Complete IELTS Vocabulary Words


Below are the complete list of IELTS Vocabulary Words identified by VocabularyShop and grouped together in the Select function.  When choosing IELTS word group in the Select function, these IELTS vocabulary words will be displayed in the Source List for you to choose for your study.

You can download this list of IELTS vocabulary words at the bottom of this page and use it to plan your study and set up your priority and strategy.  For example, you can put all words you already knew into the Known List, leaving only the new words you need to learn in the Source List.  You can then figure out how much work is needed to reach your goal and make your plan accordingly.  There are words more important than the others for the IELTS test, and there are words much easier or more difficult for you as well.  Your plan should be based on your situation and the information from the official IELTS website to enable you to reach your goal with maximum speed and efficiency.

In the IELTS vocabulary words listed below, only the primary or the most popular definition is provided for each word.  You will see the complete dictionary definition and plenty of useful information of each word when you access the Dictionary Dialog in VocabularyShop.

 

abandon [əˈbændən] – v. forsake, leave behind: We abandoned the old car in the empty parking lot

abandonment [əˈbændənmənt] – n. the act of giving something up

abasement [əˈbeismənt] – n. a low or downcast state: each confession brought her into an attitude of abasement

abbreviation [ə.bri:viˈeiʃən] – n. a shortened form of a word or phrase

abeyance [əˈbeiəns] – n. temporary cessation or suspension

abide [əˈbaid] – v. dwell

ability [əˈbiliti] – n. the quality of being able to perform; a quality that permits or facilitates achievement or accomplishment

able [ˈeibl] – adj. (usually followed by `to’) having the necessary means or skill or know-how or authority to do something: able to swim

abnormal [æbˈnɔ:məl] – adj. not normal; not typical or usual or regular or conforming to a norm: abnormal powers of concentration

aboard [əˈbɔ:d] – adv. on first or second or third base: Their second homer with Bob Allison aboard

abolish [əˈbɔliʃ] – v. do away with: Slavery was abolished in the mid-19th century in America and in Russia

abolition [æbəˈliʃən] – n. the act of abolishing a system or practice or institution (especially abolishing slavery): the abolition of capital punishment

aboriginal [æbəˈridʒənəl] – adj. of or pertaining to members of the indigenous people of Australia

abort [əˈbɔ:t] – v. terminate before completion: abort the mission

abortion [əˈbɔ:ʃən] – n. termination of pregnancy

abortive [əˈbɔ:tiv] – adj. failing to accomplish an intended result: an abortive revolt

abound [əˈbaund] – v. be abundant or plentiful; exist in large quantities

about [əˈbaut] – adv. (of quantities) imprecise but fairly close to correct: in just about a minute

above [əˈbʌv] – adv. at an earlier place: see above

abrasion [əˈbreiʒən] – n. erosion by friction

abreast [əˈbrest] – adj. being up to particular standard or level especially in being up to date in knowledge: kept abreast of the latest developments

abridge [əˈbridʒ] – v. reduce in scope while retaining essential elements

abroad [əˈbrɔ:d] – adv. to or in a foreign country: they had never travelled abroad

abrogate [ˈæbrəgeit] – v. revoke formally

abrupt [əˈbrʌpt] – adj. marked by sudden changes in subject and sharp transitions: abrupt prose

abruptly [əˈbrʌptli] – adv. quickly and without warning

absence [ˈæbsns] – n. failure to be present

absent [ˈæbsənt] – adj. not being in a specified place

absolute [ˈæbsəlu:t] – adj. perfect or complete or pure: absolute loyalty

absolutely [ˈæbsəlu:tli] – adv. completely and without qualification; used informally as intensifiers: an absolutely magnificent painting

absorb [əbˈsɔ:b] – v. become imbued: The liquids, light, and gases absorb

absorption [əbˈsɔ:pʃən] – n. (chemistry) a process in which one substance permeates another; a fluid permeates or is dissolved by a liquid or solid

abstract [ˈæbstrækt] – v. make off with belongings of others

abstraction [æbˈstrækʃən] – n. a concept or idea not associated with any specific instance

absurd [əbˈsə:d] – adj. inconsistent with reason or logic or common sense: the absurd predicament of seeming to argue that virtue is highly desirable but intensely unpleasant

absurdity [əbˈsə:diti] – n. a message whose content is at variance with reason

abundance [əˈbʌndəns] – n. the property of a more than adequate quantity or supply: an age of abundance

abundant [əˈbʌndənt] – adj. present in great quantity: an abundant supply of water

abuse [əˈbju:s,əˈbju:z] – v. treat badly: This boss abuses his workers

academic [.ækəˈdemik] – adj. hypothetical or theoretical and not expected to produce an immediate or practical result: an academic discussion

academy [əˈkædəmi] – n. a secondary school (usually private)

accede [ækˈsi:d] – v. yield to another’s wish or opinion

accelerate [ækˈseləreit] – v. move faster: The car accelerated

acceleration [æk.seləˈreiʃən] – n. an increase in rate of change: modern science caused an acceleration of cultural change

accent [ˈæksənt] – n. distinctive manner of oral expression: he couldn’t suppress his contemptuous accent

accept [əkˈsept] – v. consider or hold as true: I cannot accept the dogma of this church

acceptable [əkˈseptəbl] – adj. judged to be in conformity with approved usage: acceptable English usage

acceptance [əkˈseptəns] – n. the act of accepting with approval; favorable reception: the proposal found wide acceptance

access [ˈækses] – n. the right to enter

accessible [əkˈsesəbl] – adj. capable of being reached: a town accessible by rail

accessory [ækˈsesəri] – n. clothing that is worn or carried, but not part of your main clothing

accident [ˈæksidənt] – n. an unfortunate mishap; especially one causing damage or injury

accidental [.æksiˈdentl] – n. a musical notation that makes a note sharp or flat or natural although that is not part of the key signature

accidentally [.æksiˈdentəli] – adv. without advance planning: they met accidentally

acclaim [əˈkleim] – v. praise vociferously

accommodate [əˈkɔmədeit] – v. be agreeable or acceptable to

accommodation [ə.kɔməˈdeiʃn] – n. making or becoming suitable; adjusting to circumstances

accompaniment [əˈkʌmpənimənt] – n. an event or situation that happens at the same time as or in connection with another

accompany [əˈkʌmpəni] – v. be present or associated with an event or entity

accomplish [əˈkɔmpliʃ] – v. put in effect

accomplishment [əˈkɔmpliʃmənt] – n. an ability that has been acquired by training

accord [əˈkɔ:d] – n. harmony of people’s opinions or actions or characters

accordance [əˈkɔ:dəns] – n. concurrence of opinion

according [əˈkɔ:diŋ] – adj. (followed by `to’) as reported or stated by: according to historians

accordingly [əˈkɔ:diŋli] – adv. (sentence connectors) because of the reason given: continued to have severe headaches and accordingly returned to the doctor

account [əˈkaunt] – n. a record or narrative description of past events: he gave an inaccurate account of the plot to kill the president

accountant [əˈkauntənt] – n. someone who maintains and audits business accounts

accounting [əˈkauntiŋ] – n. a convincing explanation that reveals basic causes: he was unable to give a clear accounting for his actions

accrue [əˈkru:] – v. grow by addition: The interest accrues

accumulate [əˈkju:mjuleit] – v. get or gather together

accumulation [əkju:mjʊˈleiʃ(ə)n] – n. an increase by natural growth or addition

accumulative [əˈkju:mjulətiv] – adj. increasing by successive addition: the eventual accumulative effect of these substances

accuracy [ˈækjurəsi] – n. the quality of being near to the true value: he was beginning to doubt the accuracy of his compass

accurate [ˈækjurit] – adj. (of ideas, images, representations, expressions) characterized by perfect conformity to fact or truth ; strictly correct

accurately [ˈækjuritli] – adv. with few mistakes: he works very accurately

accusation [ækju(:)ˈzeiʃən] – n. a formal charge of wrongdoing brought against a person; the act of imputing blame or guilt

accuse [əˈkju:z] – v. blame for, make a claim of wrongdoing or misbehavior against

accuser [əˈkju:zə] – n. someone who imputes guilt or blame

accustom [əˈkʌstəm] – v. make psychologically or physically used (to something)

ache [eik] – v. feel physical pain

achieve [əˈtʃi:v] – v. to gain with effort: she achieved her goal despite setbacks

achievement [əˈtʃi:vmənt] – n. the action of accomplishing something

aching [ˈeikiŋ] – n. a dull persistent (usually moderately intense) pain

acid [ˈæsid] – adj. harsh or corrosive in tone: a barrage of acid comments

acknowledge [əkˈnɔlidʒ] – v. declare to be true or admit the existence or reality or truth of: She acknowledged that she might have forgotten

acknowledgment [əkˈnɔlidʒmənt] – n. a short note recognizing a source of information or of a quoted passage: the acknowledgments are usually printed at the front of a book

acquaint [əˈkweint] – v. cause to come to know personally: permit me to acquaint you with my son

acquaintance [əˈkweintəns] – n. personal knowledge or information about someone or something

acquainted [əˈkweintid] – adj. having fair knowledge of: they were acquainted

acquire [əˈkwaiə] – v. come into the possession of something concrete or abstract: They acquired a new pet

acquisition [.ækwiˈziʃən] – n. the act of contracting or assuming or acquiring possession of something: the acquisition of wealth

acre [ˈeikə] – n. a unit of area (4840 square yards) used in English-speaking countries

acrobat [ˈækrəbæt] – n. an athlete who performs acts requiring skill and agility and coordination

acrobatics [.ækrəuˈbætiks] – n. the performance of stunts while in flight in an aircraft

across [əˈkrɔ:s] – adv. to the opposite side: the football field was 300 feet across

act [ækt] – v. behave in a certain manner; show a certain behavior; conduct or comport oneself: You should act like an adult

action [ˈækʃən] – n. something done (usually as opposed to something said): there were stories of murders and other unnatural actions

activate [ˈæktiveit] – v. put in motion or move to act

active [ˈæktiv] – adj. tending to become more severe or wider in scope: active tuberculosis

actively [ˈæktivli] – adv. in an active manner: he participated actively in the war

activity [ækˈtiviti] – n. any specific behavior: they avoided all recreational activity

actor [ˈæktə] – n. a theatrical performer

actress [ˈæktris] – n. a female actor

actual [ˈæktjuəl] – adj. taking place in reality; not pretended or imitated: we saw the actual wedding on television

actuality [.æktjuˈæliti] – n. the state of actually existing objectively: a hope that progressed from possibility to actuality

actually [ˈæktʃuəli] – adv. used to imply that one would expect the fact to be the opposite of that stated; surprisingly: you may actually be doing the right thing by walking out

acute [əˈkju:t] – adj. having or experiencing a rapid onset and short but severe course: acute appendicitis

adapt [əˈdæpt] – v. make fit for, or change to suit a new purpose

adaptable [əˈdæptəbl] – adj. capable of adapting (of becoming or being made suitable) to a particular situation or use: to succeed one must be adaptable

adaptation [.ædæpˈteiʃən] – n. a written work (as a novel) that has been recast in a new form: the play is an adaptation of a short novel

add [æd] – v. state or say further

addict [əˈdikt] – v. to cause (someone or oneself) to become dependent (on something, especially a narcotic drug)

addition [əˈdiʃən] – n. a component that is added to something to improve it: the addition of a bathroom was a major improvement

additional [əˈdiʃənl] – adj. further or added: called for additional troops

additive [ˈæditiv] – adj. designating or involving an equation whose terms are of the first degree

address [əˈdres] – v. speak to: He addressed the crowd outside the window

adept [ˈædept] – n. someone who is dazzlingly skilled in any field

adequate [ˈædikwit] – adj. having the requisite qualities or resources to meet a task: she had adequate training

adequately [ˈædikwitli] – adv. in an adequate manner or to an adequate degree: he was adequately prepared

adhere [ədˈhiə] – v. be compatible or in accordance with: You must adhere to the rules

adhesive [ədˈhi:siv] – n. a substance that unites or bonds surfaces together

adjacent [əˈdʒeisnt] – adj. nearest in space or position; immediately adjoining without intervening space: had adjacent rooms

adjective [ˈædʒiktiv] – n. a word that expresses an attribute of something

adjoin [əˈdʒɔin] – v. be in direct physical contact with; make contact

adjust [əˈdʒʌst] – v. alter or regulate so as to achieve accuracy or conform to a standard

adjustable [əˈdʒʌstəb(ə)l] – adj. capable of being changed so as to match or fit: adjustable seat belts

adjustment [əˈdʒʌstmənt] – n. the act of making something different (as e.g. the size of a garment)

administer [ədˈministə] – v. perform (a church sacrament) ritually: administer the last unction

administration [əd.miniˈstreiʃən] – n. a method of tending to or managing the affairs of a some group of people (especially the group’s business affairs)

administrative [ədˈministrətiv] – adj. of or relating to or responsible for administration

admirable [ˈædmərəbl] – adj. inspiring admiration or approval: among her many admirable qualities are generosity and graciousness

admiration [.ædməˈreiʃən] – n. a feeling of delighted approval and liking

admire [ədˈmaiə] – v. look at with admiration

admission [ədˈmiʃən] – n. the act of admitting someone to enter: the surgery was performed on his second admission to the clinic

admit [ədˈmit] – v. allow to enter; grant entry to: We cannot admit non-members into our club building

admittedly [ədˈmitidli] – adv. as acknowledged

adolescence [.ædəʊˈlesəns] – n. the time period between the beginning of puberty and adulthood

adolescent [.ædəˈlesnt] – adj. being of the age 13 through 19

adopt [əˈdɔpt] – v. choose and follow; as of theories, ideas, policies, strategies or plans

adoption [əˈdɔpʃən] – n. the act of accepting with approval; favorable reception: its adoption by society

adore [əˈdɔ:] – v. love intensely: he just adored his wife

adorn [əˈdɔ:n] – v. make more attractive by adding ornament, colour, etc.

adornment [əˈdɔ:nmənt] – n. a decoration of color or interest that is added to relieve plainness

adult [ˈædʌlt] – n. a fully developed person from maturity onward

advance [ədˈvɑ:ns] – v. move forward, also in the metaphorical sense

advanced [ədˈvɑ:nst] – adj. farther along in physical or mental development: the child’s skeletal age was classified as `advanced’

advantage [ədˈvɑ:ntidʒ] – n. the quality of having a superior or more favorable position: the experience gave him the advantage over me

advantageous [.ædvənˈteidʒəs] – adj. appropriate for achieving a particular end; implies a lack of concern for fairness

advent [ˈædvent] – n. arrival that has been awaited (especially of something momentous): the advent of the computer

adventure [ədˈventʃə] – v. take a risk in the hope of a favorable outcome

adventurous [ədˈventʃərəs] – adj. willing to undertake or seeking out new and daring enterprises: adventurous pioneers

adverb [ˈædvə:b] – n. the word class that qualifies verbs or clauses

adverbial [ədˈvə:biəl] – n. a word or group of words function as an adverb

adversary [ˈædvəsəri] – n. someone who offers opposition

adverse [ˈædvə:s] – adj. contrary to your interests or welfare: adverse circumstances

adversity [ədˈvə:siti] – n. a state of misfortune or affliction: debt-ridden farmers struggling with adversity

advertise [ˈædvətaiz] – v. call attention to: Please don’t advertise the fact that he has AIDS

advertisement [ədˈvə:tismənt] – n. a public promotion of some product or service

advertising [ˈædvətaiziŋ] – n. a public promotion of some product or service

advice [ədˈvais] – n. a proposal for an appropriate course of action

advisable [ədˈvaizəbl] – adj. worthy of being recommended or suggested; prudent or wise: such action is neither necessary nor advisable

advise [ədˈvaiz] – v. inform (somebody) of something: I advised him that the rent was due

adviser [ədˈvaizə] – n. an expert who gives advice: an adviser helped students select their courses

advocate [ˈædvəkeit,ˈædvəkit] – n. a person who pleads for a cause or propounds an idea

aerial [ˈɛəriəl] – n. a pass to a receiver downfield from the passer

aeroplane  – n. an aircraft that has a fixed wing and is powered by propellers or jets

aesthetic [i:sˈθetik] – adj. concerning or characterized by an appreciation of beauty or good taste: the aesthetic faculties

affair [əˈfɛə] – n. a vaguely specified concern: it is none of your affair

affect [əˈfekt] – v. have an effect upon: Will the new rules affect me?

affection [əˈfekʃən] – n. a positive feeling of liking: he had trouble expressing the affection he felt

affectionate [əˈfekʃənit] – adj. having or displaying warmth or affection: affectionate children

affiliate [əˈfilieit] – v. keep company with; hang out with: She affiliates with her colleagues

affirm [əˈfə:m] – v. establish or strengthen as with new evidence or facts

affirmation [əfə:ˈmeiʃən] – n. a statement asserting the existence or the truth of something

affirmative [əˈfə:mətiv] – adj. expecting the best: an affirmative outlook

affix [əˈfiks,ˈæfiks] – v. attach to: affix the seal here

afflict [əˈflikt] – v. cause great unhappiness for; distress: she was afflicted by the death of her parents

affluent [ˈæfluənt] – n. a branch that flows into the main stream

afford [əˈfɔ:d] – v. be able to spare or give up: I can’t afford to spend two hours with this person

affordable [əˈfɔ:dəbl] – adj. that you have the financial means for

afloat [əˈfləut] – adj. aimlessly drifting

aforesaid [əˈfɔ:sed] – adj. being the one previously mentioned or spoken of

afraid [əˈfreid] – adj. filled with fear or apprehension: afraid even to turn his head

Africa [ˈæfrikə] – n. the second largest continent; located to the south of Europe and bordered to the west by the South Atlantic and to the east by the Indian Ocean

African [ˈæfrikən] – n. a native or inhabitant of Africa

after [ˈɑ:ftə] – adv. happening at a time subsequent to a reference time: it didn’t happen until afterward

afternoon [ˈɑ:ftəˈnu:n] – n. the part of the day between noon and evening: he spent a quiet afternoon in the park

afterward [ˈɑ:ftəwəd] – adv. happening at a time subsequent to a reference time: it didn’t happen until afterward

again [əˈgein,əˈgen] – adv. anew: she tried again

age [eidʒ] – n. how long something has existed: it was replaced because of its age

agency [ˈeidʒənsi] – n. an administrative unit of government

agenda [əˈdʒendə] – n. a temporally organized plan for matters to be attended to

agent [ˈeidʒənt] – n. an active and efficient cause; capable of producing a certain effect: their research uncovered new disease agents

aggravate [ˈægrəveit] – v. make worse: This drug aggravates the pain

aggravation [.ægrəˈveiʃən] – n. an exasperated feeling of annoyance

aggregate [ˈægrigeit,ˈægrigit] – n. the whole amount

aggregation [ægriˈgeiʃən] – n. several things grouped together or considered as a whole

aggression [əˈgreʃən] – n. a feeling of hostility that arouses thoughts of attack

aggressive [əˈgresiv] – adj. having or showing determination and energetic pursuit of your ends: an aggressive businessman

aggressor [əˈgresə(r)] – n. someone who attacks

agitate [ˈædʒiteit] – v. try to stir up public opinion

agitation [ædʒiˈteiʃən] – n. a mental state of extreme emotional disturbance

ago [əˈgəu] – adj. gone by; or in the past: two years ago

agonize [ˈægənaiz] – v. suffer agony or anguish

agony [ˈægəni] – n. intense feelings of suffering; acute mental or physical pain: an agony of doubt

agree [əˈgri:] – v. be compatible, similar or consistent; coincide in their characteristics: The two stories don’t agree in many details

agreeable [əˈgri:əbəl] – adj. conforming to your own liking or feelings or nature: Is the plan agreeable to you?

agreeably [əˈgriəbli] – adv. in an enjoyable manner

agreed [əˈgri:d] – adj. united by being of the same opinion: agreed in their distrust of authority

agreement [əˈgri:mənt] – n. the statement (oral or written) of an exchange of promises: they had an agreement that they would not interfere in each other’s business

agricultural [.ægriˈkʌltʃərəl] – adj. relating to rural matters: an agrarian (or agricultural) society

agriculture [ˈægrikʌltʃə] – n. a large-scale farming enterprise

ahead [əˈhed] – adv. at or in the front: I see the lights of a town ahead

aid [eid] – n. a resource: visual aids in teaching

aids [eidz] – n. a serious (often fatal) disease of the immune system transmitted through blood products especially by sexual contact or contaminated needles

ailment [ˈeilmənt] – n. an often persistent bodily disorder or disease; a cause for complaining

aim [eim] – v. point or cause to go (blows, weapons, or objects such as photographic equipment) towards: Please don’t aim at your little brother!

aimless [ˈeimlis] – adj. continually changing especially as from one abode or occupation to another

air [ɛə] – n. a mixture of gases (especially oxygen) required for breathing; the stuff that the wind consists of: air pollution

aircraft [ˈɛəkrɑ:ft] – n. a vehicle that can fly

airing [ˈeəriŋ] – n. the opening of a subject to widespread discussion and debate

airline [ˈɛəlain] – n. a hose that carries air under pressure

airliner [ˈɛə.lainə] – n. a commercial airplane that carries passengers

airmail [ˈeəmeil] – n. letters and packages that are transported by aircraft

airplane [ˈɛəplein] – n. an aircraft that has a fixed wing and is powered by propellers or jets: the flight was delayed due to trouble with the airplane

airport [ˈɛəpɔ:t] – n. an airfield equipped with control tower and hangars as well as accommodations for passengers and cargo

airway [ˈɛəwei] – n. a duct that provides ventilation (as in mines)

aisle [ail] – n. a long narrow passage (as in a cave or woods)

ajar [əˈdɜɑ:] – adj. slightly open: the door was ajar

alarm [əˈlɑ:m] – n. fear resulting from the awareness of danger

alas [əˈlæs] – adv. by bad luck: alas, I cannot stay

album [ˈælbəm] – n. a book of blank pages with pockets or envelopes; for organizing photographs or stamp collections etc

alcohol [ˈælkəhɔl] – n. any of a series of volatile hydroxyl compounds that are made from hydrocarbons by distillation

alcoholic [.ælkəˈhɔ:lik] – adj. addicted to alcohol: alcoholic expatriates in Paris

alcoholism [ˈælkəhɔlizəm] – n. an intense persistent desire to drink alcoholic beverages to excess

ale [eil] – n. a general name for beer made with a top fermenting yeast; in some of the United States an ale is (by law) a brew of more than 4% alcohol by volume

alert [əˈlə:t] – n. condition of heightened watchfulness or preparation for action: bombers were put on alert during the crisis

algebra [ˈældʒibrə] – n. the mathematics of generalized arithmetical operations

alien [ˈeiljən] – n. a person who comes from a foreign country; someone who does not owe allegiance to your country

alienate [ˈeiljəneit] – v. arouse hostility or indifference in where there had formerly been love, affection, or friendliness: She alienated her friends when she became fanatically religious

alienation [.eiljəˈneiʃən] – n. separation resulting from hostility

alignment [əˈlainmənt] – n. an organization of people (or countries) involved in a pact or treaty

alike [əˈlaik] – adv. equally: parents and teachers alike demanded reforms

alive [əˈlaiv] – adj. possessing life: the happiest person alive

all [ɔ:l] – adj. quantifier; used with either mass or count nouns to indicate the whole number or amount of or every one of a class: we sat up all night

allege [əˈledʒ] – v. report or maintain: He alleged that he was the victim of a crime

allegiance [əˈli:dʒəns] – n. the act of binding yourself (intellectually or emotionally) to a course of action

allergic [əˈlə:dʒik] – adj. having an allergy or peculiar or excessive susceptibility (especially to a specific factor): allergic children

allergy [ˈælədʒi] – n. hypersensitivity reaction to a particular allergen; symptoms can vary greatly in intensity

alleviate [əˈli:vieit] – v. provide physical relief, as from pain

alliance [əˈlaiəns] – n. a connection based on kinship or marriage or common interest: the shifting alliances within a large family

allied [ˈælaid] – adj. related by common characteristics or ancestry: allied species

allocate [ˈæləkeit] – v. distribute according to a plan or set apart for a special purpose

allocation [.æləˈkeiʃən] – n. a share set aside for a specific purpose

allot [əˈlɔt] – v. give out

allotment [əˈlɔtmənt] – n. a share set aside for a specific purpose

allow [əˈlau] – v. make it possible through a specific action or lack of action for something to happen: This sealed door won’t allow the water come into the basement

allowance [əˈlauəns] – n. a sum granted as reimbursement for expenses

alloy [əˈlɔi,ˈælɔi] – n. the state of impairing the quality or reducing the value of something

ally [əˈlai] – n. a friendly nation

almost [ˈɔ:lməust] – adv. (of actions or states) slightly short of or not quite accomplished; all but: the baby was almost asleep when the alarm sounded

alone [əˈləun] – adj. isolated from others: could be alone in a crowded room

along [əˈlɔŋ] – adv. with a forward motion: we drove along admiring the view

alongside [əˈlɔŋˈsaid] – adv. side by side

aloud [əˈlaud] – adv. using the voice; not silently: please read the passage aloud

alphabet [ˈælfəbit] – n. a character set that includes letters and is used to write a language

alphabetical [.ælfəˈbetikəl] – adj. arranged in order according to the alphabet: dictionaries list words in alphabetical order

also [ˈɔ:lsəu] – adv. in addition

alter [ˈɔ:ltə] – v. cause to change; make different; cause a transformation: The advent of the automobile may have altered the growth pattern of the city

alternate [ɔ:lˈtə:nit,ˈɔ:ltə:neit] – v. go back and forth; swing back and forth between two states or conditions

alternation [.ɔ:ltə:ˈneiʃən] – n. successive change from one thing or state to another and back again: a trill is a rapid alternation between the two notes

alternative [ɔ:lˈtə:nətiv] – adj. serving or used in place of another: an alternative plan

altitude [ˈæltitju:d] – n. elevation especially above sea level or above the earth’s surface: the altitude gave her a headache

altogether [.ɔ:ltəˈgeðə] – adv. to a complete degree or to the full or entire extent (`whole’ is often used informally for `wholly’): it was not altogether her fault

aluminum [əˈlju:minəm] – n. a silvery ductile metallic element found primarily in bauxite

always [ˈɔ:lweiz] – adv. at all times; all the time and on every occasion: I will always be there to help you

amateur [ˈæmətə:] – n. someone who pursues a study or sport as a pastime

amaze [əˈmeiz] – v. affect with wonder: Your ability to speak six languages amazes me!

amazement [əˈmeizmənt] – n. the feeling that accompanies something extremely surprising

ambassador [æmˈbæsədə] – n. a diplomat of the highest rank; accredited as representative from one country to another

ambient [ˈæmbiənt] – adj. completely enveloping: the ambient air

ambiguity [.æmbiˈgju:iti] – n. an expression whose meaning cannot be determined from its context

ambiguous [æmˈbigjuəs] – adj. open to two or more interpretations; or of uncertain nature or significance; or (often) intended to mislead: the polling had a complex and equivocal (or ambiguous) message for potential female candidates

ambition [æmˈbiʃən] – n. a cherished desire: his ambition is to own his own business

ambitious [æmˈbiʃəs] – adj. having a strong desire for success or achievement

ambulance [ˈæmbjuləns] – n. a vehicle that takes people to and from hospitals

amend [əˈmend] – v. to make better

amendment [əˈmendmənt] – n. a statement that is added to or revises or improves a proposal or document (a bill or constitution etc.)

amends [əˈmendz] – n. a sum of money paid in compensation for loss or injury

America [əˈmerikə] – n. North American republic containing 50 states – 48 conterminous states in North America plus Alaska in northwest North America and the Hawaiian Islands in the Pacific Ocean; achieved independence in 1776

American [əˈmerikən] – n. a native or inhabitant of the United States

amiable [ˈeimjəbl] – adj. disposed to please: an amiable villain with a cocky sidelong grin

amicable [ˈæmikəbəl] – adj. characterized by friendship and good will

ammunition [.æmjuˈniʃən] – n. projectiles to be fired from a gun

amount [əˈmaunt] – n. a quantity of money: the amount he had in cash was insufficient

ampere [ˈæmpeə] – n. the basic unit of electric current adopted under the Systeme International d’Unites

amphibian [æmˈfibiən] – n. a flat-bottomed motor vehicle that can travel on land or water

ample [ˈæmpl] – adj. more than enough in size or scope or capacity: had ample food for the party

amplification [.æmplifiˈkeiʃən] – n. addition of extra material or illustration or clarifying detail: a few remarks added in amplification and defense

amplifier [ˈæmplifaiə] – n. electronic equipment that increases strength of signals passing through it

amplify [ˈæmplifai] – v. increase in size, volume or significance

amuse [əˈmju:z] – v. occupy in an agreeable, entertaining or pleasant fashion: The play amused the ladies

amusement [əˈmju:zmənt] – n. a feeling of delight at being entertained

analogue [ˈænəlɔg] – n. something having the property of being analogous to something else

analogy [əˈnælədʒi] – n. an inference that if things agree in some respects they probably agree in others

analysis [əˈnæləsis] – n. an investigation of the component parts of a whole and their relations in making up the whole

analytical [.ænəˈlitikl] – adj. of a proposition that is necessarily true independent of fact or experience

analyze [ˈænəlaiz] – v. make a mathematical, chemical, or grammatical analysis of; break down into components or essential features: analyze a specimen

ancestor [ˈænsistə] – n. someone from whom you are descended (but usually more remote than a grandparent)

anchor [ˈæŋkə] – n. a mechanical device that prevents a vessel from moving

ancient [ˈeinʃənt] – n. a very old person

anecdote [ˈænik.dəut] – n. short account of an incident (especially a biographical one)

angel [ˈeindʒəl] – n. spiritual being attendant upon God

anger [ˈæŋgə] – n. a strong emotion; a feeling that is oriented toward some real or supposed grievance

angle [ˈæŋgl] – v. to incline or bend from a vertical position

angry [ˈæŋgri] – adj. (of the elements) as if showing violent anger: angry clouds on the horizon

angular [ˈæŋgjulə] – adj. measured by an angle or by the rate of change of an angle: angular momentum

animal [ˈæniməl] – n. a living organism characterized by voluntary movement

animate [ˈæni.meit] – v. heighten or intensify

animation [.æniˈmeiʃən] – n. the condition of living or the state of being alive

ankle [ˈæŋkl] – n. a gliding joint between the distal ends of the tibia and fibula and the proximal end of the talus

annex [əˈneks] – v. take (territory) as if by conquest: Hitler annexed Lithuania

annihilate [əˈnaiəleit] – v. kill in large numbers

anniversary [.æniˈvə:səri] – n. the date on which an event occurred in some previous year (or the celebration of it)

announce [əˈnauns] – v. give the names of: He announced the winners of the spelling bee

announcement [əˈnaunsmənt] – n. a formal public statement: the government made an announcement about changes in the drug war

announcer [əˈnaunsə] – n. someone who proclaims a message publicly

annoy [əˈnɔi] – v. cause annoyance in; disturb, especially by minor irritations

annoyance [əˈnɔiəns] – n. anger produced by some annoying irritation

annual [ˈænjuəl] – n. (botany) a plant that completes its entire life cycle within the space of a year

annually [ˈænjuəli] – adv. without missing a year: they travel to China annually

annuity [əˈnju:iti] – n. income from capital investment paid in a series of regular payments: his retirement fund was set up to be paid as an annuity

anonymous [əˈnɔniməs] – adj. having no known name or identity or known source: anonymous authors

another [əˈnʌðə] – adj. any of various alternatives; some other: put it off to another (or some other) day

answer [ˈɑ:nsə] – v. react verbally: She didn’t want to answer

ant [ænt] – n. social insect living in organized colonies; characteristically the males and fertile queen have wings during breeding season; wingless sterile females are the workers

antagonism [ænˈtægənizəm] – n. a state of deep-seated ill-will

antagonist [ænˈtægənist] – n. someone who offers opposition

Antarctic [ænˈtɑ:ktik] – adj. at or near the south pole

antecedent [.æntəˈsi:dənt] – n. someone from whom you are descended (but usually more remote than a grandparent)

anthem [ˈænθəm] – n. a song of devotion or loyalty (as to a nation or school)

anthology [ænˈθɔlədʒi] – n. a collection of selected literary passages

anthropology [ænθrəˈpɔlədʒi] – n. the social science that studies the origins and social relationships of human beings

antibiotic [.æntibaiˈɔtik] – n. a chemical substance derivable from a mold or bacterium that can kill microorganisms and cure bacterial infections: when antibiotics were first discovered they were called wonder drugs

anticipate [ænˈtisipeit] – v. regard something as probable or likely

anticipation [æn.tisiˈpeiʃən] – n. an expectation

antique [ænˈti:k] – adj. made in or typical of earlier times and valued for its age: the beautiful antique French furniture

antonym [ˈæntənim] – n. a word that expresses a meaning opposed to the meaning of another word, in which case the two words are antonyms of each other: to him the antonym of `gay’ was `depressed’

anxiety [æŋˈzaiəti] – n. a vague unpleasant emotion that is experienced in anticipation of some (usually ill-defined) misfortune

anxious [ˈæŋkʃəs] – adj. eagerly desirous: anxious to see the new show at the museum

anxiously [ˈæŋkʃəsli] – adv. with anxiety or apprehension: we watched anxiously

any [ˈeni] – adj. one or some or every or all without specification: give me any peaches you don’t want

anyhow [ˈenihau] – adv. used to indicate that a statement explains or supports a previous statement: I think they’re asleep; anyhow, they’re quiet

anyway [ˈeniwei] – adv. used to indicate that a statement explains or supports a previous statement: I don’t know what happened to it; anyway, it’s gone

anywhere [ˈeniwɛə] – adv. at or in or to any place: you can find this food anywhere

apart [əˈpɑ:t] – adv. separated or at a distance in place or position or time: These towns are many miles apart

apartment [əˈpɑ:tmənt] – n. a suite of rooms usually on one floor of an apartment house

ape [eip] – n. any of various primates with short tails or no tail at all

apologetic [ə.pɔləˈdʒetik] – adj. offering or expressing apology: an apologetic note

apologize [əˈpɔlədʒaiz] – v. acknowledge faults or shortcomings or failing: I apologized for being late

apology [əˈpɔlədʒi] – n. an expression of regret at having caused trouble for someone: he wrote a letter of apology to the hostess

apparatus [.æpəˈreitəs] – n. equipment designed to serve a specific function

apparent [əˈpærənt] – adj. clearly revealed to the mind or the senses or judgment: the effects of the drought are apparent to anyone who sees the parched fields

apparently [əˈpærəntli] – adv. from appearances alone: irrigation often produces bumper crops from apparently desert land

appeal [əˈpi:l] – v. take a court case to a higher court for review: He was found guilty but appealed immediately

appear [əˈpiə] – v. give a certain impression or have a certain outward aspect: This appears to be a very difficult problem

appearance [əˈpiərəns] – n. outward or visible aspect of a person or thing

appendix [əˈpendiks] – n. a vestigial process that extends from the lower end of the cecum and that resembles a small pouch

appetite [ˈæpitait] – n. a feeling of craving something: an appetite for life

applaud [əˈplɔ:d] – v. clap one’s hands or shout after performances to indicate approval

applause [əˈplɔ:z] – n. a demonstration of approval by clapping the hands together

apple [ˈæpl] – n. fruit with red or yellow or green skin and sweet to tart crisp whitish flesh

appliance [əˈplaiəns] – n. a device or control that is very useful for a particular job

applicable [ˈæplikəbl] – adj. capable of being applied; having relevance: gave applicable examples to support her argument

applicant [ˈæplikənt] – n. a person who requests or seeks something such as assistance or employment or admission

application [.æpliˈkeiʃən] – n. the act of bringing something to bear; using it for a particular purpose: he advocated the application of statistics to the problem

apply [əˈplai] – v. put into service; make work or employ for a particular purpose or for its inherent or natural purpose: I apply this rule to get good results

appoint [əˈpɔint] – v. create and charge with a task or function

appointment [əˈpɔintmənt] – n. the act of putting a person into a non-elective position: the appointment had to be approved by the whole committee

appraisal [əˈpreizəl] – n. the classification of someone or something with respect to its worth

appreciable [əˈpri:ʃəbl] – adj. enough to be estimated or measured: appreciable amounts of noxious wastes are dumped into the harbor

appreciably [əˈpri:ʃəbli] – adv. to a noticeable degree: they weather was appreciably colder

appreciate [əˈpri:ʃieit] – v. recognize with gratitude; be grateful for

appreciation [ə.pri:ʃiˈeiʃən] – n. understanding of the nature or meaning or quality or magnitude of something

appreciative [əˈpri:ʃiətiv] – adj. feeling or expressive of gratitude: was appreciative of his efforts

apprehension [.æpriˈhenʃən] – n. fearful expectation or anticipation: the student looked around the examination room with apprehension

apprentice [əˈprentis] – n. works for an expert to learn a trade

approach [əˈprəutʃ] – n. ideas or actions intended to deal with a problem or situation: his approach to every problem is to draw up a list of pros and cons

approval [əˈpru:vəl] – n. a feeling of liking something or someone good: although she fussed at them, she secretly viewed all her children with approval

approve [əˈpru:v] – v. give sanction to: I approve of his educational policies

approximate [əˈprɔksimit] – adj. not quite exact or correct: the approximate time was 10 o’clock

approximately [əˈprɔksimitli] – adv. (of quantities) imprecise but fairly close to correct: lasted approximately an hour

approximation [ə.prɔksiˈmeiʃən] – n. the quality of coming near to identity (especially close in quantity)

April [ˈeiprəl] – n. the month following March and preceding May

apt [æpt] – adj. (usually followed by `to’) naturally disposed toward: he is apt to ignore matters he considers unimportant

aptitude [ˈæptitju:d] – n. inherent ability

aquarium [əˈkweəriəm] – n. a tank or pool or bowl filled with water for keeping live fish and underwater animals

aquatic [əˈkwætik] – adj. relating to or consisting of or being in water: an aquatic environment

Arab [ˈærəb] – n. a member of a Semitic people originally from the Arabian peninsula and surrounding territories who speaks Arabic and who inhabits much of the Middle East and northern Africa

Arabian [əˈreibiən] – n. a spirited graceful and intelligent riding horse native to Arabia

Arabic [ˈærəbik] – n. the Semitic language of the Arabs; spoken in a variety of dialects

arbitrary [ˈɑ:bitrəri] – adj. based on or subject to individual discretion or preference or sometimes impulse or caprice: an arbitrary decision

arbitrate [ˈɑ:bitreit] – v. act between parties with a view to reconciling differences

arbitration [.ɑ:biˈtreiʃən] – n. the act of deciding as an arbiter; giving authoritative judgment: they submitted their disagreement to arbitration

arbitrator [ˈɑ:bitreitə] – n. someone chosen to judge and decide a disputed issue: the arbitrator’s authority derived from the consent of the disputants

arc [ɑ:k] – n. electrical conduction through a gas in an applied electric field

arch [ɑ:tʃ] – n. a curved shape in the vertical plane that spans an opening

archaeologist [.ɑ:kiəˈlɔdʒist] – n. an anthropologist who studies prehistoric people and their culture

archaeology [.ɑ:kiˈɔlədʒi] – n. the branch of anthropology that studies prehistoric people and their cultures

archaic [ɑ:ˈkei-ik] – adj. so extremely old as seeming to belong to an earlier period: archaic laws

architect [ˈɑ:kitekt] – n. someone who creates plans to be used in making something (such as buildings)

architecture [ˈɑ:kitektʃə] – n. the discipline dealing with the principles of design and construction and ornamentation of fine buildings: architecture and eloquence are mixed arts whose end is sometimes beauty and sometimes use

archives [ˈɑ:kaivz] – n. collection of records especially about an institution

arctic [ˈɑ:ktik] – n. the regions to the north of the Arctic Circle centered on the North Pole

ardent [ˈɑ:dənt] – adj. characterized by intense emotion: ardent love

area [ˈɛəriə] – n. a subject of study: it was his area of specialization

arena [əˈri:nə] – n. a particular environment or walk of life

argue [ˈɑ:gju:] – v. have an argument about something

argument [ˈɑ:gjumənt] – n. a fact or assertion offered as evidence that something is true: it was a strong argument that his hypothesis was true

arise [əˈraiz] – v. come into existence; take on form or shape

aristocracy [.ærisˈtɔkrəsi] – n. a privileged class holding hereditary titles

aristocrat [ˈæristəkræt] – n. a member of the aristocracy

aristocratic [.æristəˈkrætik] – adj. belonging to or characteristic of the nobility or aristocracy: an aristocratic family

arithmetic [əˈriθmətik] – n. the branch of pure mathematics dealing with the theory of numerical calculations

arm [ɑ:m] – n. any instrument or instrumentality used in fighting or hunting

armchair [ˈɑ:m.tʃɛə] – n. chair with a support on each side for arms

armour  – n. protective covering made of metal and used in combat

arms [ɑ:mz] – n. weapons considered collectively

army [ˈɑ:mi] – n. a large number of people united for some specific purpose

around [əˈraund] – adv. in the area or vicinity: hanging around

arouse [əˈrauz] – v. call forth (emotions, feelings, and responses): arouse pity

arrange [əˈreindʒ] – v. put into a proper or systematic order: arrange the books on the shelves in chronological order

arrangement [əˈreindʒmənt] – n. an orderly grouping (of things or persons) considered as a unit; the result of arranging: a flower arrangement

array [əˈrei] – n. an impressive display: it was a bewildering array of books

arrest [əˈrest] – v. take into custody

arrival [əˈraivəl] – n. accomplishment of an objective

arrive [əˈraiv] – v. succeed in a big way; get to the top: After he published his book, he had arrived

arrogance [ˈærəgəns] – n. overbearing pride evidenced by a superior manner toward inferiors

arrogant [ˈærəgənt] – adj. having or showing feelings of unwarranted importance out of overbearing pride: an arrogant official

arrogantly [ˈærəgəntli] – adv. in an arrogant manner: in the old days she had been harsh and stiff ; afraid of her husband and yet arrogantly proud that she had a husband strong and fierce enough to make her afraid

arrow [ˈærəu] – n. a mark to indicate a direction or relation

art [ɑ:t] – n. the creation of beautiful or significant things: art does not need to be innovative to be good

artery [ˈɑ:təri] – n. a major thoroughfare that bears important traffic

article [ˈɑ:tikl] – n. nonfictional prose forming an independent part of a publication

articulate [ɑ:ˈtikjuleit] – v. provide with a joint

artificial [.ɑ:tiˈfiʃəl] – adj. contrived by art rather than nature: artificial flowers

artillery [ɑ:ˈtiləri] – n. large but transportable armament

artist [ˈɑ:tist] – n. a person whose creative work shows sensitivity and imagination

artistic [ɑ:ˈtistik] – adj. satisfying aesthetic standards and sensibilities: artistic workmanship

as [æz] – adv. to the same degree (often followed by `as’): birds were singing and the child sang as sweetly

ascend [əˈsend] – v. travel up,: We ascended the mountain

ascent [əˈsent] – n. an upward slope or grade (as in a road)

ascertain [.æsəˈtein] – v. establish after a calculation, investigation, experiment, survey, or study

ascribe [əˈskraib] – v. attribute or credit to

ash [æʃ] – n. the residue that remains when something is burned

ashamed [əˈʃeimd] – adj. feeling shame or guilt or embarrassment or remorse: are you ashamed for having lied?

ashore [əˈʃɔ:] – adv. towards the shore from the water: we invited them ashore

ashtray [ˈæʃtrei] – n. a receptacle for the ash from smokers’ cigars or cigarettes

Asia [ˈeiʃə] – n. the largest continent with 60% of the earth’s population; it is joined to Europe on the west to form Eurasia; it is the site of some of the world’s earliest civilizations

Asian [ˈeiʃən] – n. a native or inhabitant of Asia

aside [əˈsaid] – adv. on or to one side: step aside

ask [ɑ:sk] – v. inquire about: I asked about their special today

asleep [əˈsli:p] – adj. in a state of sleep: were all asleep when the phone rang

aspect [ˈæspekt] – n. a distinct feature or element in a problem

aspiration [.æspəˈreiʃən] – n. a will to succeed

aspire [əsˈpaiə] – v. have an ambitious plan or a lofty goal

aspirin [ˈæspərin] – n. the acetylated derivative of salicylic acid; used as an analgesic anti-inflammatory drug (trade names Bayer, Empirin, and St. Joseph) usually taken in tablet form; used as an antipyretic; slows clotting of the blood by poisoning platelets

ass [æs] – n. the fleshy part of the human body that you sit on

assassinate [əˈsæsineit] – v. murder; especially of socially prominent persons: Anwar Sadat was assassinated because many people did not like his peace politics with Israel

assassination [ə.sæsiˈneiʃən] – n. an attack intended to ruin someone’s reputation

assault [əˈsɔ:lt] – n. close fighting during the culmination of a military attack

assemble [əˈsembl] – v. create by putting components or members together

assembly [əˈsembli] – n. a group of machine parts that fit together to form a self-contained unit

assert [əˈsə:t] – v. state categorically

assertion [əˈsə:ʃən] – n. a declaration that is made emphatically (as if no supporting evidence were necessary)

assess [əˈses] – v. evaluate or estimate the nature, quality, ability, extent, or significance of

assessment [əˈsesmənt] – n. the classification of someone or something with respect to its worth

asset [ˈæset] – n. a useful or valuable quality

assign [əˈsain] – v. give out: We were assigned new uniforms

assignment [əˈsainmənt] – n. the instrument by which a claim or right or interest or property is transferred from one person to another

assimilate [əˈsimileit] – v. take up mentally

assist [əˈsist] – v. work for or be a servant to: Is a salesperson assisting you?

