-run homer

smear [smiə] – n. slanderous defamation

smite  – v. inflict a heavy blow on, with the hand, a tool, or a weapon

smog [smɔg] – n. air pollution by a mixture of smoke and fog

smoothly [ˈsmu:ðli] – adv. with no problems or difficulties: put the plans into effect quickly and smoothly

smother [ˈsmʌðə] – v. envelop completely: smother the meat in gravy

smuggle [ˈsmʌgl] – v. import or export without paying customs duties: She smuggled cigarettes across the border

snap [snæp] – n. the act of catching an object with the hands: the infielder’s snap and throw was a single motion

snappish [ˈsnæpiʃ] – adj. apt to speak irritably: a snappish tone of voice

snarl [snɑ:l] – v. utter in an angry, sharp, or abrupt tone: The guard snarled at us

sneak [sni:k] – v. to go stealthily or furtively: ..stead of sneaking around spying on the neighbor’s house

sneer [sniə] – n. a facial expression of contempt or scorn; the upper lip curls

sniff [snif] – v. perceive by inhaling through the nose: sniff the perfume

snippet [ˈsnipit] – n. a small piece of anything (especially a piece that has been snipped off)

snout  – n. a long projecting or anterior elongation of an animal’s head; especially the nose

snowdrift [ˈsnəʊdrift] – n. a mass of snow heaped up by the wind

snowflake [ˈsnəʊfleik] – n. a crystal of snow

snug [snʌg] – adj. offering safety; well protected or concealed: a snug harbor

soak [səuk] – v. submerge in a liquid: I soaked in the hot tub for an hour

sociable [ˈsəuʃəbl] – adj. inclined to or conducive to companionship with others: a sociable occasion

socialism [ˈsəuʃəlizəm] – n. a political theory advocating state ownership of industry

socialist [ˈsəuʃəlist] – n. a political advocate of socialism

sociology [.səusiˈɔlədʒi] – n. the study and classification of human societies

sodium [ˈsəudjəm, -diəm] – n. a silvery soft waxy metallic element of the alkali metal group; occurs abundantly in natural compounds (especially in salt water); burns with a yellow flame and reacts violently in water; occurs in sea water and in the mineral halite (rock salt)

softball  – n. a game closely resembling baseball that is played on a smaller diamond and with a ball that is larger and softer

softwood [ˈsɔftwʊd] – n. wood that is easy to saw (from conifers such as pine or fir)

sojourn [ˈsɔdʒə:n] – n. a temporary stay (e.g., as a guest)

Sol [sɔl] – n. (Roman mythology) ancient Roman god; personification of the sun; counterpart of Greek Helios

solace [ˈsɔləs] – n. comfort in disappointment or misery

solar [ˈsəulə] – adj. relating to or derived from the sun or utilizing the energies of the sun: solar eclipse

solder [ˈsɔldə, ˈsɔ(:)ldə] – n. an alloy (usually of lead and tin) used when melted to join two metal surfaces

soldier [ˈsəuldʒə] – n. an enlisted man or woman who serves in an army: the soldiers stood at attention

sole [səul] – n. the underside of footwear or a golf club

solecism [ˈsɔlisizəm] – n. a socially awkward or tactless act

solely [ˈsəu(l)li] – adv. without any others being included or involved: did it solely for money

solemn [ˈsɔləm] – adj. dignified and somber in manner or character and committed to keeping promises: a solemn promise

solicit [səˈlisit] – v. make amorous advances towards

solicitor [səˈlisitə] – n. a British lawyer who gives legal advice and prepares legal documents

solicitude [səˈlisitju:d] – n. a feeling of excessive concern

solid [ˈsɔlid] – adj. characterized by good substantial quality: solid comfort

solidarity [.sɔliˈdæriti] – n. a union of interests or purposes or sympathies among members of a group

solidify [səˈlidifai] – v. become solid

soliloquy [səˈliləkwi] – n. speech you make to yourself

solitary [ˈsɔlitəri] – adj. of plants and animals; not growing or living in groups or colonies: solitary bees

solitude [ˈsɔlitju:d] – n. a state of social isolation

solo [ˈsəuləu] – n. any activity that is performed alone without assistance

soloist [ˈsəuləuist] – n. a musician who performs a solo

solstice [ˈsɔlstis] – n. either of the two times of the year when the sun is at its greatest distance from the celestial equator

soluble [ˈsɔljubl] – adj. (of a substance) capable of being dissolved in some solvent (usually water)

solution [səˈlu:ʃən] – n. a statement that solves a problem or explains how to solve the problem: they were trying to find a peaceful solution

solvent [ˈsɔlvənt] – n. a statement that solves a problem or explains how to solve the problem

somber [ˈsɔmbə] – adj. lacking brightness or color; dull: children in somber brown clothes

somewhat [ˈsʌmwɔt] – adv. to a small degree or extent: his arguments were somewhat self-contradictory

somniferous [sɔmˈnifərəs] – adj. sleep inducing

somnolence [ˈsɔmnələns] – n. a very sleepy state

somnolent [ˈsɔmnələnt] – adj. inclined to or marked by drowsiness: the sound had a somnolent effect

sonata [səˈnɑ:tə] – n. a musical composition of 3 or 4 movements of contrasting forms

sonnet [ˈsɔnit] – n. a verse form consisting of 14 lines with a fixed rhyme scheme

sonorous [ˈsɔnərəs] – adj. full and loud and deep: a herald chosen for his sonorous voice

soothe [su:ð] – v. give moral or emotional strength to

soothsayer [ˈsu:θseiə] – n. someone who makes predictions of the future (usually on the basis of special knowledge)

sophism [ˈsɔfizəm] – n. a deliberately invalid argument displaying ingenuity in reasoning in the hope of deceiving someone

sophistic  – adj. plausible but misleading

sophisticate [səˈfistikeit] – v. make less natural or innocent: Their manners had sophisticated the young girls

sophisticated [səˈfistikeitid] – adj. having or appealing to those having worldly knowledge and refinement and savoir-faire: sophisticated young socialites

sophistication [sə.fistiˈkeiʃən] – n. uplifting enlightenment

sophistry [ˈsɔfistri] – n. a deliberately invalid argument displaying ingenuity in reasoning in the hope of deceiving someone

soporific [.sɔpəˈrifik] – adj. sleep inducing

soprano [səˈprɑ:nəu] – n. a female singer

sorcery [ˈsɔ:səri] – n. the belief in magical spells that harness occult forces or evil spirits to produce unnatural effects in the world

sordid [ˈsɔ:did] – adj. morally degraded: the sordid details of his orgies stank under his very nostrils

sort [sɔ:t] – n. an approximate definition or example: she wore a sort of magenta dress

soundproof [ˈsaʊndpru:f] – v. insulate against noise: Proust had his apartment soundproofed

sour [ˈsauə] – adj. smelling of fermentation or staleness

souvenir [ˈsu:vəniə] – n. something of sentimental value

sovereign [ˈsɔvrin] – adj. (of political bodies) not controlled by outside forces: a sovereign state

sovereignty [ˈsɔvrinti] – n. government free from external control

sow [səu,sau] – v. place (seeds) in or on the ground for future growth: She sowed sunflower seeds

soy [sɔi] – n. a source of oil; used for forage and soil improvement and as food

soybean [ˈsɔibi:n] – n. a source of oil; used for forage and soil improvement and as food

spacecraft [ˈspeiskrɑ:ft] – n. a craft capable of traveling in outer space; technically, a satellite around the sun

spaceship [ˈspeisʃip] – n. a spacecraft designed to carry a crew into interstellar space (especially in science fiction)

spacious [ˈspeiʃəs] – adj. very large in expanse or scope: a spacious view

span [spæn] – n. the complete duration of something: the job was finished in the span of an hour

spangle [ˈspæŋgl] – n. adornment consisting of a small piece of shiny material used to decorate clothing

spare [spɛə] – adj. thin and fit: the spare figure of a marathon runner

sparing [ˈspeəriŋ] – adj. avoiding waste: a sparing father and a spending son

sparingly [ˈspɛəriŋli] – adv. to a meager degree or in a meager manner

spark [spɑ:k] – n. a momentary flash of light

sparrow [ˈspærəu] – n. any of several small dull-colored singing birds feeding on seeds or insects

sparse [spɑ:s] – adj. not dense: trees were sparse

sparsely [ˈspa:sli] – adv. in a sparse manner: sparsely inhabited

Spartan [ˈspɑ:tən] – n. a resident of Sparta

spasmodic [spæzˈmɔdik] – adj. occurring in spells and often abruptly: spasmodic rifle fire

spat [spæt] – v. come down like raindrops: Bullets were spatting down on us

spawn [spɔ:n] – v. call forth

specialize [ˈspeʃəlaiz] – v. become more focus on an area of activity or field of study: She specializes in Near Eastern history

specialized [ˈspeʃəlaizd] – adj. developed or designed for a special activity or function: a specialized tool

specialty [ˈspeʃəlti] – n. a distinguishing trait

specie [ˈspi:ʃi] – n. coins collectively

species [ˈspi:ʃi:z] – n. (biology) taxonomic group whose members can interbreed

specific [spiˈsifik] – adj. stated explicitly or in detail: needed a specific amount

specification [.spesifiˈkeiʃən] – n. a detailed description of design criteria for a piece of work

specified [ˈspesifaid] – adj. clearly and explicitly stated: meals are at specified times

specify [ˈspesifai] – v. decide upon or fix definitely: specify the parameters

specimen [ˈspesimən] – n. an example regarded as typical of its class

specious [ˈspi:ʃəs] – adj. plausible but false: a specious claim

speck [spek] – n. a very small spot: the plane was just a speck in the sky

speckle  – v. produce a mottled effect

spectacle [ˈspektəkl] – n. something or someone seen (especially a notable or unusual sight): the tragic spectacle of cripples trying to escape

spectacular [spekˈtækjulə] – adj. sensational in appearance or thrilling in effect: a spectacular display of northern lights

spectacularly [spekˈtækjuləli] – adv. in a spectacular manner: the area was spectacularly scenic

spectator [spekˈteitə] – n. a close observer; someone who looks at something (such as an exhibition of some kind): the spectators applauded the performance

specter [ˈspektə] – n. a mental representation of some haunting experience: it aroused specters from his past

spectrum [ˈspektrəm] – n. an ordered array of the components of an emission or wave

speculate [ˈspekjuleit] – v. to believe especially on uncertain or tentative grounds

speculation [.spekjuˈleiʃən] – n. a message expressing an opinion based on incomplete evidence

speculative  – adj. not financially safe or secure: speculative business enterprises

speedy [ˈspi:di] – adj. accomplished rapidly and without delay: hoped for a speedy resolution of the problem

sphere [sfiə] – n. a particular environment or walk of life: his social sphere is limited

spherical [ˈsferikəl] – adj. having the shape of a sphere or ball: a spherical object

spheroid [ˈsfirɔid] – n. a shape that is generated by rotating an ellipse around one of its axes: it looked like a sphere but on closer examination I saw it was really a spheroid

spherometer [sfiəˈrɔmitə] – n. a measuring instrument for measuring the curvature of a surface

spidery  – adj. relating to or resembling a member of the class Arachnida

spike [spaik] – n. a transient variation in voltage or current

spill [spil] – v. cause or allow (a liquid substance) to run or flow from a container: spill the milk

spinach [ˈspinitʃ] – n. southwestern Asian plant widely cultivated for its succulent edible dark green leaves

spinal [ˈspainl] – adj. of or relating to the spine or spinal cord: spinal cord

spine [spain] – n. any sharply pointed projection

spinet [spiˈnet] – n. a small and compactly built upright piano

spinning [ˈspiniŋ] – n. creating thread

spinous [ˈspainəs] – adj. shaped like a spine or thorn

spinster [ˈspinstə] – n. an elderly unmarried woman

spiny [ˈspaini] – adj. having or covered with protective barbs or quills or spines or thorns or setae etc.

spiral [ˈspairəl] – n. a plane curve traced by a point circling about the center but at increasing distances from the center

spiritual [ˈspiritjuəl] – adj. concerned with sacred matters or religion or the church: lords temporal and spiritual

splash [splæʃ] – v. cause (a liquid) to spatter about, especially with force: She splashed the water around her

splendor [ˈsplendə] – n. a quality that outshines the usual

splinter [ˈsplintə] – v. withdraw from an organization or communion

split [split] – n. extending the legs at right angles to the trunk (one in front and the other in back)

spoil [spɔil] – v. make a mess of, destroy or ruin

spoilage [ˈspɔilidʒ] – n. the process of becoming spoiled

sponge [spʌndʒ] – v. ask for and get free; be a parasite

sponsor [ˈspɔnsə] – v. assume responsibility for or leadership of: The senator announced that he would sponsor the health care plan

spontaneity [.spɔntəˈni:iti] – n. the quality of being spontaneous and coming from natural feelings without constraint: the spontaneity of his laughter

spontaneous [spɔnˈteiniəs] – adj. happening or arising without apparent external cause: spontaneous laughter

spontaneously [spɔnˈteiniəsli] – adv. without advance preparation

spoon [spu:n] – n. a piece of cutlery with a shallow bowl-shaped container and a handle; used to stir or serve or take up food

sporadic [spəˈrædik] – adj. recurring in scattered and irregular or unpredictable instances: a city subjected to sporadic bombing raids

spot [spɔt] – n. a short section or illustration (as between radio or tv programs or in a magazine) that is often used for advertising

spotless [ˈspɔtlis] – adj. completely neat and clean

spotlight [ˈspɔtlait] – n. a focus of public attention

spouse [spauz] – n. a person’s partner in marriage

sprawl [sprɔ:l] – n. an aggregation or continuous network of urban communities

spray [sprei] – n. a quantity of small objects flying through the air: a spray of bullets

sprightly [ˈspraitli] – adj. full of spirit and vitality: a sprightly young girl

spring [spriŋ] – n. the season of growth: the emerging buds were a sure sign of spring

springboard  – n. a flexible board for jumping upward

springtime [ˈspriŋtaim] – n. the season of growth

sprout [spraut] – n. any new growth of a plant such as a new branch or a bud

spur [spə:] – n. a verbalization that encourages you to attempt something

spurious [ˈspjuəriəs] – adj. plausible but false: spurious inferences

spurn [spə:n] – v. reject with contempt: She spurned his advances

spy [spai] – v. catch sight of

squabble [ˈskwɔbl] – n. a quarrel about petty points

squad [skwɔd] – n. a smallest army unit

squalid [ˈskwɔlid] – adj. morally degraded: the squalid atmosphere of intrigue and betrayal

squall [skwɔ:l] – v. make high-pitched, whiney noises

squander [ˈskwɔndə] – v. spend thoughtlessly; throw away: You squandered the opportunity to get and advanced degree

square [skwɛə] – n. (geometry) a plane rectangle with four equal sides and four right angles; a four-sided regular polygon: you can compute the area of a square if you know the length of its sides

squarely [ˈskweəli] – adv. directly and without evasion; not roundabout: to face a problem squarely

squash [skwɔʃ] – n. any of numerous annual trailing plants of the genus Cucurbita grown for their fleshy edible fruits

squeak [skwi:k] – n. a short high-pitched noise: the squeak of shoes on powdery snow

squeeze [skwi:z] – v. to compress with violence, out of natural shape or condition: squeeze a lemon

squirrel [ˈskwirəl] – n. a kind of arboreal rodent having a long bushy tail

squirt [skwə:t] – n. someone who is small and insignificant

stability [stəˈbiliti] – n. the quality or attribute of being firm and steadfast

stabilize [ˈsteibilaiz] – v. make stable and keep from fluctuating or put into an equilibrium: The drug stabilized her blood pressure

stable [ˈsteibl] – adj. firm and dependable; subject to little fluctuation: the economy is stable

stack [stæk] – n. an orderly pile

staff [stɑ:f] – n. personnel who assist their superior in carrying out an assigned task: the hospital has an excellent nursing staff

stage [steidʒ] – n. any distinct time period in a sequence of events: we are in a transitional stage in which many former ideas must be revised or rejected