assistance [əˈsistəns] – n. the activity of contributing to the fulfillment of a need or furtherance of an effort or purpose: could not walk without assistance

assistant [əˈsistənt] – n. a person who contributes to the fulfillment of a need or furtherance of an effort or purpose: my invaluable assistant

associate [əˈsəuʃieit] – n. a person who joins with others in some activity or endeavor: he had to consult his associate before continuing

association [ə.səusiˈeiʃən] – n. a formal organization of people or groups of people

associative [əˈsəuʃi.eitiv] – adj. characterized by or causing or resulting from the process of bringing ideas or events together in memory or imagination: associative learning

assorted [əˈsɔ:tid] – adj. of many different kinds purposefully arranged but lacking any uniformity: assorted sizes

assortment [əˈsɔ:tmənt] – n. a collection containing a variety of sorts of things: a great assortment of cars was on display

assume [əˈsju:m] – v. take to be the case or to be true; accept without verification or proof: I assume his train was late

assumption [əˈsʌmpʃən] – n. a hypothesis that is taken for granted: any society is built upon certain assumptions

assurance [əˈʃuərəns] – n. freedom from doubt; belief in yourself and your abilities: his assurance in his superiority did not make him popular

assure [əˈʃuə] – v. make certain of

assured [əʃuəd] – adj. characterized by certainty or security: a tiny but assured income

astonish [əsˈtɔniʃ] – v. affect with wonder

astonishment [əˈstɔniʃmənt] – n. the feeling that accompanies something extremely surprising: he looked at me in astonishment

astound [əsˈtaund] – v. affect with wonder

astray [əsˈʒrei:] – adv. away from the right path or direction: he was led astray

astronaut [ˈæstrənɔ:t] – n. a person trained to travel in a spacecraft: the Russians called their astronauts cosmonauts

astronomer [əˈstrɔnəmə] – n. a physicist who studies astronomy

astronomical [.æstrəˈnɔmikəl] – adj. inconceivably large

astronomy [əˈstrɔnəmi] – n. the branch of physics that studies celestial bodies and the universe as a whole

asylum [əˈsailəm] – n. a shelter from danger or hardship

at [æt] – n. a highly unstable radioactive element (the heaviest of the halogen series); a decay product of uranium and thorium

athlete [ˈæθli:t] – n. a person trained to compete in sports

athletic [æθˈletik] – adj. vigorously active: an athletic child

Atlantic [ətˈlæntik] – n. the 2nd largest ocean; separates North and South America on the west from Europe and Africa on the east

atlas [ˈætləs] – n. (Greek mythology) a Titan who was forced by Zeus to bear the sky on his shoulders

atmosphere [ˈætməsfiə] – n. a particular environment or surrounding influence: there was an atmosphere of excitement

atmospheric [.ætməsˈferik] – adj. relating to or located in the atmosphere: atmospheric tests

atom [ˈætəm] – n. (physics and chemistry) the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element

atomic [əˈtɔmik] – adj. of or relating to or comprising atoms: atomic structure

attach [əˈtætʃ] – v. create social or emotional ties

attachment [əˈtætʃmənt] – n. a feeling of affection for a person or an institution

attack [əˈtæk] – n. (military) an offensive against an enemy (using weapons): the attack began at dawn

attain [əˈtein] – v. to gain with effort

attainable  – adj. capable of being attained or accomplished: choose an attainable goal

attempt [əˈtempt] – n. earnest and conscientious activity intended to do or accomplish something

attend [əˈtend] – v. be present at (meetings, church services, university), etc.: She attends class regularly

attendance [əˈtendəns] – n. the act of being present (at a meeting or event etc.)

attendant [əˈtendənt] – n. a person who is present and participates in a meeting

attention [əˈtenʃən] – n. the process whereby a person concentrates on some features of the environment to the (relative) exclusion of others

attentive [əˈtentiv] – adj. taking heed; giving close and thoughtful attention

attentively [əˈtentivli] – adv. with attention; in an attentive manner: he listened attentively

attic [ˈætik] – n. floor consisting of open space at the top of a house just below roof; often used for storage

attitude [ˈætitju:d] – n. a complex mental state involving beliefs and feelings and values and dispositions to act in certain ways: he had the attitude that work was fun

attorney [əˈtə:ni] – n. a professional person authorized to practice law; conducts lawsuits or gives legal advice

attract [əˈtrækt] – v. direct toward itself or oneself by means of some psychological power or physical attributes: Her good looks attract the stares of many men

attraction [əˈtrækʃən] – n. an entertainment that is offered to the public

attractive [əˈtræktiv] – adj. pleasing to the eye or mind especially through beauty or charm: a remarkably attractive young man

attributable [əˈtribjutəbl] – adj. capable of being attributed: the collapse of the movement was attributable to a lack of morale

attribution [.ætriˈbju:ʃən] – n. assigning some quality or character to a person or thing: the attribution of language to birds

attributive [əˈtribjutiv] – adj. of adjectives; placed before the nouns they modify: `red’ is an attributive adjective in `a red apple’

auction [ˈɔ:kʃən] – n. the public sale of something to the highest bidder

audible [ˈɔ:dibəl] – n. a football play is changed orally after both teams have assumed their positions at the line of scrimmage

audience [ˈɔ:diəns] – n. a gathering of spectators or listeners at a (usually public) performance: the audience applauded

audit [ˈɔ:dit] – n. an inspection of the accounting procedures and records by a trained accountant or CPA

audition [ɔ:ˈdiʃən] – n. a test of the suitability of a performer

auditorium [.ɔ:diˈtɔ:riəm] – n. the area of a theater or concert hall where the audience sits

augment [ɔ:gˈment] – v. enlarge or increase: The recent speech of the president augmented tensions in the Near East

august  – adj. of or befitting a lord: of august lineage

aunt [ɑ:nt] – n. the sister of your father or mother; the wife of your uncle

aural [ˈɔ:rəl] – adj. of or pertaining to hearing or the ear: an animal with a very sensitive aural apparatus

auspice [ˈɔ:spis] – n. a favorable omen

Australia [ɔˈstreiliə] – n. the smallest continent; between the South Pacific and the Indian Ocean

Australian [ɔˈstreiliən] – n. a native or inhabitant of Australia

authentic [ɔ:ˈθentik] – adj. conforming to fact and therefore worthy of belief: an authentic account by an eyewitness

author [ˈɔ:θə] – n. writes (books or stories or articles or the like) professionally (for pay)

authoritative [ɔ:ˈθɔrətətiv] – adj. of recognized authority or excellence

authority [əˈθɔ:riti] – n. the power or right to give orders or make decisions: he has the authority to issue warrants

authorization [.ɔ:θəraiˈzeiʃən] – n. a document giving an official instruction or command

authorize [ˈɔ:θəraiz] – v. give or delegate power or authority to: She authorized her assistant to sign the papers

autobiography [.ɔ:təbaiˈɔgrəfi] – n. a biography of yourself

automate [ˈɔ:təmeit] – v. make automatic or control or operate automatically: automate the movement of the robot

automatic [.ɔ:təˈmætik] – adj. operating with minimal human intervention; independent of external control: automatic transmission

automatically  – adv. in a reflex manner: he answered automatically

automation [.ɔ:təˈmeiʃən] – n. the act of implementing the control of equipment with advanced technology; usually involving electronic hardware: automation replaces human workers by machines

automobile [ˈɔ:təməubi:l] – n. a motor vehicle with four wheels; usually propelled by an internal combustion engine

autonomous [ɔ:ˈtɔnəməs] – adj. (of political bodies) not controlled by outside forces: an autonomous judiciary

autonomy [ɔ:ˈtɔnəmi] – n. immunity from arbitrary exercise of authority: political independence

autumn [ˈɔ:təm] – n. the season when the leaves fall from the trees

auxiliary [ɔ:gˈziljəri] – adj. functioning in a supporting capacity: the main library and its auxiliary branches

avail [əˈveil] – v. use to one’s advantage: He availed himself of the available resources

availability [ə.veiləˈbiliti] – n. the quality of being at hand when needed

available [əˈveiləbl] – adj. obtainable or accessible and ready for use or service: kept a fire extinguisher available

avalanche [ˈævəlɑ:nʃ] – n. a slide of large masses of snow and ice and mud down a mountain

avenge [əˈvendʒ] – v. take revenge for a perceived wrong: He wants to avenge the murder of his brother

avenue [ˈævinju:] – n. a line of approach: they explored every avenue they could think of

average [ˈævəridʒ] – adj. lacking special distinction, rank, or status; commonly encountered: average people

avert [əˈvə:t] – v. prevent the occurrence of; prevent from happening: avert a strike

aviation [.eiviˈeiʃən] – n. the aggregation of a country’s military aircraft

avoid [əˈvɔid] – v. stay clear from; keep away from; keep out of the way of someone or something: Her former friends now avoid her

await [əˈweit] – v. look forward to the probable occurrence of

awake [əˈweik] – adj. not in a state of sleep; completely conscious: lay awake thinking about his new job

awaken [əˈweikən] – v. stop sleeping

award [əˈwɔ:d] – n. a grant made by a law court: he criticized the awarding of compensation by the court

aware [əˈwɛə] – adj. (sometimes followed by `of’) having or showing knowledge or understanding or realization or perception: was aware of his opponent’s hostility

away [əˈwei] – adv. from a particular thing or place or position (`forth’ is obsolete): ran away from the lion

awe [ɔ:] – n. an overwhelming feeling of wonder or admiration: he stared over the edge with a feeling of awe

awesome [ˈɔ:səm] – adj. inspiring awe or admiration or wonder: the awesome complexity of the universe

awful [ˈɔ:ful] – adj. exceptionally bad or displeasing: an awful voice

awfully [ˈɔ:fuli] – adv. used as intensifiers

awkward [ˈɔ:kwəd] – adj. causing inconvenience: they arrived at an awkward time

awkwardly [ˈɔ:kwədli] – adv. in an awkward manner: he bent awkwardly

awkwardness [ˈɔ:kwədnis] – n. unskillfulness resulting from a lack of training

ax [æks] – v. terminate: The NSF axed the research program and stopped funding it

axial [ˈæksiəl] – adj. relating to or attached to the axis: axial angle

axis [ˈæksis] – n. a straight line through a body or figure that satisfies certain conditions

axle [ˈæksl] – n. a shaft on which a wheel rotates

bachelor [ˈbætʃələ] – n. a man who has never been married

back [bæk] – v. be behind; approve of: I backed Kennedy in 1960

backbone [ˈbækbəun] – n. a central cohesive source of support and stability

backdate [.bækˈdeit] – v. make effective from an earlier date: The increase in tax was backdated to January

background [ˈbækgraund] – n. a person’s social heritage: previous experience or training: he is a lawyer with a sports background

backing [ˈbækiŋ] – n. the act of providing approval and support: his vigorous backing of the conservatives got him in trouble with progressives

backlog [ˈbæklɔ:g] – n. the large log at the back of a hearth fire

backward [ˈbækwəd] – adj. directed or facing toward the back or rear: a backward view

backwardness [ˈbækwədnis] – n. lack of normal development of intellectual capacities

bacon [ˈbeikən] – n. back and sides of a hog salted and dried or smoked; usually sliced thin and fried

bacterium [bækˈtiəriəm] – n. (microbiology) single-celled or noncellular spherical or spiral or rod-shaped organisms lacking chlorophyll that reproduce by fission; important as pathogens and for biochemical properties; taxonomy is difficult; often considered to be plants

bad [bæd] – adj. having undesirable or negative qualities: a bad report card

badge [bædʒ] – n. any feature that is regarded as a sign of status (a particular power or quality or rank): wearing a tie was regarded as a badge of respectability

badly [ˈbædli] – adv. to a severe or serious degree: fingers so badly frozen they had to be amputated

badminton [ˈbædmintən] – n. a game played on a court with light long-handled rackets used to volley a shuttlecock over a net

baffle [ˈbæfl] – v. be a mystery or bewildering to

bag [bæg] – n. a flexible container with a single opening: he stuffed his laundry into a large bag

baggage [ˈbægidʒ] – n. cases used to carry belongings when traveling

baggy [ˈbægi] – adj. not fitting closely; hanging loosely: baggy trousers

bait [beit] – v. harass with persistent criticism or carping

bake [beik] – v. cook and make edible by putting in a hot oven: bake the potatoes

baker [ˈbeikə] – n. someone who bakes bread or cake

bakery [ˈbeikəri] – n. a workplace where baked goods (breads and cakes and pastries) are produced or sold

balance [ˈbæləns] – n. a state of equilibrium

balcony [ˈbælkəni] – n. an upper floor projecting from the rear over the main floor in an auditorium

bald [bɔ:ld] – adj. with no effort to conceal

ball [bɔ:l] – n. round object that is hit or thrown or kicked in games: the ball travelled 90 mph on his serve

ballet [ˈbælei] – n. a theatrical representation of a story that is performed to music by trained dancers

balloon [bəˈlu:n] – n. large tough nonrigid bag filled with gas or heated air

ballot [ˈbælət] – n. a document listing the alternatives that is used in voting

ballroom [ˈbɔ:lrum] – n. large room used mainly for dancing

bamboo [.bæmˈbu:] – n. woody tropical grass having hollow woody stems; mature canes used for construction and furniture

ban [bæn] – n. a decree that prohibits something

banana [bəˈnɑ:nə] – n. elongated crescent-shaped yellow fruit with soft sweet flesh

band [bænd] – n. an unofficial association of people or groups

bandage [ˈbændidʒ] – v. wrap around with something so as to cover or enclose

bandit [ˈbændit] – n. an armed thief who is (usually) a member of a band

bang [bæŋ] – v. strike violently

banish [ˈbæniʃ] – v. expel from a community or group

bank [bæŋk] – n. sloping land (especially the slope beside a body of water): they pulled the canoe up on the bank

banker [ˈbæŋkə] – n. the person in charge of the bank in a gambling game

banking [ˈbæŋkiŋ] – n. transacting business with a bank; depositing or withdrawing funds or requesting a loan etc.

bankrupt [ˈbæŋkrʌpt] – n. someone who has insufficient assets to cover their debts

banner [ˈbænə] – n. long strip of cloth or paper used for decoration or advertising

banquet [ˈbæŋkwit] – n. a ceremonial dinner party for many people

bar [bɑ:] – n. a room or establishment where alcoholic drinks are served over a counter: he drowned his sorrows in whiskey at the bar

barbecue [ˈbɑ:bikju:] – n. a cookout in which food is cooked over an open fire; especially a whole animal carcass roasted on a spit

barber [ˈbɑ:bə] – n. United States composer (1910-1981)

bare [bɛə] – adj. completely unclothed: bare bodies

barely [ˈbɛəli] – adv. only a very short time before: they could barely hear the speaker

bargain [ˈbɑ:gin] – n. an agreement between parties (usually arrived at after discussion) fixing obligations of each: he made a bargain with the devil

barge [bɑ:dʒ] – v. push one’s way: she barged into the meeting room

bark [bɑ:k] – v. speak in an unfriendly tone: She barked into the dictaphone

barn [bɑ:n] – n. an outlying farm building for storing grain or animal feed and housing farm animals

barometer [bəˈrɔmitə] – n. an instrument that measures atmospheric pressure

baron [ˈbærən] – n. a nobleman (in various countries) of varying rank

baroness [ˈbærənis] – n. a noblewoman who holds the rank of baron or who is the wife or widow of a baron

barrel [ˈbærəl] – n. a tube through which a bullet travels when a gun is fired

barren [ˈbærən] – adj. providing no shelter or sustenance: barren lands

barricade [ˈbærikeid] – v. render unsuitable for passage: barricade the streets

barrier [ˈbæriə] – n. a structure or object that impedes free movement

barter [ˈbɑ:tə] – n. an equal exchange: we had no money so we had to live by barter

base [beis] – n. installation from which a military force initiates operations: the attack wiped out our forward bases

baseball [ˈbeis.bɔ:l] – n. a ball game played with a bat and ball between two teams of nine players; teams take turns at bat trying to score runs: he played baseball in high school

basement [ˈbeismənt] – n. the lowermost portion of a structure partly or wholly below ground level; often used for storage

basic [ˈbeisik] – adj. reduced to the simplest and most significant form possible without loss of generality: a basic story line

basically [ˈbeisikəli] – adv. in essence; at bottom or by one’s (or its) very nature: He is basically dishonest

basin [ˈbeisn] – n. a bowl-shaped vessel; usually used for holding food or liquids: she mixed the dough in a large basin

basis [ˈbeisis] – n. a relation that provides the foundation for something: he worked on an interim basis

basket [ˈbɑ:skit] – n. a container that is usually woven and has handles

basketball [ˈbæskitbɔ:l] – n. a game played on a court by two opposing teams of 5 players; points are scored by throwing the ball through an elevated horizontal hoop

bat [bæt] – n. (baseball) a turn trying to get a hit: he was at bat when it happened

batch [bætʃ] – n. all the loaves of bread baked at the same time

bath [bɑ:θ] – n. a relatively large open container that you fill with water and use to wash the body

bathe [beið] – v. cleanse the entire body: bathe daily

bathroom [ˈbæθrum] – n. a room or building equipped with one or more toilets

batter [ˈbætə] – v. strike against forcefully

battery [ˈbætəri] – n. group of guns or missile launchers operated together at one place

battle [ˈbætl] – n. a hostile meeting of opposing military forces in the course of a war: Grant won a decisive victory in the battle of Chickamauga

bay [bei] – n. an indentation of a shoreline larger than a cove but smaller than a gulf

bazaar [bəˈzɑ:] – n. a shop where a variety of goods are sold

be [bi:] – v. happen, occur, take place

beach [bi:tʃ] – n. an area of sand sloping down to the water of a sea or lake

bead [bi:d] – n. a small ball with a hole through the middle

beak [bi:k] – n. horny projecting mouth of a bird

beam [bi:m] – n. a signal transmitted along a narrow path; guides airplane pilots in darkness or bad weather

bean [bi:n] – n. any of various edible seeds of plants of the family Leguminosae used for food

bear [bɛə] – v. have: bear a resemblance

beard [biəd] – n. the hair growing on the lower part of a man’s face

bearing [ˈbɛəriŋ] – n. relevant relation or interconnection: those issues have no bearing on our situation

bearish [ˈbɛəriʃ] – adj. expecting prices to fall

beast [bi:st] – n. a living organism characterized by voluntary movement

beat [bi:t] – v. come out better in a competition, race, or conflict: Agassi beat Becker in the tennis championship

beautician [bju:ˈtiʃən] – n. someone who works in a beauty parlor

beautiful [ˈbju:təfəl] – adj. delighting the senses or exciting intellectual or emotional admiration: a beautiful child

beauty [ˈbju:ti] – n. the qualities that give pleasure to the senses

become [biˈkʌm] – v. enter or assume a certain state or condition

bed [bed] – n. a piece of furniture that provides a place to sleep: he sat on the edge of the bed

bedroom [ˈbedrum, ru:m] – n. a room used primarily for sleeping

bee [bi:] – n. any of numerous hairy-bodied insects including social and solitary species

beef [bi:f] – n. cattle that are reared for their meat

beer [biə] – n. a general name for alcoholic beverages made by fermenting a cereal (or mixture of cereals) flavored with hops

beetle [ˈbi:tl] – v. be suspended over or hang over: This huge rock beetles over the edge of the town

before [biˈfɔ:] – adv. earlier in time; previously: I had known her before

beforehand [biˈfɔ:hænd] – adj. being ahead of time or need: was beforehand with her report

beg [beg] – v. call upon in supplication; entreat: I beg you to stop!

beggar [ˈbegə] – v. be beyond the resources of: This beggars description!

begin [biˈgin] – v. take the first step or steps in carrying out an action

beginner [biˈginə] – n. someone new to a field or activity

beginning [biˈginiŋ] – n. the event consisting of the start of something: the beginning of the war

behalf [biˈhɑ:f] – n. as the agent of or on someone’s part (usually expressed as: on behalf of

behave [biˈheiv] – v. behave well or properly: The children must learn to behave

behavior [biˈheivjə] – n. manner of acting or controlling yourself

behind [biˈhaind] – adv. in or to or toward the rear: he followed behind

behindhand [biˈhaindhænd] – adj. behind schedule: was behindhand with the rent

being [ˈbi:iŋ] – n. the state or fact of existing: a point of view gradually coming into being

belief [biˈli:f] – n. any cognitive content held as true

believe [biˈli:v] – v. accept as true; take to be true: I believed his report

bell [bel] – n. a hollow device made of metal that makes a ringing sound when struck

belly [ˈbeli] – n. the region of the body of a vertebrate between the thorax and the pelvis

belong [biˈlɔŋ] – v. be owned by; be in the possession of: This book belongs to me

beloved [biˈlʌvid] – adj. dearly loved

below [biˈləu] – adv. at a later place: see below

belt [belt] – n. a band to tie or buckle around the body (usually at the waist)

bench [bentʃ] – n. a long seat for more than one person

bend [bend] – n. a circular segment of a curve: a bend in the road

beneath [biˈni:θ] – adv. in or to a place that is lower

beneficial [.beniˈfiʃəl] – adj. promoting or enhancing well-being: an arms limitation agreement beneficial to all countries

beneficiary [.beniˈfiʃəri] – n. the semantic role of the intended recipient who benefits from the happening denoted by the verb in the clause

benefit [ˈbenifit] – n. financial assistance in time of need

benevolence [biˈnevələns] – n. disposition to do good

benevolent [biˈnevələnt] – adj. intending or showing kindness: a benevolent society

bent [bent] – n. a relatively permanent inclination to react in a particular way

berry [ˈberi] – n. any of numerous small and pulpy edible fruits; used as desserts or in making jams and jellies and preserves

berth [bə:θ] – n. a job in an organization

beset [biˈset] – v. annoy continually or chronically

besides [biˈsaidz] – adv. making an additional point; anyway: I don’t want to go to a restaurant; besides, we can’t afford it

best [best] – n. the supreme effort one can make: they did their best

bestow [biˈstəu] – v. present: bestow an honor on someone

bet [bet] – v. stake on the outcome of an issue: I bet $100 on that new horse

betray [biˈtrei] – v. reveal unintentionally: Her smile betrayed her true feelings

betrayal [biˈtreiəl] – n. the quality of aiding an enemy

better [ˈbetə] – n. something superior in quality or condition or effect: a change for the better

between [biˈtwi:n] – adv. in the interval: dancing all the dances with little rest between

beverage [ˈbevəridʒ] – n. any liquid suitable for drinking: may I take your beverage order?

beware [biˈwɛə] – v. be on one’s guard; be cautious or wary about; be alert to

bewilder [biˈwildə] – v. cause to be confused emotionally

beyond [biˈjɔnd] – adv. farther along in space or time or degree: through the valley and beyond

bias [ˈbaiəs] – n. a partiality that prevents objective consideration of an issue or situation

Bible [ˈbaibl] – n. the sacred writings of the Christian religions

bibliography [.bibliˈɔgrəfi] – n. a list of writings with time and place of publication (such as the writings of a single author or the works referred to in preparing a document etc.)

bicycle [ˈbaisikl] – n. a wheeled vehicle that has two wheels and is moved by foot pedals

bid [bid] – v. propose a payment

bidding [ˈbidiŋ] – n. an authoritative direction or instruction to do something

big [big] – adj. above average in size or number or quantity or magnitude or extent: set out for the big city

bike [baik] – n. a motor vehicle with two wheels and a strong frame

bilateral [baiˈlætərəl] – adj. having identical parts on each side of an axis

bilingual [baiˈliŋgwəl] – n. a person who speaks two languages fluently

bill [bil] – n. a statute in draft before it becomes law: they held a public hearing on the bill

billion [ˈbiljən] – n. a very large indefinite number (usually hyperbole)

bind [baind] – v. stick to firmly

binding [ˈbaindiŋ] – n. the capacity to attract and hold something

biographer [baiˈɔgrəfə] – n. someone who writes an account of a person’s life

biography [baiˈɔgrəfi] – n. an account of the series of events making up a person’s life

biologist [baiˈɔlədʒist] – n. (biology) a scientist who studies living organisms

biology [baiˈɔlədʒi] – n. the science that studies living organisms

bird [bə:d] – n. warm-blooded egg-laying vertebrates characterized by feathers and forelimbs modified as wings

birth [bə:θ] – n. the time when something begins (especially life): they divorced after the birth of the child

birthday [ˈbə:θdei] – n. an anniversary of the day on which a person was born (or the celebration of it)

birthplace [ˈbə:θpleis] – n. the place where someone was born

biscuit [ˈbiskit] – n. small round bread leavened with baking-powder or soda

bishop [ˈbiʃəp] – n. port wine mulled with oranges and cloves

bit [bit] – n. a small piece or quantity of something: a bit of paper

bite [bait] – n. a small amount of solid food; a mouthful

bitter [ˈbitə] – adj. marked by strong resentment or cynicism: bitter about the divorce

bitterly [ˈbitəli] – adv. indicating something hard to accept: he was bitterly disappointed

bitterness [ˈbitənis] – n. a rough and bitter manner

bitumen [biˈtjumən, ˈbitʃumin] – n. any of various naturally occurring impure mixtures of hydrocarbons

bizarre [biˈzɑ:] – adj. conspicuously or grossly unconventional or unusual: restaurants of bizarre design–one like a hat, another like a rabbit

black [blæk] – adj. of or belonging to a racial group having dark skin especially of sub-Saharan African origin: a great people–a black people–…injected new meaning and dignity into the veins of civilization

blackboard [ˈblækbɔ:d] – n. sheet of slate; for writing with chalk

blacksmith [ˈblæk.smiθ] – n. a smith who forges and shapes iron with a hammer and anvil

blade [bleid] – n. especially a leaf of grass or the broad portion of a leaf as distinct from the petiole

blame [bleim] – v. harass with constant criticism

blank [blæŋk] – n. a piece of material ready to be made into something

blanket [ˈblæŋkit] – n. bedding that keeps a person warm in bed

blast [blɑ:st] – v. make a strident sound: She tended to blast when speaking into a microphone

blaze [bleiz] – n. a strong flame that burns brightly: the blaze spread rapidly

bleach [bli:tʃ] – n. the whiteness that results from removing the color from something: a complete bleach usually requires several applications

bleak [bli:k] – adj. offering little or no hope: prospects were bleak

bleed [bli:d] – v. lose blood from one’s body

blend [blend] – n. an occurrence of thorough mixing

bless [bles] – v. give a benediction to: The dying man blessed his son

blind [blaind] – n. people who have severe visual impairments, considered as a group: he spent hours reading to the blind

blink [bliŋk] – v. briefly shut the eyes: The TV announcer never seems to blink

bloc [blɔk] – n. a group of countries in special alliance

block [blɔk] – v. render unsuitable for passage: block the way

blockage [ˈblɔkidʒ] – n. an obstruction in a pipe or tube: we had to call a plumber to clear out the blockage in the drainpipe

blond [blɔnd] – n. a person with fair skin and hair

blonde [blɔnd] – n. a person with fair skin and hair

blood [blʌd] – n. temperament or disposition: a person of hot blood

bloody [ˈblʌdi] – adj. informal intensifiers: a bloody fool

bloom [blu:m] – n. the organic process of bearing flowers: you will stop all bloom if you let the flowers go to seed

blossom [ˈblɔsəm] – n. reproductive organ of angiosperm plants especially one having showy or colorful parts

blot [blɔt] – n. an act that brings discredit to the person who does it: he made a huge blot on his copybook

blouse [blauz] – n. a top worn by women

blow [bləu] – v. exhale hard: blow on the soup to cool it down

blue [blu:] – adj. of the color intermediate between green and violet; having a color similar to that of a clear unclouded sky: October’s bright blue weather

blunder [ˈblʌndə] – v. commit a faux pas or a fault or make a serious mistake: I blundered during the job interview

blunt [blʌnt] – v. make less intense: blunted emotions

blur [blə:] – v. become glassy; lose clear vision

blush [blʌʃ] – n. a rosy color (especially in the cheeks) taken as a sign of good health

board [bɔ:d] – n. a committee having supervisory powers: the board has seven members

boarding [ˈbɔ:diŋ] – n. a structure of boards

boast [bəust] – v. show off

boat [bəut] – n. a small vessel for travel on water

body [ˈbɔdi] – n. the entire structure of an organism (an animal, plant, or human being): he felt as if his whole body were on fire

bodyguard [ˈbɔdi.gɑ:d] – n. someone who escorts and protects a prominent person

boil [bɔil] – v. be agitated

boiler [ˈbɔilə] – n. sealed vessel where water is converted to steam

boiling [ˈbɔiliŋ] – n. the application of heat to change something from a liquid to a gas

bold [bəuld] – adj. fearless and daring: bold settlers on some foreign shore

boldness [ˈbəuldnis] – n. the trait of being willing to undertake things that involve risk or danger: the proposal required great boldness

bolt [bəult] – n. a discharge of lightning accompanied by thunder

bomb [bɔm] – n. an explosive device fused to explode under specific conditions

bomber [ˈbɔmə] – n. a person who plants bombs

bond [bɔnd] – n. an electrical force linking atoms

bone [bəun] – n. rigid connective tissue that makes up the skeleton of vertebrates

bonus [ˈbəunəs] – n. anything that tends to arouse

bony [ˈbəuni] – adj. very thin especially from disease or hunger or cold: emaciated bony hands

book [buk] – n. physical objects consisting of a number of pages bound together: he used a large book as a doorstop

bookcase [ˈbukkeis] – n. a piece of furniture with shelves for storing books

booking [ˈbukiŋ] – n. employment for performers or performing groups that lasts for a limited period of time: the play had bookings throughout the summer

bookkeeper [ˈbuk.ki:pə] – n. someone who records the transactions of a business

booklet [ˈbuklit] – n. a small book usually having a paper cover

bookshelf [ˈbukʃeif] – n. a shelf on which to keep books

bookstall [ˈbukstɔ:l] – n. a shop where books are sold

bookstore [ˈbukstɔ:] – n. a shop where books are sold

boom [bu:m] – n. a deep prolonged loud noise

boost [bu:st] – v. increase

boot [bu:t] – n. footwear that covers the whole foot and lower leg

booth [bu:θ] – n. a table (in a restaurant or bar) surrounded by two high-backed benches

border [ˈbɔ:də] – n. a line that indicates a boundary

bore [bɔ:] – n. a high wave (often dangerous) caused by tidal flow (as by colliding tidal currents or in a narrow estuary)

boring [ˈbɔ:riŋ] – n. the act of drilling

born [bɔ:n] – adj. brought into existence: he was a child born of adultery

borrow [ˈbɔrəu] – v. get temporarily: May I borrow your lawn mower?

bosom [ˈbuzəm] – n. the chest considered as the place where secret thoughts are kept: his bosom was bursting with the secret

boss [bɔs] – n. a person who exercises control over workers

bossy [ˈbɔsi] – adj. offensively self-assured or given to exercising usually unwarranted power: a bossy way of ordering others around

both [bəuθ] – adj. (used with count nouns) two considered together; the two: both girls are pretty

bother [ˈbɔðə] – v. take the trouble to do something; concern oneself: Don’t bother, please

bottle [ˈbɔtl] – n. a vessel fitted with a flexible teat and filled with milk or formula; used as a substitute for breast feeding infants and very young children

bottom [ˈbɔtəm] – n. the lower side of anything

bough [bau] – n. any of the larger branches of a tree

bounce [bauns] – v. spring back; spring away from an impact: The rubber ball bounced

bound [baund] – adj. confined by bonds: bound and gagged hostages

boundary [ˈbaundri] – n. the line or plane indicating the limit or extent of something

bounty [ˈbaunti] – n. the property of copious abundance

bouquet [bu:ˈkei] – n. an arrangement of flowers that is usually given as a present

bourgeois [buəˈʒwɑ:] – adj. (according to Marxist thought) being of the property-owning class and exploitive of the working class

boutique [bu:ˈti:k] – n. a shop that sells women’s clothes and jewelry

bow [bəu,bau] – n. a knot with two loops and loose ends; used to tie shoelaces

bowel [ˈbauəl] – n. the part of the alimentary canal between the stomach and the anus

bowl [bəul] – n. a round vessel that is open at the top; used chiefly for holding food or liquids

bowling [ˈbəuliŋ] – n. a game in which balls are rolled at an object or group of objects with the aim of knocking them over or moving them

box [bɔks] – n. a (usually rectangular) container; may have a lid: he rummaged through a box of spare parts

boxer [ˈbɔksə] – n. someone who fights with his fists for sport

boxing [ˈbɔksiŋ] – n. fighting with the fists

boy [bɔi] – n. a youthful male person: the baby was a boy

boycott [ˈbɔikɔt] – n. a group’s refusal to have commercial dealings with some organization in protest against its policies

brace [breis] – n. a support that steadies or strengthens something else: he wore a brace on his knee

bracket [ˈbrækit] – n. a category falling within certain defined limits

brag [bræg] – n. an instance of boastful talk: his brag is worse than his fight

brain [brein] – n. mental ability: he’s got plenty of brains but no common sense

brake [breik] – n. a restraint used to slow or stop a vehicle

branch [brɑ:ntʃ] – n. a division of some larger or more complex organization: a branch of Congress

brand [brænd] – n. a name given to a product or service

brandy [ˈbrændi] – n. distilled from wine or fermented fruit juice

brashness [ˈbræʃnis] – n. tasteless showiness

brass [brɑ:s] – n. an alloy of copper and zinc

brave [breiv] – adj. possessing or displaying courage; able to face and deal with danger or fear without flinching: Familiarity with danger makes a brave man braver but less daring

bravely [ˈbreivli] – adv. in a courageous manner: bravely he went into the burning house

bravery [ˈbreivəri] – n. a quality of spirit that enables you to face danger or pain without showing fear

brazil [brəˈzil] – n. three-sided tropical American nut with white oily meat and hard brown shell

Brazilian [brəˈziljən] – n. a native or inhabitant of Brazil

breach [bri:tʃ] – n. a failure to perform some promised act or obligation

bread [bred] – n. food made from dough of flour or meal and usually raised with yeast or baking powder and then baked

breadth [bredθ] – n. the capacity to understand a broad range of topics: a teacher must have a breadth of knowledge of the subject

break [breik] – v. terminate: break a lucky streak

breakage [ˈbreikidʒ] – n. the quantity broken: the total breakage was huge

breakdown [ˈbreikdaun] – n. the act of disrupting an established order so it fails to continue: his warning came after the breakdown of talks in London

breakfast [ˈbrekfəst] – v. eat an early morning meal: We breakfast at seven

breakthrough [ˈbreikθru:] – n. a productive insight

breast [brest] – n. the front of the trunk from the neck to the abdomen: he beat his breast in anger

breath [breθ] – n. the air that is inhaled and exhaled in respiration: his sour breath offended her

breathe [bri:ð] – v. draw air into, and expel out of, the lungs: I can breathe better when the air is clean

breed [bri:d] – v. call forth

breeze [bri:z] – n. a slight wind (usually refreshing): the breeze was cooled by the lake

brew [bru:] – v. sit or let sit in boiling water so as to extract the flavor: the tea is brewing

bribe [braib] – n. payment made to a person in a position of trust to corrupt his judgment

bribery [ˈbraibəri] – n. the practice of offering something (usually money) in order to gain an illicit advantage

brick [brik] – n. rectangular block of clay baked by the sun or in a kiln; used as a building or paving material

bride [braid] – n. a woman who has recently been married

bridegroom [ˈbraidgru:m] – n. a man who has recently been married

bridge [bridʒ] – n. a structure that allows people or vehicles to cross an obstacle such as a river or canal or railway etc.

bridle [ˈbraidl] – v. anger or take offense: She bridled at his suggestion to elope

brief [bri:f] – adj. of short duration or distance: a brief stay in the country

briefcase [ˈbri:fkeis] – n. a case with a handle; for carrying papers or files or books

briefing [ˈbri:fiŋ] – n. detailed instructions, as for a military operation

briefly [ˈbri:fli] – adv. for a short time: she visited him briefly

bright [brait] – adj. emitting or reflecting light readily or in large amounts: the sun was bright and hot

brighten [ˈbraitn] – v. become clear

brightness [ˈbraitnis] – n. the location of a visual perception along a continuum from black to white

brilliance [ˈbriljəns] – n. a light within the field of vision that is brighter than the brightness to which the eyes are adapted

brilliant [ˈbriljənt] – adj. of surpassing excellence: a brilliant performance

brim [brim] – n. the top edge of a vessel or other container

bring [briŋ] – v. take something or somebody with oneself somewhere: This brings me to the main point

brink [briŋk] – n. a region marking a boundary

brisk [brisk] – adj. quick and energetic: a brisk walk in the park

bristle [ˈbrisl] – v. be in a state of movement or action: The garden bristled with toddlers

Britain [ˈbritən] – n. a monarchy in northwestern Europe occupying most of the British Isles; divided into England and Scotland and Wales and Northern Ireland; `Great Britain’ is often used loosely to refer to the United Kingdom

British [ˈbritiʃ] – n. the people of Great Britain

brittle [ˈbritl] – adj. having little elasticity; hence easily cracked or fractured or snapped: brittle bones

broad [brɔ:d] – adj. having great (or a certain) extent from one side to the other: a river two miles broad

broadcast [ˈbrɔ:dkɑ:st] – v. sow over a wide area, especially by hand: broadcast seeds

broaden [ˈbrɔ:dn] – v. extend in scope or range or area: broaden your horizon

brochure [brəuˈʃjuə] – n. a small book usually having a paper cover

broken [ˈbrəukən] – adj. physically and forcibly separated into pieces or cracked or split: a broken mirror

broker [ˈbrəukə] – n. a businessman who buys or sells for another in exchange for a commission

bronze [brɔnz] – v. get a tan, from wind or sun

brood [bru:d] – v. think moodily or anxiously about something

brook [bruk] – n. a natural stream of water smaller than a river (and often a tributary of a river)

broom [bru:m] – n. a cleaning implement for sweeping; bundle of straws or twigs attached to a long handle

brother [ˈbrʌðə] – n. a male with the same parents as someone else: my brother still lives with our parents

brotherhood [ˈbrʌðəhud] – n. the kinship relation between a male offspring and the siblings

brow [brau] – n. the part of the face above the eyes

brown [braun] – n. an orange of low brightness and saturation

browse [brauz] – v. shop around; not necessarily buying

bruise [bru:z] – v. injure the underlying soft tissue or bone of: I bruised my knee

brush [brʌʃ] – n. a dense growth of bushes

brutal [ˈbru:tl] – adj. (of persons or their actions) able or disposed to inflict pain or suffering: brutal beatings

brute [bru:t] – n. a cruelly rapacious person

bubble [ˈbʌbl] – v. flow in an irregular current with a bubbling noise

buck [bʌk] – n. a gymnastic horse without pommels and with one end elongated; used lengthwise for vaulting

bucket [ˈbʌkit] – n. a roughly cylindrical vessel that is open at the top

buckle [ˈbʌkəl] – v. fold or collapse: His knees buckled

bud [bʌd] – n. a partially opened flower

Buddhism [ˈbudizəm] – n. the teaching of Buddha that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire, that suffering ceases when desire ceases, and that enlightenment obtained through right conduct and wisdom and meditation releases one from desire and suffering and rebirth

Buddhist [ˈbudist] – n. one who follows the teachings of Buddha

budget [ˈbʌdʒit] – n. a sum of money allocated for a particular purpose: the laboratory runs on a budget of a million a year

buffalo [ˈbʌfələu] – n. large shaggy-haired brown bison of North American plains

buffet [ˈbʌfit] – n. a piece of furniture that stands at the side of a dining room; has shelves and drawers

bug [bʌg] – n. general term for any insect or similar creeping or crawling invertebrate

bugle [ˈbju:gl] – n. a brass instrument without valves; used for military calls and fanfares

build [bild] – v. make by combining materials and parts

builder [ˈbildə] – n. a substance added to soaps or detergents to increase their cleansing action

building [ˈbildiŋ] – n. a structure that has a roof and walls and stands more or less permanently in one place: there was a three-story building on the corner

bulb [bʌlb] – n. a modified bud consisting of a thickened globular underground stem serving as a reproductive structure

bulge [bʌldʒ] – v. swell or protrude outwards: His stomach bulged after the huge meal

bulk [bʌlk] – n. the property resulting from being or relating to the greater in number of two parts; the main part: the bulk of the work is finished

bulky [ˈbʌlki] – adj. of large size for its weight

bull [bul] – n. uncastrated adult male of domestic cattle

bullet [ˈbulit] – n. a projectile that is fired from a gun

bulletin [ˈbulitin] – n. a brief report (especially an official statement issued for immediate publication or broadcast)

bullion [ˈbuljən] – n. a mass of precious metal

bullish [ˈbuliʃ] – adj. expecting a rise in prices

bully [ˈbuli] – n. a cruel and brutal fellow

bump [bʌmp] – v. knock against with force or violence: My car bumped into the tree

bumper [ˈbʌmpə] – n. a glass filled to the brim (especially as a toast): we quaffed a bumper of ale

bunch [bʌntʃ] – n. a grouping of a number of similar things: a bunch of trees

bundle [ˈbʌndl] – v. gather or cause to gather into a cluster

bungalow [ˈbʌŋgələu] – n. a small house with a single story

bunk [bʌŋk] – n. a long trough for feeding cattle

buoyant [ˈbɔiənt] – adj. tending to float on a liquid or rise in air or gas: buoyant balloons

burden [ˈbə:dn] – n. an onerous or difficult concern: the burden of responsibility

burdensome [ˈbə:dnsəm] – adj. not easily borne; wearing: the burdensome task of preparing the income tax return

bureau [ˈbjuərəu] – n. an administrative unit of government

bureaucracy [bjuəˈrɔkrəsi] – n. nonelective government officials

bureaucratic [bjuə.rəuˈkrætik] – adj. of or relating to or resembling a bureaucrat or bureaucracy: his bureaucratic behavior annoyed his colleagues

burgeon [ˈbə:dʒən] – v. grow and flourish: The burgeoning administration

burglar [ˈbə:glə] – n. a thief who enters a building with intent to steal

burglary [ˈbə:gləri] – n. entering a building unlawfully with intent to commit a felony or to steal valuable property

burial [ˈberiəl] – n. the ritual placing of a corpse in a grave

burn [bə:n] – v. destroy by fire: They burned the house and his diaries

burner [ˈbə:nə] – n. the heating elements of a stove or range on which pots and pans are placed for cooking: the electric range had one large burner and three smaller one

burnt [bə:nt] – adj. ruined by overcooking: she served us underdone bacon and burnt biscuits

burrow [ˈbʌrəu] – n. a hole made by an animal, usually for shelter

burst [bə:st] – v. come open suddenly and violently, as if from internal pressure: The bubble burst

bury [ˈberi] – v. cover from sight

bus [bʌs] – n. a vehicle carrying many passengers; used for public transport: he always rode the bus to work

bush [buʃ] – n. a low woody perennial plant usually having several major stems

bushel [ˈbuʃl] – n. a United States dry measure equal to 4 pecks or 2152.42 cubic inches

business [ˈbiznis] – n. a commercial or industrial enterprise and the people who constitute it: he bought his brother’s business

businesslike [ˈbiznislaik] – adj. not distracted by anything unrelated to the goal

bust [bʌst] – v. ruin completely: He busted my radio!

bustle [ˈbʌsəl] – n. a rapid active commotion

busy [ˈbizi] – adj. actively or fully engaged or occupied: busy with her work

but [bʌt] – adv. and nothing more: hopes that last but a moment

butcher [ˈbutʃə] – n. a retailer of meat

butchery [ˈbutʃəri] – n. the business of a butcher

butt [bʌt] – n. thick end of the handle

butter [ˈbʌtə] – n. an edible emulsion of fat globules made by churning milk or cream; for cooking and table use

butterfly [ˈbʌtəflai] – v. cut and spread open, as in preparation for cooking

button [ˈbʌtn] – n. an electrical switch operated by pressing: the elevator was operated by push buttons

buy [bai] – v. obtain by purchase; acquire by means of a financial transaction: She buys for the big department store

buyer [ˈbaiə] – n. a person who buys

buzz [bʌz] – v. fly low: Planes buzzed the crowds in the square

by [bai] – adv. in reserve; not for immediate use: put something by for her old age

bygone [ˈbai.gɔ:n] – n. past events to be put aside: let bygones be bygones

bypass [ˈbaipɑ:s] – n. a highway that encircles an urban area so that traffic does not have to pass through the center

cabbage [ˈkæbidʒ] – n. informal terms for money

cabin [ˈkæbin] – n. small room on a ship or boat where people sleep

cabinet [ˈkæbinit] – n. a piece of furniture resembling a cupboard with doors and shelves and drawers; for storage or display

cable [ˈkeibl] – n. a telegram sent abroad

cafe [kəˈfei] – n. a small restaurant where drinks and snacks are sold

cafeteria [.kæfiˈtiəriə] – n. a restaurant where you serve yourself and pay a cashier

cage [keidʒ] – n. an enclosure made or wire or metal bars in which birds or animals can be kept

cake [keik] – n. a block of solid substance (such as soap or wax)

calamity [kəˈlæmiti] – n. an event resulting in great loss and misfortune: the whole city was affected by the irremediable calamity

calcium [ˈkælsiəm] – n. a white metallic element that burns with a brilliant light; the fifth most abundant element in the earth’s crust; an important component of most plants and animals

calculate [ˈkælkjuleit] – v. judge to be probable

calculation [.kælkjuˈleiʃən] – n. problem solving that involves numbers or quantities

calculus [ˈkælkjuləs] – n. a hard lump produced by the concretion of mineral salts; found in hollow organs or ducts of the body

calendar [ˈkælində] – n. a system of timekeeping that defines the beginning and length and divisions of the year

calf [kɑ:f] – n. the muscular back part of the shank

call [kɔ:l] – v. assign a specified (usually proper) proper name to

calm [kɑ:m] – v. make steady

calmly [ˈkɑ:mli] – adv. with self-possession (especially in times of stress): he spoke calmly to the rioting students

calorie [ˈkæləri] – n. a unit of heat equal to the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water by one degree at one atmosphere pressure; used by nutritionists to characterize the energy-producing potential in food

camel [ˈkæməl] – n. cud-chewing mammal used as a draft or saddle animal in desert regions

camera [ˈkæmərə] – n. equipment for taking photographs (usually consisting of a lightproof box with a lens at one end and light-sensitive film at the other)

camp [kæmp] – n. temporary living quarters specially built by the army for soldiers: wherever he went in the camp the men were grumbling

campaign [kæmˈpein] – n. a race between candidates for elective office: I managed his campaign for governor

camping [ˈkæmpiŋ] – n. the act of encamping and living in tents in a camp

campus [ˈkæmpəs] – n. a field on which the buildings of a university are situated

can [kæn] – n. airtight sealed metal container for food or drink or paint etc.