stagecoach [ˈsteidʒkəʊtʃ] – n. a large coach-and-four formerly used to carry passengers and mail on regular routes between towns

stagger [ˈstægə] – v. walk as if unable to control one’s movements: The drunken man staggered into the room

stagnant [ˈstægnənt] – adj. not circulating or flowing: stagnant water

stagnate [stægˈneit] – v. stand still: Industry will stagnate if we do not stimulate our economy

stagnation [stægˈneiʃən] – n. a state of inactivity (in business or art etc): economic growth of less than 1% per year is considered to be economic stagnation

stagy [ˈsteidʒi] – adj. having characteristics of the stage especially an artificial and mannered quality: stagy heroics

staid [steid] – adj. characterized by dignity and propriety

stain [stein] – n. a soiled or discolored appearance: the wine left a dark stain

staircase [ˈstɛəkeis] – n. a way of access (upward and downward) consisting of a set of steps

stalk [stɔ:k] – n. material consisting of seed coverings and small pieces of stem or leaves that have been separated from the seeds

stall [stɔ:l] – n. small area set off by walls for special use

stallion [ˈstæljən] – n. uncastrated adult male horse

stamina [ˈstæminə] – n. enduring strength and energy

stanchion [ˈstɑ:nʃən] – n. any vertical post or rod used as a support

stand [stænd] – n. a support or foundation

standard [ˈstændəd] – n. a basis for comparison; a reference point against which other things can be evaluated: the schools comply with federal standards

standardize [ˈstændədaiz] – v. evaluate by comparing with a standard

standardized [ˈstændə.daizd] – adj. brought into conformity with a standard: standardized education

standing [ˈstændiŋ] – adj. having a supporting base: a standing lamp

standpoint [ˈstændpɔint] – n. a mental position from which things are viewed

stanza [ˈstænzə] – n. a fixed number of lines of verse forming a unit of a poem

staple [ˈsteipl] – n. a natural fiber (raw cotton, wool, hemp, flax) that can be twisted to form yarn: staple fibers vary widely in length

starch [stɑ:tʃ] – n. a complex carbohydrate found chiefly in seeds, fruits, tubers, roots and stem pith of plants, notably in corn, potatoes, wheat, and rice; an important foodstuff and used otherwise especially in adhesives and as fillers and stiffeners for paper and textiles

stardom [ˈstɑ:dəm] – n. the status of being acknowledged as a star: stardom meant nothing to her

stare [stɛə] – v. look at with fixed eyes: The students stared at the teacher with amazement

starfish [ˈstɑ:fiʃ] – n. echinoderms characterized by five arms extending from a central disk

stark [stɑ:k] – adj. devoid of any qualifications or disguise or adornment: facing the stark reality of the deadline

starvation [stɑ:ˈveiʃən] – n. a state of extreme hunger resulting from lack of essential nutrients over a prolonged period

starve [stɑ:v] – v. be hungry; go without food

stash [stæʃ] – n. a secret store of valuables or money

state [steit] – n. the territory occupied by one of the constituent administrative districts of a nation: his state is in the deep south

statecraft  – n. wisdom in the management of public affairs

stately [ˈsteitli] – adj. impressive in appearance: stately columns

statement [ˈsteitmənt] – n. a fact or assertion offered as evidence that something is true

static [ˈstætik] – adj. not in physical motion

stationary [ˈsteiʃənəri] – adj. standing still: the car remained stationary with the engine running

stationery [ˈsteiʃ(ə)nəri] – n. paper cut to an appropriate size for writing letters; usually with matching envelopes

statistical [stəˈtistikəl] – adj. of or relating to statistics: statistical population

statistician [stætisˈtiʃən] – n. a mathematician who specializes in statistics

statistics [stəˈtistiks] – n. a branch of applied mathematics concerned with the collection and interpretation of quantitative data and the use of probability theory to estimate population parameters

statue [ˈstætju:] – n. a sculpture representing a human or animal

statuesque [,stætjuˈesk] – adj. suggestive of a statue

statuette [.stætʃuˈet] – n. a small carved or molded figure

stature [ˈstætʃə] – n. high level of respect gained by impressive development or achievement: a man of great stature

status [ˈsteitəs] – n. a state at a particular time: the current status of the arms negotiations

statute [ˈstætju:t] – n. an act passed by a legislative body

steadfast [ˈstedfɑ:st, -fæst] – adj. marked by firm determination or resolution; not shakable: steadfast resolve

steady [ˈstedi] – adj. not subject to change or variation especially in behavior: a steady beat

steak [steik] – n. a slice of meat cut from the fleshy part of an animal or large fish

stealth [stelθ] – n. avoiding detection by moving carefully

steamer [ˈsti:mə] – n. a cooking utensil that can be used to cook food by steaming it

steep [sti:p] – adj. having a sharp inclination: the steep attic stairs

steer [stiə] – v. direct the course; determine the direction of travelling

stellar [ˈstelə] – adj. indicating the most important performer or role: a stellar role

stem [stem] – n. a slender or elongated structure that supports a plant or fungus or a plant part or plant organ

stench [stentʃ] – n. a distinctive odor that is offensively unpleasant

steppe [step] – n. extensive plain without trees (associated with eastern Russia and Siberia)

sterile [ˈsterail] – adj. incapable of reproducing

sterling [ˈstə:liŋ] – adj. highest in quality

stern [stə:n] – adj. not to be placated or appeased or moved by entreaty: the stern demands of parenthood

stick [stik] – v. put, fix, force, or implant: stick your thumb in the crack

stickpin  – n. a decorative pin that is worn in a necktie

sticky [ˈstiki] – adj. moist as with undried perspiration and with clothing sticking to the body: felt sticky and chilly at the same time

stiff [stif] – adj. not moving or operating freely: a stiff hinge

stiffen [ˈstifn] – v. make stiff or stiffer

stifle [ˈstaifl] – v. conceal or hide

stigma [ˈstigmə] – n. a symbol of disgrace or infamy

stiletto [stiˈletəu] – n. a small dagger with a tapered blade

stilt [stilt] – n. a column of wood or steel or concrete that is driven into the ground to provide support for a structure

stimulant [ˈstimjulənt] – n. a drug that temporarily quickens some vital process

stimulate [ˈstimjuleit] – v. cause to do; cause to act in a specified manner

stimulation [.stimjuˈleiʃən] – n. the act of arousing an organism to action

stimulus [ˈstimjuləs] – n. any stimulating information or event; acts to arouse action

sting [stiŋ] – v. saddle with something disagreeable or disadvantageous

stingy [ˈstindʒi] – adj. unwilling to spend: she practices economy without being stingy

stipend [ˈstaipend] – n. a sum of money allotted on a regular basis; usually for some specific purpose

stipulate [ˈstipjuleit] – v. specify as a condition or requirement in a contract or agreement; make an express demand or provision in an agreement: The will stipulates that she can live in the house for the rest of her life

stipulation [.stipjuˈleiʃən] – n. an assumption on which rests the validity or effect of something else

stir [stə:] – v. move an implement through: stir the soup

stitch [stitʃ] – n. a link or loop or knot made by an implement in knitting, crocheting, embroidery, or sewing

stockcar  – n. boxcar with latticed sides; for transporting livestock

stocky [ˈstɔki] – adj. having a short and solid form or stature: stocky legs

stoic [ˈstəuik] – n. a member of the ancient Greek school of philosophy founded by Zeno

Stoicism  – n. (philosophy) the philosophical system of the Stoics following the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Zeno

stolid [ˈstɔlid] – adj. having or revealing little emotion or sensibility; not easily aroused or excited: a silent stolid creature who took it all as a matter of course

stomach [ˈstʌmək] – n. an enlarged and muscular saclike organ of the alimentary canal; the principal organ of digestion

stonemason [ˈstəʊnmeis(ə)n] – n. a craftsman who works with stone or brick

stony [ˈstəuni] – adj. showing unfeeling resistance to tender feelings

storage  – n. a depository for goods

store [stɔ:] – n. a mercantile establishment for the retail sale of goods or services

storeroom  – n. a room in which things are stored

story [ˈstɔ:ri] – n. a piece of fiction that narrates a chain of related events

stout [staut] – adj. dependable: stout hearts

straight [streit] – adj. successive (without a break): sick for five straight days

strain [strein] – n. (physics) deformation of a physical body under the action of applied forces

strait [streit] – n. a narrow channel of the sea joining two larger bodies of water

strand [strænd] – n. line consisting of a complex of fibers or filaments that are twisted together to form a thread or a rope or a cable

strap [stræp] – n. hanger consisting of a loop of leather suspended from the ceiling of a bus or train; passengers hold onto it

stratagem [ˈstrætədʒəm] – n. a maneuver in a game or conversation

strategist  – n. an expert in strategy (especially in warfare)

strategy [ˈstrætidʒi] – n. an elaborate and systematic plan of action

stratum [ˈstrɑ:təm] – n. people having the same social, economic, or educational status

stray [strei] – v. move about aimlessly or without any destination, often in search of food or employment

streak [stri:k] – n. an unbroken series of events: had a streak of bad luck

stream [stri:m] – n. a natural body of running water flowing on or under the earth

streamlet [ˈstri:mlit] – n. a small stream

streamline [ˈstri:mlain] – v. contour economically or efficiently

strength [streŋθ] – n. the property of being physically or mentally strong: fatigue sapped his strength

strengthen [ˈstreŋθən] – v. make strong or stronger: This exercise will strengthen your upper body

strenuous [ˈstrenjuəs] – adj. characterized by or performed with much energy or force: strenuous exercise

strenuously [ˈstrenjuəsli] – adv. in a strenuous manner; strongly or vigorously: he objected strenuously to the stand his party was taking

stress [stres] – n. (psychology) a state of mental or emotional strain or suspense: stress is a vasoconstrictor

stretch [stretʃ] – v. occupy a large, elongated area: The park stretched beneath the train line

stride [straid] – n. a step in walking or running

strike [straik] – v. deliver a sharp blow, as with the hand, fist, or weapon: the opponent refused to strike

striking [ˈstraikiŋ] – n. the physical coming together of two or more things

strikingly [ˈstraikiŋli] – adv. in a striking manner: this was strikingly demonstrated

string [striŋ] – n. a lightweight cord

stringency [ˈstrindʒənsi] – n. a state occasioned by scarcity of money and a shortage of credit

stringent [ˈstrindʒənt] – adj. demanding strict attention to rules and procedures: stringent safety measures

strings [striŋz] – n. the section of an orchestra that plays stringed instruments

strip [strip] – v. take away possessions from someone: The Nazis stripped the Jews of all their assets

stripe [straip] – n. a piece of braid, usually on the sleeve, indicating military rank or length of service

stripling [ˈstripliŋ] – n. a juvenile between the onset of puberty and maturity

strive [straiv] – v. attempt by employing effort

stroke [strəuk] – n. the maximum movement available to a pivoted or reciprocating piece by a cam

stubborn [ˈstʌbən] – adj. tenaciously unwilling or marked by tenacious unwillingness to yield

stubbornness [ˈstʌbənnis] – n. the trait of being difficult to handle or overcome

studio [ˈstju:diəu] – n. workplace for the teaching or practice of an art: she ran a dance studio

studious [ˈstju:djəs] – adj. marked by care and effort: made a studious attempt to fix the television set

stultify [ˈstʌltifai] – v. prove to be of unsound mind or demonstrate someone’s incompetence: nobody is legally allowed to stultify himself

stumble [ˈstʌmbl] – v. walk unsteadily: The drunk man stumbled about

stun [stʌn] – v. make senseless or dizzy by or as if by a blow: stun fish

stunning [ˈstʌniŋ] – adj. commanding attention: a stunning performance

stunt [stʌnt] – n. a difficult or unusual or dangerous feat; usually done to gain attention

stupendous [stju:ˈpendəs] – adj. so great in size or force or extent as to elicit awe: a stupendous field of grass

stupor [ˈstju:pə] – n. the feeling of distress and disbelief that you have when something bad happens accidentally

sturdy [ˈstə:di] – adj. having rugged physical strength; inured to fatigue or hardships: sturdy young athletes

style [stail] – n. how something is done or how it happens: in the characteristic New York style

stylize  – v. represent according to a conventional style: a stylized female head

stylized [ˈstailaizd] – adj. using artistic forms and conventions to create effects; not natural or spontaneous: a stylized mode of theater production

suasion [ˈsweiʒən] – n. the act of persuading (or attempting to persuade); communication intended to induce belief or action

suave [swɑ:v] – adj. having a sophisticated charm

subacid  – adj. slightly sour to the taste

subaquatic  – adj. growing or remaining under water

subconscious [sʌbˈkɔnʃəs] – n. psychic activity just below the level of awareness

subdivision [ˈsʌbdi.viʒən] – n. the act of subdividing; division of something previously divided

subdue [sʌbˈdju:] – v. put down by force or intimidation

subjacent [sʌbˈdʒeisənt] – adj. lying nearby but lower: hills and subjacent valleys

subject [ˈsʌbdʒekt] – n. something (a person or object or scene) selected by an artist or photographer for graphic representation: a moving picture of a train is more dramatic than a still picture of the same subject

subjection [səbˈdʒekʃən] – n. forced submission to control by others

subjugate [ˈsʌbdʒugeit] – v. put down by force or intimidation: The rich landowners subjugated the peasants working the land

sublimate [ˈsʌblə.met, ˈsʌblimeit] – v. direct energy or urges into useful activities

subliminal [sʌbˈliminəl] – adj. below the threshold of conscious perception

sublingual [sʌbˈliŋgwəl] – adj. beneath the tongue

submarine [ˈsʌbməri:n] – v. move forward or under in a sliding motion: The child was injured when he submarined under the safety belt of the car

submerge [səbˈmə:dʒ] – v. sink below the surface; go under or as if under water

submerged [səbˈmə:dʒd] – adj. beneath the surface of the water: submerged rocks

submerse  – v. sink below the surface; go under or as if under water

submersible [sʌbˈmə:səbl] – n. an apparatus intended for use under water

submission [səbˈmiʃən] – n. the act of submitting; usually surrendering power to another

submit [səbˈmit] – v. refer for judgment or consideration: The lawyers submitted the material to the court

suborder  – n. (biology) taxonomic group that is a subdivision of an order

subordinate [səˈbɔ:dineit] – adj. lower in rank or importance

subsection [ˈsʌbˈsekʃən] – n. a section of a section; a part of a part; i.e., a part of something already divided

subsequent [ˈsʌbsikwənt] – adj. following in time or order: subsequent developments

subsequently [ˈsʌbsikwəntli] – adv. happening at a time subsequent to a reference time: he apologized subsequently

subservience [səbˈsə:vjəns] – n. the condition of being something that is useful in reaching an end or carrying out a plan: all his actions were in subservience to the general plan

subservient [səbˈsə:viənt] – adj. compliant and obedient to authority: editors and journalists who express opinions in print that are opposed to the interests of the rich are dismissed and replaced by subservient ones

subside [səbˈsaid] – v. wear off or die down: The pain subsided

subsidiary [səbˈsidjəri] – n. an assistant subject to the authority or control of another

subsidize [ˈsʌbsidaiz] – v. secure the assistance of by granting a subsidy, as of nations or military forces

subsidy [ˈsʌbsidi] – n. a grant paid by a government to an enterprise that benefits the public: a subsidy for research in artificial intelligence

subsist [səbˈsist] – v. support oneself: Many people in the world have to subsist on $1 a day

subsistence [sʌbˈsistəns] – n. a means of surviving: farming is a hard means of subsistence

subspecies [ˈsʌbspi:ʃi:z] – n. (biology) a taxonomic group that is a division of a species; usually arises as a consequence of geographical isolation within a species

substance [ˈsʌbstəns] – n. the real physical matter of which a person or thing consists: DNA is the substance of our genes

substantial [səbˈstænʃəl] – adj. fairly large: won by a substantial margin

substantially [səbˈstænʃ(ə)li] – adv. to a great extent or degree: painting the room white made it seem considerably (or substantially) larger

substantiate [sʌbsˈtænʃieit] – v. establish or strengthen as with new evidence or facts

substantive [ˈsʌbstəntiv] – adj. having a firm basis in reality and being therefore important, meaningful, or considerable

substitute [ˈsʌbstitju:t] – n. a person or thing that takes or can take the place of another

substrate  – n. a surface on which an organism grows or is attached: the gardener talked about the proper substrate for acid-loving plants

subtend [səbˈtend] – v. be opposite to; of angles and sides, in geometry

subterfuge [ˈsʌbtəfju:dʒ] – n. something intended to misrepresent the true nature of an activity: he wasn’t sick–it was just a subterfuge

subterranean [sʌbtəˈreiniən] – adj. being or operating under the surface of the earth: subterranean passages

subtitle [ˈsʌb.taitl] – n. translation of foreign dialogue of a movie or TV program; usually displayed at the bottom of the screen

subtle [ˈsʌtl] – adj. difficult to detect or grasp by the mind or analyze: his whole attitude had undergone a subtle change

subtract [səbˈtrækt] – v. take off or away: this prefix was subtracted when the word was borrowed from French

subtraction [səbˈtrækʃən] – n. an arithmetic operation in which the difference between two numbers is calculated: the subtraction of three from four leaves one

subtractive [səbˈtræktiv] – adj. constituting or involving subtraction: a subtractive correction

subtrahend [ˈsʌbtrəhend] – n. the number to be subtracted from the minuend

suburb [ˈsʌbə:b] – n. a residential district located on the outskirts of a city

suburbanite [səˈbə:bənait] – n. a resident of a suburb

suburbanize  – v. make suburban in character: highly suburbanized cities

subversion [səbˈvə:ʃən] – n. destroying someone’s (or some group’s) honesty or loyalty; undermining moral integrity: the big city’s subversion of rural innocence

subversive [sʌbˈvə:siv] – n. a radical supporter of political or social revolution

subvert [səbˈvə:t] – v. cause the downfall of; of rulers: subvert the ruling class

subway [ˈsʌbwei] – n. an electric railway operating below the surface of the ground (usually in a city): in Paris the subway system is called the `metro’ and in London it is called the `tube’ or the `underground’

succeed [səkˈsi:d] – v. be the successor (of): Will Charles succeed to the throne?