Canada [ˈkænədə] – n. a nation in northern North America; the French were the first Europeans to settle in mainland Canada: the border between the United States and Canada is the longest unguarded border in the world

Canadian [kəˈneidjən] – n. a native or inhabitant of Canada

canal [kəˈnæl] – n. a bodily passage or tube lined with epithelial cells and conveying a secretion or other substance: the alimentary canal

canary [kəˈnɛəri] – n. someone acting as an informer or decoy for the police

cancel [ˈkænsl] – v. postpone indefinitely or annul something that was scheduled: cancel the dinner party

cancellation [kænsəˈleiʃən] – n. the speech act of revoking or annulling or making void

cancer [ˈkænsə] – n. (astrology) a person who is born while the sun is in Cancer

candid [ˈkændid] – adj. characterized by directness in manner or speech; without subtlety or evasion: I gave them my candid opinion

candidate [ˈkændidit] – n. a politician who is running for public office

candle [ˈkændl] – n. stick of wax with a wick in the middle

candy [ˈkændi] – n. a rich sweet made of flavored sugar and often combined with fruit or nuts

cane [kein] – n. a stick that people can lean on to help them walk

canned [kænd] – adj. recorded for broadcast: canned laughter

cannon [ˈkænən] – n. a large artillery gun that is usually on wheels

canoe [kəˈnu:] – n. small and light boat; pointed at both ends; propelled with a paddle

canon [ˈkænən] – n. a priest who is a member of a cathedral chapter

canteen [kænˈti:n] – n. a flask for carrying water; used by soldiers or travelers

canvas [ˈkænvəs] – n. a heavy, closely woven fabric (used for clothing or chairs or sails or tents)

canvass [ˈkænvəs] – n. the setting for a narrative or fictional or dramatic account

cap [kæp] – n. a tight-fitting headdress

capability [.keipəˈbiləti] – n. the susceptibility of something to a particular treatment: the capability of a metal to be fused

capable [ˈkeipəbl] – adj. possibly accepting or permitting: a passage capable of misinterpretation

capacity [kəˈpæsiti] – n. the susceptibility of something to a particular treatment

cape [keip] – n. a strip of land projecting into a body of water

capital [ˈkæpitl] – n. assets available for use in the production of further assets

capitalism [ˈkæpitəlizəm] – n. an economic system based on private ownership of capital

capitalist [ˈkæpitəlist] – n. a person who invests capital in a business (especially a large business)

capitalization [kəpitəlaiˈzeiʃən] – n. an estimation of the value of a business

capitalize [kəˈpitəlaiz] – v. draw advantages from

capsule [ˈkæpsju:l] – n. a small container

captain [ˈkæptin] – n. an officer holding a rank below a major but above a lieutenant

caption [ˈkæpʃən] – n. translation of foreign dialogue of a movie or TV program; usually displayed at the bottom of the screen

captive [ˈkæptiv] – n. a person who is confined; especially a prisoner of war

capture [ˈkæptʃə] – v. succeed in representing or expressing something intangible: capture the essence of Spring

car [kɑ:] – n. a motor vehicle with four wheels; usually propelled by an internal combustion engine: he needs a car to get to work

caravan [ˈkærəvæn] – n. a procession (of wagons or mules or camels) traveling together in single file: we were part of a caravan of almost a thousand camels

carbon [ˈkɑ:bən] – n. a copy made with carbon paper

carcase  – n. the dead body of an animal especially one slaughtered and dressed for food

card [kɑ:d] – n. one of a set of small pieces of stiff paper marked in various ways and used for playing games or for telling fortunes: he collected cards and traded them with the other boys

cardboard [ˈkɑ:dbɔ:d] – n. a stiff moderately thick paper

cardinal [ˈkɑ:dinəl] – n. the number of elements in a mathematical set; denotes a quantity but not the order

care [kɛə] – n. the work of providing treatment for or attending to someone or something: no medical care was required

career [kəˈriə] – n. the particular occupation for which you are trained

careful [ˈkɛəfəl] – adj. cautiously attentive: careful of her feelings

careless [ˈkɛəlis] – adj. effortless and unstudied: an impression of careless elegance

carelessness [kɛəlisnis] – n. the quality of not being careful or taking pains

cargo [ˈkɑ:gəu] – n. goods carried by a large vehicle

carol [ˈkærəl] – n. joyful religious song celebrating the birth of Christ

carpenter [ˈkɑ:pintə] – n. a woodworker who makes or repairs wooden objects

carpet [ˈkɑ:pit] – n. floor covering consisting of a piece of thick heavy fabric (usually with nap or pile)

carriage [ˈkæridʒ] – n. a railcar where passengers ride

carrier [ˈkæriə] – n. a self-propelled wheeled vehicle designed specifically to carry something: refrigerated carriers have revolutionized the grocery business

carrot [ˈkærət] – n. orange root; important source of carotene

carry [ˈkæri] – v. move while supporting, either in a vehicle or in one’s hands or on one’s body: You must carry your camping gear

cart [kɑ:t] – n. a heavy open wagon usually having two wheels and drawn by an animal

carton [ˈkɑ:tən] – n. a box made of cardboard; opens by flaps on top

cartoon [kɑ:ˈtu:n] – n. a humorous or satirical drawing published in a newspaper or magazine

cartridge [ˈkɑ:tridʒ] – n. ammunition consisting of a cylindrical casing containing an explosive charge and a bullet; fired from a rifle or handgun

carve [kɑ:v] – v. engrave or cut by chipping away at a surface: carve one’s name into the bark

carving [ˈkɑ:viŋ] – n. a sculpture created by removing material (as wood or ivory or stone) in order to create a desired shape

case [keis] – n. an occurrence of something: it was a case of bad judgment

cash [kæʃ] – n. money in the form of bills or coins: there is a desperate shortage of hard cash

cashier [kæˈʃiə] – n. an employee of a bank who receives and pays out money

cassette [kəˈset] – n. a container that holds a magnetic tape used for recording or playing sound or video

cast [kɑ:st] – v. put or send forth: cast a spell

castle [ˈkɑ:sl] – n. a large and stately mansion

casual [ˈkæʒjuəl] – adj. marked by blithe unconcern: an ability to interest casual students

casualty [ˈkæʒjuəlti] – n. someone injured or killed or captured or missing in a military engagement

cat [kæt] – n. an informal term for a youth or man

catalog [ˈkætəlɔ:g] – n. a book or pamphlet containing an enumeration of things: he found it in the Sears catalog

catalogue [ˈkætəlɔg] – n. a complete list of things; usually arranged systematically

catalyst [ˈkætəlist] – n. (chemistry) a substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected

catastrophe [kəˈtæstrəfi] – n. an event resulting in great loss and misfortune

catch [kætʃ] – v. perceive with the senses quickly, suddenly, or momentarily: ears open to catch every sound

category [ˈkætigəri] – n. a collection of things sharing a common attribute

cater [ˈkeitə] – v. give what is desired or needed, especially support, food or sustenance

cathedral [kəˈθi:drəl] – n. any large and important church

catholic  – adj. of or relating to or supporting Catholicism

cattle [ˈkætl] – n. domesticated bovine animals as a group regardless of sex or age: so many head of cattle

cause [kɔ:z] – n. events that provide the generative force that is the origin of something: they are trying to determine the cause of the crash

caustic [ˈkɔ:stik] – adj. harsh or corrosive in tone: caustic jokes about political assassination, talk-show hosts and medical ethics

caution [ˈkɔ:ʃən] – n. a warning against certain acts

cautious [ˈkɔ:ʃəs] – adj. showing careful forethought: reserved and cautious; never making swift decisions

cavalry [ˈkævəlri] – n. troops trained to fight on horseback

cave [keiv] – n. a geological formation consisting of an underground enclosure with access from the surface of the ground or from the sea

cavern [ˈkævən] – n. any large dark enclosed space: his eyes were dark caverns

cavity [ˈkæviti] – n. a sizeable hole (usually in the ground)

cease [si:s] – v. put an end to a state or an activity

ceiling [ˈsi:liŋ] – n. the overhead upper surface of a covered space: he hated painting the ceiling

celebrate [ˈselibreit] – v. behave as expected during of holidays or rites: celebrate Christmas

celebration [.seliˈbreiʃən] – n. a joyful occasion for special festivities to mark some happy event

celery [ˈseləri] – n. widely cultivated herb with aromatic leaf stalks that are eaten raw or cooked

cell [sel] – n. any small compartment: the cells of a honeycomb

cellar [ˈselə] – n. the lowermost portion of a structure partly or wholly below ground level; often used for storage

cement [siˈment] – n. something that hardens to act as adhesive material

cemetery [ˈsemitri] – n. a tract of land used for burials

censor [ˈsensə] – n. someone who censures or condemns

censorship [ˈsensəʃip] – n. counterintelligence achieved by banning or deleting any information of value to the enemy

census [ˈsensəs] – n. a periodic count of the population

cent [sent] – n. a fractional monetary unit of several countries

centenary [senˈti:nəri] – n. the 100th anniversary (or the celebration of it)

center [ˈsentə] – n. the piece of ground in the outfield directly ahead of the catcher: he hit the ball to deep center

centigrade [ˈsentigreid] – adj. of or relating to a temperature scale on which the freezing point of water is 0 degrees and the boiling point of water is 100 degrees

centimeter [ˈsenti.mi:tə] – n. a metric unit of length equal to one hundredth of a meter

central [ˈsentrəl] – adj. serving as an essential component: the central cause of the problem

century [ˈsentʃuri] – n. a period of 100 years

ceramic [siˈræmik] – n. an artifact made of hard brittle material produced from nonmetallic minerals by firing at high temperatures

cereal [ˈsiəriəl] – n. grass whose starchy grains are used as food: wheat; rice; rye; oats; maize; buckwheat; millet

ceremonial [.seriˈməunjəl] – n. a formal event performed on a special occasion

ceremony [ˈseriməni] – n. a formal event performed on a special occasion: a ceremony commemorating Pearl Harbor

certain [ˈsə:tn] – adj. definite but not specified or identified: set aside a certain sum each week

certainly [ˈsə:tənli] – adv. definitely or positively (`sure’ is sometimes used informally for `surely’): she certainly is a hard worker

certainty [ˈsə:tnti] – n. something that is certain: his victory is a certainty

certificate [səˈtifikit] – n. a document attesting to the truth of certain stated facts

certification [.sə:tifiˈkeiʃən] – n. the act of certifying or bestowing a franchise on

certify [ˈsə:tifai] – v. provide evidence for; stand as proof of; show by one’s behavior, attitude, or external attributes

chain [tʃein] – n. a series of things depending on each other as if linked together: the chain of command

chair [tʃɛə] – n. a seat for one person, with a support for the back: he put his coat over the back of the chair and sat down

chairman [ˈtʃɛəmən] – n. the officer who presides at the meetings of an organization

chairperson [ˈtʃeəpɜ:s(e)n] – n. the officer who presides at the meetings of an organization: address your remarks to the chairperson

chairwoman [ˈtʃɛə.wumən] – n. the officer who presides at the meetings of an organization

chalk [tʃɔ:k] – n. a soft whitish calcite

challenge [ˈtʃælindʒ] – n. a demanding or stimulating situation: they reacted irrationally to the challenge of Russian power

challenging [ˈtʃælindʒiŋ] – adj. requiring full use of your abilities or resources: performed the most challenging task without a mistake

chamber [ˈtʃeimbə] – n. a natural or artificial enclosed space

champagne [ʃæmˈpein] – n. a white sparkling wine either produced in Champagne or resembling that produced there

champion [ˈtʃæmpjən] – n. someone who has won first place in a competition

championship [ˈtʃæmpjənʃip] – n. a competition at which a champion is chosen

chance [tʃɑ:ns] – n. a possibility due to a favorable combination of circumstances: now is your chance

change [tʃeindʒ] – n. an event that occurs when something passes from one state or phase to another: the change was intended to increase sales

changeable [ˈtʃeindʒəbl] – adj. such that alteration is possible; having a marked tendency to change: changeable behavior

channel [ˈtʃænl] – n. a path over which electrical signals can pass: a channel is typically what you rent from a telephone company

chant [tʃɑ:nt] – v. utter monotonously and repetitively and rhythmically: The students chanted the same slogan over and over again

chaos [ˈkeiɔs] – n. a state of extreme confusion and disorder

chap [tʃæp] – n. a boy or man: that chap is your host

chapel [ˈtʃæpəl] – n. a place of worship that has its own altar

chapter [ˈtʃæptə] – n. a subdivision of a written work; usually numbered and titled: he read a chapter every night before falling asleep

character [ˈkæriktə] – n. an imaginary person represented in a work of fiction (play or film or story): she is the main character in the novel

characteristic [.kæriktəˈristik] – n. a prominent attribute or aspect of something: generosity is one of his best characteristics

characterize [ˈkæriktəraiz] – v. be characteristic of: What characterizes a Venetian painting?

charcoal [ˈtʃɑ:kəul] – n. a carbonaceous material obtained by heating wood or other organic matter in the absence of air

charge [tʃɑ:dʒ] – v. to make a rush at or sudden attack upon, as in battle

charity [ˈtʃæriti] – n. a foundation created to promote the public good (not for assistance to any particular individuals)

charm [tʃɑ:m] – n. attractiveness that interests or pleases or stimulates

chart [tʃɑ:t] – v. plan in detail: Bush is charting a course to destroy Saddam Hussein

charter [ˈtʃɑ:tə] – v. hold under a lease or rental agreement; of goods and services

chase [tʃeis] – v. go after with the intent to catch: The policeman chased the mugger down the alley

chasm [ˈkæzəm] – n. a deep opening in the earth’s surface

chaste [tʃeist] – adj. morally pure (especially not having experienced sexual intercourse): a holy woman innocent and chaste

chat [tʃæt] – n. an informal conversation

chatter [ˈtʃætə] – v. click repeatedly or uncontrollably

cheap [tʃi:p] – adj. relatively low in price or charging low prices: it would have been cheap at twice the price

cheat [tʃi:t] – n. weedy annual grass often occurs in grainfields and other cultivated land; seeds sometimes considered poisonous

check [tʃek] – v. examine so as to determine accuracy, quality, or condition: check the brakes

checkup [ˈtʃek-ʌp] – n. a thorough physical examination; includes a variety of tests depending on the age and sex and health of the person

cheek [tʃi:k] – n. either side of the face below the eyes

cheeky [ˈtʃi:ki] – adj. offensively bold

cheer [tʃiə] – v. give encouragement to

cheerful [ˈtʃiəfəl] – adj. pleasantly (even unrealistically) optimistic

cheese [tʃi:z] – n. a solid food prepared from the pressed curd of milk

chemical [ˈkemikəl] – adj. of or made from or using substances produced by or used in reactions involving atomic or molecular changes: chemical fertilizer

chemist [ˈkemist] – n. a health professional trained in the art of preparing and dispensing drugs

chemistry [ˈkemistri] – n. the chemical composition and properties of a substance or object: the chemistry of soil

cheque  – n. a written order directing a bank to pay money

cherish [ˈtʃeriʃ] – v. be fond of; be attached to

cherry [ˈtʃeri] – n. a red fruit with a single hard stone

chess [tʃes] – n. weedy annual native to Europe but widely distributed as a weed especially in wheat

chest [tʃest] – n. the part of the human torso between the neck and the diaphragm or the corresponding part in other vertebrates

chestnut [ˈtʃestnʌt] – n. any of several attractive deciduous trees yellow-brown in autumn; yield a hard wood and edible nuts in a prickly bur

chew [tʃu:] – n. biting and grinding food in your mouth so it becomes soft enough to swallow

chic [ʃi:k] – n. elegance by virtue of being fashionable

chick [tʃik] – n. young bird especially of domestic fowl

chicken [ˈtʃikin] – n. a domestic fowl bred for flesh or eggs; believed to have been developed from the red jungle fowl

chief [tʃi:f] – n. a person who is in charge

chiefly [ˈtʃi:fli] – adv. for the most part

child [tʃaild] – n. a young person of either sex: she writes books for children

childhood [ˈtʃaildhud] – n. the state of a child between infancy and adolescence

childish [ˈtʃaildiʃ] – adj. indicating a lack of maturity: childish tantrums

childlike [ˈtʃaildlaik] – adj. befitting a young child: childlike charm

chill [tʃil] – n. coldness due to a cold environment

chilly [ˈtʃili] – adj. not characterized by emotion: a female form in marble–a chilly but ideal medium for depicting abstract virtues

chimney [ˈtʃimni] – n. a glass flue surrounding the wick of an oil lamp

chin [tʃin] – n. the protruding part of the lower jaw

china [ˈtʃainə] – n. a communist nation that covers a vast territory in eastern Asia; the most populous country in the world

Chinese [ˈtʃaiˈni:z] – n. a native or inhabitant of Communist China or of Nationalist China

chip [tʃip] – n. a small fragment of something broken off from the whole

chisel [ˈtʃizəl] – v. engage in deceitful behavior; practice trickery or fraud: Who’s chiseling on the side?

chocolate [ˈtʃɔkəlit] – n. a beverage made from cocoa powder and milk and sugar; usually drunk hot

choice [tʃɔis] – n. the act of choosing or selecting: your choice of colors was unfortunate

choir [ˈkwaiə] – n. a family of similar musical instrument playing together

choke [tʃəuk] – v. breathe with great difficulty, as when experiencing a strong emotion: She choked with emotion when she spoke about her deceased husband

choose [tʃu:z] – v. select as an alternative over another: I always choose the fish over the meat courses in this restaurant

chop [tʃɔp] – v. cut into pieces: chop meat

chord [kɔ:d] – n. a straight line connecting two points on a curve

chore [tʃɔ:] – n. a specific piece of work required to be done as a duty or for a specific fee: the farmer’s morning chores

chorus [ˈkɔ:rəs] – n. any utterance produced simultaneously by a group: a chorus of boos

Christ [kraist] – n. a teacher and prophet born in Bethlehem and active in Nazareth; his life and sermons form the basis for Christianity (circa 4 BC – AD 29)

Christian [ˈkristʃən] – adj. relating to or characteristic of Christianity: Christian rites

Christianity [.kristiˈæniti] – n. a monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior

Christmas [ˈkrisməs] – n. period extending from Dec. 24 to Jan. 6

chronic [ˈkrɔnik] – adj. being long-lasting and recurrent or characterized by long suffering: chronic indigestion

chronological [.krɔnəˈlɔdʒikəl] – adj. relating to or arranged according to temporal order: chronological age

chunk [tʃʌŋk] – n. a compact mass

church [tʃə:tʃ] – n. one of the groups of Christians who have their own beliefs and forms of worship

cigar [siˈgɑ:] – n. a roll of tobacco for smoking

cigarette [sigəˈret] – n. finely ground tobacco wrapped in paper; for smoking

cinema [ˈsinimə] – n. a medium that disseminates moving pictures: this story would be good cinema

circle [ˈsə:kl] – n. an unofficial association of people or groups

circuit [ˈsə:kit] – n. an electrical device that provides a path for electrical current to flow

circular [ˈsə:kjulə] – adj. describing a circle; moving in a circle: the circular motion of the wheel

circulate [ˈsə:kjuleit] – v. become widely known and passed on

circulation [.sə:kjuˈleiʃən] – n. the dissemination of copies of periodicals (as newspapers or magazines)

circumference [səˈkʌmfərəns] – n. the size of something as given by the distance around it

circumstance [ˈsə:kəmstəns] – n. a condition that accompanies or influences some event or activity

circus [ˈsə:kəs] – n. a travelling company of entertainers; including trained animals: he ran away from home to join the circus

cite [sait] – v. make reference to

citizen [ˈsitizn] – n. a native or naturalized member of a state or other political community

citizenship [ˈsitizɚnʃip] – n. conduct as a citizen: award for good citizenship

city [ˈsiti] – n. a large and densely populated urban area; may include several independent administrative districts: Ancient Troy was a great city

civic [ˈsivik] – adj. of or relating or belonging to a city: civic center

civil [ˈsivil] – adj. applying to ordinary citizens as contrasted with the military: civil authorities

civilian [siˈviljən] – n. a nonmilitary citizen

civilization [.sivilaiˈzeiʃən] – n. the social process whereby societies achieve an advanced stage of development and organization

civilize [ˈsivilaiz] – v. teach or refine to be discriminative in taste or judgment

claim [kleim] – n. an assertion of a right (as to money or property): his claim asked for damages

clamp [klæmp] – v. impose or inflict forcefully: The military government clamped a curfew onto the capital

clan [klæn] – n. group of people related by blood or marriage

clap [klæp] – v. put quickly or forcibly: The judge clapped him in jail

clarification [.klærifiˈkeiʃən] – n. an interpretation that removes obstacles to understanding: the professor’s clarification helped her to understand the textbook

clarify [ˈklærifai] – v. make clear and (more) comprehensible: clarify the mystery surrounding her death

clarity [ˈklæriti] – n. free from obscurity and easy to understand; the comprehensibility of clear expression

clash [klæʃ] – n. a loud resonant repeating noise

clasp [klɑ:sp] – v. hold firmly and tightly

class [klɑ:s] – n. a collection of things sharing a common attribute: there are two classes of detergents

classic [ˈklæsik] – adj. of recognized authority or excellence: classical methods of navigation

classical [ˈklæsikəl] – adj. of or relating to the most highly developed stage of an earlier civilisation and its culture

classification [.klæsifiˈkeiʃən] – n. the act of distributing things into classes or categories of the same type

classify [ˈklæsifai] – v. declare unavailable, as for security reasons

classmate [ˈklɑ:smeit] – n. an acquaintance that you go to school with

classroom [ˈklɑ:srum] – n. a room in a school where lessons take place

clatter [ˈklætə] – n. a rattling noise (often produced by rapid movement): the shutters clattered against the house

clause [klɔ:z] – n. (grammar) an expression including a subject and predicate but not constituting a complete sentence

claw [klɔ:] – n. sharp curved horny process on the toe of a bird or some mammals or reptiles

clay [klei] – n. a very fine-grained soil that is plastic when moist but hard when fired

clean [kli:n] – adj. free of restrictions or qualifications: a clean bill of health

clear [kliə] – v. rid of obstructions

clearance [ˈkliərəns] – n. vertical space available to allow easy passage under something

clearly [ˈkliəli] – adv. without doubt or question: they were clearly lost

clench [klentʃ] – n. a small slip noose made with seizing

clerk [klɑ:k] – n. a salesperson in a store

clever [ˈklevə] – adj. showing self-interest and shrewdness in dealing with others: too clever to be sound

cleverness [ˈklevənis] – n. the power of creative imagination

cliche [ˈkli:ʃei] – n. a trite or obvious remark

click [klik] – v. move or strike with a noise: he clicked on the light

client [ˈklaiənt] – n. a person who seeks the advice of a lawyer

clientele [.kli:ɑ:nˈteil] – n. customers collectively: they have an upper class clientele

cliff [klif] – n. a steep high face of rock: he stood on a high cliff overlooking the town

climate [ˈklaimit] – n. the weather in some location averaged over some long period of time: the dank climate of southern Wales

climax [ˈklaimæks] – n. the highest point of anything conceived of as growing or developing or unfolding: the climax of the artist’s career

climb [klaim] – v. go upward with gradual or continuous progress: Did you ever climb up the hill behind your house?

cling [kliŋ] – v. come or be in close contact with; stick or hold together and resist separation: The dress clings to her body

clinic [ˈklinik] – n. a medical establishment run by a group of medical specialists

clip [klip] – n. a metal frame or container holding cartridges; can be inserted into an automatic gun

cloak [kləuk] – v. hide under a false appearance

clock [klɔk] – n. a timepiece that shows the time of day

clockwise [ˈklɔkwaiz] – adj. in the same direction as the rotating hands of a clock

close [kləus,kləuz] – v. move so that an opening or passage is obstructed; make shut

closed [kləuzd] – adj. not open or affording passage or access: the many closed streets made travel difficult

closedown [ˈkləuzdaun] – n. termination of operations

closely [ˈkləuzli] – adv. in an attentive manner

closet [ˈklɔzit] – n. a small room (or recess) or cabinet used for storage space

cloth [klɔθ] – n. artifact made by weaving or felting or knitting or crocheting natural or synthetic fibers: woven cloth originated in Mesopotamia around 5000 BC

clothe [kləuð] – v. furnish with power or authority; of kings or emperors

clothes [kləuðz] – n. clothing in general: he always bought his clothes at the same store

clothing [ˈkləuðiŋ] – n. a covering designed to be worn on a person’s body

cloud [klaud] – v. make less visible or unclear: The stars are obscured by the clouds

cloudy [ˈklaudi] – adj. lacking definite form or limits: gropes among cloudy issues toward a feeble conclusion

clown [klaun] – n. a rude or vulgar fool

club [klʌb] – n. a team of professional baseball players who play and travel together: each club played six home games with teams in its own division

clue [klu:] – n. a slight indication

clumsy [ˈklʌmzi] – adj. lacking grace in movement or posture: clumsy fingers

cluster [ˈklʌstə] – n. a grouping of a number of similar things: a cluster of admirers

clutch [klʌtʃ] – n. the act of grasping

coach [kəutʃ] – n. (sports) someone in charge of training an athlete or a team

coal [kəul] – n. fossil fuel consisting of carbonized vegetable matter deposited in the Carboniferous period

coalition [.kəuəˈliʃən] – n. an organization of people (or countries) involved in a pact or treaty

coarse [kɔ:s] – adj. of textures that are rough to the touch or substances consisting of relatively large particles: coarse meal

coast [kəust] – n. the shore of a sea or ocean

coastal [ˈkəustl] – adj. located on or near or bordering on a coast: coastal marshes

coat [kəut] – n. a thin layer covering something: a second coat of paint

cocaine [kəuˈkein] – n. a narcotic (alkaloid) extracted from coca leaves; used as a surface anesthetic or taken for pleasure; can become powerfully addictive

cock [kɔk] – n. obscene terms for penis

cocktail [ˈkɔkteil] – n. a short mixed drink

code [kəud] – n. a set of rules or principles or laws (especially written ones)

codify [ˈkɔdifai, ˈkəu-] – v. organize into a code or system, such as a body of law

coeducation [.kəuedjuˈkeiʃən] – n. education of men and women in the same institutions

coefficient [kəuiˈfiʃənt] – n. a constant number that serves as a measure of some property or characteristic

coerce [kəuˈə:s] – v. to cause to do through pressure or necessity, by physical, moral or intellectual means :

coffee [ˈkɔfi] – n. a medium brown to dark-brown color

coffin [ˈkɔfin] – n. box in which a corpse is buried or cremated

cognitive [ˈkɔgnitiv] – adj. of or being or relating to or involving cognition: cognitive psychology

coherence [kəʊˈhiərəns] – n. logical and orderly and consistent relation of parts

coherent [kəuˈhiərənt] – adj. marked by an orderly, logical, and aesthetically consistent relation of parts: a coherent argument

cohesion [kəuˈhi:ʒən] – n. (botany) the process in some plants of parts growing together that are usually separate (such as petals)

cohesive [kəuˈhi:siv] – adj. cohering or tending to cohere; well integrated: a cohesive organization

coil [kɔil] – n. a round shape formed by a series of concentric circles (as formed by leaves or flower petals)

coin [kɔin] – v. make up: coin phrases or words

coinage [ˈkɔinidʒ] – n. a newly invented word or phrase

coincide [.kəuinˈsaid] – v. go with, fall together

coincidence [kəuˈinsidəns] – n. an event that might have been arranged although it was really accidental

coincident [kəuˈinsidənt] – adj. occurring or operating at the same time: a series of coincident events

coldness [ˈkəuldnis] – n. the sensation produced by low temperatures

collaborate [kəˈlæbə.reit] – v. work together on a common enterprise of project

collaboration [kə.læbəˈreiʃən] – n. act of working jointly: they worked either in collaboration or independently

collapse [kəˈlæps] – v. break down, literally or metaphorically: The wall collapsed

collar [ˈkɔlə] – n. a band that fits around the neck and is usually folded over

colleague [ˈkɔli:g] – n. an associate that one works with

collect [ˈkɔlekt,kəˈlekt] – v. get or gather together

collection [kəˈlekʃən] – n. several things grouped together or considered as a whole

collective [kəˈlektiv] – adj. done by or characteristic of individuals acting together: the collective mind

college [ˈkɔlidʒ] – n. an institution of higher education created to educate and grant degrees; often a part of a university

collide [kəˈlaid] – v. be incompatible; be or come into conflict

collision [kəˈliʒən] – n. (physics) a brief event in which two or more bodies come together: the collision of the particles resulted in an exchange of energy and a change of direction

colonel [ˈkə:nl] – n. a commissioned military officer in the United States Army or Air Force or Marines who ranks above a lieutenant colonel and below a brigadier general

colonial [kəˈləunjəl] – adj. of animals who live in colonies, such as ants

colonist [ˈkɔlənist] – n. a person who settles in a new colony or moves into new country

colony [ˈkɔləni] – n. a group of organisms of the same type living or growing together

color [ˈkʌlə] – n. a visual attribute of things that results from the light they emit or transmit or reflect: a white color is made up of many different wavelengths of light

colorful [ˈkʌləfʊl] – adj. striking in variety and interest: a colorful period of history

colorless [ˈkʌləlis] – adj. lacking in variety and interest: a colorless and unimaginative person

colossal [kəˈlɔsəl] – adj. so great in size or force or extent as to elicit awe: colossal crumbling ruins of an ancient temple

column [ˈkɔləm] – n. a line of units following one after another

columnist [ˈkɔləmnist] – n. a journalist who writes editorials

comb [kəum] – n. a flat device with narrow pointed teeth on one edge; disentangles or arranges hair

combat [ˈkɑ:mbæt] – n. an engagement fought between two military forces

combination [.kɔmbiˈneiʃən] – n. a coordinated sequence of chess moves

combine [kəmˈbain] – v. put or add together: combine resources

combustible [kəmˈbʌstəbəl] – n. a substance that can be burned to provide heat or power

come [kʌm] – v. move toward, travel toward something or somebody or approach something or somebody: come down here!

comedian [kə ˈmi:diən] – n. a professional performer who tells jokes and performs comical acts

comedy [ˈkɔmidi] – n. light and humorous drama with a happy ending

comet [ˈkɔmit] – n. (astronomy) a relatively small extraterrestrial body consisting of a frozen mass that travels around the sun in a highly elliptical orbit

comfort [ˈkʌmfət] – n. a state of being relaxed and feeling no pain: he is a man who enjoys his comfort

comfortable [ˈkʌmfətəbl] – adj. providing or experiencing physical well-being or relief (`comfy’ is informal): comfortable clothes

comic [ˈkɔmik] – adj. arousing or provoking laughter: a comic hat

command [kəˈmɑ:nd] – n. an authoritative direction or instruction to do something

commander [kəˈmɑ:ndə] – n. someone in an official position of authority who can command or control others

commandment [kəˈmɑ:n(d)mənt] – n. a doctrine that is taught

commemorate [kəˈmeməreit] – v. mark by some ceremony or observation

commemoration [kə.meməˈreiʃən] – n. a ceremony to honor the memory of someone or something

commence [kəˈmens] – v. take the first step or steps in carrying out an action

commend [kəˈmend] – v. express approval of

comment [ˈkɔment] – n. a statement that expresses a personal opinion or belief or adds information: from time to time she contributed a personal comment on his account

commentary [ˈkɔməntəri] – n. a written explanation or criticism or illustration that is added to a book or other textual material

commerce [ˈkɔmə:s] – n. transactions (sales and purchases) having the objective of supplying commodities (goods and services)

commercial [kəˈmə:ʃəl] – adj. of the kind or quality used in commerce; average or inferior: commercial grade of beef

commission [kəˈmiʃən] – n. a special group delegated to consider some matter

commit [kəˈmit] – v. perform an act, usually with a negative connotation

commitment [kəˈmitmənt] – n. the trait of sincere and steadfast fixity of purpose: a man of energy and commitment

committee [kəˈmiti] – n. a special group delegated to consider some matter: a committee is a group that keeps minutes and loses hours

commodity [kəˈmɔditi] – n. articles of commerce

common [ˈkɔmən] – adj. belonging to or participated in by a community as a whole; public: for the common good

commonly [ˈkɔmənli] – adv. under normal conditions

commonplace [ˈkɔmənpleis] – adj. completely ordinary and unremarkable: air travel has now become commonplace

commonsense [.kɔmənˈsens] – adj. exhibiting native good judgment: commonsense scholarship on the foibles of a genius

commonwealth [ˈkɔmənwelθ] – n. a politically organized body of people under a single government

commotion [kəˈməuʃən] – n. a disorderly outburst or tumult

commune [kəˈmju:n] – n. the smallest administrative district of several European countries

communicate [kəˈmju:nikeit] – v. transmit information: Please communicate this message to all employees

communication [kə.mju:niˈkeiʃən] – n. something that is communicated by or to or between people or groups

communicative [kəˈmju:nikətiv] – adj. able or tending to communicate: was a communicative person and quickly told all she knew

communism [ˈkɔmjunizəm] – n. a form of socialism that abolishes private ownership

communist [ˈkɔmjunist] – n. a socialist who advocates communism

community [kəˈmju:niti] – n. a group of people living in a particular local area: the team is drawn from all parts of the community

commute [kəˈmju:t] – v. exchange positions without a change in value: These operators commute with each other

commuter [kəˈmju:tə] – n. a passenger train that is ridden primarily by passengers who travel regularly from one place to another

compact [kəmˈpækt] – v. compress into a wad

companion [kəmˈpænjən] – n. a traveler who accompanies you

company [ˈkʌmpəni] – n. an institution created to conduct business: he started the company in his garage

comparable [ˈkɔmpərəbl] – adj. conforming in every respect

comparative [kəmˈpærətiv] – adj. estimated by comparison; not absolute or complete

comparatively [kəmˈpærətivli] – adv. in a relative manner; by comparison to something else

compare [kəmˈpɛə] – v. examine and note the similarities or differences of: John compared his haircut to his friend’s

comparison [kəmˈpærisn] – n. the act of examining resemblances: they made a comparison of noise levels

compartment [kəmˈpɑ:tmənt] – n. a space into which an area is subdivided

compass [ˈkʌmpəs] – n. navigational instrument for finding directions

compatible [kəmˈpætəbl] – adj. able to exist and perform in harmonious or agreeable combination: a compatible married couple

compel [kəmˈpel] – v. force somebody to do something: We compel all students to fill out this form

compensate [ˈkɔmpenseit] – v. adjust for

compensation [.kɔmpenˈseiʃən] – n. something (such as money) given or received as payment or reparation (as for a service or loss or injury)

compete [kəmˈpi:t] – v. compete for something; engage in a contest; measure oneself against others

competence [ˈkɔmpitəns] – n. the quality of being adequately or well qualified physically and intellectually

competent [ˈkɔmpitənt] – adj. properly or sufficiently qualified or capable or efficient: a competent typist

competition [.kɔmpiˈtiʃən] – n. an occasion on which a winner is selected from among two or more contestants

competitive [kəmˈpetitiv] – adj. subscribing to capitalistic competition

competitiveness [kəmˈpetitivnis] – n. an aggressive willingness to compete

competitor [kəmˈpetitə] – n. the contestant you hope to defeat

compile [kəmˈpail] – v. get or gather together

complain [kəmˈplein] – v. make a formal accusation; bring a formal charge: The plaintiff’s lawyer complained that he defendant had physically abused his client

complaint [kəmˈpleint] – n. (formerly) a loud cry (or repeated cries) of pain or rage or sorrow

complement [ˈkɔmplimənt] – n. a complete number or quantity: a full complement

complete [kəmˈpli:t] – v. come or bring to a finish or an end: She completed the requirements for her Master’s Degree

completely [kəmˈpli:tli] – adv. so as to be complete; with everything necessary: he had filled out the form completely

completion [kəmˈpli:ʃ(ə)n] – n. (American football) a successful forward pass in football

complex [ˈkɔmpleks] – n. a compound described in terms of the central atom to which other atoms are bound or coordinated

complexion [kəmˈplekʃən] – n. the coloring of a person’s face

complexity [kəmˈpleksiti] – n. the quality of being intricate and compounded: he enjoyed the complexity of modern computers

compliance [kəmˈplaiəns] – n. acting according to certain accepted standards

complicate [ˈkɔmplikeit] – v. make more complex, intricate, or richer

complicated [ˈkɔmplikeitid] – adj. difficult to analyze or understand: a complicated problem

complication [.kɔmpliˈkeiʃən] – n. a situation or condition that is complex or confused: her coming was a serious complication

compliment [ˈkɔmplimənt] – v. say something to someone that expresses praise: He complimented her on her last physics paper

complimentary [.kɔmpliˈment(ə)ri] – adj. costing nothing: complimentary tickets

comply [kəmˈplai] – v. act in accordance with someone’s rules, commands, or wishes: You must comply or else!

component [kəmˈpəunənt] – n. an abstract part of something: jealousy was a component of his character

compose [kəmˈpəuz] – v. form the substance of: Greed and ambition composed his personality

composed [kəmˈpəuzd] – adj. serenely self-possessed and free from agitation especially in times of stress: the performer seemed completely composed as she stepped onto the stage

composer [kɔmˈpəuzə] – n. someone who composes music as a profession

composite [ˈkɔmpəzit] – n. a conceptual whole made up of complicated and related parts

composition [.kɔmpəˈziʃən] – n. the spatial property resulting from the arrangement of parts in relation to each other and to the whole: harmonious composition is essential in a serious work of art

compound [ˈkɔmpaund,kɔmˈpaund] – v. make more intense, stronger, or more marked

comprehend [.kɔmpriˈhend] – v. get the meaning of something: Do you comprehend the meaning of this letter?