success [səkˈses] – n. an event that accomplishes its intended purpose: let’s call heads a success and tails a failure

successful [səkˈsesfəl] – adj. having succeeded or being marked by a favorable outcome: a successful architect

successive [səkˈsesiv] – adj. in regular succession without gaps

successor [səkˈsesə] – n. a person who follows next in order: he was President Lincoln’s successor

succinct [səkˈsiŋkt] – adj. briefly giving the gist of something: succinct comparisons

succulent [ˈsʌkjulənt] – n. a plant adapted to arid conditions and characterized by fleshy water-storing tissues that act as water reservoirs

succumb [səˈkʌm] – v. consent reluctantly

sue [su:] – n. French writer whose novels described the sordid side of city life (1804-1857)

sufferance [ˈsʌfərəns] – n. patient endurance especially of pain or distress

sufficiency [səˈfiʃənsi] – n. an adequate quantity; a quantity that is large enough to achieve a purpose: there is more than a sufficiency of lawyers in this country

sufficient [səˈfiʃənt] – adj. of a quantity that can fulfill a need or requirement but without being abundant: sufficient food

suffrage [ˈsʌfridʒ] – n. a legal right guaranteed by the 15th amendment to the US Constitution; guaranteed to women by the 19th amendment

suffuse [səˈfju:z] – v. cause to spread or flush or flood through, over, or across: The sky was suffused with a warm pink color

suggestible [səˈdʒestəbəl] – adj. susceptible or responsive to suggestion: suggestible young minds

suggestive [səˈdʒestiv] – adj. (usually followed by `of’) pointing out or revealing clearly

suit [sju:t] – n. a comprehensive term for any proceeding in a court of law whereby an individual seeks a legal remedy: the family brought suit against the landlord

suitable [ˈsju:təbl] – adj. meant or adapted for an occasion or use: a tractor suitable (or fit) for heavy duty

suitcase [ˈsu:tkeis] – n. a portable rectangular container for carrying clothes

suite [swi:t] – n. a musical composition of several movements only loosely connected

suited [ˈsju:tid] – adj. meant or adapted for an occasion or use

sulky [ˈsʌlki] – adj. moving slowly

sully [ˈsʌli] – v. place under suspicion or cast doubt upon: sully someone’s reputation

sultry [ˈsʌltri] – adj. sexually exciting or gratifying: a sultry look

sum [sʌm] – n. a quantity of money: he borrowed a large sum

summarization  – n. the act of preparing a summary (or an instance thereof); stating briefly and succinctly

summary [ˈsʌməri] – adj. performed speedily and without formality: a summary execution

summit [ˈsʌmit] – n. the highest level or degree attainable; the highest stage of development: the summit of his ambition

sumptuous [ˈsʌmptʃuəs] – adj. rich and superior in quality

sunburn [ˈsʌnbə:n] – n. a browning of the skin resulting from exposure to the rays of the sun

sundial [ˈsʌndaiəl] – n. timepiece that indicates the daylight hours by the shadow that the gnomon casts on a calibrated dial

sunflower [ˈsʌnflauə] – n. any plant of the genus Helianthus having large flower heads with dark disk florets and showy yellow rays

sunglasses [ˈsʌnglɑ:siz] – n. spectacles that are darkened or polarized to protect the eyes from the glare of the sun

sunlight [ˈsʌnlait] – n. the rays of the sun

sunlit [ˈsʌnlit] – adj. lighted by sunlight: the sunlit slopes of the canyon

sunrise [ˈsʌnraiz] – n. the first light of day

sunset [ˈsʌnset] – n. atmospheric phenomena accompanying the daily disappearance of the sun

sunshine [ˈsʌnʃain] – n. the rays of the sun

superabundant  – adj. most excessively abundant

superannuate [ˈsu:pəˈrænjueit] – v. retire and pension (someone) because of age or physical inability

superb [sjuˈpə:b] – adj. of surpassing excellence: a superb actor

supercilious [.su:pəˈsiliəs, .sju:-] – adj. having or showing arrogant superiority to and disdain of those one views as unworthy: his mother eyed my clothes with a supercilious air

superficial [.su:pəˈfiʃəl] – adj. concerned with or comprehending only what is apparent or obvious; not deep or penetrating emotionally or intellectually: superficial similarities

superficially [ˈsu:pəˈfiʃəli] – adv. in a superficial manner: he was superficially interested

superfluity [ˈsju:pəˈflu(:)iti, ˈsu:-] – n. extreme excess

superfluous [su:ˈpə:fluəs, sju:-] – adj. serving no useful purpose; having no excuse for being

superintend [.su:pərinˈtend, .sju:-] – v. watch and direct

superintendence [sju:pərinˈtendəns] – n. management by overseeing the performance or operation of a person or group

superintendent [.sju:pərinˈtendənt] – n. a person who directs and manages an organization

superior [su:ˈpiəriə] – adj. of or characteristic of high rank or importance: a superior ruler

superlative [su:ˈpə:lətiv, sju:-] – n. an exaggerated expression (usually of praise): the critics lavished superlatives on it

supernatural [.sju:pəˈnætʃərəl] – adj. not existing in nature or subject to explanation according to natural laws; not physical or material: supernatural forces and occurrences and beings

supernumerary [ˈsu:pəˈnju:mərəri] – n. a person serving no apparent function

supersede [.sju:pəˈsi:d] – v. take the place or move into the position of

supervise [ˈsju:pəvaiz] – v. watch and direct

supervision [.sju:pəˈviʒən] – n. management by overseeing the performance or operation of a person or group

supervisor [ˈsju:pəvaizə] – n. a program that controls the execution of other programs

supine [ˈsu:pain, ˈsju:-] – adj. lying face upward

supplant [səˈplɑ:nt] – v. take the place or move into the position of: the computer has supplanted the slide rule

supple [ˈsʌpl] – adj. moving and bending with ease

supplement [ˈsʌpliment] – n. textual matter that is added onto a publication; usually at the end

supplementary [.sʌpliˈmentəri] – adj. functioning in a supporting capacity

supplementation [.sʌplimenˈteiʃən] – n. a quantity added (e.g. to make up for a deficiency)

supplicant [ˈsʌplikənt] – n. someone who prays to God

supplicate [ˈsʌplikeit] – v. ask humbly (for something): He supplicated the King for clemency

suppose [səˈpəuz] – v. express a supposition

supposedly [səˈpəuzidli] – adv. believed or reputed to be the case

supposition [.sʌpəˈziʃən] – n. a message expressing an opinion based on incomplete evidence

suppress [səˈpres] – v. to put down by force or authority: suppress a nascent uprising

suppression [səˈpreʃən] – n. the failure to develop some part or organ

supremacy [sjuˈpreməsi] – n. power to dominate or defeat

supreme [sju:ˈpri:m] – adj. final or last in your life or progress: the supreme sacrifice

supremely [suˈpri:mli] – adv. to the maximum degree: he was supremely confident

surcharge [ˈsə:tʃɑ:dʒ] – v. charge an extra fee, as for a special service

surety [ˈʃuəti] – n. something clearly established

surface [ˈsə:fis] – n. the outer boundary of an artifact or a material layer constituting or resembling such a boundary: there is a special cleaner for these surfaces

surfeit [ˈsə:fit] – n. the state of being more than full

surge [sə:dʒ] – v. rise and move, as in waves or billows: The army surged forward

surgeon [ˈsə:dʒən] – n. a physician who specializes in surgery

surgery [ˈsə:dʒəri] – n. the branch of medical science that treats disease or injury by operative procedures: he is professor of surgery at the Harvard Medical School

surging [ˈsə:dʒiŋ] – adj. characterized by great swelling waves or surges: surging waves

surmise [ˈsə:maiz] – v. infer from incomplete evidence

surmount [səˈmaunt] – v. get on top of; deal with successfully

surpass [səˈpɑ:s] – v. distinguish oneself

surplus [ˈsə:pləs] – n. a quantity much larger than is needed

surrender [səˈrendə] – n. acceptance of despair

surreptitious [.sʌrəpˈtiʃəs] – adj. marked by quiet and caution and secrecy; taking pains to avoid being observed: a surreptitious glance at his watch

surrogate [ˈsʌrəgeit] – n. someone who takes the place of another person

surround [səˈraund] – v. extend on all sides of simultaneously; encircle: The forest surrounds my property

survey [sə:ˈvei] – v. consider in a comprehensive way

surveyor [sə:ˈveiə] – n. an engineer who determines the boundaries and elevations of land or structures

survival [səˈvaivəl] – n. a natural process resulting in the evolution of organisms best adapted to the environment

survive [səˈvaiv] – v. continue to live through hardship or adversity: These superstitions survive in the backwaters of America

survivor [səˈvaivə] – n. one who lives through affliction: the survivors of the fire were taken to a hospital

susceptibility [səseptəˈbiliti] – n. the state of being susceptible; easily affected

susceptible [səˈseptəbl] – adj. (often followed by `of’ or `to’) yielding readily to or capable of: susceptible to colds

suspect [səsˈpekt] – v. imagine to be the case or true or probable: I suspect he is a fugitive

suspend [səsˈpend] – v. hang freely: The secret police suspended their victims from the ceiling and beat them

suspender [səˈspendə(r)] – n. elastic straps that hold trousers up (usually used in the plural)

suspense [səsˈpens] – n. apprehension about what is going to happen

suspension [səˈspenʃən] – n. a time interval during which there is a temporary cessation of something

suspicion [səsˈpiʃən] – n. an impression that something might be the case

suspicious [səsˈpiʃəs] – adj. openly distrustful and unwilling to confide

sustain [səsˈtein] – v. lengthen or extend in duration or space: We sustained the diplomatic negotiations as long as possible

sustenance [ˈsʌstənəns] – n. a source of materials to nourish the body

swallow [ˈswɔləu] – v. pass through the esophagus as part of eating or drinking

swamp [swɔmp] – n. low land that is seasonally flooded; has more woody plants than a marsh and better drainage than a bog

swampy [ˈswɔmpi] – adj. (of soil) soft and watery: swampy bayous

swarm [swɔ:m] – n. a moving crowd

swarthy [ˈswɔ:ði] – adj. naturally having skin of a dark color: a smile on his swarthy face

sway [swei] – v. move back and forth or sideways: the tall building swayed

sweep [swi:p] – v. force into some kind of situation, condition, or course of action

swell [swel] – v. increase in size, magnitude, number, or intensity: The music swelled to a crescendo

swelter [ˈsweltə] – v. be uncomfortably hot

swift [swift] – n. United States meat-packer who began the use of refrigerated railroad cars (1839-1903)

swiftness [ˈswiftnis] – n. a rate (usually rapid) at which something happens

swing [swiŋ] – v. move in a curve or arc, usually with the intent of hitting: swing a bat

switch [switʃ] – n. an event in which one thing is substituted for another

sycophant [ˈsikəfənt] – n. a person who tries to please someone in order to gain a personal advantage

syllabic [siˈlæbik] – adj. consisting of or using a syllabary: eskimos of the eastern Arctic have a system of syllabic writing

syllabication [ˈsilæbiˈkeiʃən] – n. forming or dividing words into syllables

syllable [ˈsiləbl] – n. a unit of spoken language larger than a phoneme: the word `pocket’ has two syllables

syllabus [ˈsiləbəs] – n. an integrated course of academic studies

sylph [silf] – n. a slender graceful young woman

symbiosis [simbaiˈəusis] – n. the relation between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other

symbiotic [.simbaiˈɔtik] – adj. used of organisms (especially of different species) living together but not necessarily in a relation beneficial to each

symbol [ˈsimbəl] – n. an arbitrary sign (written or printed) that has acquired a conventional significance

symbolic  – adj. serving as a visible symbol for something abstract: the spinning wheel was as symbolic of colonical Massachusetts as the codfish

symbolism [ˈsimbəlizəm] – n. the practice of investing things with symbolic meaning

symbolize [ˈsimbəlaiz] – v. represent or identify by using a symbol; use symbols: The poet symbolizes love in this poem

symbology [simˈbɔlədʒi] – n. the study or the use of symbols and symbolism

symmetrical [siˈmetrikəl] – adj. having similarity in size, shape, and relative position of corresponding parts

symmetry [ˈsimitri] – n. balance among the parts of something

sympathetic [.simpəˈθetik] – adj. expressing or feeling or resulting from sympathy or compassion or friendly fellow feelings; disposed toward: sympathetic to the students’ cause

sympathize [ˈsimpəθaiz] – v. share the feelings of; understand the sentiments of

sympathy [ˈsimpəθi] – n. an inclination to support or be loyal to or to agree with an opinion

symphonic [simˈfɔnik] – adj. harmonious in sound: the symphonic hum of a million insects

symphonious [simˈfəuniəs] – adj. harmonious in sound

symphony [ˈsimfəni] – n. a large orchestra; can perform symphonies: we heard the Vienna symphony

symptom [ˈsimptəm] – n. anything that accompanies X and is regarded as an indication of X’s existence

synapse [ˈsainæps, ˈsin-] – n. the junction between two neurons (axon-to-dendrite) or between a neuron and a muscle: nerve impulses cross a synapse through the action of neurotransmitters

synchronism [ˈsiŋkrənizəm] – n. the relation that exists when things occur at the same time

synchronize [ˈsiŋkrənaiz] – v. happen at the same time

syndicate [ˈsindikit] – n. a loose affiliation of gangsters in charge of organized criminal activities

syneresis [siˈniərəsis] – n. the contraction of two vowels into a diphthong

synod [ˈsinəd] – n. a council convened to discuss ecclesiastical business

synonym [ˈsinənim] – n. two words that can be interchanged in a context are said to be synonymous relative to that context

synonymous [siˈnɔniməs] – adj. (of words) meaning the same or nearly the same

synopsis [siˈnɔpsis] – n. a sketchy summary of the main points of an argument or theory

synthesis [ˈsinθisis] – n. the process of producing a chemical compound (usually by the union of simpler chemical compounds)