comprehension [.kɔmpriˈhenʃən] – n. an ability to understand the meaning or importance of something (or the knowledge acquired as a result): how you can do that is beyond my comprehension

comprehensive [.kɔmpriˈhensiv] – adj. including all or everything: comprehensive coverage

comprehensively  – adv. in an all-inclusive manner

compress [ˈkɔmpres,kəmˈpres] – v. squeeze or press together: she compressed her lips

compression [kəmˈpreʃ(ə)n] – n. an increase in the density of something

comprise [kəmˈpraiz] – v. include or contain; have as a component: A totally new idea is comprised in this paper

compromise [ˈkɔmprəmaiz] – v. settle by concession

compulsory [kəmˈpʌlsəri] – adj. required by rule: in most schools physical education is compulsory

computation [.kɔmpju(:)ˈteiʃ(ə)n] – n. the procedure of calculating; determining something by mathematical or logical methods

compute [kəmˈpju:t] – v. make a mathematical calculation or computation

computer [kəmˈpju:tə] – n. a machine for performing calculations automatically

computerization [kəm.pju:təraiˈzeiʃən; -riˈz-] – n. the control of processes by computer

computerize [kəmˈpju:təraiz] – v. store in a computer: computerized dictionary

comrade [ˈkɑ:mræd] – n. a friend who is frequently in the company of another: comrades in arms

conceal [kənˈsi:l] – v. prevent from being seen or discovered

concede [kənˈsi:d] – v. admit (to a wrongdoing)

conceit [kənˈsi:t] – n. feelings of excessive pride

conceive [kənˈsi:v] – v. have the idea for: He conceived of a robot that would help paralyzed patients

concentrate [ˈkɔnsentreit] – v. make denser, stronger, or purer: concentrate juice

concentrated [ˈkɔnsentreitid] – adj. gathered together or made less diffuse: their concentrated efforts

concentration [.kɔnsenˈtreiʃən] – n. the strength of a solution; number of molecules of a substance in a given volume

concept [ˈkɔnsept] – n. an abstract or general idea inferred or derived from specific instances

conception [kənˈsepʃən] – n. an abstract or general idea inferred or derived from specific instances

conceptive [kənˈseptiv] – adj. capable of conceiving

concern [kənˈsə:n] – n. something that interests you because it is important or affects you: the safety of the ship is the captain’s concern

concert [ˈkɔnsət] – v. contrive (a plan) by mutual agreement

concession [kənˈseʃən] – n. a contract granting the right to operate a subsidiary business: he got the beer concession at the ball park

concise [kənˈsais] – adj. expressing much in few words: a concise explanation

conclude [kənˈklu:d] – v. bring to a close: The committee concluded the meeting

conclusion [kənˈklu:ʒən] – n. a position or opinion or judgment reached after consideration: his conclusion took the evidence into account

conclusive [kənˈklu:siv] – adj. forming an end or termination; especially putting an end to doubt or question: conclusive proof

concoct [kənˈkɔkt] – v. prepare or cook by mixing ingredients: concoct a strange mixture

concrete [ˈkɔnkri:t] – v. cover with cement: concrete the walls

concur [kənˈkə:] – v. be in accord; be in agreement

concurrence [kənˈkʌrəns] – n. agreement of results or opinions

concurrent [kənˈkʌrənt] – adj. occurring or operating at the same time

condemn [kənˈdem] – v. express strong disapproval of: We condemn the racism in South Africa

condemnation [.kɔndemˈneiʃən] – n. an expression of strong disapproval; pronouncing as wrong or morally culpable: his uncompromising condemnation of racism

condensation [kɔndenˈseiʃən] – n. (psychoanalysis) an unconscious process whereby two ideas or images combine into a single symbol; especially in dreams

condense [kənˈdens] – v. make more concise: condense the contents of a book into a summary

condenser [kənˈdensə] – n. an electrical device characterized by its capacity to store an electric charge

condition [kənˈdiʃən] – n. a state at a particular time: a condition (or state) of disrepair

conditional [kənˈdiʃnəl] – adj. qualified by reservations

condolence [kənˈdəuləns] – n. an expression of sympathy with another’s grief: they sent their condolences

conduce [kənˈdju:s] – v. be conducive to

conducive [kənˈdju:siv] – adj. tending to bring about; being partly responsible for: working conditions are not conducive to productivity

conduct [kənˈdʌkt] – v. direct the course of; manage or control: You cannot conduct business like this

conduction [kənˈdʌkʃən] – n. the transmission of heat or electricity or sound

conductor [kənˈdʌktə] – n. the person who leads a musical group

cone [kəun] – n. a shape whose base is a circle and whose sides taper up to a point

confer [kənˈfə:] – v. present: The university conferred a degree on its most famous former student, who never graduated

conference [ˈkɔnfərəns] – n. a prearranged meeting for consultation or exchange of information or discussion (especially one with a formal agenda)

confess [kənˈfes] – v. admit (to a wrongdoing): She confessed that she had taken the money

confession [kənˈfeʃən] – n. an admission of misdeeds or faults

confide [kənˈfaid] – v. confer a trust upon

confidence [ˈkɔnfidəns] – n. freedom from doubt; belief in yourself and your abilities: after that failure he lost his confidence

confident [ˈkɔnfidənt] – adj. persuaded of; very sure: was confident he would win

confidential [.kɑ:nfiˈdenʃəl] – adj. (of information) given in confidence or in secret: this arrangement must be kept confidential

configuration [kən.figjuˈreiʃən] – n. an arrangement of parts or elements: the outcome depends on the configuration of influences at the time

confine [kənˈfain] – v. place limits on (extent or access)

confinement [kənˈfainmənt] – n. concluding state of pregnancy; from the onset of contractions to the birth of a child

confirm [kənˈfə:m] – v. establish or strengthen as with new evidence or facts: his story confirmed my doubts

confirmation [.kɔnfəˈmeiʃən] – n. additional proof that something that was believed (some fact or hypothesis or theory) is correct: fossils provided further confirmation of the evolutionary theory

conflict [ˈkɔnflikt] – n. an open clash between two opposing groups (or individuals): the harder the conflict the more glorious the triumph

conform [kənˈfɔ:m] – v. be similar, be in line with

conformity [kənˈfɔ:miti] – n. correspondence in form or appearance

confront [kənˈfrʌnt] – v. oppose, as in hostility or a competition: You must confront your opponent

confrontation [.kɔnfrʌnˈteiʃən] – n. a bold challenge

confuse [kənˈfju:z] – v. mistake one thing for another

confusion [kənˈfju:ʒən] – n. disorder resulting from a failure to behave predictably: the army retreated in confusion

congestion [kənˈdʒestʃən] – n. excessive accumulation of blood or other fluid in a body part

congratulate [kənˈgrætju.leit] – v. say something to someone that expresses praise

congratulation [kən.grætjuˈleiʃən] – n. the act of acknowledging that someone has an occasion for celebration

congress [ˈkɔŋgres] – n. the legislature of the United States government

congressman [ˈkɔŋgresmən] – n. a member of the United States House of Representatives

congruent [ˈkɔŋgruənt] – adj. corresponding in character or kind

conjunction [kənˈdʒʌŋkʃən] – n. the temporal property of two things happening at the same time

connect [kəˈnekt] – v. be or become joined or united or linked: The two streets connect to become a highway

connection [kəˈnekʃən] – n. a relation between things or events (as in the case of one causing the other or sharing features with it): there was a connection between eating that pickle and having that nightmare

conquer [.kɔŋkə] – v. to put down by force or authority: conquer one’s desires

conqueror [ˈkɔŋkərə] – n. someone who is victorious by force of arms

conquest [ˈkɔŋkwest] – n. success in mastering something difficult: the conquest of space

conscience [ˈkɔnʃəns] – n. motivation deriving logically from ethical or moral principles that govern a person’s thoughts and actions

conscientious [.kɔnʃiˈenʃəs] – adj. characterized by extreme care and great effort: conscientious application to the work at hand

conscientiously [kɔnʃiˈenʃəsli] – adv. with extreme conscientiousness

conscious [ˈkɔnʃəs] – adj. intentionally conceived: a conscious effort to speak more slowly

consciousness [ˈkɔnʃəsnəs] – n. an alert cognitive state in which you are aware of yourself and your situation: he lost consciousness

consecutive [kənˈsekjutiv] – adj. one after the other

consensus [kənˈsensəs] – n. agreement in the judgment or opinion reached by a group as a whole: the lack of consensus reflected differences in theoretical positions

consent [kənˈsent] – n. permission to do something: he indicated his consent

consequence [ˈkɔnsikwəns] – n. a phenomenon that follows and is caused by some previous phenomenon: his decision had depressing consequences for business

consequent [ˈkɔnsikwənt] – adj. following or accompanying as a consequence: the period of tension and consequent need for military preparedness

consequently [ˈkɔnsikwəntli] – adv. (sentence connectors) because of the reason given: consequently, he didn’t do it

conservation [.kɔnsə:ˈveiʃən] – n. an occurrence of improvement by virtue of preventing loss or injury or other change

conservative [kənˈsə:vətiv] – adj. resistant to change

conservatory [kənˈsə:vətəri] – n. the faculty and students of a school specializing in one of the fine arts

conserve [kənˈsə:v] – v. keep in safety and protect from harm, decay, loss, or destruction: children must be taught to conserve our national heritage

consider [kənˈsidə] – v. deem to be: I consider her to be shallow

considerable [kənˈsidərəbl] – adj. large or relatively large in number or amount or extent or degree: a considerable quantity

considerably [kənˈsidərəbəli] – adv. to a great extent or degree: painting the room white made it seem considerably (or substantially) larger

considerate [kənˈsidərit] – adj. showing concern for the rights and feelings of others: friends considerate enough to leave us alone

consideration [kənsidəˈreiʃən] – n. the process of giving careful thought to something

consign [kənˈsain] – v. commit forever; commit irrevocably

consignment [kənˈsainmənt] – n. goods carried by a large vehicle

consist [kənˈsist] – v. originate (in)

consistency [kənˈsistənsi] – n. the property of holding together and retaining its shape: when the dough has enough consistency it is ready to bake

consistent [kənˈsistənt] – adj. capable of being reproduced

consistently [kənˈsistəntli] – adv. in a systematic or consistent manner

console [ˈkɔnsəul,kənˈsəul] – n. a small table fixed to a wall or designed to stand against a wall

consolidate [kənˈsɔlideit] – v. unite into one: The companies consolidated

consolidated [kənˈsɔlideitid] – adj. joined together into a whole: a consolidated school

consolidation [kən.sɔliˈdeiʃən] – n. combining into a solid mass

consonant [ˈkɔnsənənt] – n. a speech sound that is not a vowel

conspicuous [kənˈspikjuəs] – adj. obvious to the eye or mind: a tower conspicuous at a great distance

conspiracy [kənˈspirəsi] – n. a secret agreement between two or more people to perform an unlawful act

constable [ˈkʌnstəbl] – n. a lawman with less authority and jurisdiction than a sheriff

constant [ˈkɔnstənt] – adj. unvarying in nature: maintained a constant temperature

constantly [ˈkɔnstəntli] – adv. without variation or change, in every case: constantly kind and gracious

constituent [kənˈstitjuənt] – n. a member of a constituency; a citizen who is represented in a government by officials for whom he or she votes: needs continued support by constituents to be re-elected

constitute [ˈkɔnstitju:t] – v. form or compose: These constitute my entire belonging

constitution [.kɔnstiˈtju:ʃən] – n. law determining the fundamental political principles of a government

constitutive [ˈkɔnstitju:tiv] – adj. constitutional in the structure of something (especially your physical makeup)

constrain [kənˈstrein] – v. hold back

constraint [kənˈstreint] – n. a device that retards something’s motion

constrict [kənˈstrikt] – v. squeeze or press together

construct [ˈkɔnstrʌkt,kənˈstrʌkt] – v. make by combining materials and parts: Some eccentric constructed an electric brassiere warmer

construction [kənˈstrʌkʃən] – n. a group of words that form a constituent of a sentence and are considered as a single unit: I concluded from his awkward constructions that he was a foreigner

construe [kənˈstru:] – v. make sense of; assign a meaning to

consul [ˈkɔnsəl] – n. a diplomat appointed by a government to protect its commercial interests and help its citizens in a foreign country

consulate [ˈkɔnsjulit] – n. diplomatic building that serves as the residence or workplace of a consul

consult [kənˈsʌlt] – v. get or ask advice from: They had to consult before arriving at a decision

consultant [kənˈsʌltənt] – n. an expert who gives advice

consultation [.kɔnsəlˈteiʃən] – n. a conference (usually with someone important): he had a consultation with the judge

consume [kənˈsju:m] – v. eat immoderately

consumer [kənˈsju:mə] – n. a person who uses goods or services

consumption [kənˈsʌmpʃən] – n. the process of taking food into the body through the mouth (as by eating)

contact [ˈkɔntækt] – n. close interaction: they kept in daily contact

contain [kənˈtein] – v. lessen the intensity of; temper; hold in restraint; hold or keep within limits

container [kənˈteinə] – n. any object that can be used to hold things (especially a large metal boxlike object of standardized dimensions that can be loaded from one form of transport to another)

contaminate [kənˈtæmineit] – v. make impure

contemplate [ˈkɔntem.pleit] – v. look at thoughtfully; observe deep in thought: contemplate one’s navel

contemplation [.kɔntemˈpleiʃən] – n. a long and thoughtful observation

contemporary [kənˈtempərəri] – adj. characteristic of the present: contemporary trends in design

contempt [kənˈtempt] – n. lack of respect accompanied by a feeling of intense dislike: he was held in contempt

contemptuous [kənˈtemptjuəs] – adj. expressing extreme contempt

contend [kənˈtend] – v. maintain or assert: He contended that Communism had no future

content [ˈkɔntent,kənˈtent] – n. everything that is included in a collection and that is held or included in something: he emptied the contents of his pockets

contention [kənˈtenʃən] – n. a point asserted as part of an argument

contest [ˈkɔntest,kənˈtest] – n. a struggle between rivals

contestant [kənˈtestənt] – n. a person who participates in competitions

context [ˈkɔntekst] – n. discourse that surrounds a language unit and helps to determine its interpretation

contextual [kɔnˈtekstjuəl] – adj. relating to or determined by or in context: contextual information

continent [ˈkɔntinənt] – n. one of the large landmasses of the earth: there are seven continents

continental [.kɔntiˈnentl] – adj. of or pertaining to or typical of Europe

contingency [kənˈtindʒənsi] – n. a possible event or occurrence or result

continual [kənˈtinjuəl] – adj. occurring without interruption; chiefly restricted to what recurs regularly or frequently in a prolonged and closely spaced series: the continual banging of the shutters

continuance [kənˈtinjuəns] – n. the period of time during which something continues

continue [kənˈtinju:] – v. keep or maintain in unaltered condition; cause to remain or last: continue the family tradition

continuity [.kɔntiˈnju:iti] – n. uninterrupted connection or union

continuous [kənˈtinjuəs] – adj. of a function or curve; extending without break or irregularity

continuously [kənˈtinjʊəsli] – adv. at every point: The function is continuously differentiable

contracted [kənˈtræktid] – adj. reduced in size or pulled together: the contracted pupils of her eyes

contractual [kənˈtræktjuəl] – adj. relating to or part of a binding legal agreement: contractual obligations

contradict [.kɔntrəˈdikt] – v. deny the truth of

contradiction [.kɔntrəˈdikʃən] – n. opposition between two conflicting forces or ideas

contrary [ˈkɔntrəri] – adj. very opposed in nature or character or purpose: acts contrary to our code of ethics

contrast [ˈkɔntræst,kənˈtræst] – n. the opposition or dissimilarity of things that are compared: in contrast to

contribute [kənˈtribju:t] – v. bestow a quality on

contribution [.kɔntriˈbju:ʃən] – n. the part played by a person in bringing about a result: I am proud of my contribution in advancing the project

contrive [kənˈtraiv] – v. make or work out a plan for; devise: They contrived to murder their boss

control [kənˈtrəul] – n. power to direct or determine: under control

controversial [.kɔntrəˈvə:ʃəl] – adj. marked by or capable of arousing controversy: the issue of the death penalty is highly controversial

controversy [ˈkɔntrəvə:si] – n. a contentious speech act; a dispute where there is strong disagreement

convene [kənˈvi:n] – v. meet formally: The council convened last week

convenience [kənˈvi:njəns] – n. the state of being suitable or opportune: chairs arranged for his own convenience

convenient [kənˈvi:njənt] – adj. suited to your comfort or purpose or needs: a convenient excuse for not going

convention [kənˈvenʃən] – n. a large formal assembly: political convention

conventional [kənˈvenʃənl] – adj. following accepted customs and proprieties: conventional wisdom

converge [kənˈvə:dʒ] – v. be adjacent or come together: The lines converge at this point

conversant [kənˈvə:sənt] – adj. (usually followed by `with’) well informed about or knowing thoroughly: conversant with business trends

conversation [.kɔnvəˈseiʃən] – n. the use of speech for informal exchange of views or ideas or information etc.

converse [kənˈvə:s] – adj. of words so related that one reverses the relation denoted by the other: `parental’ and `filial’ are converse terms

conversely [kənˈvə:sli] – adv. with the terms of the relation reversed: conversely, not all women are mothers

conversion [kənˈvə:ʃən] – n. an event that results in a transformation

convert [ˈkɔnvə:t,kənˈvə:t] – v. change from one system to another or to a new plan or policy: We converted from 220 to 110 Volt

convey [kənˈvei] – v. make known; pass on, of information: She conveyed the message to me

conveyance [kənˈveiəns] – n. document effecting a property transfer

convict [ˈkɔnvikt,kənˈvikt] – n. a person serving a sentence in a jail or prison

conviction [kənˈvikʃən] – n. an unshakable belief in something without need for proof or evidence

convince [kənˈvins] – v. make (someone) agree, understand, or realize the truth or validity of something: He had finally convinced several customers of the advantages of his product

convinced [kənˈvinst] – adj. persuaded of; very sure: were convinced that it would be to their advantage to join

cook [kuk] – v. prepare a hot meal: My husband doesn’t cook

cooker [ˈkukə] – n. a utensil for cooking

cool [ku:l] – adj. marked by calm self-control (especially in trying circumstances); unemotional: play it cool

coolness [ˈku:lnis] – n. calm and unruffled self-assurance: he performed with all the coolness of a veteran

cooperate [kəuˈɔpəreit] – v. work together on a common enterprise of project

cooperation [kəu.ɔpəˈreiʃən] – n. joint operation or action: their cooperation with us was essential for the success of our mission

cooperative [kəuˈɔpərətiv] – adj. involving the joint activity of two or more: a cooperative effort

coordinate [kəuˈɔ:dneit] – v. bring order and organization to

coordination [kəu.ɔ:diˈneiʃən] – n. the skillful and effective interaction of movements

cope [kəup] – n. brick that is laid sideways at the top of a wall

copper [ˈkɔpə] – n. uncomplimentary terms for a policeman

copy [ˈkɔpi] – n. a thing made to be similar or identical to another thing: she made a copy of the designer dress

cord [kɔ:d] – n. a line made of twisted fibers or threads: the bundle was tied with a cord

cordial [ˈkɔ:djəl] – adj. diffusing warmth and friendliness: cordial relations

cordially [ˈkɔ:djəli] – adv. in a hearty manner

core [kɔ:] – n. a small group of indispensable persons or things: five periodicals make up the core of their publishing program

cork [kɔ:k] – n. (botany) outer tissue of bark; a protective layer of dead cells

corn [kɔ:n] – n. a hard thickening of the skin (especially on the top or sides of the toes) caused by the pressure of ill-fitting shoes

corner [ˈkɔ:nə] – n. a place off to the side of an area: he tripled to the rightfield corner

corporate [ˈkɔ:pərit] – adj. possessing or existing in bodily form: `corporate’ is an archaic term

corporation [.kɔ:pəˈreiʃən] – n. slang for a paunch

corps [kɔ:] – n. an army unit usually consisting of two or more divisions and their support

correct [kəˈrekt] – v. make reparations or amends for

correction [kəˈrekʃən] – n. the act of offering an improvement to replace a mistake; setting right

correctly [kəˈrektli] – adv. in an accurate manner: the flower had been correctly depicted by his son

correlate [ˈkɔ:rə.leit] – v. to bear a reciprocal or mutual relation: Do these facts correlate?

correlation [, kɔrəˈleiʃən] – n. a reciprocal relation between two or more things

correspond [.kɔrisˈpɔnd] – v. be compatible, similar or consistent; coincide in their characteristics

correspondence [.kɔriˈspɔndəns] – n. communication by the exchange of letters

correspondent [.kɔriˈspɔndənt] – n. someone who communicates by means of letters

corresponding [.kɔriˈspɔndiŋ] – adj. accompanying: all rights carry with them corresponding responsibilities

corridor [ˈkɔridɔ:] – n. an enclosed passageway; rooms usually open onto it

corrode [kəˈrəud] – v. cause to deteriorate due to the action of water, air, or an acid: The acid corroded the metal

corrosion [kəˈrəuʒən] – n. a state of deterioration in metals caused by oxidation or chemical action

corrupt [kəˈrʌpt] – v. make illegal payments to in exchange for favors or influence

corruption [kəˈrʌpʃən] – n. lack of integrity or honesty (especially susceptibility to bribery); use of a position of trust for dishonest gain

cosmic [ˈkɔzmik] – adj. inconceivably extended in space or time

cosmopolitan [.kɔzməˈpɔlitən] – adj. growing or occurring in many parts of the world: a cosmopolitan herb

cosmos [ˈkɔzmɔs] – n. everything that exists anywhere

cost [kɔst] – n. the total spent for goods or services including money and time and labor

costly [ˈkɔstli] – adj. entailing great loss or sacrifice

costume [ˈkɔstju:m] – n. the attire worn in a play or at a fancy dress ball: he won the prize for best costume

cosy  – n. a padded cloth covering to keep a teapot warm

cottage [ˈkɔtidʒ] – n. a small house with a single story

cotton [ˈkɔtn] – n. erect bushy mallow plant or small tree bearing bolls containing seeds with many long hairy fibers

couch [kautʃ] – n. an upholstered seat for more than one person

cough [kɔf] – v. exhale abruptly, as when one has a chest cold or congestion: The smoker coughs all day

council [ˈkaunsil] – n. a body serving in an administrative capacity: student council

counsel [ˈkaunsəl] – n. a lawyer who pleads cases in court

counsellor  – n. someone who has supervisory duties at a summer camp

count  – v. determine the number or amount of: Can you count the books on your shelf?

countable [ˈkauntəbl] – adj. that can be counted: countable sins

countenance [ˈkauntinəns] – n. the appearance conveyed by a person’s face: a pleasant countenance

counter [ˈkauntə] – n. table consisting of a horizontal surface over which business is transacted

counterbalance [ˈkauntə.bæləns] – n. a weight that balances another weight

counterfeit [ˈkauntəfit] – n. a copy that is represented as the original

countermand [.kauntəˈmɑ:nd] – n. a contrary command cancelling or reversing a previous command

countermeasure [ˈkauntə.meʒə] – n. an action taken to offset another action

counterpart [ˈkauntəpɑ:t] – n. a person or thing having the same function or characteristics as another

countersign [ˈkauntəsain] – n. a secret word or phrase known only to a restricted group

countersignature [.kaʊntəˈsignətʃə(r)] – n. a second confirming signature endorsing a document already signed

counting  – n. the act of counting; reciting numbers in ascending order: the counting continued for several hours

countless [ˈkaʊtlis] – adj. too numerous to be counted: countless hours

country [ˈkʌntri] – n. a politically organized body of people under a single government: the country’s largest manufacturer

countryside [ˈkʌntriˈsaid] – n. rural regions

county [ˈkaunti] – n. (United Kingdom) a region created by territorial division for the purpose of local government: the county has a population of 12,345 people

couple [ˈkʌpl] – n. a pair who associate with one another: the engaged couple

coupon [ˈku:pɔn] – n. a negotiable certificate that can be detached and redeemed as needed

courage [ˈkʌridʒ] – n. a quality of spirit that enables you to face danger or pain without showing fear

courageous [kəˈreidʒəs] – adj. possessing or displaying courage; able to face and deal with danger or fear without flinching: a frank courageous heart…triumphed over pain

courier [ˈkuriə] – n. a person who carries a message

course [kɔ:s] – n. education imparted in a series of lessons or meetings: he took a course in basket weaving

court [kɔ:t] – n. an assembly (including one or more judges) to conduct judicial business

courteous [ˈkə:tjəs] – adj. characterized by courtesy and gracious good manners: if a man be gracious and courteous to strangers it shows he is a citizen of the world

courtesy [ˈkə:tisi] – n. a courteous or respectful or considerate remark

courtyard [ˈkɔ:tˈjɑ:d] – n. an area wholly or partly surrounded by walls or buildings

cousin [ˈkʌzn] – n. the child of your aunt or uncle

cover [ˈkʌvə] – v. span an interval of distance, space or time: The period covered the turn of the century

coverage [ˈkʌvəridʒ] – n. the total amount and type of insurance carried

covering [ˈkʌvəriŋ] – n. an artifact that covers something else (usually to protect or shelter or conceal it)

cow [kau] – n. female of domestic cattle:: `moo-cow’ is a child’s term

coward [ˈkauəd] – n. a person who shows fear or timidity

cowardly [ˈkaʊədli] – adj. lacking courage; ignobly timid and faint-hearted: cowardly dogs, ye will not aid me then

crab [kræb] – n. a quarrelsome grouch

crack [kræk] – v. make a very sharp explosive sound: His gun cracked

cracker [ˈkrækə] – n. a thin crisp wafer made of flour and water with or without leavening and shortening; unsweetened or semisweet

cradle [ˈkreidl] – v. hold gently and carefully: He cradles the child in his arms

craft [krɑ:ft] – n. the skilled practice of a practical occupation

craftsman [ˈkrɑ:ftsmən] – n. a professional whose work is consistently of high quality: as an actor he was a consummate craftsman

crane [krein] – n. United States writer (1871-1900)

crash [kræʃ] – v. fall or come down violently: The branch crashed down on my car

crate [kreit] – n. a rugged box (usually made of wood); used for shipping

crater [ˈkreitə] – n. a bowl-shaped geological formation at the top of a volcano

crave [kreiv] – v. plead or ask for earnestly

crawl [krɔ:l] – v. move slowly; in the case of people or animals with the body near the ground: The crocodile was crawling along the riverbed

craziness [ˈkreizinis] – n. informal terms for insanity

crazy [ˈkreizi] – adj. affected with madness or insanity

cream [kri:m] – v. beat thoroughly and conclusively in a competition or fight

creamy [ˈkri:mi] – adj. thick like cream

crease [kri:s] – v. scrape gently

create [kriˈeit] – v. make or cause to be or to become: create a furor

creation [kriˈeiʃən] – n. an artifact that has been brought into existence by someone

creative [kriˈeitiv] – adj. promoting construction or creation: creative work

creature [ˈkri:tʃə] – n. a living organism characterized by voluntary movement

credentials [kriˈdenʃəlz] – n. a document attesting to the truth of certain stated facts

credible [ˈkredəbəl] – adj. capable of being believed: completely credible testimony

credit [ˈkredit] – n. approval: he was given credit for his work

creditworthy [ˈkreditwə:ði] – adj. having an acceptable credit rating

creek [kri:k] – n. a natural stream of water smaller than a river (and often a tributary of a river): the creek dried up every summer

creep [kri:p] – n. someone unpleasantly strange or eccentric

crevice [ˈkrevis] – n. a long narrow depression in a surface

crew [kru:] – n. an organized group of workmen

cricket [ˈkrikit] – n. leaping insect; male makes chirping noises by rubbing the forewings together

crime [kraim] – n. an evil act not necessarily punishable by law: crimes of the heart

criminal [ˈkriminəl] – adj. bringing or deserving severe rebuke or censure: a criminal waste of talent

crimson [ˈkrimzn] – adj. characterized by violence or bloodshed: writes of crimson deeds and barbaric days

cripple [ˈkripl] – v. deprive of strength or efficiency; make useless or worthless: This measure crippled our efforts

crisis [ˈkraisis] – n. an unstable situation of extreme danger or difficulty: they went bankrupt during the economic crisis

crisp [krisp] – adj. (of something seen or heard) clearly defined: the crisp snap of dry leaves underfoot

criterion [kraiˈtiəriən] – n. a basis for comparison; a reference point against which other things can be evaluated

critic [ˈkritik] – n. a person who is professionally engaged in the analysis and interpretation of works of art

critical [ˈkritikəl] – adj. marked by a tendency to find and call attention to errors and flaws: a critical attitude

criticism [ˈkriti.sizəm] – n. disapproval expressed by pointing out faults or shortcomings: the senator received severe criticism from his opponent

criticize [ˈkritisaiz] – v. act as a critic: Those who criticize others often are not perfect, either

crook [kruk] – n. someone who has committed a crime or has been legally convicted of a crime

crop [krɔp] – n. the yield from plants in a single growing season

cross [krɔs] – v. meet at a point

crossing [ˈkrɔsiŋ] – n. a shallow area in a stream that can be forded

crossroads [ˈkrɔsroudz] – n. a community of people smaller than a village

crouch [ˈkrautʃ] – v. bend one’s back forward from the waist on down: he crouched down

crow [krəu] – n. black birds having a raucous call

crowd [kraud] – v. fill or occupy to the point of overflowing: The students crowded the auditorium

crown [kraun] – n. the Crown (or the reigning monarch) as the symbol of the power and authority of a monarchy

crucial [ˈkru:ʃəl] – adj. of extreme importance; vital to the resolution of a crisis: a crucial moment in his career

crude [kru:d] – adj. not carefully or expertly made: managed to make a crude splint

cruel [ˈkru:əl] – adj. (of persons or their actions) able or disposed to inflict pain or suffering: cruel tortures

cruelty [ˈkru:əlti] – n. feelings of extreme heartlessness

cruise [kru:z] – v. drive around aimlessly but ostentatiously and at leisure: She cruised the neighborhood in her new convertible

crumb [krʌm] – n. a very small quantity of something: he gave only a crumb of information about his plans

crumble [ˈkrʌmbl] – v. fall apart: the building crumbled after the explosion

crumple [ˈkrʌmpəl] – v. fall apart

crush [krʌʃ] – v. come down on or keep down by unjust use of one’s authority

crust [krʌst] – n. the outer layer of the Earth

crutch [krʌtʃ] – n. a wooden or metal staff that fits under the armpit and reaches to the ground; used by disabled person while walking

cry [krai] – v. shed tears because of sadness, rage, or pain

crystal [ˈkristl] – n. a solid formed by the solidification of a chemical and having a highly regular atomic structure

cube [kju:b] – n. a hexahedron with six equal squares as faces

cubic [ˈkju:bik] – adj. having three dimensions

cubism [ˈkju:bizm] – n. an artistic movement in France beginning in 1907 that featured surfaces of geometrical planes

cuckoo [ˈkuku:] – n. a man who is a stupid incompetent fool

cucumber [ˈkju:kəmbə] – n. a melon vine of the genus Cucumis; cultivated from earliest times for its cylindrical green fruit

cue [kju:] – n. an actor’s line that immediately precedes and serves as a reminder for some action or speech

culminate [ˈkʌlmineit] – v. end, especially to reach a final or climactic stage: The meeting culminated in a tearful embrace

cultivate [ˈkʌltiveit] – v. foster the growth of

cultivation [.kʌltiˈveiʃən] – n. socialization through training and education to develop one’s mind or manners: her cultivation was remarkable

cultural [ˈkʌltʃər(ə)l] – adj. of or relating to the arts and manners that a group favors: cultural events

culture [ˈkʌltʃə] – n. a particular society at a particular time and place

cumbersome [ˈkʌmbəsəm] – adj. difficult to handle or use especially because of size or weight: a cumbersome piece of machinery

cumulative [ˈkju:mjulətiv] – adj. increasing by successive addition: the benefits are cumulative

cunning [ˈkʌniŋ] – adj. attractive especially by means of smallness or prettiness or quaintness: cunning kittens

cup [kʌp] – n. a small open container usually used for drinking; usually has a handle: he put the cup back in the saucer

cupboard [ˈkʌbəd] – n. a small room (or recess) or cabinet used for storage space

curb [kə:b] – n. a horse’s bit with an attached chain or strap to check the horse

cure [kjuə] – v. prepare by drying, salting, or chemical processing in order to preserve: cure meats

curiosity [.kjuəriˈɔsiti] – n. a state in which you want to learn more about something

curious [ˈkjuəriəs] – adj. beyond or deviating from the usual or expected: a curious hybrid accent

curl [kə:l] – v. wind around something in coils or loops

curly [ˈkə:li] – adj. (of hair) having curls or waves: they envied her naturally curly hair

currency [ˈkʌrənsi] – n. the metal or paper medium of exchange that is presently used

current [ˈkʌrənt] – n. a flow of electricity through a conductor: the current was measured in amperes

currently [ˈkʌrəntli] – adv. at this time or period; now: currently they live in Connecticut

curriculum [kəˈrikjuləm] – n. an integrated course of academic studies

curse [kə:s] – n. profane or obscene expression usually of surprise or anger

curtail [kə:ˈteil] – v. place restrictions on: curtail drinking in school

curtain [ˈkə:tn] – n. hanging cloth used as a blind (especially for a window)

curve [kə:v] – n. the trace of a point whose direction of motion changes

cushion [ˈkuʃən] – n. a mechanical damper; absorbs energy of sudden impulses

custodian [kʌˈstəudiən] – n. one having charge of buildings or grounds or animals

custody [ˈkʌstədi] – n. a state of being confined (usually for a short time): he is in the custody of police

custom [ˈkʌstəm] – n. accepted or habitual practice

customary [ˈkʌstəməri] – adj. commonly used or practiced; usual: took his customary morning walk

customer [ˈkʌstəmə] – n. someone who pays for goods or services

customs [ˈkʌstəmz] – n. money collected under a tariff

cut [kʌt] – v. separate with or as if with an instrument

cute [kju:t] – adj. attractive especially by means of smallness or prettiness or quaintness: a cute kid with pigtails

cutlery [ˈkʌtləri] – n. a cutting implement; a tool for cutting

cutter [ˈkʌtə] – n. someone who carves the meat

cutting [ˈkʌtiŋ] – n. the activity of selecting the scenes to be shown and putting them together to create a film

cycle [ˈsaikl] – n. an interval during which a recurring sequence of events occurs: the never-ending cycle of the seasons

cyclist [ˈsaiklist] – n. a person who rides a bicycle

cylinder [ˈsilində] – n. a surface generated by rotating a parallel line around a fixed line

cynical [ˈsinikəl] – adj. believing the worst of human nature and motives; having a sneering disbelief in e.g. selflessness of others

dagger [ˈdægə] – n. a short knife with a pointed blade used for piercing or stabbing

daily [ˈdeili] – adj. of or belonging to or occurring every day: daily routine

dainty [ˈdeinti] – adj. delicately beautiful: a dainty teacup

dairy [ˈdɛəri] – n. a farm where dairy products are produced

dam [dæm] – n. a barrier constructed to contain the flow of water or to keep out the sea

damage [ˈdæmidʒ] – n. the occurrence of a change for the worse

damn [dæm] – adj. used as expletives: oh, damn (or goddamn)!

damp [dæmp] – v. deaden (a sound or noise), especially by wrapping

dance [dɑ:ns] – n. an artistic form of nonverbal communication

dancer [ˈdɑ:nsə] – n. a person who participates in a social gathering arranged for dancing (as a ball)

danger [ˈdeindʒə] – n. the condition of being susceptible to harm or injury: you are in no danger

dangerous [ˈdeindʒərəs] – adj. causing fear or anxiety by threatening great harm: a dangerous operation

Danish [ˈdeiniʃ] – n. a Scandinavian language that is the official language of Denmark

dare [dɛə] – v. take upon oneself; act presumptuously, without permission: How dare you call my lawyer?

daring [ˈdɛəriŋ] – n. a challenge to do something dangerous or foolhardy

dark [dɑ:k] – adj. devoid of or deficient in light or brightness; shadowed or black: sitting in a dark corner

darken [ˈdɑ:kən] – v. tarnish or stain: a scandal that darkened the family’s good name

darkness [ˈdɑ:knis] – n. absence of light or illumination

darling [ˈdɑ:liŋ] – n. a special loved one

dart [dɑ:t] – n. a small narrow pointed missile that is thrown or shot

dash [dæʃ] – n. distinctive and stylish elegance: he wooed her with the confident dash of a cavalry officer

data [ˈdeitə] – n. a collection of facts from which conclusions may be drawn: statistical data

database [ˈdeitə.beis] – n. an organized body of related information

date [deit] – n. the specified day of the month: what is the date today?

dating [ˈdeitiŋ] – n. use of chemical analysis to estimate the age of geological specimens

daughter [ˈdɔ:tə] – n. a female human offspring: her daughter cared for her in her old age

dawn [dɔ:n] – n. the earliest period: the dawn of civilization

day [dei] – n. time for Earth to make a complete rotation on its axis: two days later they left

daybreak [ˈdeibreik] – n. the first light of day

daylight [ˈdeilait] – n. the time after sunrise and before sunset while it is light outside

daytime [ˈdeitaim] – n. the time after sunrise and before sunset while it is light outside: it is easier to make the repairs in the daytime

daze [deiz] – n. the feeling of distress and disbelief that you have when something bad happens accidentally: his mother’s death left him in a daze

dazzle [ˈdæzl] – v. to cause someone to lose clear vision, especially from intense light: She was dazzled by the bright headlights

dazzling [ˈdæzliŋ] – adj. amazingly impressive; suggestive of the flashing of lightning: the skater’s dazzling virtuosic leaps

dead [ded] – adj. no longer having or seeming to have or expecting to have life: the nerve is dead

deadline [ˈdedlain] – n. the point in time at which something must be completed

deadlock [ˈdedlɔk] – n. a situation in which no progress can be made or no advancement is possible

deadly [ˈdedli] – adj. causing or capable of causing death: a deadly enemy

deaf [def] – adj. (usually followed by `to’) unwilling or refusing to pay heed: deaf to her warnings

deafen [ˈdefn] – v. be unbearably loud: a deafening noise

deal [di:l] – v. act on verbally or in some form of artistic expression: This book deals with incest

dealer [ˈdi:lə] – n. someone who purchases and maintains an inventory of goods to be sold

dealing [ˈdi:liŋ] – n. method or manner of conduct in relation to others: honest dealing

dean [di:n] – n. an administrator in charge of a division of a university or college

dear [diə] – adj. with or in a close or intimate relationship: my sisters and brothers are near and dear

dearth [də:θ] – n. an acute insufficiency

death [deθ] – n. the event of dying or departure from life: her death came as a terrible shock

deathly [ˈdeθli] – adj. causing or capable of causing death

debate [diˈbeit] – v. argue with one another: We debated the question of abortion

debit [ˈdebit] – n. an accounting entry acknowledging sums that are owing

debris [ˈdebri:] – n. the remains of something that has been destroyed or broken up

debt [det] – n. the state of owing something (especially money): he is badly in debt

decade [ˈdekeid] – n. a period of 10 years

decay [diˈkei] – n. the process of gradually becoming inferior

deceased [diˈsi:st] – n. someone who is no longer alive

deceit [diˈsi:t] – n. the quality of being fraudulent

deceitful [diˈsi:tfʊl] – adj. intended to deceive: deceitful advertising

deceive [diˈsi:v] – v. be false to; be dishonest with

December [diˈsembə] – n. the last (12th) month of the year

decency [ˈdi:snsi] – n. the quality of conforming to standards of propriety and morality

decent [ˈdi:snt] – adj. socially or conventionally correct; refined or virtuous: from a decent family

deception [diˈsepʃən] – n. a misleading falsehood

decide [diˈsaid] – v. bring to an end; settle conclusively: The case was decided

decided [diˈsaidid] – adj. recognizable; marked: at a distinct (or decided) disadvantage

decidedly [diˈsaididli] – adv. without question and beyond doubt: it was decidedly too expensive

decimal [ˈdesiməl] – n. a proper fraction whose denominator is a power of 10

decipher [diˈsaifə] – v. convert code into ordinary language

decision [diˈsiʒən] – n. the act of making up your mind about something: the burden of decision was his

decisive [diˈsaisiv] – adj. determining or having the power to determine an outcome: cast the decisive vote

deck [dek] – n. any of various platforms built into a vessel

declaration [.dekləˈreiʃən] – n. a statement that is emphatic and explicit (spoken or written)

declare [diˈklɛə] – v. state emphatically and authoritatively: He declared that he needed more money to carry out the task he was charged with

decline [diˈklain] – v. grow worse

decompose [.di:kəmˈpəuz] – v. separate (substances) into constituent elements or parts

decorate [ˈdekəreit] – v. make more attractive by adding ornament, colour, etc.

decoration [.dekəˈreiʃən] – n. something used to beautify

decorative [ˈdekərətiv] – adj. serving an esthetic rather than a useful purpose: the buildings were utilitarian rather than decorative

decrease [ˈdi:kri:s,di:ˈkri:s] – n. a change downward: there was a decrease in his temperature as the fever subsided

decree [diˈkri:] – v. decide with authority: The King decreed that all firstborn males should be killed

decrepit [diˈkrepit] – adj. worn and broken down by hard use: a decrepit bus…its seats held together with friction tape

dedicate [ˈdedikeit] – v. give entirely to a specific person, activity, or cause

dedicated [ˈdedikeitid] – adj. devoted to a cause or ideal or purpose: a dedicated dancer

deduce [diˈdju:s] – v. conclude by reasoning; in logic

deduct [diˈdʌkt] – v. make a subtraction

deduction [diˈdʌkʃən] – n. an amount or percentage deducted

deed [di:d] – n. something that people do or cause to happen

deem [di:m] – v. keep in mind or convey as a conviction or view

deep [di:p] – adj. marked by depth of thinking: deep thoughts

deepen [ˈdi:pən] – v. make more intense, stronger, or more marked: This event only deepened my convictions

deeply [ˈdi:pli] – adv. to a great depth psychologically: They felt the loss deeply

deer [diə] – n. distinguished from Bovidae by the male’s having solid deciduous antlers

default [diˈfɔ:lt] – n. loss due to not showing up: he lost the game by default

defeat [diˈfi:t] – n. an unsuccessful ending to a struggle or contest: it was a narrow defeat

defect [diˈfekt] – n. an imperfection in a bodily system: visual defects

defective [diˈfektiv] – adj. markedly subnormal in structure or function or intelligence or behavior: defective speech

defence  – n. (psychiatry) an unconscious process that tries to reduce the anxiety associated with instinctive desires

defend [diˈfend] – v. be on the defensive; act against an attack

defendant [diˈfendənt] – n. a person or institution against whom an action is brought in a court of law; the person being sued or accused

defer [diˈfə:] – v. hold back to a later time

defiance [diˈfaiəns] – n. intentionally contemptuous behavior or attitude

defiant [diˈfaiənt] – adj. boldly resisting authority or an opposing force: brought up to be aggressive and defiant

deficiency [diˈfiʃənsi] – n. the state of needing something that is absent or unavailable: water is the critical deficiency in desert regions

deficient [diˈfiʃənt] – adj. inadequate in amount or degree: a deficient education

deficit [ˈdefisit] – n. the property of being an amount by which something is less than expected or required: new blood vessels bud out from the already dilated vascular bed to make up the nutritional deficit

defile [diˈfail] – v. place under suspicion or cast doubt upon

define [diˈfain] – v. determine the essential quality of

definite [ˈdefinit] – adj. known for certain: it is definite that they have won

definitely [ˈdefinitli] – adv. without question and beyond doubt

definition [.defiˈniʃən] – n. a concise explanation of the meaning of a word or phrase or symbol

definitive [diˈfinitiv] – adj. of recognized authority or excellence: the definitive work on Greece

deflate [diˈfleit] – v. collapse by releasing contained air or gas: deflate a balloon

deflect [diˈflekt] – v. prevent the occurrence of; prevent from happening

deflection [diˈflekʃən] – n. a twist or aberration; especially a perverse or abnormal way of judging or acting

deform [di:ˈfɔ:m] – v. make formless: the heat deformed the plastic sculpture

deformation [.di:fɔ:ˈmeiʃən] – n. a change for the worse

defraud [diˈfrɔ:d] – v. deprive of by deceit: She defrauded the customers who trusted her

defray [diˈfrei] – v. bear the expenses of

deft [deft] – adj. skillful in physical movements; especially of the hands: a deft waiter

defy [diˈfai] – v. resist or confront with resistance

degenerate [diˈdʒenəreit] – n. a person whose behavior deviates from what is acceptable especially in sexual behavior

degradation [.degrəˈdeiʃən] – n. changing to a lower state (a less respected state)

degrade [diˈgreid] – v. reduce the level of land, as by erosion

degree [diˈgri:] – n. a position on a scale of intensity or amount or quality: it is all a matter of degree

delay [diˈlei] – v. act later than planned, scheduled, or required: Don’t delay your application to graduate school or else it won’t be considered

delectable [diˈlektəbəl] – adj. extremely pleasing to the sense of taste

delegate [ˈdeligeit,ˈdeligit] – v. transfer power to someone

delegation [.deliˈgeiʃən] – n. authorizing subordinates to make certain decisions

delete [diˈli:t] – v. remove or make invisible: Please delete my name from your list

deletion [diˈli:ʃən] – n. any process whereby sounds or words are left out of spoken words or phrases

deliberate [diˈlibərit] – v. think about carefully; weigh

deliberately [diˈlibərətli] – adv. with intention; in an intentional manner

deliberation [di.libəˈreiʃə n] – n. (usually plural) discussion of all sides of a question: the deliberations of the jury

delicacy [ˈdelikəsi] – n. something considered choice to eat

delicate [ˈdelikit] – adj. exquisitely fine and subtle and pleasing; susceptible to injury: a delicate violin passage

delicious [diˈliʃəs] – adj. greatly pleasing or entertaining: a delicious joke

delight [diˈlait] – v. give pleasure to or be pleasing to

delightful [diˈlaitful] – adj. greatly pleasing or entertaining: a delightful surprise

delinquency [diˈliŋkwənsi] – n. nonpayment of a debt when due

delinquent [diˈliŋkwənt] – adj. guilty of a misdeed: delinquent minors

delirium [diˈliriəm] – n. state of violent mental agitation

deliver [diˈlivə] – v. to surrender someone or something to another: the guard delivered the criminal to the police

deliverance [diˈlivərəns] – n. recovery or preservation from loss or danger: work is the deliverance of mankind

delivery [diˈlivəri] – n. the event of giving birth: she had a difficult delivery

delude [diˈlu:d] – v. be false to; be dishonest with

deluge [ˈdelju:dʒ] – n. an overwhelming number or amount

delusion [diˈlu:ʒən] – n. (psychology) an erroneous belief that is held in the face of evidence to the contrary

delusive [diˈlju:siv] – adj. inappropriate to reality or facts: delusive faith in a wonder drug

demand [diˈmɑ:nd] – v. request urgently and forcefully: The victim’s family is demanding compensation

democracy [diˈmɔkrəsi] – n. the political orientation of those who favor government by the people or by their elected representatives

democrat [ˈdeməkræt] – n. a member of the Democratic Party

democratic [.deməˈkrætik] – adj. belong to or relating to the Democratic Party

demolish [diˈmɔliʃ] – v. destroy completely: the wrecking ball demolished the building

demolition [.deməˈliʃən] – n. an event (or the result of an event) that completely destroys something

demonstrate [ˈdemənstreit] – v. give an exhibition of to an interested audience

demonstration [.demənsˈtreiʃən] – n. a show or display; the act of presenting something to sight or view: he gave the customer a demonstration

demurrage [diˈmʌridʒ] – n. detention of a ship or freight car or other cargo beyond its scheduled time of departure

den [den] – n. the habitation of wild animals

denial [diˈnaiəl] – n. the act of refusing to comply (as with a request): it resulted in a complete denial of his privileges