synthesize [ˈsinθisaiz] – v. combine so as to form a more complex, product: his operas synthesize music and drama in perfect harmony

synthesizer [ˈsinθisaizə] – n. an intellectual who synthesizes or uses synthetic methods

synthetic [sinˈθetik] – adj. not of natural origin; prepared or made artificially: synthetic leather

syrup [ˈsirəp] – n. a thick sweet sticky liquid

systematic [.sistiˈmætik] – adj. characterized by order and planning: the investigation was very systematic

systematize [ˈsistimətaiz] – v. arrange according to a system or reduce to a system: systematize our scientific knowledge

table [ˈteibl] – n. a set of data arranged in rows and columns: see table 1

tableau [ˈtæbləu] – n. a group of people attractively arranged (as if in a painting)

tableland [ˈteibllænd] – n. a relatively flat highland

tableware [ˈteib(ə)lweə(r)] – n. articles for use at the table (dishes and silverware and glassware)

tabulate [ˈtæbjuleit] – v. shape or cut with a flat surface

tacit [ˈtæsit] – adj. implied by or inferred from actions or statements: a tacit agreement

taciturn [ˈtæsitə:n] – adj. habitually reserved and uncommunicative

tack [tæk] – n. the heading or position of a vessel relative to the trim of its sails

tact [tækt] – n. consideration in dealing with others and avoiding giving offense

tactician [tækˈtiʃən] – n. a person who is skilled at planning tactics

tactics [ˈtæktiks] – n. the branch of military science dealing with detailed maneuvers to achieve objectives set by strategy

tactile [ˈtæktail] – adj. of or relating to or proceeding from the sense of touch: a tactile reflex

tadpole [ˈtædpəul] – n. a larval frog or toad

tag [tæg] – n. a label associated with something for the purpose of identification: semantic tags were attached in order to identify different meanings of the word

tailor [ˈteilə] – v. adjust to a specific need or market: tailor your needs to your surroundings

taint [teint; tent] – v. place under suspicion or cast doubt upon

tale [teil] – n. a trivial lie

talent [ˈtælənt] – n. natural abilities or qualities

tally [ˈtæli] – v. be compatible, similar or consistent; coincide in their characteristics

tambourine [.tæmbəˈri:n] – n. a shallow drum with a single drumhead and with metallic disks in the sides

tame [teim] – v. correct by punishment or discipline

tamper [ˈtæmpə] – v. play around with or alter or falsify, usually secretively or dishonestly: Someone tampered with the documents on my desk

tangency [ˈtændʒənsi] – n. (electronics) a junction where things (as two electrical conductors) touch or are in physical contact

tangent [ˈtændʒənt] – n. a straight line or plane that touches a curve or curved surface at a point but does not intersect it at that point

tangible [ˈtændʒəbəl] – adj. perceptible by the senses especially the sense of touch: skin with a tangible roughness

tank [tæŋk] – n. a large (usually metallic) vessel for holding gases or liquids

tannery [ˈtænəri] – n. workplace where skins and hides are tanned

tantalize [ˈtæntl-aiz] – v. harass with persistent criticism or carping

tantamount [ˈtæntəmaunt] – adj. being essentially equal to something: his statement was tantamount to an admission of guilt

tap [tæp] – v. draw from or dip into to get something: tap one’s memory

tapestry [ˈtæpistri] – n. a heavy textile with a woven design; used for curtains and upholstery

tapeworm [ˈteipwɜ:m] – n. ribbonlike flatworms that are parasitic in the intestines of humans and other vertebrates

tapir  – n. large inoffensive chiefly nocturnal ungulate of tropical America and southeast Asia having a heavy body and fleshy snout

taproot  – n. (botany) main root of a plant growing straight downward from the stem

tardiness [ˈtɑ:dinis] – n. the quality or habit of not adhering to a correct or usual or expected time

tardy [ˈtɑ:di] – adj. after the expected or usual time; delayed: tardy children are sent to the principal

tariff [ˈtærif] – n. a government tax on imports or exports

tarnish [ˈtɑ:niʃ] – n. discoloration of metal surface caused by oxidation

taste [teist] – n. a strong liking

tasteless [ˈteistlis] – adj. lacking flavor

tasty [ˈteisti] – adj. pleasing to the sense of taste: a tasty morsel

taunt [tɔ:nt] – n. aggravation by deriding or mocking or criticizing

taut [tɔ:t] – adj. pulled or drawn tight: taut sails

tavern [ˈtævə(:)n] – n. a building with a bar that is licensed to sell alcoholic drinks

taxation [tækˈseiʃən] – n. charge against a citizen’s person or property or activity for the support of government

taxicab [ˈtæksikæb] – n. a car driven by a person whose job is to take passengers where they want to go in exchange for money

taxidermy [ˈtæksidə:mi] – n. the art of mounting the skins of animals so that they have lifelike appearance

teapot [ˈti:pɔt] – n. pot for brewing tea; usually has a spout and handle

technicality [tekniˈkæliti] – n. a detail that is considered insignificant

technique [tekˈni:k] – n. a practical method or art applied to some particular task

technology [tekˈnɔlədʒi] – n. the practical application of science to commerce or industry

tectonic  – adj. pertaining to the structure or movement of the earth’s crust: tectonic plates

tectonics [tekˈtɔniks] – n. the science of architecture

tedious [ˈti:diəs] – adj. so lacking in interest as to cause mental weariness: tedious days on the train

tedium [ˈti:diəm] – n. dullness owing to length or slowness

teem [ti:m] – v. move in large numbers

telegraph [ˈteligrɑ:f] – n. apparatus used to communicate at a distance over a wire (usually in Morse code)

telepathy [tiˈlepəθi] – n. apparent communication from one mind to another without using sensory perceptions

telephony [tiˈlefəni] – n. transmitting speech at a distance

telescope [ˈteliskəup] – v. crush together or collapse: In the accident, the cars telescoped

telltale [ˈtelteil] – n. someone who gossips indiscreetly

temerity [tiˈmeriti] – n. fearless daring

temperance [ˈtempərəns] – n. the trait of avoiding excesses

temperate [ˈtempərit] – adj. (of weather or climate) free from extremes; mild; or characteristic of such weather or climate: a temperate region

temperature [ˈtempritʃə] – n. the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment (corresponding to its molecular activity)

temple [ˈtempl] – n. place of worship consisting of an edifice for the worship of a deity

temporal [ˈtempərəl] – adj. not eternal: temporal matters of but fleeting moment

temporarily [ˈtempərərili] – adv. for a limited time only; not permanently: he will work here temporarily

temporary [ˈtempəreri] – adj. not permanent; not lasting: temporary housing

temporize [ˈtempəraiz] – v. draw out a discussion or process in order to gain time: The speaker temporized in order to delay the vote

tempt [tempt] – v. dispose or incline or entice to: We were tempted by the delicious-looking food

tempter [`temptə] – n. a person who tempts others: Satan is the great tempter of mankind

tempting [ˈtemptiŋ] – adj. highly attractive and able to arouse hope or desire: a tempting invitation

tenacious [tiˈneiʃəs] – adj. good at remembering: tenacious memory

tenant [ˈtenənt] – n. someone who pays rent to use land or a building or a car that is owned by someone else: the landlord can evict a tenant who doesn’t pay the rent

tendency [ˈtendənsi] – n. an attitude of mind especially one that favors one alternative over others: a tendency to be too strict

tender [ˈtendə] – adj. given to sympathy or gentleness or sentimentality: a tender heart

tenderness [ˈtendənis] – n. a pain that is felt (as when the area is touched): the best results are generally obtained by inserting the needle into the point of maximum tenderness

tenement [ˈtenimənt] – n. a run-down apartment house barely meeting minimal standards

tenet [ˈtenit] – n. a religious doctrine that is proclaimed as true without proof

tenor [ˈtenə] – n. the adult male singing voice above baritone

tense [tens] – v. increase the tension on: alternately relax and tense your calf muscle

tensile [ˈtensail] – adj. capable of being shaped or bent or drawn out: made of highly tensile steel alloy

tension [ˈtenʃən] – n. (psychology) a state of mental or emotional strain or suspense: he suffered from fatigue and emotional tension

tentacle [ˈtentikəl] – n. any of various elongated tactile or prehensile flexible organs that occur on the head or near the mouth in many animals; used for feeling or grasping or locomotion

tentative [ˈtentətiv] – adj. under terms not final or fully worked out or agreed upon: just a tentative schedule

tenuous [ˈtenjuəs] – adj. having thin consistency: a tenuous fluid

tenure [ˈtenjuə] – n. the term during which some position is held

tepee  – n. a Native American tent; usually of conical shape

tercentenary [tə:senˈti:nəri] – n. the 300th anniversary (or the celebration of it)

term [tə:m] – n. a word or expression used for some particular thing: he learned many medical terms

termagant [ˈtə:məgənt] – n. a scolding nagging bad-tempered woman

terminal [ˈtə:minl] – adj. of or relating to or situated at the ends of a delivery route: freight pickup is a terminal service

terminate [ˈtə:mineit] – v. bring to an end or halt: The attack on Poland terminated the relatively peaceful period after WW I

termination [.tə:miˈneiʃən] – n. a coming to an end of a contract period

terminology [.tə:miˈnɔlədʒi] – n. a system of words used to name things in a particular discipline: legal terminology

terminus [ˈtə:minəs] – n. a place where something ends or is complete

termite [ˈtə:mait] – n. whitish soft-bodied ant-like social insect that feeds on wood

terrace [ˈterəs] – n. usually paved outdoor area adjoining a residence

terrain [teˈrein] – n. a piece of ground having specific characteristics or military potential: they decided to attack across the rocky terrain

terrene  – adj. of or relating to or inhabiting the land as opposed to the sea or air

terrestrial [tiˈrestriəl] – adj. of or relating to or inhabiting the land as opposed to the sea or air

terribly [ˈteribli] – adv. used as intensifiers: terribly interesting

terrific [təˈrifik] – adj. very great or intense: a terrific noise

terrify [ˈterifai] – v. fill with terror; frighten greatly

territorial [.teriˈtɔ:riəl] – adj. of or relating to a territory: the territorial government of the Virgin Islands

territory [ˈteritəri] – n. a region marked off for administrative or other purposes

terror [ˈterə] – n. an overwhelming feeling of fear and anxiety

terse [tə:s] – adj. brief and to the point; effectively cut short: short and terse and easy to understand

tessellation  – n. the careful juxtaposition of shapes in a pattern: a tessellation of hexagons

testament [ˈtestəment] – n. a profession of belief: he stated his political testament

testator [tesˈteitə] – n. a person who makes a will

testimonial [.testiˈməuniəl] – n. something that serves as evidence

testimony [ˈtestiməni] – n. a solemn statement made under oath

textile [ˈtekstail] – n. artifact made by weaving or felting or knitting or crocheting natural or synthetic fibers

texture [ˈtekstʃə] – n. the feel of a surface or a fabric: the wall had a smooth texture

textured [ˈtekstʃəd] – adj. having surface roughness: a textured wall of stucco

thatch [θætʃ] – n. plant stalks used as roofing material

thaw [θɔ:] – n. warm weather following a freeze; snow and ice melt: they welcomed the spring thaw

theft [θeft] – n. the act of taking something from someone unlawfully

theism [ˈθi:izəm] – n. the doctrine or belief in the existence of a God or gods

theist [ˈθi:ist] – n. one who believes in the existence of a god or gods

theme [θi:m] – n. a unifying idea that is a recurrent element in literary or artistic work: it was the usual `boy gets girl’ theme

theocracy [θiˈɔkrəsi] – n. a political unit governed by a deity (or by officials thought to be divinely guided)

theologian [θi:əˈlɔdʒən] – n. someone who is learned in theology or who speculates about theology

theological [θiəˈlɔdʒikəl] – adj. of or relating to or concerning theology: theological seminar

theology [θiˈɔlədʒi] – n. the rational and systematic study of religion and its influences and of the nature of religious truth

theoretical [θiəˈretikəl] – adj. concerned primarily with theories or hypotheses rather than practical considerations: theoretical science

theorist [ˈθi:ərist] – n. someone who theorizes (especially in science or art)

theorize [ˈθiəraiz] – v. to believe especially on uncertain or tentative grounds

therapeutic [.θerəˈpju:tik] – adj. tending to cure or restore to health: a therapeutic agent

thereabouts  – adv. near that time or date: come at noon or thereabouts

thereafter [ðɛəˈæftə] – adv. from that time on: thereafter he never called again

thereby [ˈðɛəˈbai] – adv. by that means or because of that: He knocked over the red wine, thereby ruining the table cloth

therefor  – adv. (in formal usage, especially legal usage) for that or for it: ordering goods and enclosing payment therefor

therefore [ðɛəˈfɔ:] – adv. (used to introduce a logical conclusion) from that fact or reason or as a result: therefore X must be true

thermal [ˈθə:məl,ˈθə:ml] – adj. relating to or associated with heat: thermal movements of molecules

thermodynamics [ˈθə:məudaiˈnæmiks] – n. the branch of physics concerned with the conversion of different forms of energy

thermoelectric [,θə:məuiˈlektrik] – adj. involving or resulting from thermoelectricity

thermoelectricity [ˈθə:məui,lekˈtrisiti] – n. electricity produced by heat (as in a thermocouple)

thesis [ˈθi:sis] – n. an unproved statement put forward as a premise in an argument

thigh [θai] – n. the part of the leg between the hip and the knee

thorn [θɔ:n] – n. something that causes irritation and annoyance: he’s a thorn in my flesh

thorny [ˈθɔ:ni] – adj. bristling with perplexities: the thorny question of states’ rights

thorough [ˈθʌrə] – adj. painstakingly careful and accurate: our accountant is thorough

thoroughbred [ˈθʌrəbred] – n. a well-bred person

thoroughfare [ˈθʌrəfɛə] – n. a public road from one place to another

thoughtful [ˈθɔ:tfəl] – adj. having intellectual depth: a deeply thoughtful essay

thrall [θrɔ:l] – n. the state of being under the control of another person

thread [θred] – v. to move or cause to move in a sinuous, spiral, or circular course

threadlike [ˈθredlaik] – adj. thin in diameter; resembling a thread

threaten [ˈθretn] – v. to utter intentions of injury or punishment against:: He threatened me when I tried to call the police

three-dimensional [θri:ˈdimenʃənəl] – adj. involving or relating to three dimensions or aspects; giving the illusion of depth: lifelike three-dimensional characters

threshold [ˈθreʃhəuld] – n. the starting point for a new state or experience: on the threshold of manhood

thrifty [ˈθrifti] – adj. careful and diligent in the use of resources

thrive [θraiv] – v. grow vigorously

throng [θrɔŋ] – n. a large gathering of people

throttle [ˈθrɔtl] – v. place limits on (extent or access)

thrust [θrʌst] – v. push forcefully: He thrust his chin forward

thump [θʌmp] – v. move rhythmically

thunderous  – adj. loud enough to cause (temporary) hearing loss

thunderstorm [ˈθʌndəstɔ:m] – n. a storm resulting from strong rising air currents; heavy rain or hail along with thunder and lightning

thwart [θwɔ:t] – n. a crosspiece spreading the gunnels of a boat; used as a seat in a rowboat

tide [taid] – n. the periodic rise and fall of the sea level under the gravitational pull of the moon

tie [tai] – n. a social or business relationship: he was sorry he had to sever his ties with other members of the team

tile [tail] – n. a flat thin rectangular slab (as of fired clay or rubber or linoleum) used to cover surfaces

till [til] – n. a treasury for government funds

tilt [tilt] – n. a contentious speech act; a dispute where there is strong disagreement

tilth [tilθ] – n. the state of aggregation of soil and its condition for supporting plant growth

timber [ˈtimbə] – n. the wood of trees cut and prepared for use as building material

timbre [ˈtæmbə, ˈtim-] – n. (music) the distinctive property of a complex sound (a voice or noise or musical sound): the timbre of her soprano was rich and lovely

time-consuming [ˈtaimkən.sju:miŋ] – adj. of a task that takes time and patience

timer  – n. (sports) an official who keeps track of the time elapsed

timid [ˈtimid] – adj. showing fear and lack of confidence

timidity [tiˈmiditi] – n. fear of the unknown or unfamiliar or fear of making decisions

timorous [ˈtimərəs] – adj. timid by nature or revealing timidity: timorous little mouse

tincture [ˈtiŋktʃə] – n. a substances that colors metals

tinge [tindʒ] – n. a slight but appreciable amount

tinplate [ˈtinpleit] – n. a thin sheet of metal (iron or steel) coated with tin to prevent rusting; used especially for cans, pots, and tins

tint [tint] – n. a quality of a given color that differs slightly from another color

tip [tip] – v. cause to tilt: tip the screen upward

tipple [ˈtipəl] – n. a serving of drink (usually alcoholic) drawn from a keg

tipsy [ˈtipsi] – adj. slightly intoxicated

tirade [taiˈreid] – n. a speech of violent denunciation

tireless [ˈtaiəlis] – adj. showing sustained enthusiastic action with unflagging vitality: a tireless worker

tiresome [ˈtaiəsəm] – adj. so lacking in interest as to cause mental weariness: the tiresome chirping of a cricket

tissue [ˈtiʃu] – n. part of an organism consisting of an aggregate of cells having a similar structure and function

titanium  – n. a light strong grey lustrous corrosion-resistant metallic element used in strong lightweight alloys (as for airplane parts); the main sources are rutile and ilmenite

title [ˈtaitl] – n. a heading that names a statute or legislative bill; may give a brief summary of the matters it deals with

toad [təud] – n. any of various tailless stout-bodied amphibians with long hind limbs for leaping; semiaquatic and terrestrial species

toe [təu] – v. drive obliquely: toe a nail

toed [təʊd] – adj. having a toe or toes of a specified kind; often used in combination: long-toed

toil [tɔil] – n. productive work (especially physical work done for wages)

toilsome [ˈtɔilsəm] – adj. characterized by effort to the point of exhaustion; especially physical effort

tolerable [ˈtɔlərəbl] – adj. capable of being borne or endured: the climate is at least tolerable

tolerance [ˈtɔlərəns] – n. a disposition to allow freedom of choice and behavior

tolerant [ˈtɔlərənt] – adj. showing respect for the rights or opinions or practices of others

tolerate [ˈtɔləreit] – v. put up with something or somebody unpleasant: he learned to tolerate the heat

toleration [tɔləˈreiʃən] – n. official recognition of the right of individuals to hold dissenting opinions (especially in religion)

toll [təul] – n. a fee levied for the use of roads or bridges (used for maintenance)

tonal  – adj. employing variations in pitch to distinguish meanings of otherwise similar words: Chinese is a tonal language

topaz  – n. a yellow quartz

topographical [.tɔpəˈgræfikəl] – adj. concerned with topography: a topographical engineer

topography [təˈpɔgrəfi] – n. the configuration of a surface and the relations among its man-made and natural features

topology  – n. topographic study of a given place (especially the history of the place as indicated by its topography): Greenland’s topology has been shaped by the glaciers of the ice age

topsoil [ˈtɔpˈsɔil] – n. the layer of soil on the surface

torment [ˈtɔ:ment,tɔ:ˈment] – n. unbearable physical pain

tornado [tɔ:ˈneidəu] – n. a purified and potent form of cocaine that is smoked rather than snorted; highly addictive

torpedo [tɔ:ˈpi:dəu] – n. a professional killer who uses a gun

torpor [ˈtɔ:pə] – n. inactivity resulting from lethargy and lack of vigor or energy

torque [tɔ:k] – n. a twisting force

torrent [ˈtɔrənt] – n. a heavy rain

torrential [tɔˈrenʃəl] – adj. resembling a torrent in force and abundance: torrential applause

torrid [ˈtɔrid] – adj. characterized by intense emotion: a torrid love affair

tortious  – adj. of or pertaining to the nature of a tort: tortious acts

tortuous [ˈtɔ:tjuəs] – adj. highly complex or intricate and occasionally devious: tortuous legal procedures

torturous [`tɔ:tʃərəs] – adj. extremely painful

total [ˈtəutl] – v. add up in number or quantity

totality [təuˈtæliti] – n. the quality of being complete and indiscriminate: the totality of war and its consequences

touchdown [ˈtʌtʃdaʊn] – n. a score in American football; being in possession of the ball across the opponents’ goal line

touched [tʌtʃt] – adj. having come into contact

touching [ˈtʌtʃiŋ] – n. the event of something coming in contact with the body

tough [tʌf] – adj. not given to gentleness or sentimentality: a tough character

tour [tuə] – n. a journey or route all the way around a particular place or area: they took an extended tour of Europe

tournament [ˈtuənəmənt] – n. a sporting competition in which contestants play a series of games to decide the winner

tourniquet [ˈtuəniket] – n. bandage that stops the flow of blood from an artery by applying pressure

tow [təu] – n. the act of hauling something (as a vehicle) by means of a hitch or rope: the truck gave him a tow to the garage

tower [ˈtauə] – n. a structure taller than its diameter; can stand alone or be attached to a larger building

toxic [ˈtɔksik] – adj. of or relating to or caused by a toxin or poison: suffering from exposure to toxic substances

trace [treis] – v. follow, discover, or ascertain the course of development of something: trace the student’s progress

track [træk] – n. evidence pointing to a possible solution

tract [trækt] – n. an extended area of land

tractable [ˈtræktəbəl] – adj. easily managed (controlled or taught or molded): tractable young minds

traction [ˈtrækʃən] – n. the friction between a body and the surface on which it moves (as between an automobile tire and the road)

tractor [ˈtræktə] – n. a wheeled vehicle with large wheels; used in farming and other applications

trade [treid] – n. the commercial exchange (buying and selling on domestic or international markets) of goods and services: Venice was an important center of trade with the East

traduce [trəˈdju:s] – v. speak unfavorably about

tragedy [ˈtrædʒidi] – n. an event resulting in great loss and misfortune

trail [treil] – v. to lag or linger behind

trainload [ˈtreinləʊd] – n. quantity that can be carried by a train

trait [treit] – n. a distinguishing feature of your personal nature

trajectory [trəˈdʒektəri] – n. the path followed by an object moving through space

trammel [ˈtræməl] – n. a fishing net with three layers; the outer two are coarse mesh and the loose inner layer is fine mesh

trample [ˈtræmpl] – v. tread or stomp heavily or roughly: The soldiers trampled across the fields

tranquil [ˈtræŋkwil] – adj. (of a body of water) free from disturbance by heavy waves: a lake of tranquil blue water reflecting a tranquil blue sky

tranquility [træŋˈkwiliti] – n. a disposition free from stress or emotion

tranquilize [ˈtræŋkwilaiz] – v. make calm or still

transact [trænsˈækt] – v. conduct business: transact with foreign governments

transaction [trænˈzækʃən] – n. the act of transacting within or between groups (as carrying on commercial activities): no transactions are possible without him

transalpine [ˈtrænzˈælpain] – n. one living on or coming from the other side of the Alps from Italy

transatlantic [trænsətˈlæntik] – adj. crossing the Atlantic Ocean: transatlantic flight

transcend [trænˈsend] – v. be greater in scope or size than some standard

transcendent [trænˈsendənt] – adj. exceeding or surpassing usual limits especially in excellence

transcontinental [ˈtrænzkɔntiˈnentəl] – adj. spanning or crossing or on the farther side of a continent: transcontinental railway

transcribe [trænˈskraib] – v. write out from speech, notes, etc.

transcript [ˈtrænskript] – n. a reproduction of a written record (e.g. of a legal or school record)

transfer [trænsˈfə:] – v. move from one place to another: transfer the data

transferee [,trænsfə:ˈri:] – n. (law) someone to whom a title or property is conveyed

transference [trænsˈfə:rəns] – n. transferring ownership

transfigure [trænsˈfigə] – v. change completely the nature or appearance of: The treatment and diet transfigured her into a beautiful young woman

transform [trænsˈfɔ:m] – v. change or alter in form, appearance, or nature: This experience transformed her completely

transformation [.trænsfəˈmeiʃən] – n. a qualitative change

transfuse [trænsˈfju:z] – v. impart gradually: transfuse love of music into the students

transfusion [trænsˈfju:ʒn] – n. the introduction of blood or blood plasma into a vein or artery

transgress [trænsˈgres] – v. act in disregard of laws, rules, contracts, or promises

transience [ˈtrænziəns] – n. an impermanence that suggests the inevitability of ending or dying

transient [ˈtrænʃənt,ˈtrænziənt] – n. one who stays for only a short time: transient laborers

transition [trænˈziʃən] – n. the act of passing from one state or place to the next

transitory [ˈtrænzitəri] – adj. lasting a very short time: love is transitory but it is eternal

translate [trænsˈleit] – v. restate (words) from one language into another language: I have to translate when my in-laws from Austria visit the U.S.

translucence [trænsˈlu:sns] – n. the quality of allowing light to pass diffusely

translucent [trænzˈlusənt, træns-] – adj. allowing light to pass through diffusely: translucent amber

transmissible [trænzˈmisəbl] – adj. occurring among members of a family usually by heredity

transmission [trænsˈmiʃən] – n. communication by means of transmitted signals

transmit [trænzˈmit] – v. transfer to another

transmitter [trænzˈmitə] – n. any agent (person or animal or microorganism) that carries and transmits a disease: aphids are transmitters of plant diseases

transmontane  – adj. on or coming from the other side of the mountains (from the speaker): the transmontane section of the state

transmute [trænzˈmju:t] – v. change in outward structure or looks

transparent [trænsˈperənt] – adj. transmitting light; able to be seen through with clarity: transparent crystal

transpire [trænˈspaiə] – v. pass through the tissue or substance or its pores or interstices, as of gas

transplant [trænsˈplɑ:nt] – v. lift and reset in another soil or situation

transport [trænsˈpɔ:t] – n. the commercial enterprise of moving goods and materials

transpose  – v. change the order or arrangement of: Dyslexics often transpose letters in a word

transposition [,trænspəˈziʃən] – n. any abnormal position of the organs of the body

transverse [ˈtrænzvə:s] – adj. extending or lying across; in a crosswise direction; at right angles to the long axis: from the transverse hall the stairway ascends gracefully

trap [træp] – n. a device in which something (usually an animal) can be caught and penned

trapper [ˈtræpə] – n. someone who sets traps for animals (usually to obtain their furs)

trash [træʃ] – n. worthless material that is to be disposed of

travail [ˈtræveil] – n. concluding state of pregnancy; from the onset of contractions to the birth of a child

traverse [ˈtrævə(:)s] – n. a horizontal beam that extends across something

travesty [ˈtrævisti] – n. a comedy characterized by broad satire and improbable situations

tray [trei] – n. an open receptacle for holding or displaying or serving articles or food

treacherous [ˈtretʃərəs] – adj. dangerously unstable and unpredictable: treacherous winding roads

treachery [ˈtretʃəri] – n. betrayal of a trust

tread [tred] – v. put down or press the foot, place the foot: For fools rush in where angels fear to tread

treadmill [ˈtredmil] – n. an exercise device consisting of an endless belt on which a person can walk or jog without changing place

treason [ˈtri:zn] – n. a crime that undermines the offender’s government

treasonable [ˈtri:znəbl] – adj. having the character of, or characteristic of, a traitor

treasurer [ˈtreʒərə] – n. an officer charged with receiving and disbursing funds

treasury [ˈtreʒəri] – n. the funds of a government or institution or individual

treatise [ˈtri:tiz, -tis] – n. a formal exposition

treatment [ˈtri:tmənt] – n. the management of someone or something: the treatment of water sewage

treaty [ˈtri:ti] – n. a written agreement between two states or sovereigns

treble [ˈtrebəl] – adj. having or denoting a high range: the boy still had a fine treble voice

tremendous [triˈmendəs] – adj. extraordinarily large in size or extent or amount or power or degree: tremendous sweeping plains

tremor [ˈtremə] – n. an involuntary vibration (as if from illness or fear)

tremulous [ˈtremjuləs] – adj. (of the voice) quivering as from weakness or fear: spoke timidly in a tremulous voice

trench [trentʃ] – v. impinge or infringe upon: This matter entrenches on other domains

trenchant [ˈtrentʃənt] – adj. having keenness and forcefulness and penetration in thought, expression, or intellect: trenchant criticism

trend [trend] – n. a general direction in which something tends to move: the trend of the stock market

trepidation [.trepiˈdeiʃən] – n. a feeling of alarm or dread

trespass [ˈtrespəs, -pæs] – v. enter unlawfully on someone’s property: Don’t trespass on my land!

trespasser [ˈtrespəsə] – n. someone who intrudes on the privacy or property of another without permission

trestle [ˈtresl] – n. a supporting tower used to support a bridge

triad [ˈtraiəd] – n. the cardinal number that is the sum of one and one and one

trial [ˈtraiəl] – n. the act of testing something: in the experimental trials the amount of carbon was measured separately

triangle [ˈtraiæŋgl] – n. a three-sided polygon

tribal [ˈtraibəl] – adj. relating to or characteristic of a tribe: tribal customs

tribe [traib] – n. a social division of (usually preliterate) people

tribulation [.tribjuˈleiʃən] – n. an annoying or frustrating or catastrophic event: life is full of tribulations

tribune [ˈtribju:n] – n. (ancient Rome) an official elected by the plebeians to protect their interests

tributary [ˈtribjutəri] – adj. (of a stream) flowing into a larger stream

tribute [ˈtribju:t] – n. something given or done as an expression of esteem

trickery [ˈtrikəri] – n. verbal misrepresentation intended to take advantage of you in some way

trickle [ˈtrikl] – n. flowing in drops; the formation and falling of drops of liquid

tricolor [ˈtrikələ] – n. a flag having three colored stripes (especially the French flag)

tricycle [ˈtraisikl] – n. a vehicle with three wheels that is moved by foot pedals

trident [ˈtraidnt] – n. a spear with three prongs

triennial [traiˈenjəl] – n. the 300th anniversary (or the celebration of it)

trigger [ˈtrigə] – n. lever that activates the firing mechanism of a gun

trillion  – n. a very large indefinite number (usually hyperbole)

trilogy [ˈtrilədʒi] – n. a set of three literary or dramatic works related in subject or theme

trim [trim] – v. remove the edges from and cut down to the desired size: trim the photograph

trinity [ˈtriniti] – n. the cardinal number that is the sum of one and one and one

trio [ˈtri:əu] – n. the cardinal number that is the sum of one and one and one

triple [ˈtripl] – n. a base hit at which the batter stops safely at third base

triplicate [ˈtriplikit] – n. one of three copies; any of three things that correspond to one another exactly

triplicity [tripˈlisiti] – n. the property of being triple

tripod [ˈtraipɔd] – n. a three-legged rack used for support

trisect [traiˈsekt] – v. cut in three: trisect a line

trite [trait] – adj. repeated too often; overfamiliar through overuse: his remarks were trite and commonplace

triumph [ˈtraiəmf] – v. prove superior

triumvir [traiˈʌmvə] – n. one of a group of three sharing public administration or civil authority especially in ancient Rome

trivial [ˈtriviəl] – adj. (informal) small and of little importance

troop [tru:p] – n. a group of soldiers

tropical [ˈtrɔpikəl] – adj. of or relating to the tropics, or either tropic: tropical year

troublesome [ˈtrʌblsəm] – adj. difficult to deal with: a troublesome infection

troubling [ˈtrʌbliŋ] – adj. causing distress or worry or anxiety: a new and troubling thought

troupe [tru:p] – n. organization of performers and associated personnel (especially theatrical)

trout  – n. flesh of any of several primarily freshwater game and food fishes

trove [trəuv] – n. treasure of unknown ownership found hidden (usually in the earth)

truculence [ˈtrʌkjuləns] – n. obstreperous and defiant aggressiveness

truculent [ˈtrʌkjulənt] – adj. defiantly aggressive: a truculent speech against the new government

truism [ˈtru:izəm] – n. an obvious truth

trumpet [ˈtrʌmpit] – n. a brass musical instrument with a brilliant tone; has a narrow tube and a flared bell and is played by means of valves