Denmark [ˈdenmɑ:k] – n. a constitutional monarchy in northern Europe; consists of the mainland of Jutland and many islands between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea

denominate [diˈnɔmineit] – v. assign a name or title to

denomination [di.nɔmiˈneiʃən] – n. a group of religious congregations having its own organization and a distinctive faith

denote [diˈnəut] – v. be a sign or indication of: Her smile denoted that she agreed

denounce [diˈnauns] – v. speak out against: He denounced the Nazis

dense [dens] – adj. having high relative density or specific gravity: dense as lead

density [ˈdensiti] – n. the amount per unit size

dent [dent] – n. an appreciable consequence (especially a lessening): it made a dent in my bank account

dentist [ˈdentist] – n. a person qualified to practice dentistry

deny [diˈnai] – v. refuse to accept or believe

depart [diˈpɑ:t] – v. move away from a place into another direction: The train departs at noon

department [diˈpɑ:tmənt] – n. a specialized division of a large organization: you’ll find it in the hardware department

departure [diˈpɑ:tʃə] – n. a variation that deviates from the standard or norm

depend [diˈpend] – v. be contingent upon (something that is elided): That depends

dependability [de.pendəˈbiliti] – n. the quality of being dependable or reliable

dependable [diˈpendəbl] – adj. worthy of reliance or trust: a dependable worker

dependant [diˈpendənt] – adj. contingent on something else

dependence [diˈpendəns] – n. the state of relying on or being controlled by someone or something else

dependent [diˈpendənt] – adj. relying on or requiring a person or thing for support, supply, or what is needed: dependent children

depict [diˈpikt] – v. show in, or as in, a picture: This scene depicts country life

deplete [diˈpli:t] – v. use up (resources or materials)

depletion [diˈpli:ʃən] – n. the act of decreasing something markedly

deplore [diˈplɔ:] – v. express strong disapproval of: We deplore the government’s treatment of political prisoners

deposit [diˈpɔzit] – n. the phenomenon of sediment or gravel accumulating

deposition [.depəˈziʃən, di:-] – n. (law) a pretrial interrogation of a witness; usually conducted in a lawyer’s office

depreciate [diˈpri:ʃieit] – v. belittle

depreciation [di.pri:ʃiˈeiʃən] – n. a decrease in price or value: depreciation of the dollar against the yen

depress [diˈpres] – v. lower someone’s spirits; make downhearted: These news depressed her

depression [diˈpreʃən] – n. a mental state characterized by a pessimistic sense of inadequacy and a despondent lack of activity

deprive [diˈpraiv] – v. take away possessions from someone

depth [depθ] – n. the extent downward or backward or inward: the depth of the water

depute [diˈpju:t] – v. transfer power to someone

deputy [ˈdepjuti] – n. someone authorized to exercise the powers of sheriff in emergencies

derelict [ˈderilikt] – adj. worn and broken down by hard use

derivation [deriˈveiʃən] – n. (historical linguistics) an explanation of the historical origins of a word or phrase

derive [diˈraiv] – v. reason by deduction; establish by deduction

derrick [ˈderik] – n. a framework erected over an oil well to allow drill tubes to be raised and lowered

descend [diˈsend] – v. move downward and lower, but not necessarily all the way

descendant [diˈsendənt] – adj. going or coming down

descent [diˈsent] – n. a movement downward

describe [diˈskraib] – v. to give an account or representation of in words: Discreet Italian police described it in a manner typically continental

description [diˈskripʃən] – n. a statement that represents something in words

desert [ˈdezət,diˈzə:t] – v. leave someone who needs or counts on you; leave in the lurch: The mother deserted her children

deserve [diˈzə:v] – v. be worthy or deserving: You deserve a promotion after all the hard work you have done

design [diˈzain] – n. the act of working out the form of something (as by making a sketch or outline or plan): he contributed to the design of a new instrument

designate [ˈdezigneit] – v. assign a name or title to

designation [.dezigˈneiʃən] – n. identifying word or words by which someone or something is called and classified or distinguished from others

designer [diˈzainə] – n. someone who creates plans to be used in making something (such as buildings)

desirable [diˈzaiərəbl] – adj. worth having or seeking or achieving: a desirable job

desire [diˈzaiə] – n. the feeling that accompanies an unsatisfied state

desk [desk] – n. a piece of furniture with a writing surface and usually drawers or other compartments

desolate [ˈdesəleit,ˈdesəlit] – v. leave someone who needs or counts on you; leave in the lurch

desolation [.desəˈleiʃən] – n. the state of being decayed or destroyed

despair [diˈspɛə] – n. a state in which all hope is lost or absent: in the depths of despair

despatch  – n. an official report (usually sent in haste)

desperate [ˈdespərit] – adj. arising from or marked by despair or loss of hope: a desperate cry for help

desperation [.despəˈreiʃən] – n. a state in which all hope is lost or absent: courage born of desperation

despise [diˈspaiz] – v. look down on with disdain: He despises the people he has to work for

despite [diˈspait] – n. lack of respect accompanied by a feeling of intense dislike: the despite in which outsiders were held is legendary

dessert [diˈzə:t] – n. a dish served as the last course of a meal

destination [.destiˈneiʃən] – n. the place designated as the end (as of a race or journey): he was nearly exhausted as their destination came into view

destine [ˈdestin] – v. decree or designate beforehand: She was destined to become a great pianist

destiny [ˈdestini] – n. an event (or a course of events) that will inevitably happen in the future

destroy [disˈtrɔi] – v. do away with, cause the destruction or undoing of: The fire destroyed the house

destruction [diˈstrʌkʃən] – n. the termination of something by causing so much damage to it that it cannot be repaired or no longer exists

destructive [diˈstrʌktiv] – adj. causing destruction or much damage: a policy that is destructive to the economy

detach [diˈtætʃ] – v. separate (a small unit) from a larger, especially for a special assignment: detach a regiment

detail [ˈdi:teil] – n. an isolated fact that is considered separately from the whole: several of the details are similar

detain [diˈtein] – v. deprive of freedom; take into confinement

detect [diˈtekt] – v. discover or determine the existence, presence, or fact of: She detected high levels of lead in her drinking water

detection [diˈtekʃən] – n. the perception that something has occurred or some state exists: early detection can often lead to a cure

detective [diˈtektiv] – n. a police officer who investigates crimes

deter [diˈtə:] – v. try to prevent; show opposition to

detergent [diˈtə:dʒənt] – n. a surface-active chemical widely used in industry and laundering

deteriorate [diˈtiəriəreit] – v. become worse or disintegrate: His mind deteriorated

deterioration [di.tiəriəˈreiʃən] – n. a symptom of reduced quality or strength

determination [di.tə:miˈneiʃən] – n. the quality of being determined to do or achieve something; firmness of purpose: his determination showed in his every movement

determine [diˈtə:min] – v. establish after a calculation, investigation, experiment, survey, or study

detest [diˈtest] – v. dislike intensely; feel antipathy or aversion towards: She detests politicians

detour [diˈtʊər] – n. a roundabout road (especially one that is used temporarily while a main route is blocked)

detract [diˈtrækt] – v. take away a part from; diminish: His bad manners detract from his good character

detriment [ˈdetrimənt] – n. a damage or loss

detrimental [.detriˈmentl] – adj. (sometimes followed by `to’) causing harm or injury

devaluation [.di:væljuˈeiʃən] – n. the reduction of something’s value or worth

devalue [ˈdi:ˈvælju:] – v. remove the value from; deprive of its value

devastate [ˈdevəsteit] – v. cause extensive destruction or ruin utterly

devastating [ˈdevəsteitiŋ] – adj. making light of: a devastating portrait of human folly

develop [diˈveləp] – v. make something new, such as a product or a mental or artistic creation: Her company developed a new kind of building material that withstands all kinds of weather

developing [diˈveləpiŋ] – n. processing a photosensitive material in order to make an image visible

development [diˈveləpmənt] – n. act of improving by expanding or enlarging or refining: he congratulated them on their development of a plan to meet the emergency

deviate [ˈdi:vieit] – v. turn aside; turn away from

deviation [.di:viˈeiʃən] – n. the difference between an observed value and the expected value of a variable or function

device [diˈvais] – n. an instrumentality invented for a particular purpose: the device is small enough to wear on your wrist

devil [ˈdevl] – n. (Judeo-Christian and Islamic religions) chief spirit of evil and adversary of God; tempter of mankind; master of Hell

devise [diˈvaiz] – v. come up with (an idea, plan, explanation, theory, or principle) after a mental effort

devote [diˈvəut] – v. give entirely to a specific person, activity, or cause

devoted [diˈvəutid] – adj. (followed by `to’) dedicated exclusively to a purpose or use: large sums devoted to the care of the poor

devotion [diˈvəuʃən] – n. feelings of ardent love: their devotion to each other was beautiful

devour [diˈvauə] – v. destroy completely: Fire had devoured our home

dew [dju:] – n. water that has condensed on a cool surface overnight from water vapor in the air: in the morning the grass was wet with dew

diagnose [ˈdaiəgnəuz] – v. subject to a medical analysis

diagnosis [.daiəgˈnəusis] – n. identifying the nature or cause of some phenomenon

diagram [ˈdaiəgræm] – n. a drawing intended to explain how something works; a drawing showing the relation between the parts

dial [ˈdaiəl] – n. the face of a timepiece; graduated to show the hours

dialect [ˈdaiəlekt] – n. the usage or vocabulary that is characteristic of a specific group of people: the immigrants spoke an odd dialect of English

dialog [ˈdaiəlɔg] – n. a conversation between two persons

diameter [daiˈæmitə] – n. the length of a straight line passing through the center of a circle and connecting two points on the circumference

diamond [ˈdaiəmənd] – n. very hard native crystalline carbon valued as a gem

diary [ˈdaiəri] – n. a daily written record of (usually personal) experiences and observations

dictate [ˈdikteit,dikˈteit] – v. issue commands or orders for

dictation [dikˈteiʃən] – n. an authoritative direction or instruction to do something

dictator [dikˈteitə] – n. a ruler who is unconstrained by law

dictatorship [dikˈteitəʃip] – n. a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)

diction [ˈdikʃən] – n. the articulation of speech regarded from the point of view of its intelligibility to the audience

dictionary [ˈdikʃəneri] – n. a reference book containing an alphabetical list of words with information about them

die [dai] – v. suffer or face the pain of death: Martyrs may die every day for their faith

diesel [ˈdi:zəl] – n. an internal-combustion engine that burns heavy oil

diet [ˈdaiət] – n. a prescribed selection of foods

differ [ˈdifə] – v. be different: These two tests differ in only one respect

difference [ˈdifərəns] – n. the quality of being unlike or dissimilar: there are many differences between jazz and rock

different [ˈdifərənt] – adj. unlike in nature or quality or form or degree: took different approaches to the problem

differential [.difəˈrenʃəl] – n. a quality that differentiates between similar things

differentiate [.difəˈrenʃi.eit] – v. be a distinctive feature, attribute, or trait; sometimes in a very positive sense

differently [ˈdifrentli] – adv. in another and different manner: very soon you will know differently

difficult [ˈdifikəlt] – adj. not easy; requiring great physical or mental effort to accomplish or comprehend or endure: a difficult task

difficulty [ˈdifikəlti] – n. an effort that is inconvenient: had difficulty walking

diffuse [diˈfju:s,diˈfju:z] – v. move outward

dig [dig] – v. turn up, loosen, or remove earth

digest [daiˈdʒest] – v. convert food into absorbable substances: I cannot digest milk products

digestion [daiˈdʒestʃən] – n. the process of decomposing organic matter (as in sewage) by bacteria or by chemical action or heat

digit [ˈdidʒit] – n. one of the elements that collectively form a system of numeration: 0 and 1 are digits

digital [ˈdidʒitəl] – adj. displaying numbers rather than scale positions: digital clock

dignity [ˈdigniti] – n. the quality of being worthy of esteem or respect: it was beneath his dignity to cheat

dike [daik] – n. (slang) offensive term for a lesbian who is noticeably masculine

dilapidated [diˈlæpideitid] – adj. in deplorable condition

dilate [daiˈleit] – v. become wider: His pupils were dilated

dilemma [diˈlemə] – n. state of uncertainty or perplexity especially as requiring a choice between equally unfavorable options

diligent [ˈdilidʒənt] – adj. quietly and steadily persevering especially in detail or exactness: a diligent (or patient) worker

dilute [daiˈlju:t] – v. lessen the strength or flavor of a solution or mixture

dim [dim] – v. switch (a car’s headlights) from a higher to a lower beam

dime [daim] – n. a United States coin worth one tenth of a dollar

dimension [diˈmenʃən] – n. the magnitude of something in a particular direction (especially length or width or height)

dimensional [diˈmenʃənəl] – adj. having dimension–the quality or character or stature proper to a person: never matures as a dimensional character; he is pasty, bland, faceless

diminish [diˈminiʃ] – v. decrease in size, extent, or range

din [din] – n. a loud harsh or strident noise

dine [dain] – v. give dinner to; host for dinner

dingy [ˈdindʒi] – adj. thickly covered with ingrained dirt or soot: dingy linen

dinner [ˈdinə] – n. the main meal of the day served in the evening or at midday: dinner will be at 8

dip [dip] – v. immerse briefly into a liquid so as to wet, coat, or saturate: dip the garment into the cleaning solution

diploma [diˈpləumə] – n. a document certifying the successful completion of a course of study

diplomacy [diˈpləuməsi] – n. negotiation between nations

diplomat [ˈdipləmæt] – n. an official engaged in international negotiations

diplomatic [.dipləˈmætik] – adj. using or marked by tact in dealing with sensitive matters or people: the hostess averted a confrontation with a diplomatic chenage of subject

direct [diˈrekt] – v. command with authority: He directed the children to do their homework

direction [diˈrekʃən] – n. a line leading to a place or point: he looked the other direction

directive [diˈrektiv, daiˈrektiv] – n. a pronouncement encouraging or banning some activity: the boss loves to send us directives

directly [diˈrektli, daiˈrektli] – adv. without deviation: the path leads directly to the lake

director [diˈrektə, daiˈrektə] – n. someone who controls resources and expenditures

directory [diˈrektəri] – n. an alphabetical list of names and addresses

dirt [də:t] – n. the state of being covered with unclean things

dirty [ˈdə:ti] – adj. (of behavior or especially language) characterized by obscenity or indecency: dirty words

disable [disˈeibl] – v. make unable to perform a certain action: disable this command on your computer

disabled [disˈeib(ə)ld] – n. people collectively who are crippled or otherwise physically handicapped: technology to help the elderly and the disabled

disadvantage [.disədˈvæntidʒ] – n. the quality of having an inferior or less favorable position

disadvantageous [.disædvɑ:nˈteidʒəs] – adj. constituting a disadvantage

disagree [.disəˈgri:] – v. be of different opinions: She disagrees with her husband on many questions

disagreement [disəˈgri:mənt] – n. a conflict of people’s opinions or actions or characters

disallow [ˈdisəˈlau, dis-] – v. command against

disappear [.disəˈpiə] – v. get lost, as without warning or explanation: He disappeared without a trace

disappearance [.disəˈpiərəns] – n. the act of leaving secretly or without explanation

disappoint [.disəˈpɔint] – v. fail to meet the hopes or expectations of

disappointment [.disəˈpɔintmənt] – n. a feeling of dissatisfaction that results when your expectations are not realized: his hopes were so high he was doomed to disappointment

disapproval [.disəˈpru:vəl] – n. a feeling of disliking something or what someone is doing

disarray [.disəˈrei] – n. a mental state characterized by a lack of clear and orderly thought and behavior

disaster [diˈzɑ:stə] – n. a state of extreme (usually irremediable) ruin and misfortune: his policies were a disaster

disastrous [diˈzɑ:strəs] – adj. (of events) having extremely unfortunate or dire consequences; bringing ruin: the battle was a disastrous end to a disastrous campaign

disburse [disˈbə:s] – v. expend, as from a fund

disbursement [disˈbɜ:smənt] – n. amounts paid for goods and services that may be currently tax deductible (as opposed to capital expenditures)

disc [disk] – n. something with a round shape resembling a flat circular plate

discard [ˈdiskɑ:d,disˈkɑ:d] – n. (cards) the act of throwing out a useless card or of failing to follow suit

discern [diˈzə:n] – v. detect with the senses

discharge [disˈtʃɑ:dʒ] – v. complete or carry out: discharge one’s duties

disciplinary [ˈdisiplinəri] – adj. relating to a specific field of academic study: economics in its modern disciplinary sense

discipline [ˈdisiplin] – n. a branch of knowledge: in what discipline is his doctorate?

disclaim [disˈkleim] – v. renounce a legal claim or title to

disclose [disˈkləuz] – v. make known to the public information that was previously known only to a few people or that was meant to be kept a secret: The auction house would not disclose the price at which the van Gogh had sold

discomfort [disˈkʌmfət] – n. the state of being tense and feeling pain

discontinue [ˈdiskənˈtinju(:)] – v. put an end to a state or an activity

discord [ˈdiskɔ:d] – n. lack of agreement or harmony

discourage [disˈkʌridʒ] – v. try to prevent; show opposition to: We should discourage this practice among our youth

discourse [disˈkɔ:s, ˈdiskɔ:s] – n. extended verbal expression in speech or writing

discover [disˈkʌvə] – v. get to know or become aware of, usually accidentally

discovery [disˈkʌvəri] – n. something that is discovered

discreet [diˈskri:t] – adj. marked by prudence or modesty and wise self-restraint: his trusted discreet aide

discreetly [disˈkri:tli] – adv. with discretion; prudently and with wise self-restraint: I sent for the sergeant of the platoon both men were in and asked him to try to find out discreetly what lay behind this

discrepancy [disˈkrepənsi] – n. a difference between conflicting facts or claims or opinions

discrete [diˈskri:t] – adj. constituting a separate entity or part: a government with three discrete divisions

discretion [diˈskreʃən] – n. freedom to act or judge on one’s own

discriminate [diˈskrimineit] – v. recognize or perceive the difference

discrimination [di.skrimiˈneiʃən] – n. unfair treatment of a person or group on the basis of prejudice

discuss [diˈskʌs] – v. to consider or examine in speech or writing: The class discussed Dante’s `Inferno’

discussion [diˈskʌʃən] – n. an extended communication (often interactive) dealing with some particular topic: the book contains an excellent discussion of modal logic

disdain [disˈdein] – n. lack of respect accompanied by a feeling of intense dislike

disease [diˈzi:z] – n. an impairment of health or a condition of abnormal functioning

disgrace [disˈgreis] – v. bring shame or dishonor upon

disgraceful [disˈgreisful] – adj. giving offense to moral sensibilities and injurious to reputation

disguise [disˈgaiz] – n. an outward semblance that misrepresents the true nature of something: the theatrical notion of disguise is always associated with catastrophe in his stories

disgust [disˈgʌst] – v. fill with distaste: This spoilt food disgusts me

disgustful [disˈgʌstfʊl] – adj. highly offensive; arousing aversion or disgust

dish [diʃ] – n. a particular item of prepared food: she prepared a special dish for dinner

dishonor [disˈɔnə] – v. force (someone) to have sex against their will

dishonorable [disˈɔnərəbəl] – adj. deceptive or fraudulent; disposed to cheat or defraud or deceive

disillusion [.disiˈlu:ʒən] – n. freeing from false belief or illusions

disinclined [disinˈklaind] – adj. unwilling because of mild dislike or disapproval: disinclined to say anything to anybody

disinfectant [disinˈfekt(ə)nt] – n. an agent (as heat or radiation or a chemical) that destroys microorganisms that might carry disease

disintegration [dis.intiˈgreiʃən] – n. in a decomposed state

dislike [disˈlaik] – n. an inclination to withhold approval from some person or group

disloyal [disˈlɔiəl] – adj. showing lack of love for your country

disloyalty [.disˈlɔiəlti] – n. the quality of being disloyal

dismal [ˈdizməl] – adj. causing dejection: the first dismal dispiriting days of November

dismay [disˈmei] – n. the feeling of despair in the face of obstacles

dismiss [disˈmis] – v. bar from attention or consideration: She dismissed his advances

dismissal [disˈmisəl] – n. a judgment disposing of the matter without a trial

disobey [ˈdisəˈbei] – v. refuse to go along with; refuse to follow; be disobedient: He disobeyed his supervisor and was fired

disorder [disˈɔ:də] – n. a physical condition in which there is a disturbance of normal functioning: the doctor prescribed some medicine for the disorder

disparity [disˈpæriti] – n. inequality or difference in some respect

dispatch [diˈspætʃ] – v. send away towards a designated goal

dispel [disˈpel] – v. force to go away; used both with concrete and metaphoric meanings: dispel doubts

dispense [disˈpens] – v. administer or bestow, as in small portions: the machine dispenses soft drinks

disperse [disˈpə:s] – v. distribute loosely

displace [disˈpleis] – v. cause to move, usually with force or pressure: the refugees were displaced by the war

displacement [disˈpleismənt] – n. act of taking the place of another especially using underhanded tactics

display [diˈsplei] – n. something intended to communicate a particular impression: made a display of strength

displease [disˈpli:z] – v. give displeasure to

displeasure [disˈpleʒə] – n. the feeling of being displeased or annoyed or dissatisfied with someone or something

disposal [diˈspəuzəl] – n. the power to use something or someone: used all the resources at his disposal

dispose [diˈspəuz] – v. give, sell, or transfer to another: She disposed of her parents’ possessions

disposed [diˈspəʊzd] – adj. having made preparations

disposition [.dispəˈziʃən] – n. your usual mood: he has a happy disposition

dispute [diˈspju:t] – n. a disagreement or argument about something important: he had a dispute with his wife

disregard [.disriˈgɑ:d] – v. refuse to acknowledge

disrupt [disˈrʌpt] – v. make a break in

dissatisfaction [ˈdis.sætisˈfækʃən] – n. the feeling of being displeased and discontent: he was never slow to express his dissatisfaction with the service he received

dissatisfy [disˈsætisfai] – v. fail to satisfy

dissertation [.disəˈteiʃən] – n. a treatise advancing a new point of view resulting from research; usually a requirement for an advanced academic degree

dissimilar [diˈsimilə] – adj. not similar: a group of very dissimilar people

dissipate [ˈdisipeit] – v. to cause to separate and go in different directions

dissolve [diˈzɔlv] – v. become weaker

distance [ˈdistəns] – n. the property created by the space between two objects or points

distant [ˈdistənt] – adj. far apart in relevance or relationship or kinship: a distant cousin

distend [diˈstend] – v. become wider

distil [disˈtil] – v. undergo condensation; change from a gaseous to a liquid state and fall in drops: The acid distills at a specific temperature

distillation [.distiˈleiʃən] – n. the process of purifying a liquid by boiling it and condensing its vapors

distinct [diˈstiŋkt] – adj. (often followed by `from’) not alike; different in nature or quality: plants of several distinct types

distinction [diˈstiŋkʃən] – n. high status importance owing to marked superiority

distinctly [diˈstiŋktli] – adv. in a distinct and distinguishable manner: the subtleties of this distinctly British occasion

distinguish [diˈstiŋgwiʃ] – v. mark as different: We distinguish several kinds of maple

distort [disˈtɔ:t] – v. make false by mutilation or addition; as of a message or story

distortion [disˈtɔ:ʃən] – n. a change for the worse

distract [diˈstrækt] – v. draw someone’s attention away from something: The thief distracted the bystanders

distraction [disˈtrækʃən] – n. mental turmoil: he drives me to distraction

distress [diˈstres] – n. psychological suffering: the death of his wife caused him great distress

distribute [diˈstribjut] – v. administer or bestow, as in small portions

distribution [.distriˈbju:ʃən] – n. (statistics) an arrangement of values of a variable showing their observed or theoretical frequency of occurrence

distributor [disˈtribjutə] – n. someone who markets merchandise

district [ˈdistrikt] – n. a region marked off for administrative or other purposes

disturb [disˈtə:b] – v. move deeply

disturbance [disˈtə:bəns] – n. activity that is a malfunction, intrusion, or interruption: he looked around for the source of the disturbance

disunite [ˈdisju:ˈnait] – v. part; cease or break association with

disuse [ˈdisˈju:s] – n. the state of something that has been unused and neglected

ditch [ditʃ] – v. forsake: ditch a lover

ditto [ˈditəu] – n. a mark used to indicate the word above it should be repeated

dive [daiv] – n. a headlong plunge into water

diver [ˈdaivə] – n. someone who works underwater

diverge [daiˈvə:dʒ] – v. move or draw apart: The two paths diverge here

divergence [daiˈvɜ:dʒəns,di-] – n. the act of moving away in different direction from a common point: an angle is formed by the divergence of two straight lines

diverse [daiˈvə:s] – adj. many and different: a person of diverse talents

diversion [daiˈvə:ʒən] – n. a turning aside (of your course or attention or concern): a diversion from the main highway

diversity [daiˈvə:siti] – n. noticeable heterogeneity: a diversity of possibilities

divert [daiˈvə:t] – v. turn aside; turn away from

divide [diˈvaid] – v. separate into parts or portions: divide the cake into three equal parts

dividend [ˈdividend] – n. that part of the earnings of a corporation that is distributed to its shareholders; usually paid quarterly

divine [diˈvain] – adj. emanating from God: divine judgment

division [diˈviʒən] – n. an army unit large enough to sustain combat: two infantry divisions were held in reserve

divorce [diˈvɔ:s] – v. part; cease or break association with

dizzy [ˈdizi] – adj. having or causing a whirling sensation; liable to falling: had a dizzy spell

do [du:] – v. engage in: do research

dock [dɔk] – n. an enclosure in a court of law where the defendant sits during the trial

doctor [ˈdɔktə] – n. a licensed medical practitioner: I felt so bad I went to see my doctor

doctrine [ˈdɔktrin] – n. a belief (or system of beliefs) accepted as authoritative by some group or school

documentary [.dɔkjuˈmentəri] – adj. relating to or consisting of or derived from documents

documentation [.dɔkjumenˈteiʃən] – n. program listings or technical manuals describing the operation and use of programs

dodge [dɔdʒ] – n. an elaborate or deceitful scheme contrived to deceive or evade

dog [dɔg] – n. a dull unattractive unpleasant girl or woman: she’s a real dog

doggedly [ˈdɔgidli] – adv. with obstinate determination: he pursued her doggedly

dole [dəul] – n. a share of money or food or clothing that has been charitably given

doll [dɔl] – n. a small replica of a person; used as a toy

dollar [ˈdɔlə] – n. the basic monetary unit in many countries; equal to 100 cents

domain [dəˈmein] – n. a particular environment or walk of life

dome [dəum] – n. informal terms for a human head

domestic [dəˈmestik] – adj. of concern to or concerning the internal affairs of a nation: domestic issues such as tax rate and highway construction

dominant [ˈdɔminənt] – adj. exercising influence or control: television plays a dominant role in molding public opinion

dominate [ˈdɔmineit] – v. be larger in number, quantity, power, status or importance: Hispanics predominate in this neighborhood

donate [ˈdəuneit] – v. give to a charity or good cause: I donated blood to the Red Cross for the victims of the earthquake

donation [dəuˈneiʃən] – n. a voluntary gift (as of money or service or ideas) made to some worthwhile cause

donkey [ˈdɔŋki] – n. the symbol of the Democratic Party; introduced in cartoons by Thomas Nast in 1874

doom [du:m] – v. decree or designate beforehand

door [dɔ:] – n. a swinging or sliding barrier that will close the entrance to a room or building or vehicle: he knocked on the door

doorway [ˈdɔ:wei] – n. the entrance (the space in a wall) through which you enter or leave a room or building; the space that a door can close: he stuck his head in the doorway

dormant [ˈdɔ:mənt] – adj. in a condition of biological rest or suspended animation: dormant buds

dormitory [ˈdɔ:mitri] – n. a college or university building containing living quarters for students

dose [dəus] – n. a measured portion of medicine taken at any one time

dot [dɔt] – n. a very small circular shape: draw lines between the dots

double [ˈdʌbl] – adj. having more than one decidedly dissimilar aspects or qualities: a double (or dual) role for an actor

doubt [daut] – n. the state of being unsure of something

doubtful [ˈdautfəl] – adj. fraught with uncertainty or doubt: they were doubtful that the cord would hold

doubtless [ˈdautlis] – adv. without doubt; certainly

dough [dəu] – n. a flour mixture stiff enough to knead or roll

dove [dʌv] – n. any of numerous small pigeons

down [daun] – adj. being or moving lower in position or less in some value: lay face down

downpour [ˈdaunpɔ:] – n. a heavy rain

downstairs [.daunˈstɛəz] – adj. on or of lower floors of a building: the downstairs (or downstair) phone

downtown [.daunˈtaun] – n. the central area or commercial center of a town or city: the heart of Birmingham’s downtown

downward [ˈdaunwəd] – adj. extending or moving from a higher to a lower place: the downward course of the stream

downwards [ˈdaunwədz] – adv. spatially or metaphorically from a higher to a lower level or position

doze [dəuz] – n. a light fitful sleep

dozen [ˈdʌzn] – n. the cardinal number that is the sum of eleven and one

draft [dræft] – n. a current of air (usually coming into a chimney or room or vehicle)

drag [dræg] – v. pull, as against a resistance: He dragged the big suitcase behind him

dragon [ˈdrægən] – n. a creature of Teutonic mythology; usually represented as breathing fire and having a reptilian body and sometimes wings

drain [drein] – n. emptying something accomplished by allowing liquid to run out of it

drainage [ˈdreinidʒ] – n. emptying something accomplished by allowing liquid to run out of it

drama [ˈdrɑ:mə] – n. an episode that is turbulent or highly emotional

dramatic [drəˈmætik] – adj. sensational in appearance or thrilling in effect: a dramatic sunset

dramatist [ˈdræmətist] – n. someone who writes plays

dramatize [ˈdræmətaiz] – v. represent something in a dramatic manner: These events dramatize the lack of social responsibility among today’s youth

drastic [ˈdræstik] – adj. forceful and extreme and rigorous: drastic measures

draw [drɔ:] – v. cause to move by pulling: draw a wagon

drawback [ˈdrɔ:bæk] – n. the quality of being a hindrance: he pointed out all the drawbacks to my plan

drawer [ˈdrɔ:ə] – n. a boxlike container in a piece of furniture; made so as to slide in and out

drawing [ˈdrɔ:iŋ] – n. a representation of forms or objects on a surface by means of lines: drawings of abstract forms

dread [dred] – n. fearful expectation or anticipation

dreadful [ˈdredful] – adj. exceptionally bad or displeasing: dreadful manners

dream [dri:m] – n. a series of mental images and emotions occurring during sleep: I had a dream about you last night

dreary [ˈdriəri] – adj. lacking in liveliness or charm or surprise: a series of dreary dinner parties

drench [drentʃ] – v. force to drink

dress [dres] – v. put on clothes: we had to dress quickly

drift [drift] – v. be in motion due to some air or water current: the boat drifted on the lake

drill [dril] – v. make a hole, especially with a pointed power or hand tool: don’t drill here, there’s a gas pipe

drink [driŋk] – n. a single serving of a beverage: I asked for a hot drink

drip [drip] – n. the sound of a liquid falling drop by drop: the constant sound of dripping irritated him

drive [draiv] – v. operate or control a vehicle: drive a car or bus

driver [ˈdraivə] – n. the operator of a motor vehicle

droop [dru:p] – v. hang loosely or laxly

drop [drɔp] – v. let fall to the ground: Don’t drop the dishes

dropout [ˈdrɔpaut] – n. someone who quits school before graduation

drought [draut] – n. a shortage of rainfall: farmers most affected by the drought hope that there may yet be sufficient rain early in the growing season

drown [draun] – v. cover completely or make imperceptible: I was drowned in work

drowse [drauz] – v. sleep lightly or for a short period of time

drudgery [ˈdrʌdʒəri] – n. hard monotonous routine work

drug [drʌg] – n. a substance that is used as a medicine or narcotic

drugstore [drʌgˈstɔ:] – n. a retail shop where medicine and other articles are sold

drum [drʌm] – n. a musical percussion instrument; usually consists of a hollow cylinder with a membrane stretched across each end

drunk [drʌŋk] – n. a chronic drinker

drunkard [ˈdrʌŋkəd] – n. a chronic drinker

dry [drai] – adj. free from liquid or moisture; lacking natural or normal moisture or depleted of water; or no longer wet: dry land

dual [ˈdju:əl] – adj. consisting of or involving two parts or components usually in pairs: dual controls for pilot and copilot

dub [dʌb] – v. give a nickname to

dubious [ˈdju:biəs] – adj. fraught with uncertainty or doubt: dubious about agreeing to go

duck [dʌk] – n. small wild or domesticated web-footed broad-billed swimming bird usually having a depressed body and short legs

due [dju:] – adj. owed and payable immediately or on demand: payment is due

duke [dju:k] – n. a British peer of the highest rank

dull [dʌl] – adj. lacking in liveliness or animation: he was so dull at parties

duly [ˈdju:li] – adv. at the proper time: she was duly apprised of the raise

dumb [dʌm] – adj. slow to learn or understand; lacking intellectual acuity: dumb officials make some really dumb decisions

dummy [ˈdʌmi] – n. a person who does not talk

dump [dʌmp] – v. throw away as refuse: No dumping in these woods!

dung [dʌŋ] – v. defecate; used of animals

dungeon [ˈdʌndʒən] – n. the main tower within the walls of a medieval castle or fortress

duplicate [ˈdju:plikit] – v. make or do or perform again

durable [ˈdjuərəbl] – adj. existing for a long time: hopes for a durable peace

duration [djuˈreiʃən] – n. the period of time during which something continues

dusk [dʌsk] – n. the time of day immediately following sunset

dust [dʌst] – v. distribute loosely

dustbin [ˈdʌstbin] – n. a bin that holds rubbish until it is collected

dusty [ˈdʌsti] – adj. lacking originality or spontaneity; no longer new

duty [ˈdju:ti] – n. the social force that binds you to the courses of action demanded by that force: we must instill a sense of duty in our children

dwarf [dwɔ:f] – n. a person who is markedly small

dwell [dwel] – v. think moodily or anxiously about something

dweller [ˈdwelə(r)] – n. a person who inhabits a particular place

dwelling [ˈdweliŋ] – n. housing that someone is living in: he built a modest dwelling near the pond

dwindle [ˈdwindl] – v. become smaller or lose substance: Her savings dwindled down

dye [dai] – n. a usually soluble substance for staining or coloring e.g. fabrics or hair

dynamic [daiˈnæmik] – adj. characterized by action or forcefulness or force of personality: a dynamic market

dynasty [ˈdainəsti] – n. a sequence of powerful leaders in the same family

eager [ˈi:gə] – n. a high wave (often dangerous) caused by tidal flow (as by colliding tidal currents or in a narrow estuary)

eagle [ˈi:gl] – n. any of various large keen-sighted diurnal birds of prey noted for their broad wings and strong soaring flight

ear [iə] – n. attention to what is said: he tried to get her ear

earl [ə:l] – n. a British peer ranking below a marquess and above a viscount

early [ˈə:li] – adj. at or near the beginning of a period of time or course of events or before the usual or expected time: early morning

earmark [ˈiəmɑ:k] – n. identification mark on the ear of a domestic animal

earn [ə:n] – v. acquire or deserve by one’s efforts or actions

earnest [ˈə:nist] – adj. characterized by a firm and humorless belief in the validity of your opinions: both sides were deeply in earnest, even passionate

earnings [ˈə:niŋz] – n. the excess of revenues over outlays in a given period of time (including depreciation and other non-cash expenses)

earphone [ˈiəfəun] – n. electro-acoustic transducer for converting electric signals into sounds; it is held over or inserted into the ear: it was not the typing but the earphones that she disliked

earth [ə:θ] – n. the 3rd planet from the sun; the planet we live on

earthly [ˈə:θli] – adj. of or belonging to or characteristic of this earth as distinguished from heaven: earthly beings

earthquake [ˈə:θkweik] – n. a disturbance that is extremely disruptive: selling the company caused an earthquake among the employees

ease [i:z] – n. freedom from difficulty or hardship or effort: he rose through the ranks with apparent ease

easily [ˈi:zili] – adv. without question: easily the best book she’s written

east [i:st] – n. the cardinal compass point that is at 90 degrees

Easter [ˈi:stə] – n. a Christian celebration of the Resurrection of Christ; celebrated on the Sunday following the first full moon after the vernal equinox

eastern [ˈi:stən] – adj. lying toward or situated in the east: the eastern end of the island

eastward [ˈi:stwəd] – n. the cardinal compass point that is at 90 degrees

easy [ˈi:zi] – adj. posing no difficulty; requiring little effort: an easy job

eat [i:t] – v. take in solid food: She was eating a banana

eccentric [ikˈsentrik] – n. a person with an unusual or odd personality

eccentricity [eksenˈtrisiti] – n. strange and unconventional behavior

echo [ˈekəu] – n. (Greek mythology) a nymph who was spurned by Narcissus and pined away until only her voice remained

eclipse [iˈklips] – v. be greater in significance than

ecology [i:ˈkɔlədʒi] – n. the environment as it relates to living organisms: it changed the ecology of the island

economic [.i:kəˈnɔmik] – adj. of or relating to an economy, the system of production and management of material wealth: economic growth

economical [.i:kəˈnɔmikəl] – adj. using the minimum of time or resources necessary for effectiveness: a modern economical heating system

economically [i:kəˈnɔmikəli] – adv. with respect to the economic system: economically the country is worse off

economics [.i:kəˈnɔmiks] – n. the branch of social science that deals with the production and distribution and consumption of goods and services and their management

economize [i(:)ˈkɔnəmaiz] – v. use cautiously and frugally: I try to economize my spare time

economy [iˈkɔnəmi] – n. the system of production and distribution and consumption

ecstasy [ˈekstəsi] – n. a state of being carried away by overwhelming emotion

eddy [ˈedi] – n. founder of Christian Science in 1866 (1821-1910)

edge [edʒ] – n. the boundary of a surface

edible [ˈedibl] – n. any substance that can be used as food

edit [ˈedit] – v. prepare for publication or presentation by correcting, revising, or adapting: she edited the letters of the politician so as to omit the most personal passages

edition [iˈdiʃən] – n. the form in which a text (especially a printed book) is published

editor [ˈeditə] – n. (computer science) a program designed to perform such editorial functions as rearrangement or modification or deletion of data

editorial [.ediˈtɔ:riəl] – adj. of or relating to an article stating opinions or giving perspectives: editorial column

educate [ˈedjukeit] – v. create by training and teaching

education [.edjukeiʃn] – n. knowledge acquired by learning and instruction: it was clear that he had a very broad education

educational [.edju(:)ˈkeiʃənl] – adj. providing knowledge: an educational film

eel [i:l] – n. voracious snakelike marine or freshwater fishes with smooth slimy usually scaleless skin and having a continuous vertical fin but no ventral fins

effect [iˈfekt] – n. a phenomenon that follows and is caused by some previous phenomenon: the magnetic effect was greater when the rod was lengthwise

effective [iˈfektiv] – adj. producing or capable of producing an intended result or having a striking effect: an air-cooled motor was more effective than a witch’s broomstick for rapid long-distance transportation

effectively [iˈfektivli] – adv. in actuality or reality or fact: she is effectively his wife

effectiveness [iˈfektivnis] – n. capacity to produce strong physiological or chemical effects

efficiency [iˈfiʃənsi] – n. the ratio of the output to the input of any system

efficient [iˈfiʃənt] – adj. being effective without wasting time or effort or expense: an efficient production manager

effort [ˈefət] – n. earnest and conscientious activity intended to do or accomplish something: made an effort to cover all the reading material

egg [eg] – n. oval reproductive body of a fowl (especially a hen) used as food

eggplant [ˈegplɑ:nt] – n. egg-shaped vegetable having a shiny skin typically dark purple but occasionally white or yellow

ego [ˈi:gəu] – n. an inflated feeling of pride in your superiority to others

Egypt [ˈi:dʒipt] – n. a republic in northeastern Africa known as the United Arab Republic until 1971; site of an ancient civilization that flourished from 2600 to 30 BC

Egyptian [iˈdʒipʃ(ə)n] – n. the ancient and now extinct language of Egypt under the Pharaohs; written records date back to 3000 BC

eight [eit] – n. the cardinal number that is the sum of seven and one

eighteen [ˈeiˈti:n] – n. the cardinal number that is the sum of seventeen and one

eighth [eitθ] – n. one part in eight equal parts

eighty [ˈeiti] – n. the cardinal number that is the product of ten and eight

either [ˈi:ðə] – adv. after a negative statement used as an intensive meaning something like `likewise’ or `also’: he isn’t stupid, but he isn’t exactly a genius either

eject [iˈdʒekt] – v. put out or expel from a place

ejection [iˈdʒekʃən] – n. the act of forcing out someone or something: the ejection of troublemakers by the police

elaborate [iˈlæbəreit] – v. add details, as to an account or idea; clarify the meaning of and discourse in a learned way, usually in writing: She elaborated on the main ideas in her dissertation

elaboration [i.læbəˈreiʃən] – n. addition of extra material or illustration or clarifying detail: an elaboration of the sketch followed

elapse [iˈlæps] – v. pass by: three years elapsed

elastic [iˈlæstik] – adj. capable of resuming original shape after stretching or compression; springy: an elastic band

elasticity [ilæsˈtisiti] – n. the tendency of a body to return to its original shape after it has been stretched or compressed

elated [iˈleitid] – adj. exultantly proud and joyful; in high spirits: the elated winner

elbow [ˈelbəu] – n. hinge joint between the forearm and upper arm and the corresponding joint in the forelimb of a quadruped

elder [ˈeldə] – n. a person who is older than you are

elderly [ˈeldəli] – n. people who are old collectively

elect [iˈlekt] – v. choose: I elected to have my funds deposited automatically

election [iˈlekʃən] – n. the act of selecting someone or something; the exercise of deliberate choice: her election of medicine as a profession

electric [iˈlektrik] – adj. (of a situation) exceptionally tense: an atmosphere electric with suspicion

electrical [iˈlektrikəl] – adj. using or providing or producing or transmitting or operated by electricity: electrical appliances

electrician [ilekˈtriʃən] – n. a person who installs or repairs electrical or telephone lines

electricity [.ilekˈtrisiti] – n. energy made available by the flow of electric charge through a conductor: they built a car that runs on electricity

electrify [iˈlektrifai] – v. excite suddenly and intensely

electron [iˈlektrɔn] – n. an elementary particle with negative charge

electronic [ilekˈtrɔnik] – adj. of or concerned with electrons: electronic energy

electronics [ilekˈtrɔniks] – n. the branch of physics that deals with the emission and effects of electrons and with the use of electronic devices

elegance [ˈeligəns] – n. a refined quality of gracefulness and good taste: she conveys an aura of elegance and gentility

elegant [ˈeligənt] – adj. refined and tasteful in appearance or behavior or style: elegant handwriting

element [ˈelimənt] – n. an abstract part of something: the grammatical elements of a sentence

elemental [.eliˈmentl] – adj. relating to severe atmospheric conditions: a race against hail or cold rains or some other elemental catastrophe

elementary [.eləˈmentəri] – adj. easy and not involved or complicated: an elementary problem in statistics

elephant [ˈelifənt] – n. five-toed pachyderm

elevate [ˈeliveit] – v. give a promotion to or assign to a higher position

elevation [.eliˈveiʃən] – n. the event of something being raised upward: an elevation of the temperature in the afternoon

elevator [ˈeliveitə] – n. the airfoil on the tailplane of an aircraft that makes it ascend or descend

eleven [iˈlevn] – n. the cardinal number that is the sum of ten and one

eleventh [iˈlevnθ] – n. position 11 in a countable series of things

elicit [iˈlisit] – v. deduce (a principle) or construe (a meaning)

eligible [ˈelidʒəbl] – adj. qualified for or allowed or worthy of being chosen: eligible to run for office

eliminate [iˈlimineit] – v. terminate, end, or take out: Let’s eliminate the course on Akkadian hieroglyphics

elimination [i.limiˈneiʃən] – n. the act of removing or getting rid of something

elite [eiˈli:t] – n. a group or class of persons enjoying superior intellectual or social or economic status

ellipsis [iˈlipsis] – n. omission or suppression of parts of words or sentences

elliptical [iˈliptikəl] – adj. rounded like an egg

eloquence [ˈeləkwəns] – n. powerful and effective language: his eloquence attracted a large congregation

eloquent [ˈeləkwənt] – adj. expressing yourself readily, clearly, effectively

elsewhere [ˈelsˈwɛə] – adv. in or to another place: he went elsewhere

elusive [iˈlju:siv] – adj. difficult to describe: a haunting elusive odor

email [ˈi:ˈmeil] – v. communicate electronically on the computer

emancipate [iˈmænsipeit] – v. give equal rights to; of women and minorities

emancipation [i.mænsiˈpeiʃən] – n. freeing someone from the control of another; especially a parent’s relinquishing authority and control over a minor child

embargo [emˈbɑ:gəu] – v. ban the publication of (documents), as for security or copyright reasons: embargoed publications

embark [imˈbɑ:k] – v. go on board

embarrass [imˈbærəs] – v. hinder or prevent the progress or accomplishment of

embarrassment [imˈbærəsmənt] – n. the shame you feel when your inadequacy or guilt is made public

embassy [ˈembəsi] – n. a diplomatic building where ambassadors live or work

embed [imˈbed] – v. fix or set securely or deeply

embody [imˈbɔdi] – v. represent in bodily form

embrace [imˈbreis] – n. the act of clasping another person in the arms (as in greeting or affection)

embroider [imˈbrɔidə] – v. decorate with needlework

embroidery [imˈbrɔidəri] – n. elaboration of an interpretation by the use of decorative (sometimes fictitious) detail

emerge [iˈmə:dʒ] – v. come out into view, as from concealment: Suddenly, the proprietor emerged from his office

emergency [iˈmə:dʒənsi] – n. a sudden unforeseen crisis (usually involving danger) that requires immediate action: he never knew what to do in an emergency

emigrant [ˈemigrənt] – n. someone who leaves one country to settle in another

emigrate [ˈemigreit] – v. leave one’s country of residence for a new one: Many people had to emigrate during the Nazi period

emigration [.emiˈgreiʃən] – n. migration from a place (especially migration from your native country in order to settle in another)

eminent [ˈeminənt] – adj. standing above others in quality or position: eminent members of the community

emission [iˈmiʃən] – n. the act of emitting; causing to flow forth

emit [iˈmit] – v. expel (gases or odors)

emotion [iˈməuʃən] – n. any strong feeling

emotional [iˈməuʃənl] – adj. of more than usual emotion: his behavior was highly emotional

emperor [ˈempərə] – n. the male ruler of an empire

emphasis [ˈemfəsis] – n. special importance or significance: the red light gave the central figure increased emphasis

emphasize [ˈemfəsaiz] – v. to stress, single out as important: Dr. Jones emphasizes exercise in addition to a change in diet

emphatic [imˈfætik] – adj. sudden and strong: an emphatic no

empire [ˈempaiə] – n. a group of countries under a single authority: the British created a great empire

empirical [emˈpirikəl] – adj. derived from experiment and observation rather than theory: an empirical basis for an ethical theory

employ [imˈplɔi] – v. engage or hire for work: How many people has she employed?

employee [.emplɔiˈi:] – n. a worker who is hired to perform a job

employer [imˈplɔiə] – n. a person or firm that employs workers

employment [imˈplɔimənt] – n. the occupation for which you are paid: he is looking for employment

emptiness [ˈemptinis] – n. the state of containing nothing

empty [ˈempti] – v. remove

enable [iˈneibl] – v. render capable or able for some task: This skill will enable you to find a job on Wall Street

enchant [inˈtʃɑ:nt] – v. hold spellbound

encircle [inˈsə:kl] – v. form a circle around: encircle the errors

enclose [inˈkləuz] – v. close in: darkness enclosed him

enclosure [inˈkləuʒə] – n. the act of enclosing something inside something else

encounter [inˈkauntə] – v. come together

encourage [inˈkʌridʒ] – v. contribute to the progress or growth of

encouragement [inˈkʌridʒmənt] – n. the expression of approval and support

encyclopaedia  – n. a reference work (often in several volumes) containing articles on various topics (often arranged in alphabetical order) dealing with the entire range of human knowledge or with some particular specialty

encyclopedia [en.saikləuˈpi:diə] – n. a reference work (often in several volumes) containing articles on various topics (often arranged in alphabetical order) dealing with the entire range of human knowledge or with some particular specialty

end [end] – n. either extremity of something that has length: the end of the pier

endanger [inˈdeindʒə] – v. pose a threat to; present a danger to: The pollution is endangering the crops

endeavor [inˈdevə] – n. a purposeful or industrious undertaking (especially one that requires effort or boldness)

endeavour  – n. a purposeful or industrious undertaking (especially one that requires effort or boldness)

ending [ˈendiŋ] – n. the point in time at which something ends: the ending of warranty period

endless [ˈendlis] – adj. tiresomely long; seemingly without end: endless debates

endorse [inˈdɔ:s] – v. be behind; approve of

endorsement [inˈdɔ:smənt] – n. a promotional statement (as found on the dust jackets of books)

endow [inˈdau] – v. give qualities or abilities to

endurance [inˈdjuərəns] – n. the power to withstand hardship or stress: the marathon tests a runner’s endurance

endure [inˈdjuə] – v. put up with something or somebody unpleasant: The new secretary had to endure a lot of unprofessional remarks

enemy [ˈenimi] – n. an opposing military force: the enemy attacked at dawn

energetic [.enəˈdʒetik] – adj. working hard to promote an enterprise

energy [ˈenədʒi] – n. forceful exertion: he plays tennis with great energy

enforce [inˈfɔ:s] – v. ensure observance of laws and rules

engage [inˈgeidʒ] – v. carry out or participate in an activity; be involved in: They engaged in a discussion

engaged [inˈgeidʒd] – adj. involved in military hostilities: the desperately engaged ships continued the fight

engagement [inˈgeidʒmənt] – n. a hostile meeting of opposing military forces in the course of a war: he lost his romantic ideas about war when he got into a real engagement

engine [ˈendʒin] – n. motor that converts thermal energy to mechanical work

engineer [.endʒiˈniə] – n. a person who uses scientific knowledge to solve practical problems