trumpeter [ˈtrʌmpitə] – n. (formal) a person who announces important news

trunk [trʌŋk] – n. the main stem of a tree; usually covered with bark; the bole is usually the part that is commercially useful for lumber

trustworthy [ˈtrʌst.wə:ði] – adj. worthy of trust or belief: a trustworthy report

truthful [ˈtru:θful] – adj. conforming to truth: a truthful statement

tub [tʌb] – n. a relatively large open container that you fill with water and use to wash the body

tube [tju:b] – n. conduit consisting of a long hollow object (usually cylindrical) used to hold and conduct objects or liquids or gases

tug [tʌg] – v. pull hard: The prisoner tugged at the chains

tuition [tju:ˈiʃən] – n. a fee paid for instruction (especially for higher education): tuition and room and board were more than $25,000

tumble [ˈtʌmbl] – v. fall down, as if collapsing: The tower of the World Trade Center tumbled after the plane hit it

tumid [ˈtju:mid, ˈtu:-] – adj. ostentatiously lofty in style: tumid political prose

tumult [ˈtju:mʌlt] – n. a state of commotion and noise and confusion

tundra [ˈtʌndrə] – n. a vast treeless plain in the Arctic regions where the subsoil is permanently frozen

tuner  – n. an electronic receiver that detects and demodulates and amplifies transmitted signals

tunic  – n. an enveloping or covering membrane or layer of body tissue

tunnel [ˈtʌnəl] – n. a passageway through or under something, usually underground (especially one for trains or cars): the tunnel reduced congestion at that intersection

turbulence [ˈtɜ:bjʊləns] – n. unstable flow of a liquid or gas

turbulent [ˈtə:bjulənt] – adj. characterized by unrest or disorder or insubordination: a turbulent and unruly childhood

turgid [ˈtə:dʒid] – adj. ostentatiously lofty in style

turmoil [ˈtə:mɔil] – n. a violent disturbance

turnpike  – n. (from 16th to 19th centuries) gates set across a road to prevent passage until a toll had been paid

turpitude [ˈtə:pitju:d] – n. a corrupt or depraved or degenerate act or practice: the various turpitudes of modern society

turquoise [ˈtə:kwɑ:z, kwɔiz] – n. a blue to grey green mineral consisting of copper aluminum phosphate: blue turquoise is valued as a gemstone

tutelage [ˈtju:tilidʒ] – n. teaching pupils individually (usually by a tutor hired privately)

tutelar [ˈtju:tlə] – adj. providing protective supervision; watching over or safeguarding: tutelary gods

tutor [ˈtju:tə] – v. act as a guardian to someone

tutorial [tju:ˈtɔ:riəl] – n. a session of intensive tuition given by a tutor to an individual or to a small number of students

tutorship [ˈtju:təʃip] – n. teaching pupils individually (usually by a tutor hired privately)

twig [twig] – v. understand, usually after some initial difficulty

twine [twain] – v. arrange or or coil around

twinge [twindʒ] – v. cause a stinging pain

twist [twist] – n. an unforeseen development

tycoon [taiˈku:n] – n. a very wealthy or powerful businessman

typical [ˈtipikəl] – adj. exhibiting the qualities or characteristics that identify a group or kind or category: a typical American girl

typify [ˈtipifai] – v. express indirectly by an image, form, or model; be a symbol

typographical [,taipəˈgræfikəl] – adj. relating to or occurring or used in typography: a typographical error

typography [taiˈpɔgrəfi] – n. the craft of composing type and printing from it

tyrannical [tiˈrænikəl] – adj. marked by unjust severity or arbitrary behavior: a tyrannical parent

tyranny [ˈtirəni] – n. dominance through threat of punishment and violence

tyro [ˈtaiərəu] – n. someone new to a field or activity

ubiquitous [juˈbikwitəs] – adj. being present everywhere at once

ubiquity  – n. the state of being everywhere at once (or seeming to be everywhere at once)

ulterior [ʌlˈtiəriə] – adj. lying beyond what is openly revealed or avowed (especially being kept in the background or deliberately concealed): looked too closely for an ulterior purpose in all knowledge

ultimate [ˈʌltimit] – adj. furthest or highest in degree or order; utmost or extreme: the ultimate achievement

ultimately [ˈʌltimətli] – adv. as the end result of a succession or process: ultimately he had to give in

ultimatum [.ʌltiˈmeitəm] – n. a final peremptory demand

ultramontane [,ʌltrəˈmɔntrein] – adj. on or relating to or characteristic of the region or peoples beyond the Alps from Italy (or north of the Alps)

ultrasonic [ˈʌltrəˈsɔnik] – adj. having frequencies above those of audible sound

ultraviolet [ˈʌltrəˈvaiəlit] – adj. having or employing wavelengths shorter than light but longer than X-rays; lying outside the visible spectrum at its violet end: ultraviolet radiation

umbrage [ˈʌmbridʒ] – n. a feeling of anger caused by being offended

unaccountable [ˈʌnəˈkauntəbl] – adj. not to be accounted for or explained: perceptible only as unaccountable influences that hinder progress

unadorned [ˈʌnəˈdɔ:nd] – adj. not decorated with something to increase its beauty or distinction

unaffected [.ʌnəˈfektid] – adj. undergoing no change when acted upon: entirely unaffected by each other’s writings

unanimity [ˈju:nəˈnimiti] – n. everyone being of one mind

unanimous [juˈnæniməs] – adj. in complete agreement: a unanimous decision

unattached  – adj. not fastened together

unavoidable [ˈʌnəˈvɔidəbl] – adj. impossible to avoid or evade:: an unavoidable accident

unbalance  – n. a lack of balance or state of disequilibrium

unbearable [ˈʌnˈbɛərəbl] – adj. incapable of being put up with

unbecoming [ʌnbiˈkʌmiŋ] – adj. not in keeping with accepted standards of what is right or proper in polite society: language unbecoming to a lady

unbelief [ʌnbiˈli:f] – n. a rejection of belief

unbiased [ˈʌnˈbaiəst] – adj. characterized by a lack of partiality

unbridgeable [ˈʌnˈbridʒəbl] – adj. not bridgeable: a wide unbridgeable river

unbridled [ʌnˈbraidld] – adj. not restrained or controlled: unbridled rage

unbroken [ˈʌnˈbrəukən] – adj. marked by continuous or uninterrupted extension in space or time or sequence: cars in an unbroken procession

uncharted [ˈʌnˈtʃɑ:tid] – adj. (of unknown regions) not yet surveyed or investigated: uncharted seas

uncommon [ˈʌnˈkɔmən] – adj. not common or ordinarily encountered; unusually great in amount or remarkable in character or kind: uncommon birds

unconscionable [ʌnˈkɔnʃənəbəl] – adj. lacking a conscience: an unconscionable liar

unconscious [ʌnˈkɔnʃəs] – adj. not conscious; lacking awareness and the capacity for sensory perception as if asleep or dead: lay unconscious on the floor

unconventional [ˈʌnkənˈvenʃənəl] – adj. not conforming to accepted rules or standards: her unconventional dress and hair style

unconvincing [ʌnkənˈvinsiŋ] – adj. not convincing: unconvincing argument

uncouth [ʌnˈku:θ] – adj. lacking refinement or cultivation or taste: an untutored and uncouth human being

uncover [ʌnˈkʌvə] – v. make visible

unction [ˈʌŋkʃən] – n. excessive but superficial compliments given with affected charm

unctuous [ˈʌŋktʃuəs] – adj. unpleasantly and excessively suave or ingratiating in manner or speech: the unctuous Uriah Heep

undeceive [ˈʌndiˈsi:v] – v. free from deception or illusion

undercharge [.ʌndəˈtʃɑ:dʒ] – n. a price that is too low

underdeveloped [ˈʌndədiˈveləpt] – adj. relating to societies in which capital needed to industrialize is in short supply

underestimate [ˈʌndərˈestimeit] – v. assign too low a value to: Don’t underestimate the value of this heirloom-you may sell it at a good price

underexpose  – v. expose to too little light: The film is underexposed, so the image is very dark

undergarment [ˈʌndə,gɑ:mənt] – n. a garment worn under other garments

undergo [.ʌndəˈgəu] – v. pass through: The chemical undergoes a sudden change

undergraduate [.ʌndəˈgrædʒuət] – n. a university student who has not yet received a first degree

underground [ˈʌndəgraund] – n. a secret group organized to overthrow a government or occupation force

underlie [.ʌndəˈlai] – v. be or form the base for

underling [ˈʌndəliŋ] – n. an assistant subject to the authority or control of another

underlying [.ʌndəˈlaiiŋ] – adj. in the nature of something though not readily apparent: an underlying meaning

undermine [.ʌndəˈmain] – v. destroy property or hinder normal operations

underneath [.ʌndəˈni:θ] – adv. under or below an object or a surface; at a lower place or level; directly beneath: we could see the original painting underneath

underrate [ʌndəˈreit] – v. make too low an estimate of

underscore [.ʌndəˈskɔ:] – v. give extra weight to (a communication)

undersell [ʌndəˈsel] – v. sell cheaper than one’s competition

undersized [ˈʌndəˈsaizd] – adj. smaller than normal for its kind

understate [ʌndəˈsteit] – v. represent as less significant or important

undertake [.ʌndəˈteik] – v. enter upon an activity or enterprise

undertaking [.ʌndəˈteikiŋ] – n. the trade of a funeral director

undervalue [ʌndəˈvælju:] – v. assign too low a value to

underwater [ˈʌndəˈwɔ:tə] – adj. beneath the surface of the water

underworld [ˈʌndəwə:ld] – n. the criminal class

underwrite [.ʌndəˈrait] – v. guarantee financial support of

undeserved [ˈʌndiˈzə:vd] – adj. not deserved or earned: has an undeserved reputation as a coward

undifferentiated [ˈʌn.difəˈrenʃieitid] – adj. not differentiated

undistorted [ˈʌndisˈtɔ:tid] – adj. without alteration or misrepresentation: his judgment was undistorted by emotion

undisturbed [ˈʌndisˈtə:bd] – adj. untroubled by interference or disturbance: he could pursue his studies undisturbed

undo [ˈʌnˈdu:] – v. cancel, annul, or reverse an action or its effect: I wish I could undo my actions

undoubtedly [ʌnˈdautidli] – adv. without doubt; certainly: it’s undoubtedly very beautiful

undue [ˈʌnˈdju:] – adj. not yet payable: an undue loan

undulate [ˈʌndjuleit] – v. stir up (water) so as to form ripples

unearth [ˈʌnˈə:θ] – v. bring to light: The CIA unearthed a plot to kill the President

unemployed [ˈʌnimˈplɔid] – n. people who are involuntarily out of work (considered as a group): the long-term unemployed need assistance

uneven [ʌnˈi:vən] – adj. not even or uniform as e.g. in shape or texture: an uneven color

unevenly [ˈʌnˈi:vənli] – adv. in an unequal or partial manner: profits were distributed unevenly

unexplored [ˈʌniksˈplɔ:d] – adj. not yet discovered

unfailing [ʌnˈfeiliŋ] – adj. not liable to failure: the unfailing sign of an amateur

unfair [ʌnˈfɛə] – adj. not fair; marked by injustice or partiality or deception: used unfair methods

unfavorable [ˈʌnˈfeivərəbl] – adj. not encouraging or approving or pleasing: unfavorable conditions

unfertilized [ˈʌnˈfə:tilaizd] – adj. not having been fertilized: an unfertilized egg

unfold [ʌnˈfəuld] – v. develop or come to a promising stage

unfortunately [ʌnˈfɔ:tjʊnətli] – adv. by bad luck: unfortunately it rained all day

ungainly [ʌnˈgeinli] – adj. lacking grace in movement or posture: a gawky lad with long ungainly legs

unguent [ˈʌŋgwənt] – n. semisolid preparation (usually containing a medicine) applied externally as a remedy or for soothing an irritation

unicellular [ˈju:niˈseljulə] – adj. having or consisting of a single cell

uniform [ˈju:nifɔ:m] – adj. always the same; showing a single form or character in all occurrences: a street of uniform tall white buildings

uniformity [.ju:niˈfɔ:miti] – n. a condition in which everything is regular and unvarying

unify [ˈju:nifai] – v. become one

unimaginable [.ʌniˈmædʒinəbl] – adj. totally unlikely

uninhabited [ˈʌninˈhæbitid] – adj. not having inhabitants; not lived in: an uninhabited island

unionization  – n. act of forming labor unions: the issue underlying the strike was unionization

unique [ju:ˈni:k] – adj. radically distinctive and without equal: Bach was unique in his handling of counterpoint

uniqueness [ju:ˈni:knis] – n. the quality of being one of a kind

unison [ˈju:nizn] – n. corresponding exactly: marching in unison

unit [ˈju:nit] – n. any division of quantity accepted as a standard of measurement or exchange: the dollar is the United States unit of currency

Unitarian [,ju:niˈtɛəriən] – adj. of or relating to or characterizing Unitarianism

unity [ˈju:niti] – n. an undivided or unbroken completeness or totality with nothing wanting: he took measures to insure the territorial unity of Croatia

universal [.ju:niˈvə:səl] – n. (linguistics) a grammatical rule (or other linguistic feature) that is found in all languages

universe [ˈju:nivə:s] – n. everything that exists anywhere: they study the evolution of the universe

unlawful [ˈʌnˈlɔ:ful] – adj. not conforming to legality, moral law, or social convention

unlikely [ʌnˈlaikli] – adj. not likely to be true or to occur or to have occurred: legislation on the question is highly unlikely

unlimited [ʌnˈlimitid] – adj. having no limits in range or scope: to start with a theory of unlimited freedom is to end up with unlimited despotism

unload [ˈʌnˈləud] – v. take the load off (a container or vehicle): unload the truck

unmatched [ˈʌnˈmætʃt] – adj. of the remaining member of a pair, of socks e.g.

unnatural [ʌnˈnætʃərəl] – adj. not in accordance with or determined by nature; contrary to nature: an unnatural death

unnecessary [ʌnˈnesisəri] – adj. not necessary

unobstructed [ˈʌnəbˈstrʌktid] – adj. free from impediment or obstruction or hindrance: an unobstructed view

unpack [ˈʌnˈpæk] – v. remove from its packing: unpack the presents

unpalatable [ʌnˈpælətəbl] – adj. not pleasant or acceptable to the taste or mind: an unpalatable meal

unparalleled [ʌnˈpærəleld] – adj. radically distinctive and without equal: unparalleled athletic ability

unprecedented [ʌnˈpresidəntid] – adj. having no precedent; novel: an unprecedented expansion in population and industry

unpredictable [ˈʌnpriˈdiktəbl] – adj. not capable of being foretold

unpromising [ˈʌnˈprɔmisiŋ] – adj. unlikely to bring about favorable results or enjoyment: faced an unpromising task

unquestionably [ʌnˈkwestʃənəbli] – adv. without question: Fred Winter is unquestionably the jockey to follow

unquestioning [ʌnˈkwestʃəniŋ] – adj. not inclined to ask questions

unravel [ʌnˈrævəl] – v. become or cause to become undone by separating the fibers or threads of: unravel the thread

unregistered  – adj. (of animals) not recorded with or certified by an official breed association: unregistered dairy cattle

unrestrained [ˈʌnrisˈtreind] – adj. not subject to restraint: unrestrained laughter

unrestricted [ˈʌnrisˈtriktid] – adj. not subject to or subjected to restriction

unsatisfactory [ˈʌn.sætisfæktəri] – adj. not giving satisfaction: shops should take back unsatisfactory goods

unscrupulous [ʌnˈskru:pjuləs] – adj. without scruples or principles: unscrupulous politicos who would be happy to sell…their country in order to gain power

unselfish [ˈʌnˈselfiʃ] – adj. disregarding your own advantages and welfare over those of others

unsettle [ʌnˈsetl] – v. disturb the composure of

unsophisticated [ˈʌnsəˈfistikeitid] – adj. not wise in the ways of the world: either too unsophisticated or too honest to promise more than he could deliver

unspeakable [ʌnˈspi:kəbl] – adj. defying expression or description: unspeakable happiness

unspoiled [ʌnˈspɔild] – adj. not left to spoil

unstable [ˈʌnˈsteibl] – adj. lacking stability or fixity or firmness: unstable political conditions

unsubstantiated [ˈʌnsəbˈstænʃieitid] – adj. unsupported by other evidence

untamed [ˈʌnˈteimd] – adj. in a natural state; not tamed or domesticated or cultivated

untapped [ʌnˈtæpt] – adj. not subjected to tapping: an untapped keg

untenable [ʌnˈtenəbəl] – adj. (of theories etc) incapable of being defended or justified

untimely [ʌnˈtaimli] – adj. badly timed: an untimely remark

untouched [ˈʌnˈtʌtʃt] – adj. still full: an untouched cocktail in her hand

untoward [.ʌntəˈwɔ:d] – adj. not in keeping with accepted standards of what is right or proper in polite society: moved to curb their untoward ribaldry

untwist  – v. cause to become untwisted

unutterable [ʌnˈʌtərəbl] – adj. too sacred to be uttered

unwieldy [ʌnˈwi:ldi] – adj. difficult to use or handle or manage because of size or weight or shape: we set about towing the unwieldy structure into the shelter

unwise [ˈʌnˈwaiz] – adj. showing or resulting from lack of judgment or wisdom: an unwise investor is soon impoverished

unyoke [ˈʌnˈjəuk] – v. remove the yoke from: unyoke the cow

upbraid [.ʌpˈbreid] – v. express criticism towards

upcast  – n. air passage consisting of a ventilation shaft through which air leaves a mine

upgrade [ˈʌpgreid] – n. an upward slope or grade (as in a road)

upheaval [ʌpˈhi:vəl] – n. a state of violent disturbance and disorder (as in politics or social conditions generally)

upheave [ʌpˈhi:v] – v. lift forcefully from beneath

uphold [ʌpˈhəuld] – v. keep or maintain in unaltered condition; cause to remain or last

upholster  – v. provide furniture with padding, springs, webbing, and covers

upland [ˈʌplənd] – n. elevated (e.g., mountainous) land

uppermost [ˈʌpəməust] – adv. in or into the most prominent position, as in the mind: say what comes uppermost

uproarious [ʌpˈrɔ:riəs] – adj. uncontrollably noisy

uproot [ʌpˈru:t] – v. move (people) forcibly from their homeland into a new and foreign environment: The war uprooted many people

upscale [ˈʌpskeil] – adj. appropriate for people with good incomes: an upscale neighborhood

upset [ʌpˈset] – n. an unhappy and worried mental state: she didn’t realize the upset she caused me

upside-down [ˈʌpsaidˈdaun] – adj. being in such a position that top and bottom are reversed: an upside-down cake

upturn [ʌpˈtə:n] – n. an upward movement or trend as in business activity

urban [ˈə:bən] – adj. relating to or concerned with a city or densely populated area: urban sociology

urbane [ɜ:ˈbein] – adj. showing a high degree of refinement and the assurance that comes from wide social experience: maintained an urbane tone in his letters

urbanity [ə:ˈbæniti] – n. polished courtesy; elegance of manner

urbanization [.ə:bənaiˈzeiʃən] – n. the social process whereby cities grow and societies become more urban

urbanize [ˈə:bənaiz] – v. make more industrial or city-like: The area was urbanized after many people moved in

urchin [ˈə:tʃin] – n. poor and often mischievous city child

urge [ə:dʒ] – v. force or impel in an indicated direction: I urged him to finish his studies

urgency [ˈə:dʒənsi] – n. pressing importance requiring speedy action: the urgency of his need

urgent [ˈə:dʒənt] – adj. compelling immediate action: the urgent words `Hurry! Hurry!’

usage [ˈju:sidʒ] – n. the act of using

usher [ˈʌʃə] – n. Irish prelate who deduced from the Bible that Creation occurred in the year 4004 BC (1581-1656)

usurious [ju:ˈʒuriəs, ju:ˈzjuəriəs] – adj. greatly exceeding bounds of reason or moderation: usurious interest rate

usurp [ju:ˈzə:p] – v. seize and take control without authority and possibly with force; take as one’s right or possession: he usurped my rights

usury [ˈju:ʒəri] – n. an exorbitant or unlawful rate of interest

utensil [ju:ˈtensl] – n. an implement for practical use (especially in a household)

utilitarian [.ju:tiliˈtɛəriən] – adj. having a useful function: utilitarian steel tables

utilitarianism  – n. doctrine that the useful is the good; especially as elaborated by Jeremy Bentham and James Mill; the aim was said to be the greatest happiness for the greatest number

utility [ju:ˈtiliti] – n. a company that performs a public service; subject to government regulation

utilization [.ju:tilaiˈzeiʃən] – n. the act of using: skilled in the utilization of computers

utilize [ˈju:tilaiz] – v. put into service; make work or employ for a particular purpose or for its inherent or natural purpose: How do you utilize this tool?

utmost [ˈʌtməust] – adj. of the greatest possible degree or extent or intensity: utmost contempt

utopian [ju:ˈtəupjən] – adj. characterized by or aspiring to impracticable perfection: the dim utopian future

utter [ˈʌtə] – v. articulate; either verbally or with a cry, shout, or noise: He uttered a curse

utterance [ˈʌtərəns] – n. the use of uttered sounds for auditory communication

utterly [ˈʌtəli] – adv. completely and without qualification; used informally as intensifiers: utterly miserable

vacancy [ˈveikənsi] – n. being unoccupied

vacant [ˈveikənt] – adj. void of thought or knowledge: a vacant mind

vacate [veiˈkeit] – v. leave (a job, post, or position) voluntarily: She vacated the position when she got pregnant

vacation [veiˈkeiʃən] – n. leisure time away from work devoted to rest or pleasure: we get two weeks of vacation every summer

vaccinate [ˈvæksineit] – v. perform vaccinations or produce immunity in by inoculation: We vaccinate against scarlet fever

vaccine [ˈvæksi:n] – n. immunogen consisting of a suspension of weakened or dead pathogenic cells injected in order to stimulate the production of antibodies

vacillate [ˈvæsileit] – v. be undecided about something; waver between conflicting positions or courses of action

vacuous [ˈvækjuəs] – adj. devoid of intelligence

vacuum [ˈvækjuəm] – n. the absence of matter

vagabond [ˈvægəbɔnd] – n. a wanderer who has no established residence or visible means of support

vagrant [ˈvægrənt] – n. a wanderer who has no established residence or visible means of support

vague [veig] – adj. not clearly understood or expressed: their descriptions of human behavior become vague, dull, and unclear

vainglory [veinˈglɔ:ri] – n. outspoken conceit

vale [veil] – n. a long depression in the surface of the land that usually contains a river

valediction [.væliˈdikʃən] – n. a farewell oration (especially one delivered during graduation exercises by an outstanding member of a graduating class)

valedictorian [,vælidikˈtɔ:riən] – n. the student with the best grades who usually delivers the valedictory address at commencement

valedictory [.væliˈdiktəri] – adj. of or relating to an occasion or expression of farewell: a valedictory address

valiant [ˈvæliənt] – adj. having or showing valor: a valiant attempt to prevent the hijack

valid [ˈvælid] – adj. well grounded in logic or truth or having legal force: a valid inference

validate [ˈsimjuleit] – v. prove valid; show or confirm the validity of something

validity [væˈliditi] – n. the quality of having legal force or effectiveness

valor [ˈvælə] – n. the qualities of a hero or heroine; exceptional or heroic courage when facing danger (especially in battle): he received a medal for valor

valorous [ˈvælərəs] – adj. having or showing valor

valve [vælv] – n. a structure in a hollow organ (like the heart) with a flap to insure one-way flow of fluid through it

vanish [ˈvæniʃ] – v. get lost, as without warning or explanation

vanquish [ˈvæŋkwiʃ] – v. come out better in a competition, race, or conflict

vapid [ˈvæpid] – adj. lacking taste or flavor or tang: vapid beer

vapor [ˈveipə] – n. a visible suspension in the air of particles of some substance

vaporization [.veipəraiˈzeiʃən] – n. the process of becoming a vapor

vaporize [ˈveipəraiz] – v. kill with or as if with a burst of gunfire or electric current or as if by shooting: in this computer game, space travellers are vaporized by aliens

vaporizer [ˈveipəraizə] – n. a device that puts out a substance in the form of a vapor (especially for medicinal inhalation)

variability [.vɛəriəˈbiliti] – n. the quality of being subject to variation

variable [ˈvɛəriəbl] – n. a quantity that can assume any of a set of values

variance [ˈvɛəriəns] – n. an event that departs from expectations

variant [ˈvɛəriənt] – n. an event that departs from expectations

variation [.vɛəriˈeiʃən] – n. an instance of change; the rate or magnitude of change

varied [ˈvɛərid] – adj. widely different: varied motives prompt people to join a political party

variegate [ˈvɛərigeit] – v. change the appearance of, especially by marking with different colors

variety [vəˈraiəti] – n. noticeable heterogeneity: the range and variety of his work is amazing

various [ˈvɛəriəs] – adj. of many different kinds purposefully arranged but lacking any uniformity: his disguises are many and various

varnish [ˈvɑ:niʃ] – n. a coating that provides a hard, lustrous, transparent finish to a surface

vary [ˈvɛəri] – v. become different in some particular way, without permanently losing one’s or its former characteristics or essence

vassal [ˈvæsəl] – n. a person holding a fief; a person who owes allegiance and service to a feudal lord

vast [vɑ:st] – adj. unusually great in size or amount or degree or especially extent or scope: at vast (or immense) expense

vastness [ˈvɑ:stnis] – n. unusual largeness in size or extent or number

vaudeville [ˈvəudəvil] – n. a variety show with songs and comic acts etc.

vault [vɔ:lt] – n. a burial chamber (usually underground)

vaunt [vɔ:nt] – n. extravagant self-praise

vector  – n. a variable quantity that can be resolved into components

vegetable [ˈvedʒitəbl] – n. edible seeds or roots or stems or leaves or bulbs or tubers or nonsweet fruits of any of numerous herbaceous plant

vegetal [ˈvedʒitl] – adj. (of reproduction) characterized by asexual processes

vegetarian [.vedʒiˈtɛəriən] – n. eater of fruits and grains and nuts; someone who eats no meat or fish or (often) any animal products

vegetate [ˈvedʒiteit] – v. lead a passive existence without using one’s body or mind

vegetation [.vedʒiˈteiʃən] – n. all the plant life in a particular region or period: Pleistocene vegetation

vegetative [ˈvedʒitətiv] – adj. of or relating to an activity that is passive and monotonous: a dull vegetative lifestyle

vehement [ˈviəmənt] – adj. marked by extreme intensity of emotions or convictions; inclined to react violently; fervid: vehement dislike

vehicle [ˈvi:ikl] – n. a conveyance that transports people or objects

veil [veil] – n. a membranous covering attached to the immature fruiting body of certain mushrooms

vein [vein] – n. a distinctive style or manner: he continued in this vein for several minutes

velocity [viˈlɔsiti] – n. distance travelled per unit time

velvety [ˈvelviti] – adj. smooth and soft to sight or hearing or touch or taste

venal [ˈvi:nl] – adj. capable of being corrupted: a venal police officer

vendible [ˈvendəbl] – adj. fit to be offered for sale

vendor [ˈvendə] – n. someone who promotes or exchanges goods or services for money

veneer [viˈniə] – n. coating consisting of a thin layer of superior wood glued to a base of inferior wood

venerable [ˈvenərəbl] – adj. impressive by reason of age: a venerable sage with white hair and beard

venerate [ˈvenəreit] – v. regard with feelings of respect and reverence; consider hallowed or exalted or be in awe of: We venerate genius

veneration [.venəˈreiʃən] – n. a feeling of profound respect for someone or something: his respect for the law bordered on veneration

venereal [viˈniəriəl] – adj. of or relating to the external sex organs: venereal disease

venial [ˈvi:niəl] – adj. warranting only temporal punishment: venial sin

venison [ˈvenisən] – n. meat from a deer used as food

venom [ˈvenəm] – n. toxin secreted by animals; secreted by certain snakes and poisonous insects (e.g., spiders and scorpions)

venomous [ˈvenəməs] – adj. marked by deep ill will; deliberately harmful: venomous criticism

venous [ˈvi:nəs] – adj. of or contained in or performing the function of the veins: venous inflammation

vent [vent] – n. a hole for the escape of gas or air

ventilate [ˈventileit] – v. expose to cool or cold air so as to cool or freshen

ventilation [ventiˈleiʃən] – n. the act of supplying fresh air and getting rid of foul air

venture [ˈventʃə] – n. an investment that is very risky but could yield great profits

venturesome [ˈventʃəsəm] – adj. disposed to venture or take risks: a venturesome investor

venue [ˈvenju:] – n. in law: the jurisdiction where a trial will be held

veracious [vəˈreiʃəs] – adj. habitually speaking the truth: a veracious witness

veracity [vəˈræsəti] – n. unwillingness to tell lies

verbal [ˈvə:bəl] – adj. communicated in the form of words: verbal imagery

verbatim [və:ˈbeitim] – adj. in precisely the same words used by a writer or speaker: repeated their dialog verbatim

verbiage [ˈvə:biidʒ] – n. overabundance of words

verbose [və:ˈbəus] – adj. using or containing too many words: verbose and ineffective instructional methods

verdant [ˈvə:dənt] – adj. characterized by abundance of verdure

verdict [ˈvə:dikt] – n. (law) the findings of a jury on issues of fact submitted to it for decision; can be used in formulating a judgment

verification [.verifiˈkeiʃən] – n. additional proof that something that was believed (some fact or hypothesis or theory) is correct

verify [ˈverifai] – v. confirm the truth of: Please verify that the doors are closed

verily [ˈverili] – adv. in truth; certainly: I verily think so

verity [ˈveriti] – n. conformity to reality or actuality

vermin [ˈvə:min] – n. an irritating or obnoxious person

vernacular [vəˈnækjulə] – n. a characteristic language of a particular group (as among thieves)

vernal [ˈvə:nl] – adj. suggestive of youth; vigorous and fresh

versatile [ˈvə:sətail] – adj. having great diversity or variety: his vast and versatile erudition

versatility  – n. having a wide variety of skills

verse [və:s] – n. literature in metrical form

version [ˈvə:ʃən] – n. an interpretation of a matter from a particular viewpoint: his version of the fight was different from mine

vertebrate [ˈvə:tibrit] – adj. having a backbone or spinal column

vertex [ˈvə:teks] – n. the point of intersection of lines or the point opposite the base of a figure

vertical [ˈvə:tikəl] – adj. at right angles to the plane of the horizon or a base line: a vertical camera angle

vertigo [ˈvə:tigəu] – n. a reeling sensation; a feeling that you are about to fall

vessel [ˈvesl] – n. a tube in which a body fluid circulates

vest [vest] – v. provide with power and authority: They vested the council with special rights

vestige [ˈvestidʒ] – n. an indication that something has been present

vestment [ˈvestmənt] – n. gown (especially ceremonial garments) worn by the clergy

veteran [ˈvetərən] – n. a serviceman who has seen considerable active service: the veterans laughed at the new recruits

veto [ˈvi:təu] – n. a vote that blocks a decision

viability [.vaiəˈbiliti] – n. (of living things) capable of normal growth and development

viable [ˈvaiəbəl] – adj. capable of being done with means at hand and circumstances as they are

vibrant [ˈvaibrənt] – adj. vigorous and animated: a vibrant group that challenged the system

vibrate [ˈvaibreit] – v. shake, quiver, or throb; move back and forth rapidly, usually in an uncontrolled manner

vibration [vaiˈbreiʃən] – n. a shaky motion

vicarious [viˈkeəriəs] – adj. experienced at secondhand: read about mountain climbing and felt vicarious excitement

viceroy [ˈvaisrɔi] – n. governor of a country or province who rules as the representative of his or her king or sovereign

vicinity [viˈsiniti] – n. a surrounding or nearby region: the plane crashed in the vicinity of Asheville