England [ˈinglənd] – n. a division of the United Kingdom

English [ˈiŋgliʃ] – n. the people of England

Englishman [ˈiŋgliʃmən] – n. a man who is a native or inhabitant of England

engrave [inˈgreiv] – v. carve, cut, or etch into a material or surface: engrave a pen

engraving [inˈgreiviŋ] – n. a block or plate or other hard surface that has been engraved

engross [inˈgrəus] – v. devote (oneself) fully to

engulf [inˈgʌlf] – v. devote (oneself) fully to

enhance [inˈhɑ:ns] – v. increase: This will enhance your enjoyment

enhancement [inˈhɑ:nsmənt] – n. an improvement that makes something more agreeable

enjoy [inˈdʒɔi] – v. have benefit from: enjoy privileges

enjoyable [inˈdʒɔiəb(ə)l] – adj. affording satisfaction or pleasure: the company was enjoyable

enjoyment [inˈdʒɔimənt] – n. the pleasure felt when having a good time

enlarge [inˈlɑ:dʒ] – v. make larger: She enlarged the flower beds

enlargement [inˈlɑ:dʒmənt] – n. the act of increasing (something) in size or volume or quantity or scope

enlighten [inˈlaitn] – v. make understand: Can you enlighten me–I don’t understand this proposal

enormous [iˈnɔ:məs] – adj. extraordinarily large in size or extent or amount or power or degree: an enormous boulder

enough [iˈnʌf] – adj. sufficient for the purpose: enough food

enquire [inˈkwaiər] – v. inquire about

enquiry [inˈkwaiəri] – n. an instance of questioning

enrich [inˈritʃ] – v. make better or improve in quality: The experience enriched her understanding

enroll [inˈroul] – v. register formally as a participant or member

enrolment [inˈrəulmənt] – n. the act of enrolling

ensemble [ɑ:nˈsɑ:mbəl] – n. a group of musicians playing or singing together: a string ensemble

ensue [inˈsju:] – v. issue or terminate (in a specified way, state, etc.); end

ensure [inˈʃuə] – v. make certain of: This nest egg will ensure a nice retirement for us

entail [inˈteil] – v. have as a logical consequence

entangle [inˈtæŋgəl] – v. entrap

enter [ˈentə] – v. to come or go into: the boat entered an area of shallow marshes

enterprise [ˈentəpraiz] – n. a purposeful or industrious undertaking (especially one that requires effort or boldness): he had doubts about the whole enterprise

entertain [.entəˈtein] – v. take into consideration, have in view: He entertained the notion of moving to South America

entertainment [.entəˈteinmənt] – n. an activity that is diverting and that holds the attention

enthusiasm [inˈθju:ziæzəm] – n. a feeling of excitement

enthusiastic [in.θju:ziˈæstik] – adj. having or showing great excitement and interest: enthusiastic crowds filled the streets

entire [inˈtaiə] – adj. constituting the full quantity or extent; complete: an entire town devastated by an earthquake

entirely [inˈtaiəli] – adv. without any others being included or involved: was entirely to blame

entirety [inˈtaiəti] – n. the state of being total and complete: he read the article in its entirety

entitle [inˈtaitl] – v. give the right to: The Freedom of Information Act entitles you to request your FBI file

entity [ˈentiti] – n. that which is perceived or known or inferred to have its own distinct existence (living or nonliving)

entrance [ˈentrəns,inˈtrɑ:ns] – n. something that provides access (to get in or get out): they waited at the entrance to the garden

entreat [inˈtri:t] – v. ask for or request earnestly

entrepreneur [.ɔntrəprəˈnə:] – n. someone who organizes a business venture and assumes the risk for it

entrust [inˈtrʌst] – v. confer a trust upon: The messenger was entrusted with the general’s secret

entry [ˈentri] – n. an item inserted in a written record

enumerate [iˈnju:məreit] – v. specify individually: She enumerated the many obstacles she had encountered

envelop [inˈveləp] – v. enclose or enfold completely with or as if with a covering: Fog enveloped the house

envelope [ˈenviləup] – n. a flat (usually rectangular) container for a letter, thin package, etc.

envious [ˈenviəs] – adj. showing extreme cupidity; painfully desirous of another’s advantages: envious of their art collection

environment [inˈvaiərənmənt] – n. the totality of surrounding conditions: he longed for the comfortable environment of his living room

environmental [in.vaiərənˈmentl] – adj. of or relating to the external conditions or surroundings: environmental factors

envisage [inˈvizidʒ] – v. form a mental image of something that is not present or that is not the case

envy [ˈenvi] – n. a feeling of grudging admiration and desire to have something that is possessed by another

enzyme [ˈenzaim] – n. any of several complex proteins that are produced by cells and act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions

ephemeral [iˈfemərəl] – n. anything short-lived, as an insect that lives only for a day in its winged form

epidemic [.epiˈdemik] – n. a widespread outbreak of an infectious disease; many people are infected at the same time

episode [ˈepisəud] – n. a happening that is distinctive in a series of related events

epoch [ˈi:pɔk] – n. a period marked by distinctive character or reckoned from a fixed point or event

equal [ˈi:kwəl] – v. be identical or equivalent to: One dollar equals 1,000 rubles these days!

equality [i:ˈkwɔliti] – n. the quality of being the same in quantity or measure or value or status

equally [ˈi:kwəli] – adv. to the same degree (often followed by `as’): they were equally beautiful

equation [iˈkweiʃən] – n. a state of being essentially equal or equivalent; equally balanced

equator [iˈkweitə] – n. an imaginary line around the Earth forming the great circle that is equidistant from the north and south poles: the equator is the boundary between the northern and southern hemispheres

equilibrium [.i:kwiˈlibriəm] – n. a stable situation in which forces cancel one another

equip [iˈkwip] – v. provide with (something) usually for a specific purpose: The expedition was equipped with proper clothing, food, and other necessities

equipment [iˈkwipmənt] – n. an instrumentality needed for an undertaking or to perform a service

equitable [ˈekwitəbəl] – adj. fair to all parties as dictated by reason and conscience: equitable treatment of all citizens

equity [ˈekwiti] – n. the difference between the market value of a property and the claims held against it

equivalence [iˈkwivələns] – n. essential equality and interchangeability

equivalent [iˈkwivələnt] – n. a person or thing equal to another in value or measure or force or effect or significance etc: send two dollars or the equivalent in stamps

equivocal [iˈkwivəkəl] – adj. open to two or more interpretations; or of uncertain nature or significance; or (often) intended to mislead: an equivocal statement

era [ˈiərə] – n. a period marked by distinctive character or reckoned from a fixed point or event

eradicate [iˈrædikeit] – v. kill in large numbers

eradication [i.rædiˈkeiʃən] – n. the complete destruction of every trace of something

erase [iˈreiz] – v. remove from memory or existence: The Turks erased the Armenians in 1915

erasure [iˈreiʒə] – n. a surface area where something has been erased: another word had been written over the erasure

erect [iˈrekt] – v. cause to rise up

erection [iˈrekʃən] – n. a structure that has been erected

erosion [iˈrəuʒən] – n. (geology) the mechanical process of wearing or grinding something down (as by particles washing over it)

err [ə:] – v. to make a mistake or be incorrect

errand [ˈerənd] – n. a short trip that is taken in the performance of a necessary task or mission

erratic [iˈrætik] – adj. liable to sudden unpredictable change: erratic behavior

erroneous [iˈrəuniəs] – adj. containing or characterized by error: erroneous conclusions

error [ˈerə] – n. a wrong action attributable to bad judgment or ignorance or inattention: she was quick to point out my errors

erupt [iˈrʌpt] – v. start abruptly

eruption [iˈrʌpʃən] – n. the sudden occurrence of a violent discharge of steam and volcanic material

escalate [ˈeskəleit] – v. increase in extent or intensity: The Allies escalated the bombing

escalator [ˈeskəleitə] – n. a stairway whose steps move continuously on a circulating belt

escape [isˈkeip] – n. an inclination to retreat from unpleasant realities through diversion or fantasy: romantic novels were her escape from the stress of daily life

escort [ˈeskɔ:t] – n. the act of accompanying someone or something in order to protect them

especial [isˈpeʃəl] – adj. surpassing what is common or usual or expected: he paid especial attention to her

especially [isˈpeʃəli] – adv. to a distinctly greater extent or degree than is common: an especially (or specially) cautious approach to the danger

essay [ˈesei,eˈsei] – n. an analytic or interpretive literary composition

essayist [ˈeseiist] – n. a writer of literary works

essence [ˈesns] – n. the choicest or most essential or most vital part of some idea or experience

essential [iˈsenʃəl] – adj. absolutely necessary; vitally necessary: essential tools and materials

essentially [iˈsenʃəli] – adv. in essence; at bottom or by one’s (or its) very nature: the argument was essentially a technical one

establish [iˈstæbliʃ] – v. set up or found

establishment [isˈtæbliʃmənt] – n. an organization founded and united for a specific purpose

estate [isˈteit] – n. everything you own; all of your assets (whether real property or personal property) and liabilities

esteem [isˈti:m] – n. a feeling of delighted approval and liking

esthetic [i:sˈθetik] – adj. concerning or characterized by an appreciation of beauty or good taste: the aesthetic faculties

estimate [ˈestimeit] – n. an approximate calculation of quantity or degree or worth: an estimate of what it would cost

estimation [estiˈmeiʃən] – n. a document appraising the value of something (as for insurance or taxation)

eternal [iˈtə:nəl] – adj. continuing forever or indefinitely: eternal truths

ethnic [ˈeθnik] – adj. denoting or deriving from or distinctive of the ways of living built up by a group of people: influenced by ethnic and cultural ties

etiquette [ˈetiket] – n. rules governing socially acceptable behavior

Europe [ˈjuərəp] – n. the nations of the European continent collectively: the Marshall Plan helped Europe recover from World War II

European [.juərəˈpi(:)ən] – n. a native or inhabitant of Europe

evacuate [iˈvækjueit] – v. move out of an unsafe location into safety: After the earthquake, residents were evacuated

evade [iˈveid] – v. avoid or try to avoid fulfilling, answering, or performing (duties, questions, or issues): They tend to evade their responsibilities

evaluate [iˈvæljueit] – v. form a critical opinion of: How do you evaluate this grant proposal?

evaluation [i.væljuˈeiʃən] – n. act of ascertaining or fixing the value or worth of

evaporate [iˈvæpəreit] – v. lose or cause to lose liquid by vaporization leaving a more concentrated residue: evaporate milk

evaporation [i.væpəˈreiʃən] – n. the process of becoming a vapor

eve [i:v] – n. the day before: he always arrives on the eve of her departure

even [ˈi:vən] – adj. divisible by two

evening [ˈi:vniŋ] – n. the latter part of the day (the period of decreasing daylight from late afternoon until nightfall): he enjoyed the evening light across the lake

evenly [ˈi:vənli] – adv. in equal amounts or shares; in a balanced or impartial way: a class evenly divided between girls and boys

event [iˈvent] – n. something that happens at a given place and time

eventful [iˈventful, -fəl] – adj. having important issues or results: an eventful decision

eventually [iˈventjuəli] – adv. after an unspecified period of time or an especially long delay

ever [ˈevə] – adv. at any time: did you ever smoke?

everlasting [.evəˈlɑ:stiŋ] – adj. continuing forever or indefinitely: life everlasting

every [ˈevri] – adj. (used of count nouns) each and all of the members of a group considered singly and without exception: every person is mortal

everyday [ˈevriˈdei] – adj. found in the ordinary course of events: a placid everyday scene

everywhere [ˈevriwɛə] – adv. to or in any or all places: You find fast food stores everywhere

evict [iˈvikt] – v. expel or eject without recourse to legal process: The landlord wanted to evict the tenants so he banged on the pipes every morning at 3 a.m.

evidence [ˈevidəns] – n. your basis for belief or disbelief; knowledge on which to base belief: the evidence that smoking causes lung cancer is very compelling

evident [ˈevidənt] – adj. clearly revealed to the mind or the senses or judgment: evident hostility

evidently [ˈevidəntli] – adv. unmistakably (`plain’ is often used informally for `plainly’): she was in bed and evidently in great pain

evil [ˈi:vl] – n. morally objectionable behavior

evoke [iˈvəuk] – v. call forth (emotions, feelings, and responses): evoke sympathy

evolution [.i:vəˈlu:ʃən] – n. a process in which something passes by degrees to a different stage (especially a more advanced or mature stage): the evolution of Greek civilization

evolve [iˈvɔlv] – v. work out

ex [eks] – n. a woman who was formerly a particular man’s wife: all his exes live in Texas

exacerbate [igˈzæsəbeit] – v. make worse

exact [igˈzækt] – v. claim as due or just

exactly [igˈzæktli] – adv. just as it should be

exaggerate [igˈzædʒəreit] – v. to enlarge beyond bounds or the truth: tended to romanticize and exaggerate this `gracious Old South’ imagery

exaggerated [igˈzædʒəreitid] – adj. represented as greater than is true or reasonable: an exaggerated opinion of oneself

exaggeration [ig.zædʒəˈreiʃən] – n. the act of making something more noticeable than usual: the dance involved a deliberate exaggeration of his awkwardness

exalt [igˈzɔ:lt, eg-] – v. praise, glorify, or honor

exalted [igˈzɔ:ltid] – adj. of high moral or intellectual value; elevated in nature or style: an exalted ideal

exam [igˈzæm] – n. a set of questions or exercises evaluating skill or knowledge

examination [ig.zæmiˈneiʃən] – n. a set of questions or exercises evaluating skill or knowledge

examine [igˈzæmin] – v. consider in detail and subject to an analysis in order to discover essential features or meaning

example [igˈzɑ:mpl] – n. an item of information that is typical of a class or group: this patient provides a typical example of the syndrome

exasperate [igˈzɑ:spəreit] – v. make furious

exasperation [ig.zɑ:spəˈreiʃən] – n. actions that cause great irritation (or even anger)

excavate [ˈekskəveit] – v. recover through digging: Schliemann excavated Troy

exceed [ikˈsi:d] – v. be greater in scope or size than some standard: Their loyalty exceeds their national bonds

exceedingly [ikˈsi:diŋli] – adv. to an extreme degree

excel [ikˈsel] – v. distinguish oneself: She excelled in math

excellence [ˈeksələns] – n. an outstanding feature; something in which something or someone excels: a center of manufacturing excellence

excellent [ˈeksələnt] – adj. very good;of the highest quality: made an excellent speech

except [ikˈsept] – v. prevent from being included or considered or accepted

exception [ikˈsepʃən] – n. a deliberate act of omission: with the exception of the children, everyone was told the news

exceptional [ikˈsepʃənl] – adj. far beyond what is usual in magnitude or degree: an exceptional memory

excerpt [ˈeksə:pt,ekˈsə:pt] – n. a passage selected from a larger work: he presented excerpts from William James’ philosophical writings

excess [ikˈses] – n. a quantity much larger than is needed

excessive [ikˈsesiv] – adj. beyond normal limits: excessive charges

exchange [iksˈtʃeindʒ] – n. chemical process in which one atom or ion or group changes places with another

excite [ikˈsait] – v. arouse or elicit a feeling

excited [ikˈsaitid] – adj. (of persons) excessively affected by emotion

excitement [ikˈsaitmənt] – n. the feeling of lively and cheerful joy: he could hardly conceal his excitement when she agreed

exciting [ikˈsaitiŋ] – adj. stimulating interest and discussion: an exciting novel

exclaim [iksˈkleim] – v. utter aloud; often with surprise, horror, or joy: `I won!’ he exclaimed

exclamation [.ekskləˈmeiʃən] – n. an abrupt excited utterance: she gave an exclamation of delight

exclude [iksˈklu:d] – v. prevent from being included or considered or accepted: The bad results were excluded from the report

exclusion [iksˈklu:ʒən] – n. the state of being excommunicated

exclusive [iksˈklu:siv] – adj. not divided or shared with others: they have exclusive use of the machine

exclusively [ikˈsklu:sivli] – adv. without any others being included or involved: he works for Mr. Smith exclusively

excrement [ˈekskrimənt] – n. waste matter (as urine or sweat but especially feces) discharged from the body

excursion [iksˈkə:ʃən] – n. a journey taken for pleasure: many summer excursions to the shore

excuse [iksˈkju:z] – v. grant exemption or release to: Please excuse me from this class

execute [ˈeksikju:t] – v. kill as a means of socially sanctioned punishment: In some states, criminals are executed

execution [.eksiˈkju:ʃən] – n. putting a condemned person to death

executive [igˈzekjutiv] – n. a person responsible for the administration of a business

exemplify [igˈzemplifai] – v. be characteristic of

exempt [igˈzempt] – adj. (of goods or funds) not subject to taxation: income exempt from taxation

exercise [ˈeksəsaiz] – n. the act of using

exert [igˈzə:t] – v. put to use: exert one’s power or influence

exertion [igˈzə:ʃən] – n. use of physical or mental energy; hard work: they managed only with great exertion

exhaust [igˈzɔ:st] – v. wear out completely: This kind of work exhausts me

exhaustion [igˈzɔ:stʃən] – n. extreme fatigue

exhaustive [igˈzɔ:stiv] – adj. performed comprehensively and completely: an exhaustive study

exhibit [igˈzibit] – v. show an attribute, property, knowledge, or skill: he exhibits a great talent

exhibition [.eksiˈbiʃən] – n. a collection of things (goods or works of art etc.) for public display

exhilarate [igˈziləreit] – v. fill with sublime emotion

exhort [igˈzɔ:t] – v. spur on or encourage especially by cheers and shouts

exile [ˈeksail] – n. a person who is voluntarily absent from home or country

exist [igˈzist] – v. support oneself: he could barely exist on such a low wage

existence [igˈzistəns] – n. everything that exists anywhere: the biggest tree in existence

existing [igˈzistiŋ] – adj. having existence or being or actuality: much of the beluga caviar existing in the world is found in the Soviet Union and Iran

exit [ˈeksit] – n. an opening that permits escape or release

exonerate [igˈzɔnəreit] – v. pronounce not guilty of criminal charges

exorbitant [igˈzɔ:bitənt] – adj. greatly exceeding bounds of reason or moderation: exorbitant rent

exotic [egˈzɔtik] – adj. being or from or characteristic of another place or part of the world: exotic plants in a greenhouse

expand [iksˈpænd] – v. extend in one or more directions: The dough expands

expansion [iksˈpænʃən] – n. the act of increasing (something) in size or volume or quantity or scope

expansive  – adj. of behavior that is impressive and ambitious in scale or scope: an expansive lifestyle

expect [iksˈpekt] – v. regard something as probable or likely: The meteorologists are expecting rain for tomorrow

expectation [.ekspekˈteiʃən] – n. belief about (or mental picture of) the future

expedient [iksˈpi:diənt] – adj. serving to promote your interest: was merciful only when mercy was expedient

expedite [ˈekspidait] – v. speed up the progress of; facilitate: This should expedite the process

expedition [.ekspiˈdiʃən] – n. a military campaign designed to achieve a specific objective in a foreign country

expel [iksˈpel] – v. force to leave or move out: He was expelled from his native country

expend [iksˈpend] – v. use up, consume fully: The legislature expended its time on school questions

expenditure [iksˈpenditʃə] – n. money paid out; an amount spent

expense [iksˈpens] – n. a detriment or sacrifice: at the expense of

expensive [iksˈpensiv] – adj. high in price or charging high prices: expensive clothes

experience [iksˈpiəriəns] – v. go or live through

experienced [ikˈspiəriənst] – adj. having experience; having knowledge or skill from observation or participation

experiment [iksˈperimənt] – n. the act of conducting a controlled test or investigation

experimental [iks.periˈmentl] – adj. relying on observation or experiment: experimental results that supported the hypothesis

experimentation [eks.perimenˈteiʃən] – n. the testing of an idea: not all experimentation is done in laboratories

expert [ˈekspə:t] – adj. having or showing knowledge and skill and aptitude: an expert job

expertise [.ekspə:ˈti:z] – n. skillfulness by virtue of possessing special knowledge

expiration [.ekspaiəˈreiʃən] – n. a coming to an end of a contract period

expire [iksˈpaiə] – v. lose validity: My passports expired last month

expiry [iksˈpaiəri] – n. a coming to an end of a contract period: the expiry of his driver’s license

explain [iksˈplein] – v. make plain and comprehensible: He explained the laws of physics to his students

explanation [.ekspləˈneiʃən] – n. a statement that makes something comprehensible by describing the relevant structure or operation or circumstances etc.: the explanation was very simple

explanatory [iksˈplænətəri] – adj. serving or intended to explain or make clear: explanatory notes

explicit [iksˈplisit] – adj. precisely and clearly expressed or readily observable; leaving nothing to implication: explicit instructions

explicitly [ikˈsplisitli] – adv. in an explicit manner: in his foreword Professor Clark puts it explicitly

explode [iksˈpləud] – v. cause to burst with a violent release of energy: We exploded the nuclear bomb

exploitation [.eksplɔiˈteiʃən] – n. the act of making some area of land or water more profitable or productive or useful: the exploitation of copper deposits

exploration [.eksplɔ:ˈreiʃən] – n. to travel for the purpose of discovery

explore [iksˈplɔ:] – v. inquire into

explorer [iksˈplɔ:rə, eks-] – n. someone who travels into little known regions (especially for some scientific purpose)

explosion [iksˈpləuʒən] – n. a violent release of energy caused by a chemical or nuclear reaction

explosive [iksˈpləusiv] – adj. liable to lead to sudden change or violence: an explosive issue

export [ˈekspɔ:t,eksˈpɔ:t] – v. sell or transfer abroad: we export less than we import and have a negative trade balance

exportation [.ekspɔ:ˈteiʃən] – n. commodities (goods or services) sold to a foreign country

exporter [iksˈpɔ:tə] – n. a businessperson who transports goods abroad (for sale)

expose [ikˈspəuz] – v. to show, make visible or apparent

exposition [.ekspəˈziʃən] – n. a systematic interpretation or explanation (usually written) of a specific topic

exposure [iksˈpəuʒə] – n. vulnerability to the elements; to the action of heat or cold or wind or rain: exposure to the weather

express [iksˈpres] – v. articulate; either verbally or with a cry, shout, or noise: She expressed her anger

expression [iksˈpreʃən] – n. the feelings expressed on a person’s face: a sad expression

expressive [iksˈpresiv] – adj. characterized by expression: a very expressive face

expressly [iksˈpresli] – adv. with specific intentions; for the express purpose: she needs the money expressly for her patients

expressway [ikˈspreswei] – n. a broad highway designed for high-speed traffic

expulsion [ikˈspʌlʃən] – n. the act of forcing out someone or something: the child’s expulsion from school

exquisite [ˈekskwizit] – adj. intense or sharp: suffered exquisite pain

extend [iksˈtend] – v. span an interval of distance, space or time: The war extended over five years

extension [iksˈtenʃən] – n. a mutually agreed delay in the date set for the completion of a job or payment of a debt: they applied for an extension of the loan

extensive [iksˈtensiv] – adj. broad in scope or content

extensively [ikˈstensivli] – adv. in a widespread way: oxidation ponds are extensively used for sewage treatment in the Midwest

extent [iksˈtent] – n. the distance or area or volume over which something extends: the vast extent of the desert

exterior [eksˈtiəriə] – n. the region that is outside of something

exterminate [ikˈstə:mineit] – v. kill en masse; kill on a large scale; kill many: Hitler wanted to exterminate the Jews, Gypsies, Communists, and homosexuals of Europe

external [eksˈtə:nl] – adj. happening or arising or located outside or beyond some limits or especially surface: the external auditory canal

extinct [iksˈtiŋkt] – adj. no longer in existence; lost or especially having died out leaving no living representatives: an extinct species of fish

extinction [iksˈtiŋkʃən] – n. no longer in existence: the extinction of a species

extinguish [iksˈtiŋgwiʃ] – v. put an end to; kill

extort [ikˈstɔ:t] – v. obtain through intimidation

extra [ˈekstrə] – n. a minor actor in crowd scenes

extract [ˈekstrækt,iksˈtrækt] – v. remove, usually with some force or effort; also used in an abstract sense: extract a bad tooth

extraction [iksˈtrækʃən] – n. the process of obtaining something from a mixture or compound by chemical or physical or mechanical means

extraordinary [iksˈtrɔ:dnri] – adj. beyond what is ordinary or usual; highly unusual or exceptional or remarkable: extraordinary authority

extravagance [ikˈstrævəgəns] – n. the quality of exceeding the appropriate limits of decorum or probability or truth: we were surprised by the extravagance of his description

extravagant [iksˈtrævəgənt] – adj. unrestrained, especially with regard to feelings: extravagant praise

extreme [iksˈtri:m] – adj. of the greatest possible degree or extent or intensity: extreme cold

extremely [iksˈtri:mli] – adv. to a high degree or extent; favorably or with much respect: extremely interesting

exuberant [igˈzju:bərənt] – adj. joyously unrestrained

eye [ai] – n. the organ of sight

eyeball [ˈai.bɔ:l] – n. the ball-shaped capsule containing the vertebrate eye

eyebrow [ˈaibrau] – n. the arch of hair above each eye

eyeglass [ˈaiglɑ:s] – n. lens for correcting defective vision in one eye; held in place by facial muscles

eyelid [ˈailid] – n. either of two folds of skin that can be moved to cover or open the eye

eyesight [ˈaisait] – n. normal use of the faculty of vision

fabric [ˈfæbrik] – n. artifact made by weaving or felting or knitting or crocheting natural or synthetic fibers: the fabric in the curtains was light and semitransparent

fabricate [ˈfæbrikeit] – v. put together out of artificial or natural components or parts: the company fabricates plastic chairs

fabrication [.fæbriˈkeiʃən] – n. a deliberately false or improbable account

fabulous [ˈfæbjuləs] – adj. extremely pleasing: a fabulous vacation

face [feis] – n. the front of the human head from the forehead to the chin and ear to ear: he washed his face

facet [ˈfæsit] – n. a distinct feature or element in a problem: he studied every facet of the question

facilitate [fəˈsiliteit] – v. make easier: you could facilitate the process by sharing your knowledge

facility [fəˈsiliti] – n. a building or place that provides a particular service or is used for a particular industry: the assembly plant is an enormous facility

fact [fækt] – n. a piece of information about circumstances that exist or events that have occurred: first you must collect all the facts of the case

faction [ˈfækʃən] – n. a clique (often secret) that seeks power usually through intrigue

factor [ˈfæktə] – n. anything that contributes causally to a result: a number of factors determined the outcome

factory [ˈfæktəri] – n. a plant consisting of one or more buildings with facilities for manufacturing

faculty [ˈfækəlti] – n. one of the inherent cognitive or perceptual powers of the mind

fade [feid] – v. become less clearly visible or distinguishable; disappear gradually or seemingly: The scene begins to fade

Fahrenheit [ˈfærənhait] – adj. of or relating to a temperature scale proposed by the inventor of the mercury thermometer: water freezes at 32 degrees Fahrenheit under normal conditions

fail [feil] – v. be unsuccessful: Where do today’s public schools fail?

failure [ˈfeiljə] – n. an event that does not accomplish its intended purpose: the surprise party was a complete failure

faint [feint] – adj. deficient in magnitude; barely perceptible; lacking clarity or brightness or loudness etc: a faint outline

fair [fɛə] – adj. free from favoritism or self-interest or bias or deception; conforming with established standards or rules: a fair referee

fairly [ˈfɛəli] – adv. to a moderately sufficient extent or degree: he is fairly clever with computers

fairy [ˈfɛəri] – n. a small being, human in form, playful and having magical powers

faith [feiθ] – n. a strong belief in a supernatural power or powers that control human destiny: he lost his faith but not his morality

faithful [ˈfeiθfəl] – adj. steadfast in affection or allegiance: years of faithful service

faithfully [ˈfeiθfuli] – adv. in a faithful manner: it always came on, faithfully, like the radio

fake [feik] – n. something that is a counterfeit; not what it seems to be

fall [fɔ:l] – v. move downward and lower, but not necessarily all the way: The barometer is falling

fallacy [ˈfæləsi] – n. a misconception resulting from incorrect reasoning

fallible [ˈfæləbəl] – adj. likely to fail or make errors: everyone is fallible to some degree

false  [fɔ:ls] – adj. not in accordance with the fact or reality or actuality: gave false testimony under oath

falter [ˈfɔ:ltə] – v. be unsure or weak: Their enthusiasm is faltering

fame [feim] – n. the state or quality of being widely honored and acclaimed

familiar [fəˈmiljə] – adj. well known or easily recognized: a familiar figure

familiarity [fə.miliˈæriti] – n. personal knowledge or information about someone or something

family [ˈfæmili] – n. a social unit living together: he moved his family to Virginia

famine [ˈfæmin] – n. an acute insufficiency

famous [ˈfeiməs] – adj. widely known and esteemed: a famous actor

fan [fæn] – v. strike out (a batter), (of a pitcher)

fanatic [fəˈnætik] – n. a person motivated by irrational enthusiasm (as for a cause): A fanatic is one who can’t change his mind and won’t change the subject

fancy [ˈfænsi] – n. something many people believe that is false

fantastic [fænˈtæstik] – adj. ludicrously odd: fantastic Halloween costumes

fantasy [ˈfæntəsi] – n. imagination unrestricted by reality: a schoolgirl fantasy

far [fɑ:] – adv. to a considerable degree; very much: a far far better thing that I do

fare [fɛə] – n. an agenda of things to do

farewell [ˈfɛəˈwel] – n. an acknowledgment or expression of goodwill at parting

farm [fɑ:m] – v. collect fees or profits

farmer [ˈfɑ:mə] – n. United States civil rights leader who in 1942 founded the Congress of Racial Equality (born in 1920)

farmhand [ˈfɑ:mhænd] – n. a hired hand on a farm

farmhouse [ˈfɑ:mhaʊs] – n. house for a farmer and family

farming [ˈfɑ:miŋ] – n. the practice of cultivating the land or raising stock

farther [ˈfɑ:ðə] – adj. more distant in especially space or time: they live in the farther house

fascinate [ˈfæsineit] – v. cause to be interested or curious

fascinating [ˈfæsineitiŋ] – adj. capable of arousing and holding the attention: a fascinating story

fascination [fæsiˈneiʃ(ə)n] – n. the state of being intensely interested (as by awe or terror)

fascism [ˈfæʃiz(ə)m] – n. a political theory advocating an authoritarian hierarchical government (as opposed to democracy or liberalism)

fascist [ˈfæʃist] – n. an adherent of fascism or other right-wing authoritarian views

fashion [ˈfæʃən] – n. how something is done or how it happens: in an abrasive fashion

fashionable [ˈfæʃənəbl] – adj. having elegance or taste or refinement in manners or dress

fast [fɑ:st] – adj. acting or moving or capable of acting or moving quickly: fast film

fasten [ˈfæsn] – v. cause to be firmly attached: fasten the lock onto the door

fastidious [fæˈstidiəs] – adj. giving careful attention to detail; hard to please; excessively concerned with cleanliness: a fastidious and incisive intellect

fat [fæt] – adj. having an (over)abundance of flesh: he hadn’t remembered how fat she was

fatal [ˈfeitl] – adj. bringing death

fate [feit] – n. an event (or a course of events) that will inevitably happen in the future

father [ˈfɑ:ðə] – n. the founder of a family: keep the faith of our forefathers

fathom [ˈfæðəm] – n. a linear unit of measurement (equal to 6 feet) for water depth

fatigue [fəˈti:g] – n. temporary loss of strength and energy resulting from hard physical or mental work: he was hospitalized for extreme fatigue

fatuous [ˈfætʃuəs] – adj. devoid of intelligence

fault [fɔ:lt] – n. a wrong action attributable to bad judgment or ignorance or inattention: I could understand his English in spite of his grammatical faults

faultless [ˈfɔ:ltlis] – adj. without fault or error: faultless logic

faulty [ˈfɔ:lti] – adj. having a defect

favor [ˈfeivə] – n. an act of gracious kindness

favorable [ˈfeivərəbl] – adj. encouraging or approving or pleasing: a favorable reply

favorably [ˈfeivərəbli] – adv. showing approval: he reviewed the play favorably

favorite [ˈfeivərit] – n. a special loved one

favour  – n. an inclination to approve

fear [fiə] – v. be afraid or scared of; be frightened of: I fear the winters in Moscow

fearful [ˈfiəfəl] – adj. causing fear or dread or terror: a fearful howling

fearless [ˈfiəlis] – adj. oblivious of dangers or perils or calmly resolute in facing them

feasibility [.fi:zəˈbiliti] – n. the quality of being doable

feasible [ˈfi:zəbl] – adj. capable of being done with means at hand and circumstances as they are

feast [fi:st] – n. a ceremonial dinner party for many people

feat [fi:t] – n. a notable achievement: he performed a great feat

feather [ˈfeðə] – v. join tongue and groove, in carpentry

feature [fi:tʃə] – n. a prominent attribute or aspect of something: the map showed roads and other features

February [ˈfebruəri] – n. the month following January and preceding March

federal [ˈfedərəl] – adj. national; especially in reference to the government of the United States as distinct from that of its member units: federal courts

federation [.fedəˈreiʃən] – n. an organization formed by merging several groups or parties

fee [fi:] – n. an interest in land capable of being inherited

feeble [fi:bl] – adj. pathetically lacking in force or effectiveness: a feeble excuse

feed [fi:d] – v. provide as food

feedback [ˈfi:dbæk] – n. the process in which part of the output of a system is returned to its input in order to regulate its further output

feel [fi:l] – v. undergo an emotional sensation or be in a particular state of mind

fell [fel] – n. the dressed skin of an animal (especially a large animal)

fellow [ˈfeləu] – n. a boy or man: there’s a fellow at the door

fellowship [ˈfeləuʃip] – n. an association of people who share common beliefs or activities: the church welcomed new members into its fellowship

female [ˈfi:meil] – adj. being the sex (of plant or animal) that produces fertilizable gametes (ova) from which offspring develop: a female heir

feminine [ˈfeminin] – adj. associated with women and not with men: feminine intuition

fence [fens] – v. receive stolen goods

fend [fend] – v. try to manage without help: The youngsters had to fend for themselves after their parents died

ferocious [fəˈrəuʃəs] – adj. marked by extreme and violent energy: a ferocious beating

ferrous [ˈferəs] – adj. of or relating to or containing iron

ferry [ˈferi] – v. transport from one place to another

ferryboat [ˈferibəʊt] – n. a boat that transports people or vehicles across a body of water and operates on a regular schedule

fertile [ˈfə:tail] – adj. capable of reproducing

fertilizer [ˈfə:tilaizə] – n. any substance such as manure or a mixture of nitrates used to make soil more fertile

fervent [ˈfə:vənt] – adj. characterized by intense emotion: a fervent desire to change society

fester [ˈfestə] – n. a sore that has become inflamed and formed pus

festival [ˈfestəvəl] – n. a day or period of time set aside for feasting and celebration

fetch [fetʃ] – v. go or come after and bring or take back: The dog fetched the hat

fetter [ˈfetə] – n. a shackle for the ankles or feet

feud [fju:d] – n. a bitter quarrel between two parties

feudal [ˈfju:dl] – adj. of or relating to or characteristic of feudalism

feudalism [ˈfju:dəlizəm] – n. the social system that developed in Europe in the 8th century; vassals were protected by lords who they had to serve in war

fever [ˈfi:və] – n. a rise in the temperature of the body; frequently a symptom of infection

few [fju:] – n. a small elite group: it was designed for the discriminating few

fiber [ˈfaibə] – n. a slender and greatly elongated substance capable of being spun into yarn

fibre  – n. a slender and greatly elongated substance capable of being spun into yarn

fickle [ˈfikəl] – adj. marked by erratic changeableness in affections or attachments: fickle friends

fiction [ˈfikʃən] – n. a literary work based on the imagination and not necessarily on fact

fictional [ˈfikʃənəl] – adj. formed or conceived by the imagination: a fictional character

fiddle [ˈfidl] – v. avoid (one’s assigned duties)

fidelity [fiˈdeliti] – n. accuracy with which an electronic system reproduces the sound or image of its input signal

field [fi:ld] – n. a piece of land cleared of trees and usually enclosed: he planted a field of wheat

fierce [fiəs] – adj. marked by extreme and violent energy: fierce fighting

fiery [ˈfaiəri] – adj. characterized by intense emotion: fiery oratory

fifteen [ˈfifˈti:n] – n. the cardinal number that is the sum of fourteen and one

fifth [fifθ] – n. position five in a countable series of things: he was fifth out of several hundred runners

fifty [ˈfifti] – n. the cardinal number that is the product of ten and five

fig [fig] – n. a diagram or picture illustrating textual material

fight [fait] – n. a hostile meeting of opposing military forces in the course of a war

fighter [ˈfaitə] – n. a high-speed military or naval airplane designed to destroy enemy aircraft in the air

figurative [ˈfigjurətiv] – adj. consisting of or forming human or animal figures: the figurative art of the humanistic tradition

figure [ˈfigə] – n. a diagram or picture illustrating textual material

file [fail] – v. record in a public office or in a court of law: file for divorce

filing [ˈfailiŋ] – n. the entering of a legal document into the public record

fill [fil] – v. make full, also in a metaphorical sense: fill a container

filling [ˈfiliŋ] – n. flow into something (as a container)

film [film] – n. a form of entertainment that enacts a story by sound and a sequence of images giving the illusion of continuous movement: the film was shot on location

filter [ˈfiltə] – v. pass through

filth [filθ] – n. any substance considered disgustingly foul or unpleasant

filthy [ˈfilθi] – adj. vile; despicable: a filthy traitor

final [ˈfainl] – adj. occurring at or forming an end or termination: the final chapter

finalize [ˈfainəlaiz] – v. make final; put the last touches on; put into final form: let’s finalize the proposal

finally [ˈfainəli] – adv. after an unspecified period of time or an especially long delay

finance [faiˈnæns] – n. the commercial activity of providing funds and capital

financial [faiˈnænʃəl] – adj. involving financial matters

financier [faiˈnænsiə] – n. a person skilled in large scale financial transactions

financing [faiˈnænsiŋ] – n. the act of financing

find [faind] – v. come upon, as if by accident; meet with: We find this idea in Plato

fine [fain] – adj. being satisfactory or in satisfactory condition: everything’s fine

finger [ˈfiŋgə] – v. examine by touch: The customer fingered the sweater

finish [ˈfiniʃ] – n. a decorative texture or appearance of a surface (or the substance that gives it that appearance): the boat had a metallic finish

finite [ˈfainait] – adj. bounded or limited in magnitude or spatial or temporal extent

fir [fə:] – n. any of various evergreen trees of the genus Abies; chiefly of upland areas

fire [ˈfaiə] – n. the event of something burning (often destructive): they lost everything in the fire

fireman [ˈfaiəmən] – n. a laborer who tends fires (as on a coal-fired train or steamship)

fireplace [ˈfaiəpleis] – n. an open recess in a wall at the base of a chimney where a fire can be built: the fireplace was so large you could walk inside it

firework [ˈfaiəwə:k] – n. (usually plural) a device with an explosive that burns at a low rate and with colored flames; can be used to illuminate areas or send signals etc.

firm [fə:m] – adj. not soft or yielding to pressure: a firm mattress

firmly [ˈfɜ:mli] – adv. with resolute determination: we firmly believed it

firmness [ˈfɜ:mnis] – n. the muscle tone of healthy tissue: his muscular firmness

first [fə:st] – n. the time at which something is supposed to begin

fish [fiʃ] – n. any of various mostly cold-blooded aquatic vertebrates usually having scales and breathing through gills: the shark is a large fish

fisherman [ˈfiʃəmən] – n. someone whose occupation is catching fish

fishery [ˈfiʃəri] – n. a workplace where fish are caught and processed and sold

fission [ˈfiʃən] – n. reproduction of some unicellular organisms by division of the cell into two more or less equal parts

fist [fist] – n. a hand with the fingers clenched in the palm (as for hitting)

fit [fit] – v. be agreeable or acceptable to

fitness [ˈfitnis] – n. the quality of being suitable: they had to prove their fitness for the position

fitting [ˈfitiŋ] – n. making or becoming suitable; adjusting to circumstances

five [faiv] – n. the cardinal number that is the sum of four and one

fix [fiks] – v. restore by replacing a part or putting together what is torn or broken

fixture [ˈfikstʃə] – n. an object firmly fixed in place (especially in a household)

flabby [ˈflæbi] – adj. out of condition; not strong or robust; incapable of exertion or endurance: flabby around the middle

flag [flæg] – n. emblem usually consisting of a rectangular piece of cloth of distinctive design

flake [fleik] – n. a crystal of snow

flame [fleim] – v. shine with a sudden light

flank [flæŋk] – n. the side of military or naval formation: they attacked the enemy’s right flank

flannel [ˈflænl] – n. a soft light woolen fabric; used for clothing

flap [flæp] – v. move in a wavy pattern or with a rising and falling motion

flare [flɛə] – n. a shape that spreads outward: the skirt had a wide flare

flash [flæʃ] – n. a sudden intense burst of radiant energy

flask [flɑ:sk] – n. bottle that has a narrow neck

flat [flæt] – adj. having a surface without slope, tilt in which no part is higher or lower than another: a flat desk

flatten [ˈflætn] – v. become flat or flatter: The landscape flattened

flatter [ˈflætə] – v. praise somewhat dishonestly

flaunt [flɔ:nt] – n. the act of displaying something ostentatiously: his behavior was an outrageous flaunt

flavor [ˈfleivə] – n. the general atmosphere of a place or situation and the effect that it has on people

flavour  – n. the general atmosphere of a place or situation and the effect that it has on people

flaw [flɔ:] – n. an imperfection in an object or machine: a flaw caused the crystal to shatter

flee [fli:] – v. run away quickly

fleece [fli:s] – n. the wool of a sheep or similar animal

fleet [fli:t] – n. group of aircraft operating together under the same ownership

flesh [fleʃ] – n. the soft tissue of the body of a vertebrate: mainly muscle tissue and fat

fleshy [ˈfleʃi] – adj. usually describes a large person who is fat but has a large frame to carry it

flexibility [.fleksəˈbiliti] – n. the quality of being adaptable or variable: he enjoyed the flexibility of his working arrangement

flexible [ˈfleksəbl] – adj. capable of being changed: flexible schedules

flicker [ˈflikə] – n. a momentary flash of light

flight [flait] – n. an instance of traveling by air

fling [fliŋ] – v. throw with force or recklessness: fling the frisbee

flip [flip] – v. lightly throw to see which side comes up: I don’t know what to do–I may as well flip a coin!