vicissitude [viˈsisitju:d] – n. a variation in circumstances or fortune at different times in your life or in the development of something: the project was subject to the usual vicissitudes of exploratory research

victor [ˈviktə] – n. a combatant who is able to defeat rivals

victorious [vikˈtɔ:riəs] – adj. having won: the victorious entry

victory [ˈviktəri] – n. a successful ending of a struggle or contest: a narrow victory

vie [vai] – v. compete for something; engage in a contest; measure oneself against others

vigilance [ˈvidʒələns] – n. the process of paying close and continuous attention: vigilance is especially susceptible to fatigue

vigilant [ˈvidʒilənt] – adj. carefully observant or attentive; on the lookout for possible danger: the vigilant eye of the town watch

vignette [viˈnjet] – n. a brief literary description

vigor [ˈvigə] – n. forceful exertion

vigorous [ˈvigərəs] – adj. characterized by forceful and energetic action or activity: a vigorous hiker

vincible [ˈvinsibl] – adj. susceptible to being defeated

vindicate [ˈvindikeit] – v. show to be right by providing justification or proof: vindicate a claim

vindicatory [ˈvindikətəri] – adj. of or relating to or having the nature of retribution

vine [vain] – n. a plant with a weak stem that derives support from climbing, twining, or creeping along a surface

vinery [ˈvainəri] – n. a farm of grapevines where wine grapes are produced

viol [ˈvaiəl] – n. any of a family of bowed stringed instruments that preceded the violin family

viola [ˈvaiələ] – n. any of the numerous plants of the genus Viola

violation [.vaiəˈleiʃən] – n. a crime less serious than a felony

violence [ˈvaiələns] – n. an act of aggression (as one against a person who resists): he may accomplish by craft in the long run what he cannot do by force and violence in the short one

violent [ˈvaiələnt] – adj. acting with or marked by or resulting from great force or energy or emotional intensity: a violent attack

violoncello [vaiələnˈtʃeləu] – n. a large stringed instrument; seated player holds it upright while playing

virago [viˈrɑ:gəu] – n. a noisy or scolding or domineering woman

viral [ˈvairəl] – adj. relating to or caused by a virus: viral infection

virginal  – adj. untouched or undefiled: nor is there anything more virginal than the shimmer of young foliage

virile [ˈvirail, ˈvairəl] – adj. characterized by energy and vigor: a virile and ever stronger free society

virtu [ˈvə:tu] – n. love of or taste for fine objects of art

virtual [ˈvə:tjuəl] – adj. being actually such in almost every respect: the once elegant temple lay in virtual ruin

virtually [ˈvɜ:tjʊəli] – adv. in essence or effect but not in fact: the strike virtually paralyzed the city

virtue [ˈvə:tju:] – n. the quality of doing what is right and avoiding what is wrong

virtuosity [.və:tjuˈɔsiti] – n. technical skill or fluency or style exhibited by a virtuoso

virtuoso [.və:tʃuˈəusəu] – n. someone who is dazzlingly skilled in any field

virulence [ˈvirjuleins] – n. extreme harmfulness (as the capacity of a microorganism to cause disease): the virulence of the plague

virulent [ˈvirulənt] – adj. extremely poisonous or injurious; producing venom: a virulent insect bite

virus [ˈvaiərəs] – n. a harmful or corrupting agency: bigotry is a virus that must not be allowed to spread

visage [ˈvizidʒ] – n. the human face (`kisser’ and `smiler’ and `mug’ are informal terms for `face’ and `phiz’ is British)

viscosity [visˈkɔsiti] – n. resistance of a liquid to shear forces (and hence to flow)

viscount [ˈvaikaunt] – n. (in various countries) a son or younger brother or a count

viscous [ˈviskəs] – adj. having a relatively high resistance to flow

visibility [.viziˈbiliti] – n. degree of exposure to public notice: that candidate does not have sufficient visibility to win an election

visible [ˈvizəbl] – adj. capable of being seen; or open to easy view: a visible object

vision [ˈviʒən] – n. a vivid mental image: he had a vision of his own death

vista [ˈvistə] – n. the visual percept of a region

visual [ˈvizjuəl] – adj. relating to or using sight: visual powers

visualize [ˈviʒuəlaiz] – v. imagine; conceive of; see in one’s mind

vital [ˈvaitl] – adj. urgently needed; absolutely necessary: vital for a healthy society

vitalism [ˈvaitəlizəm] – n. (philosophy) a doctrine that life is a vital principle distinct from physics and chemistry

vitalist  – n. one who believes in vitalism

vitality [vaiˈtæliti] – n. an energetic style

vitalize [ˈvaitlaiz] – v. give life to: The eggs are vitalized

vitiate [ˈviʃieit] – v. corrupt morally or by intemperance or sensuality

vituperate [viˈtju:pəreit, vaiˈtu:-] – v. spread negative information about

vivacity [vaiˈvæsəti] – n. characterized by high spirits and animation

vivid [ˈvivid] – adj. evoking lifelike images within the mind: a vivid description

vivify [ˈvivifai] – v. give new life or energy to

vivisection [viviˈsekʃən] – n. the act of operating on living animals (especially in scientific research)

vocable [ˈvəukəbl] – n. a word that is spoken aloud

vocation [vəuˈkeiʃən] – n. the particular occupation for which you are trained

vocational [vəuˈkeiʃənəl] – adj. of or relating to a vocation or occupation; especially providing or undergoing training in special skills: vocational school

vocative [ˈvɔkətiv] – n. the case (in some inflected languages) used when the referent of the noun is being addressed

vociferate [vəˈsifəreit, vəu-] – v. utter in a very loud voice: They vociferated their demands

vociferous [vəˈsifərəs, vəu-] – adj. conspicuously and offensively loud; given to vehement outcry: a vociferous mob

vogue [vəug] – n. the popular taste at a given time: leather is the latest vogue

void [vɔid] – v. declare invalid: void a plea

volant  – adj. with wings extended in a flying position

volatile [ˈvɔlətail] – adj. evaporating readily at normal temperatures and pressures: volatile oils

volcanic [vɔlˈkænik] – adj. explosively unstable: a volcanic temper

volcanism  – n. the phenomena associated with volcanic activity

volcano [vɔlˈkeinəu] – n. a fissure in the earth’s crust (or in the surface of some other planet) through which molten lava and gases erupt

volition [vəˈliʃən] – n. the capability of conscious choice and decision and intention: the exercise of their volition we construe as revolt

volt [vəult] – n. a unit of potential equal to the potential difference between two points on a conductor carrying a current of 1 ampere when the power dissipated between the two points is 1 watt; equivalent to the potential difference across a resistance of 1 ohm when 1 ampere of current flows through it

voltage [ˈvəultidʒ] – n. the difference in electrical charge between two points in a circuit expressed in volts

voluble [ˈvɔljubl] – adj. marked by a ready flow of speech: she is an extremely voluble young woman who engages in soliloquies not conversations

volume [ˈvɔljum] – n. the amount of 3-dimensional space occupied by an object: the gas expanded to twice its original volume

voluntary [ˈvɔləntəri] – n. (military) a person who freely enlists for service

volunteer [.vɔlənˈtiə] – n. (military) a person who freely enlists for service

voluptuous [vəˈlʌptʃuəs] – adj. having strong sexual appeal: a voluptuous woman

voracious [vəˈreiʃəs, vɔ-] – adj. excessively greedy and grasping: paying taxes to voracious governments

vortex [ˈvɔ:teks] – n. the shape of something rotating rapidly

votary [ˈvəutəri] – n. one bound by vows to a religion or life of worship or service

vote [vəut] – n. the opinion of a group as determined by voting: they put the question to a vote

voter [ˈvəʊtə(r)] – n. a citizen who has a legal right to vote

votive [ˈvəutiv] – adj. dedicated in fulfillment of a vow: votive prayers

vow [vaʊ] – n. a solemn pledge (to oneself or to another or to a deity) to do something or to behave in a certain manner: they took vows of poverty

vowel [ˈvauəl] – n. a speech sound made with the vocal tract open

voyage [ˈvɔiidʒ] – n. an act of traveling by water

vulgarity [vʌlˈgæriti] – n. the quality of lacking taste and refinement

vulnerable [ˈvʌlnərəbl] – adj. susceptible to attack: a vulnerable bridge

wade [weid] – n. English tennis player who won many women’s singles titles (born in 1945)

wag [wæg] – n. a witty amusing person who makes jokes

wagon [ˈwægən] – n. any of various kinds of wheeled vehicles drawn by an animal or a tractor

waif [weif] – n. a homeless child especially one forsaken or orphaned

wail [weil] – v. emit long loud cries: wail in self-pity

waist [weist] – n. the narrowing of the body between the ribs and hips

waistcoat [ˈweiskəut] – n. a man’s sleeveless garment worn underneath a coat

waive [weiv] – v. do without or cease to hold or adhere to

walkout [ˈwɔ:kˈaut] – n. the act of walking out (of a meeting or organization) as a sign of protest: there was a walkout by the Black members as the chairman rose to speak

walnut [ˈwɔ:lnət] – n. any of various trees of the genus Juglans

walrus [ˈwɔ:lrəs] – n. either of two large northern marine mammals having ivory tusks and tough hide over thick blubber

wampum [ˈwɔmpəm] – n. informal terms for money

wan [wɔn, wɑ:n] – adj. (of light) lacking in intensity or brightness; dim or feeble: the pale (or wan) stars

wander [ˈwɔndə] – v. move about aimlessly or without any destination, often in search of food or employment: the wandering Jew

wane [wein] – v. grow smaller: Interest in the project waned

ware [wɛə] – n. commodities offered for sale

warehouse [ˈwɛəhaus] – n. a storehouse for goods and merchandise

warfare [ˈwɔ:fɛə] – n. the waging of armed conflict against an enemy

warily  – adv. in a wary manner: the sailor watched the sky warily

warlike [ˈwɔ:laik] – adj. disposed to warfare or hard-line policies: warlike policies

warrant [ˈwɔ:rənt] – n. a writ from a court commanding police to perform specified acts

warranty [ˈwɔrənti] – n. a written assurance that some product or service will be provided or will meet certain specifications

warrior [ˈwɔriə] – n. someone engaged in or experienced in warfare

wary [ˈweəri, ˈweri] – adj. openly distrustful and unwilling to confide

water [ˈwɔ:tə] – n. once thought to be one of four elements composing the universe (Empedocles)

watercourse [ˈwɔ:təkɔ:s] – n. natural or artificial channel through which water flows

waterfall [ˈwɔ:təfɔ:l] – n. a steep descent of the water of a river

waterfront [ˈwɔ:təfrʌnt] – n. the area of a city (such as a harbor or dockyard) alongside a body of water

waterproof [ˈwɔ:təpru:f] – n. a water-resistant coat

wavelet [ˈweivlit] – n. a small wave on the surface of a liquid

waver [ˈweivə] – v. pause or hold back in uncertainty or unwillingness

wavy [ˈweivi] – adj. uneven by virtue of having wrinkles or waves

wax [wæks] – v. go up or advance

waxy [ˈwæksi] – adj. easily impressed or influenced: a waxy mind

weak-kneed  – adj. lacking will power or resolution: the role of the dissenter is not for the weak-kneed

weal [wi:l] – n. a raised mark on the skin (as produced by the blow of a whip); characteristic of many allergic reactions

wealth [welθ] – n. the state of being rich and affluent; having a plentiful supply of material goods and money: great wealth is not a sign of great intelligence

wean [wi:n] – v. gradually deprive (infants and young mammals) of mother’s milk: she weaned her baby when he was 3 months old and started him on powdered milk

weapon [ˈwepən] – n. any instrument or instrumentality used in fighting or hunting: he was licensed to carry a weapon

weaponry  – n. weapons considered collectively

weariness [ˈwirinis] – n. temporary loss of strength and energy resulting from hard physical or mental work: weariness overcame her after twelve hours and she fell asleep

wearisome [ˈwiərisəm] – adj. so lacking in interest as to cause mental weariness: other people’s dreams are dreadfully wearisome

weary [ˈwiəri] – v. exhaust or get tired through overuse or great strain or stress

weather [ˈweðə] – v. face and withstand with courage

weather-beaten  – adj. tanned and coarsened from being outdoors: a weather-beaten face

weave [wi:v] – v. create a piece of cloth by interlacing strands of fabric, such as wool or cotton

weaver [ˈwi:və] – n. finch-like African and Asian colonial birds noted for their elaborately woven nests

weaverbird [ˈˈwi:vəbɜ:d] – n. finch-like African and Asian colonial birds noted for their elaborately woven nests

wed [wed] – v. take in marriage

wedding [ˈwediŋ] – n. the social event at which the ceremony of marriage is performed

wedge-shaped  – adj. (of a leaf shape) narrowly triangular, wider at the apex and tapering toward the base

wee [wi:] – adj. (used informally) very small: a wee tot

weed [wi:d] – n. any plant that crowds out cultivated plants

weep [wi:p] – v. shed tears because of sadness, rage, or pain

weird [wiəd] – adj. suggesting the operation of supernatural influences: the three weird sisters

weld [weld] – n. European mignonette cultivated as a source of yellow dye; naturalized in North America

welfare [ˈwelfɛə] – n. governmental provision of economic assistance to persons in need: she lives on welfare

well-being [ˈwelbiiŋ] – n. a contented state of being happy and healthy and prosperous

well-bred [welˈbred] – adj. of good upbringing

well-to-do [.weltəˈdu:] – adj. in fortunate circumstances financially; moderately rich: well-to-do members of the community

whale [weil] – n. a very large person; impressive in size or qualities

wharf [(h)wɔ:f] – n. a platform built out from the shore into the water and supported by piles; provides access to ships and boats

whereabouts [ˈ(h)wɛərəˈbauts] – n. the general location where something is: I questioned him about his whereabouts on the night of the crime

wherever [wɛərˈevə] – adv. where in the world

whet [wet] – v. make keen or more acute: whet my appetite

whim [hwim] – n. a sudden desire

whimsical [ˈwimzikəl] – adj. determined by chance or impulse or whim rather than by necessity or reason: the victim of whimsical persecutions

whine [wain] – v. talk in a tearful manner

whistle [ˈwisl] – v. move with, or as with, a whistling sound: The bullets whistled past him

whittle [ˈ(h)witl] – n. English aeronautical engineer who invented the jet aircraft engine (1907-1996)

wholesale [ˈhəulseil] – adv. on a large scale without careful discrimination: I buy food wholesale

wholesaler [ˈhəulˈseilə] – n. someone who buys large quantities of goods and resells to merchants rather than to the ultimate customers

wholesome [ˈhəulsəm] – adj. conducive to or characteristic of physical or moral well-being: wholesome attitude

wholly [ˈhəulli] – adv. to a complete degree or to the full or entire extent (`whole’ is often used informally for `wholly’): he was wholly convinced

wick  – n. any piece of cord that conveys liquid by capillary action: the physician put a wick in the wound to drain it

wicker  – n. work made of interlaced slender branches (especially willow branches)

widow [ˈwidəu] – n. a woman whose husband is dead especially one who has not remarried

wield [wi:ld] – v. have and exercise: wield power and authority

wildcatter  – n. an oilman who drills exploratory wells in territory not known to be an oil field

wilderness [ˈwildənis] – n. (politics) a state of disfavor: he led the Democratic party back from the wilderness

wildlife [ˈwaildlaif] – n. all living things (except people) that are undomesticated: chemicals could kill all the wildlife

wile [wail] – n. the use of tricks to deceive someone (usually to extract money from them)

willow [ˈwiləu] – n. any of numerous deciduous trees and shrubs of the genus Salix

wingspan [ˈwiŋspæn] – n. linear distance between the extremities of an airfoil

winsome [ˈwinsəm] – adj. charming in a childlike or naive way

wintry [ˈwintri] – adj. devoid of warmth and cordiality; expressive of unfriendliness or disdain: wintry smile

wiry [ˈwaiəri] – adj. lean and sinewy

wisp  – n. a small tuft or lock: wisps of hair

 

TOEFL Vocabulary Words