flirt [flə:t] – n. a seductive woman who uses her sex appeal to exploit men

float [fləut] – v. be in motion due to some air or water current

flock [flɔk] – n. a church congregation guided by a pastor

flood [flʌd] – n. an overwhelming number or amount: a flood of requests

floor [flɔ:] – n. the inside lower horizontal surface (as of a room, hallway, tent, or other structure): they needed rugs to cover the bare floors

flour [flauə] – n. fine powdery foodstuff obtained by grinding and sifting the meal of a cereal grain

flourish [ˈflʌriʃ] – n. a showy gesture: she entered with a great flourish

flow [fləu] – n. the motion characteristic of fluids (liquids or gases)

flower [ˈflauə] – n. a plant cultivated for its blooms or blossoms

flu [flu:] – n. an acute febrile highly contagious viral disease

fluctuate [ˈflʌktjueit] – v. move or sway in a rising and falling or wavelike pattern

fluctuation [.flʌktjuˈeiʃən] – n. a wave motion: the fluctuations of the sea

fluency [ˈfluənsi] – n. powerful and effective language: fluency in spoken and written English is essential

fluent [ˈflu:ənt] – adj. smooth and unconstrained in movement

fluff [flʌf] – n. any light downy material

fluid [ˈflu:id] – adj. subject to change; variable: a fluid situation fraught with uncertainty

flush [flʌʃ] – n. the period of greatest prosperity or productivity

flute [flu:t] – n. a tall narrow wineglass

flutter [ˈflʌtə] – v. move along rapidly and lightly; skim or dart

flux [flʌks] – n. a flow or discharge

fly [flai] – v. travel through the air; be airborne: Man cannot fly

flyover [ˈflai-əuvə] – n. bridge formed by the upper level of a crossing of two highways at different levels

foam [fəum] – n. a lightweight material in cellular form; made by introducing gas bubbles during manufacture

fob [fɔb] – n. a vest pocket to hold a pocket watch

focus [ˈfəukəs] – n. the concentration of attention or energy on something: the focus of activity shifted to molecular biology

fodder [ˈfɔdə] – n. soldiers who are regarded as expendable in the face of artillery fire

foe [fəu] – n. a personal enemy: they had been political foes for years

fog [fɔg] – n. droplets of water vapor suspended in the air near the ground

foggy [ˈfɔgi] – adj. stunned or confused and slow to react (as from blows or drunkenness or exhaustion)

foil [fɔil] – n. a piece of thin and flexible sheet metal: the photographic film was wrapped in foil

fold [fəuld] – n. a group of people who adhere to a common faith and habitually attend a given church

foliage [ˈfəuliidʒ] – n. the main organ of photosynthesis and transpiration in higher plants

folk [fəuk] – n. people in general (often used in the plural): they’re just country folk

follow [ˈfɔləu] – v. to travel behind, go after, come after: The ducklings followed their mother around the pond

follower [ˈfɔləuə] – n. a person who accepts the leadership of another

following [ˈfɔləuiŋ] – adj. about to be mentioned or specified: the following items

fond [fɔnd] – adj. having or displaying warmth or affection: a fond embrace

food [fu:d] – n. any substance that can be metabolized by an animal to give energy and build tissue

foodstuff [ˈfu:dstʌf] – n. (usually plural) consumer goods sold by a grocer

fool [fu:l] – v. spend frivolously and unwisely

foolish [ˈfu:liʃ] – adj. devoid of good sense or judgment: foolish remarks

foot [fut] – n. the part of the leg of a human being below the ankle joint: armored from head to foot

football [ˈfutbɔ:l] – n. any of various games played with a ball (round or oval) in which two teams try to kick or carry or propel the ball into each other’s goal

footing [ˈfutiŋ] – n. status with respect to the relations between people or groups: on a friendly footing

footstep [ˈfutstep] – n. the sound of a step of someone walking: he heard footsteps on the porch

forbid [fəˈbid] – v. command against: I forbid you to call me late at night

forbidden [fəˈbidn] – adj. excluded from use or mention: forbidden fruit

force [fɔ:s] – n. a powerful effect or influence: the force of his eloquence easily persuaded them

forceful  – adj. characterized by or full of force or strength (often but not necessarily physical): a forceful speaker

fore [fɔ:] – n. front part of a vessel or aircraft

forecast [ˈfɔ:kɑ:st] – v. predict in advance

forefather [ˈfɔ:.fɑ:ðə] – n. the founder of a family: keep the faith of our forefathers

forefinger [ˈfɔ:.fiŋgə] – n. the finger next to the thumb

forehead [ˈfɔ:hed] – n. the part of the face above the eyes

foreign [ˈfɔrin] – adj. of concern to or concerning the affairs of other nations (other than your own): foreign trade

foreigner [ˈfɔ:rinə] – n. someone who is excluded from or is not a member of a group

foreman [ˈfɔ:mən] – n. a person who exercises control over workers: if you want to leave early you have to ask the foreman

foremost [ˈfɔ:məust] – adj. ranking above all others: the foremost figure among marine artists

forerunner [ˈfɔ:.rʌnə] – n. a person who goes before or announces the coming of another

foresee [fɔ:ˈsi:] – v. picture to oneself; imagine possible

forest [ˈfɔrist] – n. the trees and other plants in a large densely wooded area

forestry [ˈfɔristri] – n. the science of planting and caring for forests and the management of growing timber

foretell [fɔ:ˈtel] – v. make a prediction about; tell in advance

forever [fəˈrevə] – adv. for a limitless time: no one can live forever

forfeit [ˈfɔ:fit] – n. something that is lost or surrendered as a penalty

forge [fɔ:dʒ] – v. create by hammering: forge a pair of tongues

forgery [ˈfɔ:dʒəri] – n. a copy that is represented as the original

forget [fəˈget] – v. dismiss from the mind; stop remembering

forgive [fəˈgiv] – v. absolve from payment: I forgive you your debt

fork [fɔ:k] – n. the act of branching out or dividing into branches

form [fɔ:m] – n. the phonological or orthographic sound or appearance of a word that can be used to describe or identify something: the inflected forms of a word can be represented by a stem and a list of inflections to be attached

formal [ˈfɔ:məl] – adj. characteristic of or befitting a person in authority: formal duties

formality [fɔ:ˈmæliti] – n. a requirement of etiquette or custom: a mere formality

format [ˈfɔ:mæt] – v. determine the arrangement of (data) for storage and display (in computer science)

formation [fɔ:ˈmeiʃən] – n. an arrangement of people or things acting as a unit: a defensive formation

former [ˈfɔ:mə] – adj. referring to the first of two things or persons mentioned (or the earlier one or ones of several): the novel was made into a film in 1943 and again in 1967; I prefer the former version to the latter one

formerly [ˈfɔ:məli] – adv. at a previous time

formidable [ˈfɔ:midəbl] – adj. extremely impressive in strength or excellence: a formidable opponent

formula [ˈfɔ:mjulə] – n. a group of symbols that make a mathematical statement

formulate [ˈfɔ:mjuleit] – v. elaborate, as of theories and hypotheses

formulation [.fɔ:mjuˈleiʃən] – n. inventing or contriving an idea or explanation and formulating it mentally

forsake [fəˈseik] – v. leave someone who needs or counts on you; leave in the lurch

fort [fɔ:t] – n. a fortified military post where troops are stationed

forte [ˈfɔ:ti, ˈfɔ:tei] – n. an asset of special worth or utility: cooking is his forte

forth [fɔ:θ] – adv. forward in time or order or degree: from that time forth

forthcoming [.fɔ:θˈkʌmiŋ] – adj. at ease in talking to others

fortify [ˈfɔ:tifai] – v. make strong or stronger

fortitude [ˈfɔ:titju:d] – n. strength of mind that enables one to endure adversity with courage

fortnight [ˈfɔ:tnait] – n. a period of fourteen consecutive days: most major tennis tournaments last a fortnight

fortress [ˈfɔ:tris] – n. a fortified defensive structure

fortuity [fɔ:ˈtjuiti] – n. anything that happens suddenly or by chance without an apparent cause: it was due to an accident or fortuity

fortunate [ˈfɔ:tʃənit] – adj. supremely favored

fortunately [ˈfɔ:tʃənətli] – adv. by good fortune: fortunately the weather was good

fortune [ˈfɔ:tʃən] – n. an unknown and unpredictable phenomenon that causes an event to result one way rather than another

forty [ˈfɔ:ti] – n. the cardinal number that is the product of ten and four

forum [ˈfɔ:rəm] – n. a public facility to meet for open discussion

forward [ˈfɔ:wəd] – adv. at or to or toward the front: he faced forward

fossil [ˈfɔsl] – n. someone whose style is out of fashion

foster [ˈfɔstə] – v. promote the growth of

foul [faul] – adj. highly offensive; arousing aversion or disgust

found [faund] – v. set up or lay the groundwork for

foundation [faunˈdeiʃən] – n. the basis on which something is grounded: there is little foundation for his objections

founder [ˈfaundə] – v. fail utterly; collapse: The project foundered

fountain [ˈfauntin] – n. a structure from which an artificially produced jet of water arises

four [fɔ:] – n. the cardinal number that is the sum of three and one

fourteen [ˈfɔ:ˈti:n] – n. the cardinal number that is the sum of thirteen and one

fourth [fɔ:θ] – n. one of four equal parts

fowl [faul] – v. hunt fowl

fox [fɔks] – n. alert carnivorous mammal with pointed muzzle and ears and a bushy tail; most are predators that do not hunt in packs

fraction [ˈfrækʃən] – n. a small part or item forming a piece of a whole

fractional [ˈfrækʃənl] – adj. constituting or comprising a part or fraction of a possible whole or entirety: a fractional share of the vote

fracture [ˈfræktʃə] – v. violate or abuse: This writer really fractures the language

fragile [ˈfrædʒail] – adj. easily broken or damaged or destroyed: fragile porcelain plates

fragment [ˈfrægmənt] – n. a piece broken off or cut off of something else: a fragment of rock

fragrance [ˈfreigrəns] – n. a distinctive odor that is pleasant

fragrant [ˈfreigrənt] – adj. pleasant-smelling

frail [freil] – adj. physically weak: an invalid’s frail body

frame [freim] – n. a single one of a series of still transparent pictures forming a cinema, television or video film

framework [ˈfreimwə:k] – n. a hypothetical description of a complex entity or process

France [frɑ:ns] – n. a republic in western Europe; the largest country wholly in Europe

franchise [ˈfræn.tʃaiz] – n. an authorization to sell a company’s goods or services in a particular place

frank [fræŋk] – n. a member of the ancient Germanic peoples who spread from the Rhine into the Roman Empire in the 4th century

frankly [ˈfræŋkli] – adv. (used as intensives reflecting the speaker’s attitude) it is sincerely the case that: frankly, my dear, I don’t give a damn

frantic [ˈfræntik] – adj. excessively agitated; distraught with fear or other violent emotion: frantic with anger and frustration

fraud [frɔ:d] – n. intentional deception resulting in injury to another person

fraught [frɔ:t] – adj. marked by distress: a fraught mother-daughter relationship

freak [fri:k] – n. a person or animal that is markedly unusual or deformed

free [fri:] – v. relieve from

freedom [ˈfri:dəm] – n. immunity from an obligation or duty

freely [ˈfri:li] – adv. in a free manner: the painting featured freely brushed strokes

freeze [fri:z] – v. stop moving or become immobilized

freezer [ˈfri:zə] – n. electric refrigerator (trade name Deepfreeze) in which food is frozen and stored for long periods of time

freight [freit] – n. goods carried by a large vehicle

French [frentʃ] – n. the Romance language spoken in France and in countries colonized by France

Frenchman [ˈfrentʃmən] – n. a person of French nationality

frequency [ˈfri:kwənsi] – n. the number of occurrences within a given time period: the frequency of modulation was 40 cycles per second

frequent [ˈfri:kwənt] – v. do one’s shopping at; do business with; be a customer or client of

frequently [ˈfri:kwəntli] – adv. many times at short intervals

fresh [freʃ] – adj. recently made, produced, or harvested: fresh bread

freshen [ˈfreʃn] – v. become or make oneself fresh again: She freshened up after the tennis game

freshman [ˈfreʃmən] – n. a first-year undergraduate

fret [fret] – v. worry unnecessarily or excessively

friction [ˈfrikʃən] – n. a state of conflict between persons

Friday [ˈfraidi] – n. the sixth day of the week; the fifth working day

fridge [fridʒ] – n. a refrigerator in which the coolant is pumped around by an electric motor

friend [frend] – n. a person you know well and regard with affection and trust: he was my best friend at the university

friendly [ˈfrendli] – adj. inclined to help or support; not antagonistic or hostile: a government friendly to our interests

friendship [ˈfrendʃip] – n. the state of being friends (or friendly)

fright [frait] – v. cause fear in: The stranger who hangs around the building frightens me

frighten [ˈfraitən] – v. cause fear in: The stranger who hangs around the building frightens me

frightful [ˈfraitful] – adj. provoking horror: a frightful crime of decapitation

fringe [frindʒ] – n. the outside boundary or surface of something

frock [frɔk] – n. a habit worn by clerics

frog [frɔg] – n. any of various tailless stout-bodied amphibians with long hind limbs for leaping; semiaquatic and terrestrial species

front [frʌnt] – n. the side that is forward or prominent

frontier [ˈfrʌntjə] – n. a wilderness at the edge of a settled area of a country: the individualism of the frontier in Andrew Jackson’s day

frost [frɔst] – n. ice crystals forming a white deposit (especially on objects outside)

frosty [ˈfrɔsti] – adj. devoid of warmth and cordiality; expressive of unfriendliness or disdain: got a frosty reception

frown [fraun] – n. a facial expression of dislike or displeasure

frugal [ˈfru:gəl] – adj. avoiding waste: a frugal farmer

fruit [fru:t] – n. the ripened reproductive body of a seed plant

fruitful [ˈfru:tfəl] – adj. productive or conducive to producing in abundance: be fruitful and multiply

fruition [fru:ˈiʃən] – n. enjoyment derived from use or possession

frustrate [frʌsˈtreit] – v. hinder or prevent (the efforts, plans, or desires) of: What ultimately frustrated every challenger was Ruth’s amazing September surge

frustration [frʌsˈtreiʃən] – n. the feeling that accompanies an experience of being thwarted in attaining your goals

fry [frai] – n. English painter and art critic (1866-1934)

fuck [fʌk] – n. slang for sexual intercourse

fuel [ˈfjuəl] – v. provide with a combustible substance that provides energy: fuel aircraft, ships, and cars

fulfil  – v. put in effect

fulfill [ful.fil] – v. put in effect

fulfillment [fulˈfilmənt] – n. a feeling of satisfaction at having achieved your desires

full [ful] – adj. containing as much or as many as is possible or normal: a full glass

fully [ˈfuli] – adv. sufficiently; more than adequately: the evidence amply (or fully) confirms our suspicions

fumble [ˈfʌmbl] – v. feel about uncertainly or blindly

fume [fju:m] – v. emit a cloud of fine particles

fun [fʌn] – n. activities that are enjoyable or amusing: I do it for the fun of it

function [ˈfʌŋkʃən] – n. what something is used for: the function of an auger is to bore holes

functional [ˈfʌŋkʃənl] – adj. involving or affecting function rather than physiology: functional deafness

fund [fʌnd] – v. convert (short-term floating debt) into long-term debt that bears fixed interest and is represented by bonds

fundamental [.fʌndəˈmentl] – adj. serving as an essential component: an example that was fundamental to the argument

fundamentally  – adv. in essence; at bottom or by one’s (or its) very nature

funeral [ˈfju:nərəl] – n. a ceremony at which a dead person is buried or cremated: hundreds of people attended his funeral

funnel [ˈfʌnəl] – n. a conical shape with a wider and a narrower opening at the two ends

funny [ˈfʌni] – adj. arousing or provoking laughter: funny stories that made everybody laugh

fur [fə:] – n. the dressed hairy coat of a mammal

furious [ˈfjuəriəs] – adj. marked by extreme and violent energy: a furious battle

furnace [ˈfə:nis] – n. an enclosed chamber in which heat is produced to heat buildings, destroy refuse, smelt or refine ores, etc.

furnish [ˈfə:niʃ] – v. give something useful or necessary to

furniture [ˈfə:nitʃə] – n. furnishings that make a room or other area ready for occupancy: they had too much furniture for the small apartment

furrow [ˈfʌrəu] – v. make wrinkled or creased: furrow one’s brow

further [ˈfə:ðə] – v. promote the growth of

furthermore [ˈfə:ðəˈmɔ:] – adv. in addition: computer chess games are getting cheaper all the time; furthermore, their quality is improving

fury [ˈfjuəri] – n. a feeling of intense anger: hell hath no fury like a woman scorned

fuse [fju:z] – v. mix together different elements

fusion [ˈfju:ʒən] – n. an occurrence that involves the production of a union

fuss [fʌs] – n. an excited state of agitation

fussy [ˈfʌsi] – adj. annoyed and irritable

future [ˈfju:tʃə] – adj. yet to be or coming: some future historian will evaluate him

gaily [ˈgeili] – adv. in a gay manner: the scandals were gaily diverting

gain [gein] – v. obtain

galaxy [ˈgæləksi] – n. a splendid assemblage (especially of famous people)

gale [geil] – n. a strong wind moving 45-90 knots; force 7 to 10 on Beaufort scale

gallery [ˈgæləri] – n. spectators at a golf or tennis match

gallon [ˈgælən] – n. United States liquid unit equal to 4 quarts or 3.785 liters

gallop [ˈgæləp] – n. a fast gait of a horse; a two-beat stride during which all four legs are off the ground simultaneously

gamble [ˈgæmbl] – n. money that is risked for possible monetary gain

gambler [ˈgæmblə(r)] – n. a person who wagers money on the outcome of games or sporting events

game [geim] – n. a contest with rules to determine a winner: you need four people to play this game

gang [gæŋ] – n. an association of criminals: police tried to break up the gang

gangster [ˈgæŋstə] – n. a criminal who is a member of gang

gaol  – v. lock up or confine, in or as in a jail

gap [gæp] – n. a conspicuous disparity or difference as between two figures: gap between income and outgo

gape [geip] – n. an expression of openmouthed astonishment

garage [ˈgærɑ:ʒ] – n. an outbuilding (or part of a building) for housing automobiles

garbage [ˈgɑ:bidʒ] – n. food that is discarded (as from a kitchen)

garden [ˈgɑ:dn] – n. a plot of ground where plants are cultivated

gardener [ˈgɑ:dnə] – n. someone employed to work in a garden

gardening [ˈgɑ:dniŋ] – n. the cultivation of plants

garlic [ˈgɑ:lik] – n. bulbous herb of southern Europe widely naturalized; bulb breaks up into separate strong-flavored cloves

garment [ˈgɑ:mənt] – n. an article of clothing: garments of the finest silk

garrison [ˈgærisn] – n. a fortified military post where troops are stationed

gas [gæs] – n. a volatile flammable mixture of hydrocarbons (hexane and heptane and octane etc.) derived from petroleum; used mainly as a fuel in internal-combustion engines

gasoline [ˈgæsəli:n] – n. a volatile flammable mixture of hydrocarbons (hexane and heptane and octane etc.) derived from petroleum; used mainly as a fuel in internal-combustion engines

gasp [gɑ:sp] – n. a short labored intake of breath with the mouth open: she gave a gasp and fainted

gate [geit] – n. a movable barrier in a fence or wall

gather [ˈgæðə] – v. assemble or get together: gather some stones

gaudy [ˈgɔ:di] – adj. tastelessly showy: a gaudy costume

gauge [geidʒ] – v. judge tentatively or form an estimate of (quantities or time)

gaunt [gɔ:nt] – adj. very thin especially from disease or hunger or cold: a nightmare population of gaunt men and skeletal boys

gay [gei] – adj. bright and pleasant; promoting a feeling of cheer: a gay sunny room

gaze [geiz] – n. a long fixed look: he fixed his paternal gaze on me

gear [giə] – n. a toothed wheel that engages another toothed mechanism in order to change the speed or direction of transmitted motion

gem [dʒem] – n. art highly prized for its beauty or perfection

gene [dʒi:n] – n. (genetics) a segment of DNA that is involved in producing a polypeptide chain; it can include regions preceding and following the coding DNA as well as introns between the exons; it is considered a unit of heredity: genes were formerly called factors

general [ˈdʒenərəl] – adj. applying to all or most members of a category or group: the general public

generalization [.dʒenərəlaiˈzeiʃən] – n. an idea or conclusion having general application

generalize [ˈdʒenərəlaiz] – v. speak or write in generalities

generally [ˈdʒenərəli] – adv. usually; as a rule

generate [ˈdʒenəreit] – v. bring into existence: The new manager generated a lot of problems

generation [.dʒenəˈreiʃən] – n. all the people living at the same time or of approximately the same age

generator [ˈdʒenəreitə] – n. an apparatus that produces a vapor or gas

generic [dʒiˈnerik] – adj. relating to or common to or descriptive of all members of a genus: the generic name

generosity [.dʒenəˈrɔsiti] – n. the trait of being willing to give your money or time

generous [ˈdʒenərəs] – adj. willing to give and share unstintingly: a generous donation

genetic [dʒiˈnetik] – adj. occurring among members of a family usually by heredity: genetically transmitted features

genial [ˈdʒi:niəl] – adj. diffusing warmth and friendliness: a genial host

genius [ˈdʒi:njəs] – n. someone who has exceptional intellectual ability and originality: Mozart was a child genius

gentle [ˈdʒentl] – adj. soft and mild; not harsh or stern or severe: a gentle reprimand

gentleman [ˈdʒentlmən] – n. a man of refinement

gently [ˈdʒentli] – adv. in a gradual manner: a gently sloping terrain

genuine [ˈdʒenjuin] – adj. not fake or counterfeit: a genuine Picasso

geography [dʒiˈɔgrəfi] – n. study of the earth’s surface; includes people’s responses to topography and climate and soil and vegetation

geology [dʒiˈɔlədʒi] – n. a science that deals with the history of the earth as recorded in rocks

geometry [dʒiˈɔmitri] – n. the pure mathematics of points and lines and curves and surfaces

germ [dʒə:m] – n. anything that provides inspiration for later work

German [ˈdʒə:mən] – adj. of or pertaining to or characteristic of Germany or its people or language: German philosophers

Germany [ˈdʒə:məni] – n. a republic in central Europe; split into East Germany and West Germany after World War II and reunited in 1990

gesture [ˈdʒestʃə] – n. motion of hands or body to emphasize or help to express a thought or feeling

get [get] – v. come into the possession of something concrete or abstract

ghastly [ˈgɑ:stli] – adj. shockingly repellent; inspiring horror: ghastly wounds

ghost [gəust] – n. a mental representation of some haunting experience: he looked like he had seen a ghost

giant [ˈdʒaiənt] – n. any creature of exceptional size

gift [gift] – n. something acquired without compensation

gigantic [dʒaiˈgæntik] – adj. so exceedingly large or extensive as to suggest a giant or mammoth: a gigantic redwood

giggle [ˈgigl] – n. a foolish or nervous laugh

ginger [ˈdʒindʒə] – n. perennial plants having thick branching aromatic rhizomes and leafy reedlike stems

girl [gə:l] – n. a young woman

gist [dʒist] – n. the central meaning or theme of a speech or literary work

give [giv] – v. cause to have, in the abstract sense or physical sense

given [ˈgiv(ə)n] – adj. acknowledged as a supposition: given the engine’s condition, it is a wonder that it started

giver [ˈgivə] – n. someone who devotes himself completely: there are no greater givers than those who give themselves

glacier [ˈglæsiə] – n. a slowly moving mass of ice

glad [glæd] – adj. showing or causing joy and pleasure; especially made happy: glad you are here

glamour [ˈglæmə] – n. alluring beauty or charm (often with sex-appeal)

glance [glɑ:ns] – v. hit at an angle

gland [glænd] – n. any of various organs that synthesize substances needed by the body and release it through ducts or directly into the bloodstream

glare [glɛə] – n. a light within the field of vision that is brighter than the brightness to which the eyes are adapted: a glare of sunlight

glass [glɑ:s] – n. a brittle transparent solid with irregular atomic structure

glassware [ˈglɑ:swɛə] – n. an article of tableware made of glass

gleam [gli:m] – v. be shiny, as if wet

glide [glaid] – n. a vowellike sound that serves as a consonant

glimmer [ˈglimə] – n. a flash of light (especially reflected light)

glimpse [glimps] – n. a quick look

glisten [glisn] – n. the quality of shining with a bright reflected light

glitter [ˈglitə] – n. the quality of shining with a bright reflected light

global [ˈgləubəl] – adj. involving the entire earth; not limited or provincial in scope: global war

globalization [.gləʊbəlaiˈzeiʃən] – n. growth to a global or worldwide scale: the globalization of the communication industry

globalize [ˈgləubəlaiz] – v. make world-wide in scope or application: Markets are being increasingly globalized

globe [gləub] – n. the 3rd planet from the sun; the planet we live on

gloom [glu:m] – n. a state of partial or total darkness: he struck a match to dispel the gloom

gloomy [ˈglu:mi] – adj. depressingly dark: the gloomy forest

glorify [ˈglɔ:rifai] – v. bestow glory upon

glorious [ˈglɔ:riəs] – adj. characterized by grandeur: a glorious work of art

glory [ˈglɔ:ri] – n. a state of high honor: he valued glory above life itself

gloss [glɔs] – n. an explanation or definition of an obscure word in a text

glossary [ˈglɔsəri] – n. an alphabetical list of technical terms in some specialized field of knowledge; usually published as an appendix to a text on that field

glove [glʌv] – n. the handwear used by fielders in playing baseball

glow [gləu] – n. an alert and refreshed state

glue [glu:] – n. cement consisting of a sticky substance that is used as an adhesive

glut [glʌt] – v. overeat or eat immodestly; make a pig of oneself

gnaw [nɔ:] – v. bite or chew on with the teeth: gnaw an old cracker

GNP [dʒi:enˈpi:] – n. former measure of the United States economy; the total market value of goods and services produced by all citizens and capital during a given period (usually 1 yr)

go [gəu] – v. follow a procedure or take a course: We should go farther in this matter

goad [gəud] – v. give heart or courage to

goal [gəul] – n. the place designated as the end (as of a race or journey)

goat [gəut] – n. any of numerous agile ruminants related to sheep but having a beard and straight horns

goddess [ˈgɔdis] – n. a female deity

gold [gəuld] – n. a deep yellow color: he admired the gold of her hair

golden [ˈgəuldən] – adj. marked by peace and prosperity: a golden era

golf [gɔlf] – n. a game played on a large open course with 9 or 18 holes; the object is use as few strokes as possible in playing all the holes

good [gud] – adj. having desirable or positive qualities especially those suitable for a thing specified: good news from the hospital

goodness [ˈgudnis] – n. that which is pleasing or valuable or useful

goodwill [ˈgudˈwil] – n. the friendly hope that something will succeed

goose [gu:s] – n. web-footed long-necked typically gregarious migratory aquatic birds usually larger and less aquatic than ducks

gorge [gɔ:dʒ] – n. a deep ravine (usually with a river running through it)

gorgeous [ˈgɔ:dʒəs] – adj. dazzlingly beautiful: a gorgeous Victorian gown

gorilla [gəˈrilə] – n. largest anthropoid ape; terrestrial and vegetarian; of forests of central west Africa

gossip [ˈgɔsip] – n. light informal conversation for social occasions

govern [ˈgʌvən] – v. bring into conformity with rules or principles or usage; impose regulations

governess [ˈgʌvənis] – n. a woman entrusted with the care and supervision of a child (especially in a private home)

government [ˈgʌvənmənt] – n. the act of governing; exercising authority: he had considerable experience of government

governor [ˈgʌvənə] – n. a control that maintains a steady speed in a machine (as by controlling the supply of fuel)

gown [gaun] – n. a woman’s dress, usually with a close-fitting bodice and a long flared skirt, often worn on formal occasions

grab [græb] – v. take hold of so as to seize or restrain or stop the motion of

grace [greis] – n. (Christian theology) a state of sanctification by God; the state of one who is under such divine influence: the conception of grace developed alongside the conception of sin

graceful [ˈgreisfəl] – adj. characterized by beauty of movement, style, form, or execution

gracious [ˈgreiʃəs] – adj. characterized by charm, good taste, and generosity of spirit: gracious even to unexpected visitors

grade [greid] – n. a body of students who are taught together

gradual [ˈgrædjuəl] – adj. proceeding in small stages: a gradual increase in prices

gradually [ˈgrædjʊəli] – adv. in a gradual manner: the snake moved gradually toward its victim

graduate [ˈgrædjueit] – v. receive an academic degree upon completion of one’s studies: She graduated in 1990

graduation [.grædjuˈeiʃən] – n. the successful completion of a program of study

grain [grein] – n. a relatively small granular particle of a substance: a grain of sand

gram [græm] – n. Danish physician and bacteriologist who developed a method of staining bacteria to distinguish among them (1853-1938)

grammar [ˈgræmə] – n. the branch of linguistics that deals with syntax and morphology (and sometimes also deals with semantics)

grammatical [grəˈmætikəl] – adj. conforming to the rules of grammar or usage accepted by native speakers: spoke in grammatical sentences

gramophone [ˈgræməfəun] – n. an antique record player; the sound of the vibrating needle is amplified acoustically

granary [ˈgrænəri] – n. a storehouse for threshed grain or animal feed

grand [grænd] – adj. of behavior that is impressive and ambitious in scale or scope: in the grand manner

grandchild [ˈgrændtʃaild] – n. a child of your son or daughter

granddaughter [ˈgræn.dɔ:tə] – n. a female grandchild

grandfather [ˈgrænd.fɑ:ðə] – n. the father of your father or mother

grandmother [ˈgrænd.mʌðə] – n. the mother of your father or mother

grandparent [ˈgrændpeərənt] – n. a parent of your father or mother

grandson [ˈgrændsʌn] – n. a male grandchild

granite [ˈgrænit] – n. plutonic igneous rock having visibly crystalline texture; generally composed of feldspar and mica and quartz

grant [grɑ:nt] – n. any monetary aid

granular [ˈgrænjulə] – adj. composed of or covered with particles resembling meal in texture or consistency: granular sugar

grape [greip] – n. any of various juicy fruit of the genus Vitis with green or purple skins; grow in clusters

graph [græf,grɑ:f] – n. a visual representation of the relations between certain quantities plotted with reference to a set of axes

graphic [ˈgræfik] – adj. written or drawn or engraved: graphic symbols

grasp [grɑ:sp] – n. understanding of the nature or meaning or quality or magnitude of something: he has a good grasp of accounting practices

grass [grɑ:s] – n. German writer of novels and poetry and plays (born 1927)

grasshopper [ˈgrɑ:shɔpər] – n. terrestrial plant-eating insect with hind legs adapted for leaping

grate [greit] – v. gnaw into; make resentful or angry

grateful [ˈgreitfəl] – adj. affording comfort or pleasure: the grateful warmth of the fire

gratify [ˈgrætifai] – v. make happy or satisfied

gratis [grætis] – adj. costing nothing

gratitude [ˈgrætitju:d] – n. a feeling of thankfulness and appreciation: he was overwhelmed with gratitude for their help

gratuity [grəˈtju:iti] – n. a relatively small amount of money given for services rendered (as by a waiter)

grave [greiv] – n. death of a person: he went to his grave without forgiving me

gravel [ˈgrævəl] – v. cause annoyance in; disturb, especially by minor irritations

gravity [ˈgræviti] – n. a manner that is serious and solemn

graze [greiz] – v. feed as in a meadow or pasture

grease [gri:s] – n. a thick fatty oil (especially one used to lubricate machinery)

great [greit] – adj. relatively large in size or number or extent; larger than others of its kind: a great juicy steak

greatly [ˈgreitli] – adv. to an extraordinary extent or degree: he improved greatly

greatness [ˈgreitnis] – n. the property possessed by something or someone of outstanding importance or eminence

Greece [gri:s] – n. a republic in southeastern Europe on the southern part of the Balkan peninsula; known for grapes and olives and olive oil

greed [gri:d] – n. excessive desire to acquire or possess more (especially more material wealth) than one needs or deserves

greedy [ˈgri:di] – adj. immoderately desirous of acquiring e.g. wealth: greedy for money and power

Greek [gri:k] – n. the Hellenic branch of the Indo-European family of languages

green [gri:n] – n. a piece of open land for recreational use in an urban area

greengrocer [ˈgri:ngrəʊsə(r)] – n. a grocer who sells fresh fruits and vegetables

greenhouse [ˈgri:nhaus] – n. a building with glass walls and roof; for the cultivation and exhibition of plants under controlled conditions

greet [gri:t] – v. react to in a certain way: The President was greeted with catcalls

grey [grei] – n. United States writer of western adventure novels (1875-1939)

grid [grid] – n. a pattern of regularly spaced horizontal and vertical lines

grief [gri:f] – n. intense sorrow caused by loss of a loved one (especially by death)

grieve [gri:v] – v. cause to feel sorrow: his behavior grieves his mother

grill [gril] – n. a framework of metal bars used as a partition or a grate: he cooked hamburgers on the grill

grim [grim] – adj. not to be placated or appeased or moved by entreaty: grim determination

grin [grin] – n. a facial expression characterized by turning up the corners of the mouth; usually shows pleasure or amusement

grind [graind] – v. work hard

grip [grip] – n. the appendage to an object that is designed to be held in order to use or move it: it was an old briefcase but it still had a good grip

grit [grit] – n. fortitude and determination

groan [grəun] – n. an utterance expressing pain or disapproval

grocer [ˈgrəusə] – n. a retail merchant who sells foodstuffs (and some household supplies)

grocery [ˈgrəusəri] – n. (usually plural) consumer goods sold by a grocer

groove [gru:v] – n. a settled and monotonous routine that is hard to escape

grope [grəup] – v. feel about uncertainly or blindly: She groped for her glasses in the darkness of the bedroom

gross [grəus] – adj. before any deductions: gross income

ground [graund] – v. fix firmly and stably

groundless [ˈgaundlis] – adj. without a basis in reason or fact: the allegations proved groundless

group [gru:p] – n. any number of entities (members) considered as a unit

grove [grəuv] – n. garden consisting of a small cultivated wood without undergrowth

grow [grəu] – v. become larger, greater, or bigger; expand or gain

growl [graul] – v. to utter or emit low dull rumbling sounds

grown [grəun] – adj. (of animals) fully developed: a grown woman

growth [grəuθ] – n. a progression from simpler to more complex forms: the growth of culture

grudge [grʌdʒ] – v. accept or admit unwillingly

grumble [ˈgrʌmbl] – v. show one’s unhappiness or critical attitude: We grumbled about the increased work load

grunt [grʌnt] – n. an unskilled or low-ranking soldier or other worker: infantrymen in Vietnam were called grunts

guarantee [.gærənˈti:] – v. give surety or assume responsibility

guard [gɑ:d] – n. a person who keeps watch over something or someone

guardian [ˈgɑ:djən] – n. a person who cares for persons or property

guess [ges] – v. expect, believe, or suppose: I guess she is angry at me for standing her up

guest [gest] – n. a visitor to whom hospitality is extended

guesthouse [ˈgesthaʊs] – n. a house separate from the main house; for housing guests

guidance [ˈgaidəns] – n. something that provides direction or advice as to a decision or course of action

guide [gaid] – n. someone employed to conduct others

guideline [ˈgaidlain] – n. a light line that is used in lettering to help align the letters

guild [gild] – n. a formal association of people with similar interests

guilt [gilt] – n. the state of having committed an offense

guilty [ˈgilti] – adj. responsible for or chargeable with a reprehensible act: guilty of murder

guitar [giˈtɑ:] – n. a stringed instrument usually having six strings; played by strumming or plucking

gulf [gʌlf] – n. an arm of a sea or ocean partly enclosed by land; larger than a bay

gulp [gʌlp] – n. a large and hurried swallow: he finished it at a single gulp

gum [gʌm] – n. a preparation (usually made of sweetened chicle) for chewing

gun [gʌn] – n. a weapon that discharges a missile at high velocity (especially from a metal tube or barrel)

gunpowder [ˈgʌnpaʊdə(r)] – n. a mixture of potassium nitrate, charcoal, and sulfur in a 75:15:10 ratio which is used in gunnery, time fuses, and fireworks

gush [gʌʃ] – v. praise enthusiastically

gust [gʌst] – n. a strong current of air: the tree was bent almost double by the gust

gutter [ˈgʌtə] – n. a channel along the eaves or on the roof; collects and carries away rainwater

guy [gai] – n. an informal term for a youth or man: a nice guy

gymnasium [dʒimˈneiziəm] – n. a school for students intermediate between elementary school and college; usually grades 9 to 12

gymnast [ˈdʒimnæst] – n. an athlete who is skilled in gymnastics

gymnastics [dʒimˈnæstiks] – n. a sport that involves exercises intended to display strength and balance and agility

habitual [həˈbitjuəl] – adj. commonly used or practiced; usual: his habitual comment

haggard [ˈhægəd] – adj. showing the wearing effects of overwork or care or suffering: her face was drawn and haggard from sleeplessness

haggle [ˈhægl] – n. an instance of intense argument (as in bargaining)

hail [heil] – v. praise vociferously: The critics hailed the young pianist as a new Rubinstein

hair [hɛə] – n. a very small distance or space: they escaped by a hair’s-breadth

haircut [ˈhɛəkʌt] – n. the act of cutting the hair

hairdresser [ˈhɛədresə] – n. someone who cuts or beautifies hair

hairpin [ˈhɛəpin] – n. a double pronged pin used to hold women’s hair in place

hairy [ˈhɛəri] – adj. hazardous and frightening: hairy moments in the mountains

half [hɑ:f] – adj. consisting of one of two equivalent parts in value or quantity: a half chicken

halfway [ˈhɑ:fˈwei] – adj. equally distant from the extremes

hall [hɔ:l] – n. an interior passage or corridor onto which rooms open: the elevators were at the end of the hall

hallmark [ˈhɔ:lmɑ:k] – n. a distinctive characteristic or attribute

halt [hɔ:lt] – v. cause to stop: halt the presses

halve [hɑ:v] – v. divide by two; divide into halves

ham [hæm] – n. meat cut from the thigh of a hog (usually smoked)

hamburger [ˈhæmbə:gə] – n. a sandwich consisting of a fried cake of minced beef served on a bun, often with other ingredients

hammer [ˈhæmə] – n. the part of a gunlock that strikes the percussion cap when the trigger is pulled

hamper [ˈhæmpə] – n. a restraint that confines or restricts freedom (especially something used to tie down or restrain a prisoner)

hand [hænd] – n. the (prehensile) extremity of the superior limb: he had the hands of a surgeon

handbag [ˈhændbæg] – n. a container used for carrying money and small personal items or accessories (especially by women)

handbook [ˈhændbuk] – n. a concise reference book providing specific information about a subject or location

handful [ˈhændful] – n. a small number or amount: only a handful of responses were received

handicap [ˈhændikæp] – n. the condition of being unable to perform as a consequence of physical or mental unfitness

handicapped [ˈhændikæpt] – adj. incapable of functioning as a consequence of injury or illness

handkerchief [ˈhæŋkətʃif] – n. a square piece of cloth used for wiping the eyes or nose or as a costume accessory

handle [ˈhændl] – v. be in charge of, act on, or dispose of: This blender can’t handle nuts

handling [ˈhændliŋ] – n. manual (or mechanical) carrying or moving or delivering or working with something

handout [ˈhændaut] – n. an announcement distributed to members of the press in order to supplement or replace an oral presentation

handsome [ˈhænsəm] – adj. pleasing in appearance especially by reason of conformity to ideals of form and proportion: very pretty but not so extraordinarily handsome

handwriting [ˈhænd.raitiŋ] – n. something written by hand: she recognized his handwriting

handy [ˈhændi] – adj. easy to reach: found a handy spot for the can opener

hang [hæŋ] – v. let drop or droop

hanger [ˈhæŋə] – n. anything from which something can be hung

haphazard [ˈhæpˈhæzəd] – adj. dependent upon or characterized by chance: a haphazard plan of action

happen [ˈhæpən] – v. come to pass: What is happening?

happily [ˈhæpili] – adv. in a joyous manner: they shouted happily

happiness [ˈhæpinis] – n. state of well-being characterized by emotions ranging from contentment to intense joy

happy [ˈhæpi] – adj. enjoying or showing or marked by joy or pleasure: a happy smile

harass [ˈhærəs] – v. annoy continually or chronically: This man harasses his female co-workers

harassment [ˈhærəsmənt] – n. a feeling of intense annoyance caused by being tormented: so great was his harassment that he wanted to destroy his tormentors

harbor [ˈhɑ:bə] – v. maintain (a theory, thoughts, or feelings): harbor a resentment

harbour  – v. secretly shelter (as of fugitives or criminals)

hard [hɑ:d] – adj. not easy; requiring great physical or mental effort to accomplish or comprehend or endure: why is it so hard for you to keep a secret?

harden [ˈhɑ:dn] – v. make hard or harder: The cold hardened the butter

hardly [ˈhɑ:dli] – adv. only a very short time before: we hardly knew them

hardness [ˈhɑ:dnis] – n. the property of being rigid and resistant to pressure; not easily scratched; measured on Mohs scale

hardship [ˈhɑ:dʃip] – n. a state of misfortune or affliction: a life of hardship

hardware [ˈhɑ:dwɛə] – n. major items of military weaponry (as tanks or missile)

hardy [ˈhɑ:di] – adj. able to survive under unfavorable weather conditions: strawberries are hardy and easy to grow

hare [hɛə] – n. swift timid long-eared mammal larger than a rabbit having a divided upper lip and long hind legs; young born furred and with open eyes

harm [hɑ:m] – n. any physical damage to the body caused by violence or accident or fracture etc.

harmful [ˈhɑ:mfəl] – adj. causing or capable of causing harm: too much sun is harmful to the skin

harmless [ˈhɑ:mlis] – adj. not causing or capable of causing harm: harmless bacteria

harmonious [hɑ:ˈməunjəs] – adj. musically pleasing

harmony [ˈhɑ:məni] – n. compatibility in opinion and action

harness [ˈhɑ:nis] – v. exploit the power of: harness natural forces and resources

harsh [hɑ:ʃ] – adj. unpleasantly stern: wild and harsh country full of hot sand and cactus

harvest [ˈhɑ:vist] – n. the yield from plants in a single growing season

haste [heist] – n. overly eager speed (and possible carelessness): he soon regretted his haste

hasten [ˈheisn] – v. act or move at high speed

hasty [ˈheisti] – adj. excessively quick: made a hasty exit

hat [hæt] – n. an informal term for a person’s role: he took off his politician’s hat and talked frankly

hatch [hætʃ] – v. emerge from the eggs: young birds, fish, and reptiles hatch

hate [heit] – n. the emotion of intense dislike; a feeling of dislike so strong that it demands action

hateful [ˈheitfəl] – adj. evoking or deserving hatred: no vice is universally as hateful as ingratitude

hatred [ˈheitrid] – n. the emotion of intense dislike; a feeling of dislike so strong that it demands action

haughty [ˈhɔ:ti] – adj. having or showing arrogant superiority to and disdain of those one views as unworthy: haughty aristocrats

haul [hɔ:l] – n. the quantity that was caught

haunt [hɔ:nt] – v. follow stealthily or recur constantly and spontaneously to: the ghost of her mother haunted her

have [hæv] – v. go through (mental or physical states or experiences): have a feeling

haven [ˈheivən] – n. a shelter serving as a place of safety or sanctuary

havoc [ˈhævək] – n. violent and needless disturbance

hawk [hɔ:k] – n. an advocate of an aggressive policy on foreign relations

hay [hei] – n. grass mowed and cured for use as fodder

hazard [ˈhæzəd] – n. a source of danger; a possibility of incurring loss or misfortune: drinking alcohol is a health hazard

hazardous [ˈhæzədəs] – adj. involving risk or danger: skydiving is a hazardous sport

he [hi:] – n. a very light colorless element that is one of the six inert gasses; the most difficult gas to liquefy; occurs in economically extractable amounts in certain natural gases (as those found in Texas and Kansas)

head [hed] – n. a single domestic animal: 200 head of cattle

headache [ˈhedeik] – n. something or someone that causes anxiety; a source of unhappiness

heading [ˈhediŋ] – n. a line of text serving to indicate what the passage below it is about: the heading seemed to have little to do with the text

headline [ˈhedlain] – n. the heading or caption of a newspaper article

headlong [ˈhedlɔŋ] – adj. excessively quick: a headlong rush to sell

headmaster [ˈhedˈmɑ:stə] – n. presiding officer of a school

headquarters [ˈhedˈkwɔ:təz] – n. (usually plural) the office that serves as the administrative center of an enterprise: many companies have their headquarters in New York

headstrong [ˈhedstrɔŋ] – adj. habitually disposed to disobedience and opposition

heal [hi:l] – v. provide a cure for, make healthy again: The quack pretended to heal patients but never managed to

health [helθ] – n. the general condition of body and mind: his delicate health

healthy [ˈhelθi] – adj. financially secure and functioning well: a healthy economy

heap [hi:p] – n. (often followed by `of’) a large number or amount or extent

hear [hiə] – v. get to know or become aware of, usually accidentally

heart [hɑ:t] – n. the locus of feelings and intuitions: in your heart you know it is true

heartfelt [ˈhɑ:tfelt] – adj. earnest: heartfelt condolences

hearth [hɑ:θ] – n. an open recess in a wall at the base of a chimney where a fire can be built: he laid a fire in the hearth and lit it

heartily [ˈhɑ:tili] – adv. with gusto and without reservation: the boy threw himself heartily into his work

hearty [ˈhɑ:ti] – adj. providing abundant nourishment: a hearty meal

heat [hi:t] – n. a form of energy that is transferred by a difference in temperature

heating [ˈhi:tiŋ] – n. the process of becoming warmer; a rising temperature

heave [hi:v] – v. utter a sound, as with obvious effort: She heaved a deep sigh when she saw the list of things to do

heaven [ˈhevn] – n. any place of complete bliss and delight and peace

heavily [ˈhevili] – adv. to a considerable degree: he relied heavily on others’ data

heavy [ˈhevi] – adj. of comparatively great physical weight or density: a heavy load

hectic [ˈhektik] – adj. marked by intense agitation or emotion

hedge [hedʒ] – v. avoid or try to avoid fulfilling, answering, or performing (duties, questions, or issues)

hedgehog [ˈhedʒhɔ:g] – n. relatively large rodents with sharp erectile bristles mingled with the fur

heed [hi:d] – n. paying particular notice (as to children or helpless people): he spends without heed to the consequences

heel [hi:l] – n. the back part of the human foot

height [hait] – n. the vertical dimension of extension; distance from the base of something to the top

heighten [ˈhaitn] – v. become more extreme: The tension heightened

heir [ɛə] – n. a person who inherits some title or office

heiress [ˈeəris] – n. a female heir

helicopter [ˈhelikɔptə] – n. an aircraft without wings that obtains its lift from the rotation of overhead blades

hell [hel] – n. any place of pain and turmoil: the hell of battle

hello [həˈləu] – n. an expression of greeting: every morning they exchanged polite hellos

helmet [ˈhelmit] – n. armor plate that protects the head

help [help] – v. improve the condition of: These pills will help the patient

helpful [ˈhelpfəl] – adj. providing assistance or serving a useful function

helpless [ˈhelplis] – adj. lacking in or deprived of strength or power: lying ill and helpless

hemisphere [ˈhemisfiə] – n. half of the terrestrial globe

hen [hen] – n. adult female chicken

hence [hens] – adv. (used to introduce a logical conclusion) from that fact or reason or as a result: the eggs were fresh and hence satisfactory

henceforth [hensˈfɔ:θ] – adv. from this time forth; from now on: henceforth she will be known as Mrs. Smith

herald [ˈherəld] – v. foreshadow or presage

herb [hə:b] – n. a plant lacking a permanent woody stem; many are flowering garden plants or potherbs; some having medicinal properties; some are pests

herbal [ˈhə:bəl] – n. tea-like drink made of leaves of various herbs

herd [hə:d] – n. a group of wild mammals of one species that remain together: antelope or elephants or seals or whales or zebra

here [hiə] – adv. in this circumstance or respect or on this point or detail: what do we have here?

hereafter [hiərˈɑ:ftə] – adv. in a future life or state: hope to win salvation hereafter

hereby [ˈhiəˈbai] – adv. (formal) by means of this: I hereby declare you man and wife

hereditary [hiˈreditəri] – adj. inherited or inheritable by established rules (usually legal rules) of descent: hereditary monarchy

herein [ˈhiərin] – adv. in this place or thing or document: I shall discuss the question herein

hereinafter [ˈhiərinˈɑ:ftə] – adv. in a subsequent part of this document or statement or matter etc.: the landlord demises unto the tenant the premises hereinafter called the demised premises

hereof [hiərˈɔv] – adv. of or concerning this: the twigs hereof are physic

hereto [ˈhiətu:] – adv. to this writing or document: the charts hereto attached

herewith [hiəˈwið] – adv. (formal) by means of this

heritage [ˈheritidʒ] – n. practices that are handed down from the past by tradition: a heritage of freedom

hero [ˈhiərəu] – n. the principal character in a play or movie or novel or poem

heroic [hiˈrəuik] – adj. very imposing or impressive; surpassing the ordinary (especially in size or scale): of heroic proportions

heroine [ˈherəuin] – n. the main good female character in a work of fiction

hesitant [ˈhezitənt] – adj. lacking decisiveness of character; unable to act or decide quickly or firmly

hesitate [ˈheziteit] – v. pause or hold back in uncertainty or unwillingness: Authorities hesitate to quote exact figures

hesitation [.heziˈteiʃən] – n. indecision in speech or action

hide [haid] – v. prevent from being seen or discovered: Muslim women hide their faces

hideous [ˈhidiəs] – adj. grossly offensive to decency or morality; causing horror: a hideous pattern of injustice

hierarchy [ˈhaiərɑ:ki] – n. a series of ordered groupings of people or things within a system: put honesty first in her hierarchy of values

high [hai] – n. a lofty level or position or degree: summer temperatures reached an all-time high

highland [ˈhailənd] – n. elevated (e.g., mountainous) land

highlight [ˈhailait] – n. the most interesting or memorable part: the highlight of the tour was our visit to the Vatican

highly [ˈhaili] – adv. at a high rate or wage: highly paid workers

highway [ˈhaiwei] – n. a major road for any form of motor transport

hijack [ˈhaidʒæk] – v. take arbitrarily or by force

hijacker [ˈhaidʒækə] – n. a holdup man who stops a vehicle and steals from it

hike [haik] – n. a long walk usually for exercise or pleasure: she enjoys a hike in her spare time

hilarious [həˈleəriəs] – adj. marked by or causing boisterous merriment or convulsive laughter: hilarious broad comedy

hill [hil] – n. a local and well-defined elevation of the land: they loved to roam the hills of West Virginia

hillside [ˈhilˈsaid] – n. the side or slope of a hill

hind [haind] – n. any of several mostly spotted fishes that resemble groupers

hinder [ˈhində] – v. be a hindrance or obstacle to

hindrance [ˈhindrəns] – n. something immaterial that interferes with or delays action or progress

hinge [hindʒ] – n. a joint that holds two parts together so that one can swing relative to the other

hint [hint] – n. an indirect suggestion

hinterland [ˈhintəlænd] – n. a remote and undeveloped area

hip [hip] – n. either side of the body below the waist and above the thigh

hire [ˈhaiə] – v. hold under a lease or rental agreement; of goods and services

hiss [his] – v. move with a whooshing sound

historian [hisˈtɔ:riən] – n. a person who is an authority on history and who studies it and writes about it

historic [hisˈtɔ:rik] – adj. belonging to the past; of what is important or famous in the past: historic victories

historical [hisˈtɔ:rikəl] – adj. having once lived or existed or taken place in the real world as distinct from being legendary: the historical Jesus

history [ˈhistəri] – n. the aggregate of past events: a critical time in the school’s history

hit [hit] – v. cause to move by striking: hit a ball

hitchhike [ˈhitʃhaik] – v. travel by getting free rides from motorists

hitherto [ˈhiðəˈtu:] – adv. used in negative statement to describe a situation that has existed up to this point or up to the present time

hoarse [hɔ:s] – adj. deep and harsh sounding as if from shouting or illness or emotion: hoarse cries

hobby [ˈhɔbi] – n. an auxiliary activity

hoe [həu] – n. a tool with a flat blade attached at right angles to a long handle

hoist [hɔist] – v. raise or haul up with or as if with mechanical help: hoist the bicycle onto the roof of the car

hold [həuld] – v. keep in a certain state, position, or activity; e.g.,: hold in place

holdall [ˈhəuldɔ:l] – n. a capacious bag or basket

holder [ˈhəuldə] – n. a person who holds something

holding [ˈhəuldiŋ] – n. the act of retaining something

hole [həul] – n. an opening into or through something

holiday [ˈhɔlədi] – n. leisure time away from work devoted to rest or pleasure: we took a short holiday in Puerto Rico

hollow [ˈhɔləu] – n. a cavity or space in something: hunger had caused the hollows in their cheeks

holocaust [ˈhɔləkɔ:st] – n. an act of mass destruction and loss of life (especially in war or by fire): a nuclear holocaust

holy [ˈhəuli] – n. a sacred place of pilgrimage

home [həum] – n. where you live at a particular time: deliver the package to my home

homeless [ˈhəumlis] – n. someone unfortunate without housing: a homeless was found murdered in Central Park

homely [ˈhəumli] – adj. lacking in physical beauty or proportion: a homely child

homesick [ˈhəumsik] – adj. longing to return home

homework [ˈhəumwə:k] – n. preparatory school work done outside school (especially at home)

homogeneous [.hɔməˈdʒi:niəs] – adj. all of the same or similar kind or nature: a close-knit homogeneous group

homogenous [həˈmɔdʒinəs] – adj. all of the same or similar kind or nature

honest [ˈɔnist] – adj. not disposed to cheat or defraud; not deceptive or fraudulent: honest lawyers

honesty [ˈɔnisti] – n. the quality of being honest

honey [ˈhʌni] – n. a sweet yellow liquid produced by bees

honeymoon [ˈhʌnimu:n] – n. a holiday taken by a newly married couple

honor [ˈɔnə] – n. a tangible symbol signifying approval or distinction

honorable [ˈɔnərəbəl] – adj. not disposed to cheat or defraud; not deceptive or fraudulent

hook [huk] – v. rip off; ask an unreasonable price

hop [hɔp] – v. jump lightly

hope [həup] – n. the general feeling that some desire will be fulfilled: in spite of his troubles he never gave up hope

hopeful [ˈhəupfəl] – adj. full or promise: a hopeful new singer on Broadway

hopefully [ˈhəʊpfʊli] – adv. it is hoped: hopefully the weather will be fine on Sunday

hopeless [ˈhəuplisli] – adj. of a person unable to do something skillfully: I’m hopeless at mathematics

horizon [həˈraizn] – n. the line at which the sky and Earth appear to meet

horizontal [.hɔriˈzɔntl] – adj. parallel to or in the plane of the horizon or a base line: a horizontal surface

horn [hɔ:n] – n. a noisemaker (as at parties or games) that makes a loud noise when you blow through it

horrible [ˈhɔrəbl] – adj. provoking horror: war is beyond all words horrible

horrify [ˈhɔrifai] – v. fill with apprehension or alarm; cause to be unpleasantly surprised

horror [ˈhɔrə] – n. intense and profound fear

horse [hɔ:s] – n. solid-hoofed herbivorous quadruped domesticated since prehistoric times

horsepower [ˈhɔ:s.pauə] – n. a unit of power equal to 746 watts

horticulture [ˈhɔ:ti.kʌltʃə] – n. the cultivation of plants

hose [həuz] – n. socks and stockings and tights collectively (the British include underwear)

hospitable [ˈhɔspitəbl] – adj. favorable to life and growth: soil sufficiently hospitable for forest growth

hospital [ˈhɔspitl] – n. a health facility where patients receive treatment

hospitality [.hɔspiˈtæliti] – n. kindness in welcoming guests or strangers

host [həust] – n. a vast multitude

hostage [ˈhɔstidʒ] – n. a prisoner who is held by one party to insure that another party will meet specified terms

hostel [ˈhɔstəl] – n. a hotel providing overnight lodging for travelers

hostess [ˈhəustis] – n. a woman innkeeper

hostile [ˈhɔstail] – adj. characterized by enmity or ill will: a hostile nation

hot [hɔt] – adj. characterized by violent and forceful activity or movement; very intense: the fighting became hot and heavy

hotel [həuˈtel] – n. a building where travelers can pay for lodging and meals and other services

hound [haund] – n. any of several breeds of dog used for hunting typically having large drooping ears

hour [auə] – n. a period of time equal to 1/24th of a day: the job will take more than an hour

house [haus] – n. a dwelling that serves as living quarters for one or more families: he has a house on Cape Cod

household [ˈhaushəuld] – n. a social unit living together: It was a good Christian household

housekeeper [ˈhaʊski:pə(r)] – n. a servant who is employed to perform domestic task in a household

housewife [ˈhauswaif] – n. a wife who manages a household while her husband earns the family income

housework [ˈhauswə:k] – n. the work of cleaning and running a house

hover [ˈhʌvə] – v. be undecided about something; waver between conflicting positions or courses of action

however [hauˈevə] – adv. despite anything to the contrary (usually following a concession): although I’m a little afraid, however I’d like to try it

howl [haul] – v. emit long loud cries: howl with sorrow

hubbub [ˈhʌbʌb] – n. loud confused noise from many sources

huddle [ˈhʌdl] – n. (informal) a quick private conference

hug [hʌg] – v. squeeze (someone) tightly in your arms, usually with fondness: He hugged her close to him

huge [hju:dʒ] – adj. unusually great in size or amount or degree or especially extent or scope: huge government spending

hull [hʌl] – n. dry outer covering of a fruit or seed or nut

hum [hʌm] – v. sing with closed lips: She hummed a melody

human [ˈhju:mən] – adj. relating to a person: the experiment was conducted on 6 monkeys and 2 human subjects

humane [hju:ˈmein] – adj. marked or motivated by concern with the alleviation of suffering

humanism [ˈhju:mənizəm] – n. the doctrine emphasizing a person’s capacity for self-realization through reason; rejects religion and the supernatural

humanitarian [hju(:).mæniˈtɛəriən] – n. someone devoted to the promotion of human welfare and to social reforms

humanity [hju:ˈmæniti] – n. the quality of being human

humble [ˈhʌmbl] – adj. low or inferior in station or quality: a humble cottage

humdrum [ˈhʌmdrʌm] – adj. not challenging; dull and lacking excitement

humid [ˈhju:mid] – adj. containing or characterized by a great deal of water vapor: humid air

humidity [hju:ˈmiditi] – n. wetness in the atmosphere

humiliate [hju:ˈmilieit] – v. cause to feel shame; hurt the pride of: He humiliated his colleague by criticising him in front of the boss

humiliation [hju:.miliˈeiʃən] – n. state of disgrace or loss of self-respect

humor [ˈhju:mə] – n. a message whose ingenuity or verbal skill or incongruity has the power to evoke laughter

humorous [ˈhju:mərəs] – adj. full of or characterized by humor: humorous stories

hundred [ˈhʌndrəd] – n. ten 10s

hundredth [ˈhʌndrədθ] – n. position 100 in a countable series of things

hunger [ˈhʌŋgə] – v. feel the need to eat

hungry [ˈhʌŋgri] – adj. (usually followed by `for’) extremely desirous: hungry for recognition

hunt [hʌnt] – n. Englishman and Pre-Raphaelite painter (1827-1910)

hunter [ˈhʌntə] – n. a person who searches for something: a treasure hunter

hurl [hə:l] – v. throw forcefully

hurrah [hʊˈrɑ:] – n. a victory cheer: let’s give the team a big hurrah

hurricane [ˈhʌrikən] – n. a severe tropical cyclone usually with heavy rains and winds moving a 73-136 knots (12 on the Beaufort scale)

hurry [ˈhʌri] – n. overly eager speed (and possible carelessness)

hurt [hə:t] – v. be the source of pain

husband [ˈhʌzbənd] – n. a married man; a woman’s partner in marriage

hush [hʌʃ] – v. become quiet or still; fall silent: hush my baby!

hustle [ˈhʌsl] – v. cause to move furtively and hurriedly: The secret service agents hustled the speaker out of the amphitheater

hut [hʌt] – n. temporary military shelter

hydraulic [haiˈdrɔ:lik] – adj. moved or operated or effected by liquid (water or oil): hydraulic erosion

hydroelectric [ˈhaidrəiˈlektrik] – adj. of or relating to or used in the production of electricity by waterpower: hydroelectric power

hydrogen [ˈhaidridʒən] – n. a nonmetallic univalent element that is normally a colorless and odorless highly flammable diatomic gas; the simplest and lightest and most abundant element in the universe

hygiene [ˈhaidʒi:n] – n. a condition promoting sanitary practices: personal hygiene

hymn [him] – n. a song of praise (to God or to a saint or to a nation)

hypocrisy [hiˈpɔkrəsi] – n. an expression of agreement that is not supported by real conviction

hypothesis [haiˈpɔθisis] – n. a proposal intended to explain certain facts or observations

hypothetical [.haipəˈθetikəl] – adj. based primarily on surmise rather than adequate evidence: hypothetical situation

hysteria [hisˈtiəriə] – n. state of violent mental agitation

hysteric [hisˈterik] – n. a person suffering from hysteria

hysterical [hisˈterikəl] – adj. marked by excessive or uncontrollable emotion: hysterical laughter

ice [ais] – n. water frozen in the solid state: Americans like ice in their drinks

Iceland [ˈaislənd] – n. a volcanic island in the North Atlantic near the Arctic Circle

icy [ˈaisi] – adj. devoid of warmth and cordiality; expressive of unfriendliness or disdain: icy stare

idea [aiˈdiə] – n. the content of cognition; the main thing you are thinking about: it was not a good idea

ideal [aiˈdiəl] – adj. constituting or existing only in the form of an idea or mental image or conception: a poem or essay may be typical of its period in idea or ideal content

idealism [aiˈdiəlizm] – n. impracticality by virtue of thinking of things in their ideal form rather than as they really are

idealize [aiˈdiəlaiz] – v. form ideals: Man has always idealized

identical [aiˈdentikəl] – adj. exactly alike; incapable of being perceived as different: rows of identical houses

identification [ai.dentifiˈkeiʃən] – n. evidence of identity; something that identifies a person or thing

identify [aiˈdentifai] – v. recognize as being; establish the identity of someone or something

identity [aiˈdentiti] – n. the distinct personality of an individual regarded as a persisting entity: you can lose your identity when you join the army

ideology [.aidiˈɔlədʒi] – n. an orientation that characterizes the thinking of a group or nation

idiom [ˈidiəm] – n. a manner of speaking that is natural to native speakers of a language

idiomatic [.idiəˈmætik] – adj. of or relating to or conforming to idiom: idiomatic English

idiot [ˈidiət] – n. a person of subnormal intelligence

idle [ˈaidl] – adj. not in action or at work: an idle laborer

idleness [ˈaidlnis] – n. having no employment

idol [ˈaidl] – n. a material effigy that is worshipped

ignite [igˈnait] – v. cause to start burning; subject to fire or great heat: Great heat can ignite almost any dry matter

ignorance [ˈignərəns] – n. the lack of knowledge or education

ignorant [ˈignərənt] – adj. uneducated in general; lacking knowledge or sophistication: an ignorant man

ignore [igˈnɔ:] – v. refuse to acknowledge

ill [il] – adj. affected by an impairment of normal physical or mental function: ill from the monotony of his suffering

illegal [iˈli:gəl] – adj. prohibited by law or by official or accepted rules: an illegal chess move

illegible [iˈledʒəbl] – adj. (of handwriting, print, etc.) not legible: illegible handwriting

illiteracy [iˈlitərəsi] – n. ignorance resulting from not reading

illiterate [iˈlitərit] – adj. not able to read or write

illness [ˈilnis] – n. impairment of normal physiological function affecting part or all of an organism

illuminate [iˈlju:mineit] – v. make lighter or brighter

illusion [iˈlu:ʒən] – n. an erroneous mental representation

illusive [iˈlu:siv] – adj. based on or having the nature of an illusion: illusive hopes of finding a better job

illustrate [ˈiləstreit] – v. clarify by giving an example of

illustration [i.ləsˈtreiʃən] – n. artwork that helps make something clear or attractive

image [ˈimidʒ] – n. an iconic mental representation: her imagination forced images upon her too awful to contemplate

imaginary [iˈmædʒinəri] – n. (mathematics) a number of the form a+bi where a and b are real numbers and i is the square root of -1

imagination [i.mædʒiˈneiʃən] – n. the formation of a mental image of something that is not perceived as real and is not present to the senses: popular imagination created a world of demons

imaginative [iˈmædʒinətiv] – adj. (used of persons or artifacts) marked by independence and creativity in thought or action: an imaginative use of material

imagine [iˈmædʒin] – v. expect, believe, or suppose: I imagine she earned a lot of money with her new novel

imitate [ˈimiteit] – v. reproduce someone’s behavior or looks: The mime imitated the passers-by

imitation [.imiˈteiʃən] – n. something copied or derived from an original

immaterial [.iməˈtiəriəl] – adj. of no importance or relevance especially to a law case: an objection that is immaterial after the fact

immature [.iməˈtjuə] – adj. characteristic of a lack of maturity: immature behavior

immediate [iˈmi:djət] – adj. of the present time and place: the immediate revisions

immediately [iˈmi:djətli] – adv. without delay or hesitation; with no time intervening: he answered immediately

immense [iˈmens] – adj. unusually great in size or amount or degree or especially extent or scope: the Los Angeles aqueduct winds like an immense snake along the base of the mountains

immerse [iˈmə:s] – v. thrust or throw into

immigrant [ˈimigrənt] – n. a person who comes to a country where they were not born in order to settle there

immigrate [ˈimigreit] – v. migrate to a new environment: only few plants can immigrate to the island

immigration [.imiˈgreiʃən] – n. migration into a place (especially migration to a country of which you are not a native in order to settle there)

imminent [ˈiminənt] – adj. close in time; about to occur: in imminent danger

immoral [iˈmɔrəl] – adj. deliberately violating accepted principles of right and wrong

immortal [iˈmɔ:tl] – n. a person (such as an author) of enduring fame: Shakespeare is one of the immortals

immune [iˈmju:n] – adj. secure against: immune from taxation as long as he resided in Bermuda

impact [ˈimpækt,imˈpækt] – n. the striking of one body against another

impair [imˈpɛə] – v. make worse or less effective: His vision was impaired

impart [imˈpɑ:t] – v. transmit (knowledge or skills): impart a new skill to the students

impartial [imˈpɑ:ʃəl] – adj. showing lack of favoritism: the cold neutrality of an impartial judge

impatience [imˈpeiʃəns] – n. a lack of patience; irritation with anything that causes delay

impatient [imˈpeiʃənt] – adj. restless or short-tempered under delay or opposition: impatient with the slower students

impede [imˈpi:d] – v. be a hindrance or obstacle to

imperative [imˈperətiv] – n. a mood that expresses an intention to influence the listener’s behavior

imperfect [imˈpə:fikt] – adj. not perfect; defective or inadequate: had only an imperfect understanding of his responsibilities

imperial [imˈpiəriəl] – adj. relating to or associated with an empire: imperial colony

imperialism [imˈpiəriəlizəm] – n. a policy of extending your rule over foreign countries

imperialist [imˈpiəriəlist] – n. a believer in imperialism

impetus [ˈimpitəs] – n. a force that moves something along

implementation [.implimenˈteiʃən] – n. the act of accomplishing some aim or executing some order: the agency was created for the implementation of the policy

implication [.impliˈkeiʃən] – n. something that is inferred (deduced or entailed or implied): his resignation had political implications

implicit [imˈplisit] – adj. being without doubt or reserve: implicit trust

implore [imˈplɔ:] – v. call upon in supplication; entreat

imply [imˈplai] – v. express or state indirectly

import [ˈimpɔ:t,imˈpɔ:t] – n. commodities (goods or services) bought from a foreign country

importance [imˈpɔ:təns] – n. a prominent status: a person of importance

important [imˈpɔ:tənt] – adj. of great significance or value: important people

importation [.impɔ:ˈteiʃən] – n. the commercial activity of buying and bringing in goods from a foreign country

importer [imˈpɔ:tə(r)] – n. someone whose business involves importing goods from outside (especially from a foreign country)

impose [imˈpəuz] – v. compel to behave in a certain way: Social relations impose courtesy

imposing [imˈpəuziŋ] – adj. impressive in appearance: an imposing residence

imposition [.impəˈziʃən] – n. an uncalled-for burden: he listened but resented the imposition

impossibility [im.pɔsəˈbiləti] – n. incapability of existing or occurring

impossible [imˈpɔsəbl] – adj. not capable of occurring or being accomplished or dealt with: an impossible dream

impost [ˈimpəust] – n. money collected under a tariff

impractical [imˈpræktikəl] – adj. not practical; not workable or not given to practical matters: refloating the ship proved impractical because of the expense

impress [imˈpres] – v. have an emotional or cognitive impact upon: This child impressed me as unusually mature

impression [imˈpreʃən] – n. a vague idea in which some confidence is placed: his impression of her was favorable

impressive [imˈpresiv] – adj. producing a strong effect: gave an impressive performance as Othello

imprison [imˈprizn] – v. lock up or confine, in or as in a jail: The suspects were imprisoned without trial

imprisonment [imˈprizənmənt] – n. putting someone in prison or in jail as lawful punishment

impromptu [imˈprɔmptju:] – n. an extemporaneous speech or remark: a witty impromptu must not sound premeditated

improper [imˈprɔpə] – adj. not suitable or right or appropriate: slightly improper to dine alone with a married man

improve [imˈpru:v] – v. to make better: The editor improved the manuscript with his changes

improvement [imˈpru:vmənt] – n. a change for the better; progress in development

improvise [ˈimprəvaiz] – v. perform without preparation

impulse [ˈimpʌls] – n. an instinctive motive: profound religious impulses

impurity [imˈpjuəriti] – n. worthless or dangerous material that should be removed

in [in] – n. a unit of length equal to one twelfth of a foot

inability [.inəˈbiliti] – n. lack of ability (especially mental ability) to do something

inaccessible [.inækˈsesəbl] – adj. capable of being reached only with great difficulty or not at all

inaccurate [inˈækjurit] – adj. not exact: an inaccurate translation

inadequate [inˈædikwit] – adj. lacking the requisite qualities or resources to meet a task: inadequate training

inapt [inˈæpt] – adj. not elegant or graceful in expression

inaugural [iˈnɔ:gjurəl] – n. the ceremonial induction into a position

inaugurate [iˈnɔ:gjureit] – v. commence officially

inauguration [i.nɔ:gjuˈreiʃən] – n. the act of starting a new operation or practice: he opposed the inauguration of fluoridation

incapable [inˈkeipəbl] – adj. (followed by `of’) lacking capacity or ability: incapable of carrying a tune

incense [inˈsens] – n. a substance that produces a fragrant odor when burned

incentive [inˈsentiv] – n. a positive motivational influence

inch [intʃ] – n. a unit of length equal to one twelfth of a foot

incidence [ˈinsidəns] – n. the relative frequency of occurrence of something

incident [ˈinsidənt] – n. a single distinct event

incidentally [.insiˈdentəli] – adv. introducing a different topic; in point of fact: incidentally, I won’t go to the party

incipient [inˈsipiənt] – adj. only partly in existence; imperfectly formed: incipient civil disorder

incite [inˈsait] – v. provoke or stir up: incite a riot

inclination [.inkliˈneiʃən] – n. an attitude of mind especially one that favors one alternative over others: he had an inclination to give up too easily

incline [ˈinklain,inˈklain] – v. bend or turn (one’s ear) towards a speaker in order to listen well: He inclined his ear to the wise old man

inclined [inˈklaind] – adj. (often followed by `to’) having a preference, disposition, or tendency: wasn’t inclined to believe the excuse

include [inˈklu:d] – v. have as a part, be made up out of: The list includes the names of many famous writers

inclusion [inˈklu:ʒən] – n. the relation of comprising something: he admired the inclusion of so many ideas in such a short work

inclusive [inˈklu:siv] – adj. including much or everything; and especially including stated limits: an inclusive art form

income [ˈin.kʌm] – n. the financial gain (earned or unearned) accruing over a given period of time

incompatibility [ˈinkəm.pætəˈbiliti] – n. the relation between propositions that cannot both be true at the same time

incompatible [.inkəmˈpætəbl] – adj. not compatible: incompatible personalities

incomplete [.inkəmˈpli:t] – adj. not complete or total; not completed: an incomplete account of his life

incongruous [inˈkɔŋgruəs] – adj. lacking in harmony or compatibility or appropriateness: a plan incongruous with reason

inconsistency [.inkənˈsistənsi] – n. the relation between propositions that cannot both be true at the same time

inconsistent [.inkənˈsistənt] – adj. displaying a lack of consistency: inconsistent statements cannot both be true at the same time

inconvenience [.inkənˈvi:njəns] – n. a difficulty that causes anxiety

inconvenient [.inkənˈvi:njənt] – adj. not suited to your comfort, purpose or needs: it is inconvenient not to have a telephone in the kitchen

incorporate [inˈkɔ:pəreit] – v. make into a whole or make part of a whole: She incorporated his suggestions into her proposal

incorporated [inˈkɔ:pəreitid] – adj. formed or united into a whole

incorrect [.inkəˈrekt] – adj. not correct; not in conformity with fact or truth: an incorrect calculation

increase [ˈinkri:s,inˈkri:s] – n. a quantity that is added

increasing [inˈkri:siŋ] – adj. becoming greater or larger: increasing prices

increasingly [inˈkri:siŋli] – adv. advancing in amount or intensity: she became increasingly depressed

incredible [inˈkredəbl] – adj. beyond belief or understanding: at incredible speed

incredulous [inˈkredjuləs] – adj. not disposed or willing to believe; unbelieving

increment [ˈinkrimənt] – n. a process of becoming larger or longer or more numerous or more important

incur [inˈkə:] – v. make oneself subject to; bring upon oneself; become liable to: People who smoke incur a great danger to their health

indebted [inˈdetid] – adj. owing gratitude or recognition to another for help or favors etc

indebtedness [inˈdetidnis] – n. an obligation to pay money to another party

indeed [inˈdi:d] – adv. in truth (often tends to intensify): they said the car would break down and indeed it did

indefinite [inˈdefinit] – adj. vague or not clearly defined or stated: must you be so indefinite?

indefinitely [inˈdefinitli] – adv. to an indefinite extent; for an indefinite time: this could go on indefinitely

indelible [inˈdeləbəl] – adj. cannot be removed or erased: an indelible stain

indemnify [inˈdemnifai] – v. secure against future loss, damage, or liability; give security for

indemnity [inˈdemniti] – n. protection against future loss

indent [ˈindent,inˈdent] – v. set in from the margin

independence [.indiˈpendəns] – n. freedom from control or influence of another or others

independent [.indiˈpendənt] – adj. free from external control and constraint: an independent mind

independently [indiˈpendəntli] – adv. on your own; without outside help: the children worked on the project independently

index [ˈindeks] – n. a numerical scale used to compare variables with one another or with some reference number

India [ˈindjə] – n. a republic in the Asian subcontinent in southern Asia; second most populous country in the world; achieved independence from the United Kingdom in 1947

Indian [ˈindjən] – n. a member of the race of people living in America when Europeans arrived

indicate [ˈindikeit] – v. be a signal for or a symptom of: These symptoms indicate a serious illness

indication [.indiˈkeiʃən] – n. the act of indicating or pointing out by name

indicative [inˈdikətiv] – adj. relating to the mood of verbs that is used simple in declarative statements: indicative mood

indicator [ˈindikeitə] – n. a signal for attracting attention

indifference [inˈdifrəns] – n. unbiased impartial unconcern

indifferent [inˈdifrənt] – adj. marked by a lack of interest: the universe is neither hostile nor friendly; it is simply indifferent

indifferently  – adv. with indifference; in an indifferent manner: she shrugged indifferently

indigenous [inˈdidʒənəs] – adj. originating where it is found: the Ainu are indigenous to the northernmost islands of Japan

indigestion [.indiˈdʒestʃən] – n. a disorder of digestive function characterized by discomfort or heartburn or nausea

indignant [inˈdignənt] – adj. angered at something unjust or wrong: an indignant denial

indignation [.indigˈneiʃən] – n. a feeling of righteous anger

indirect [.indiˈrekt] – adj. having intervening factors or persons or influences: reflection from the ceiling provided a soft indirect light

indirectly [.indiˈrektli] – adv. not in a forthright manner: he answered very indirectly

indispensable [.indisˈpensəbl] – adj. not to be dispensed with; essential: foods indispensable to good nutrition

individual [.indiˈvidjuəl] – adj. being or characteristic of a single thing or person: individual drops of rain

indoor [ˈindɔ:] – adj. located, suited for, or taking place within a building: indoor activities for a rainy day

indoors [ˈinˈdɔ:z] – adv. within a building

induce [inˈdju:s] – v. cause to arise: induce a crisis

inducement [inˈdju:smənt] – n. a positive motivational influence

induction [inˈdʌkʃən] – n. a formal entry into an organization or position or office: he was ordered to report for induction into the army

indulge [inˈdʌldʒ] – v. give free rein to: The writer indulged in metaphorical language

industrial [inˈdʌstriəl] – adj. having highly developed industries: the industrial revolution

industrialization [in.dʌstriəlaiˈzeiʃn] – n. the development of industry on an extensive scale

industrialize [inˈdʌstriəlaiz] – v. develop industry; become industrial: The nations of South East Asia will quickly industrialize and catch up with the West

industrialized [inˈdʌstriəlaizd] – adj. made industrial; converted to industrialism: industrialized areas

industrious [inˈdʌstriəs] – adj. characterized by hard work and perseverance

industry [ˈindəstri] – n. the people or companies engaged in a particular kind of commercial enterprise: each industry has its own trade publications

ineffective [.iniˈfektiv] – adj. not producing an intended effect: an ineffective teacher

ineffectiveness [.inəˈfektivnis] – n. lacking the power to be effective

inefficiency [.iniˈfiʃənsi] – n. unskillfulness resulting from a lack of efficiency

inefficient [.iniˈfiʃənt] – adj. not producing desired results; wasteful: an inefficient campaign against drugs

inept [iˈnept] – adj. not elegant or graceful in expression: if the rumor is true, can anything be more inept than to repeat it now?

inert [iˈnə:t] – adj. unable to move or resist motion

inertia [iˈnə:ʃjə] – n. (physics) the tendency of a body to maintain its state of rest or uniform motion unless acted upon by an external force

inevitable [inˈevitəbl] – adj. incapable of being avoided or prevented: the inevitable result

inevitably [inˈevitəbli] – adv. in such a manner as could not be otherwise

inexpensive [.inikˈspensiv] – adj. relatively low in price or charging low prices: inexpensive family restaurants

infant [ˈinfənt] – n. a very young child (birth to 1 year) who has not yet begun to walk or talk

infantry [ˈinfəntri] – n. an army unit consisting of soldiers who fight on foot

infect [inˈfekt] – v. communicate a disease to: Your children have infected you with this head cold

infection [inˈfekʃən] – n. the pathological state resulting from the invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms

infectious [inˈfekʃəs] – adj. easily spread: fear is exceedingly infectious; children catch it from their elders

infer [inˈfə:] – v. reason by deduction; establish by deduction

inference [ˈinfərəns] – n. the reasoning involved in drawing a conclusion or making a logical judgment on the basis of circumstantial evidence and prior conclusions rather than on the basis of direct observation

inferior [inˈfiəriə] – adj. of or characteristic of low rank or importance

inferiority [in.fiəriˈɔriti] – n. an inferior quality

infest [inˈfest] – v. invade in great numbers: the roaches infested our kitchen

infinite [ˈinfinit] – adj. having no limits or boundaries in time or space or extent or magnitude: the infinite ingenuity of man

infinitely [ˈinfinitli] – adv. without bounds: he is infinitely wealthy

infinitive [inˈfinitiv] – n. the uninflected form of the verb

infinity [inˈfiniti] – n. time without end

infirmary [inˈfə:məri] – n. a health facility where patients receive treatment

inflammable [inˈflæməbl] – adj. easily ignited

inflation [inˈfleiʃən] – n. a general and progressive increase in prices: in inflation everything gets more valuable except money

inflict [inˈflikt] – v. impose something unpleasant

influence [ˈinfluəns] – n. a power to affect persons or events especially power based on prestige etc: used her parents’ influence to get the job

influential [.influˈenʃəl] – adj. having or exercising influence or power: an influential newspaper

influenza [ˈinfluˈenzə] – n. an acute febrile highly contagious viral disease

influx [ˈinflʌks] – n. the process of flowing in

inform [inˈfɔ:m] – v. impart knowledge of some fact, state or affairs, or event to: I informed him of his rights

informal [inˈfɔ:məl] – adj. not formal: conservative people unaccustomed to informal dress

information [.infəˈmeiʃən] – n. a message received and understood

informative [inˈfɔ:mətiv] – adj. tending to increase knowledge or dissipate ignorance

infrequent [inˈfri:kwənt] – adj. not frequent; not occurring regularly or at short intervals: infrequent outbursts of temper

infringe [inˈfrindʒ] – v. go against, as of rules and laws

infringement [inˈfrindʒmənt] – n. an act that disregards an agreement or a right

ingenious [inˈdʒi:njəs] – adj. showing inventiveness and skill: an ingenious solution to the problem

ingenuity [.indʒiˈnju:iti] – n. the power of creative imagination

ingredient [inˈgri:diənt] – n. a component of a mixture or compound

inhabit [inˈhæbit] – v. be present in: sweet memories inhabit this house

inhabitant [inˈhæbitənt] – n. a person who inhabits a particular place

inherent [inˈhiərənt] – adj. existing as an essential constituent or characteristic

inherit [inˈherit] – v. obtain from someone after their death: I inherited a castle from my French grandparents

inhibit [inˈhibit] – v. to put down by force or authority

initial [iˈniʃəl] – n. the first letter of a word (especially a person’s name): he refused to put the initials FRS after his name

initially [iˈniʃəli] – adv. at the beginning

initiate [iˈniʃieit] – v. bring into being: He initiated a new program

initiative [iˈniʃətiv] – n. readiness to embark on bold new ventures

inject [inˈdʒekt] – v. to introduce (a new aspect or element): He injected new life into the performance

injection [inˈdʒekʃən] – n. the forceful insertion of a substance under pressure

injure [ˈindʒə] – v. hurt the feelings of

injury [ˈindʒəri] – n. any physical damage to the body caused by violence or accident or fracture etc.

injustice [inˈdʒʌstis] – n. an unjust act

ink [iŋk] – v. append one’s signature to: They inked the contract

inland [ˈinlənd] – adj. situated away from an area’s coast or border

inlet [ˈinlet] – n. an arm off of a larger body of water (often between rocky headlands)

inn [in] – n. a hotel providing overnight lodging for travelers

inner [ˈinə] – adj. located inward: Beethoven’s manuscript looks like a bloody record of a tremendous inner battle

innocence [ˈinəsns] – n. the state of being unsullied by sin or moral wrong; lacking a knowledge of evil

innocent [ˈinəsnt] – adj. free from evil or guilt: an innocent child

innovate [ˈinəuveit] – v. bring something new to an environment

innovation [.inəuˈveiʃən] – n. a creation (a new device or process) resulting from study and experimentation

innumerable [iˈnju:mərəbl] – adj. too numerous to be counted: innumerable difficulties

inorganic [.inɔ:ˈgænik] – adj. relating or belonging to the class of compounds not having a carbon basis: hydrochloric and sulfuric acids are called inorganic substances

input [ˈinput] – n. signal going into an electronic system

inquire [inˈkwaiə] – v. have a wish or desire to know something

inquiry [inˈkwaiəri] – n. a search for knowledge

insane [inˈsein] – adj. afflicted with or characteristic of mental derangement: was declared insane

insect [ˈinsekt] – n. small air-breathing arthropod

insensible [inˈsensəbl] – adj. incapable of physical sensation: insensible to pain

insert [inˈsə:t] – n. a folded section placed between the leaves of another publication

insertion [inˈsə:ʃən] – n. the act of putting one thing into another

inside [ˈinˈsaid] – adj. relating to or being on the side closer to the center or within a defined space: he reached into his inside jacket pocket

insider [inˈsaidə(r)] – n. an officer of a corporation or others who have access to private information about the corporation’s operations

insight [ˈinsait] – n. clear or deep perception of a situation

insignificant [.insigˈnifikənt] – adj. not worthy of notice

insipid [inˈsipid] – adj. lacking taste or flavor or tang: insipid hospital food

insist [inˈsist] – v. be emphatic or resolute and refuse to budge: I must insist!

insistent [inˈsistənt] – adj. repetitive and persistent: the bluejay’s insistent cry

insofar [.insəuˈfɑ:] – adv. to the degree or extent that: insofar as it can be ascertained, the horse lung is comparable to that of man

insolent [ˈinsələnt] – adj. marked by casual disrespect

insolvent [inˈsɔlvənt] – n. someone who has insufficient assets to cover their debts

inspect [inˈspekt] – v. look over carefully: Please inspect your father’s will carefully

inspection [inˈspekʃən] – n. a formal or official examination: we had to wait for the inspection before we could use the elevator

inspector [inˈspektə] – n. a high ranking police officer

inspiration [.inspəˈreiʃən] – n. arousal of the mind to special unusual activity or creativity

inspire [inˈspair] – v. heighten or intensify

inspiring [inˈspaiəriŋ] – adj. stimulating or exalting to the spirit

install [inˈstɔ:l] – v. set up for use: install the washer and dryer

installation [.instəˈleiʃən] – n. a building or place that provides a particular service or is used for a particular industry

installment [inˈstɔ:lmənt] – n. a payment of part of a debt; usually paid at regular intervals

instalment  – n. a part of a broadcast serial

instance [ˈinstəns] – n. an occurrence of something: another instance occurred yesterday

instant [ˈinstənt] – adj. occurring with no delay: relief was instantaneous

instantaneous [.instənˈteiniəs] – adj. occurring with no delay: relief was instantaneous

instantly [ˈinstəntli] – adv. without delay or hesitation; with no time intervening

instead [inˈsted] – adv. in place of, or as an alternative to: Felix became a herpetologist instead

instinct [ˈinstiŋkt] – n. inborn pattern of behavior often responsive to specific stimuli: the spawning instinct in salmon

instinctive [inˈstiŋktiv] – adj. unthinking; prompted by (or as if by) instinct: offering to help was as instinctive as breathing

institute [ˈinstitju:t] – v. set up or lay the groundwork for

institution [.instiˈtju:ʃən] – n. an organization founded and united for a specific purpose

instruct [inˈstrʌkt] – v. impart skills or knowledge to: He instructed me in building a boat

instruction [inˈstrʌkʃən] – n. a message describing how something is to be done

instructive [inˈstrʌktiv] – adj. serving to instruct or enlighten or inform

instructor [inˈstrʌktə] – n. a person whose occupation is teaching

instrument [ˈinstrumənt] – n. a device that requires skill for proper use

instrumental [.instruˈmentl] – adj. serving or acting as a means or aid: instrumental in solving the crime

insufficient [.insəˈfiʃənt] – adj. of a quantity not able to fulfill a need or requirement: insufficient funds

insulate [ˈinsjuleit] – v. place or set apart

insulation [.insjuˈleiʃən] – n. the state of being isolated or detached: the insulation of England was preserved by the English Channel

insult [ˈinsʌlt,inˈsʌlt] – n. a rude expression intended to offend or hurt: they yelled insults at the visiting team

insurance [inˈʃuərəns] – n. protection against future loss

insure [inˈʃuə] – v. be careful or certain to do something; make certain of something

intact [inˈtækt] – adj. constituting the undiminished entirety; lacking nothing essential especially not damaged: fought to keep the union intact

intangible [inˈtændʒəbəl] – adj. (of especially business assets) not having physical substance or intrinsic productive value: intangible assets such as good will

integral [ˈintigrəl] – adj. existing as an essential constituent or characteristic

integrate [ˈintigreit] – v. make into a whole or make part of a whole

integration [.intiˈgreiʃən] – n. the action of incorporating a racial or religious group into a community

integrity [inˈtegriti] – n. an undivided or unbroken completeness or totality with nothing wanting: the integrity of the nervous system is required for normal development

intellect [ˈintilekt] – n. the capacity for rational thought or inference or discrimination

intellectual [.intilˈektʃuəl] – adj. of or associated with or requiring the use of the mind: intellectual problems

intelligence [inˈtelidʒəns] – n. the ability to comprehend; to understand and profit from experience

intelligent [inˈtelidʒənt] – adj. having the capacity for thought and reason especially to a high degree: is there intelligent life in the universe?

intelligible [inˈtelidʒəbl] – adj. capable of being apprehended or understood

intend [inˈtend] – v. have in mind as a purpose

intense [inˈtens] – adj. possessing or displaying a distinctive feature to a heightened degree: intense heat

intensify [inˈtensifai] – v. make more intense, stronger, or more marked

intensity [inˈtensiti] – n. the amount of energy transmitted (as by acoustic or electromagnetic radiation): he adjusted the intensity of the sound

intensive [inˈtensiv] – adj. tending to give force or emphasis: an intensive adverb

intent [inˈtent] – n. the intended meaning of a communication

intention [inˈtenʃən] – n. (usually plural) the goal with respect to a marriage proposal: his intentions are entirely honorable

intentional [inˈtenʃənəl] – adj. characterized by conscious design or purpose: intentional damage

interact [.intəˈrækt] – v. act together or towards others or with others: He should interact more with his colleagues

interaction [.intəˈrækʃən] – n. a mutual or reciprocal action; interacting

intercourse [ˈintəkɔ:s] – n. communication between individuals

interest [ˈintərist] – n. a sense of concern with and curiosity about someone or something: an interest in music

interested [ˈintəristid] – adj. involved in or affected by or having a claim to or share in: the interested parties met to discuss the business

interesting [ˈintəristiŋ] – adj. arousing or holding the attention

interface [ˈintəfeis] – n. (chemistry) a surface forming a common boundary between two things (two objects or liquids or chemical phases)

interfere [.intəˈfiə] – v. come between so as to be hindrance or obstacle: Your talking interferes with my work!

interference [.intəˈfiərəns] – n. a policy of intervening in the affairs of other countries

interim [ˈintərim] – n. the time between one event, process, or period and another

interior [inˈtiəriə] – adj. situated within or suitable for inside a building: an interior scene

intermediate [.intəˈmi:diət] – adj. lying between two extremes in time or space or state: going from sitting to standing without intermediate pushes with the hands

intermittent [.intəˈmitənt] – adj. stopping and starting at irregular intervals: intermittent rain showers

internal [inˈtə:nəl] – adj. happening or arising or located within some limits or especially surface: internal organs

international [.intəˈnæʃənəl] – adj. concerning or belonging to all or at least two or more nations: international affairs

internationalization [intə.næʃənəlaiˈzeiʃən] – n. the act of bringing something under international control

internationalize [.intə(:)ˈnæʃənəlaiz] – v. make international in character: We internationalized the committee

interpret [inˈtə:prit] – v. make sense of; assign a meaning to: How do you interpret his behavior?

interpretation [in.tə:priˈteiʃən] – n. a mental representation of the meaning or significance of something

interpreter [inˈtə:pritə] – n. someone who mediates between speakers of different languages

interrogate [inˈterəgeit] – v. transmit (a signal) for setting off an appropriate response, as in telecommunication

interrupt [.intəˈrʌpt] – v. make a break in: We interrupt the program for the following messages

interruption [.intəˈrʌpʃən] – n. some abrupt occurrence that interrupts an ongoing activity: the telephone is an annoying interruption

intersection [.intəˈsekʃən] – n. a junction where one street or road crosses another

interval [ˈintəvəl] – n. a definite length of time marked off by two instants

intervene [.intəˈvi:n] – v. get involved, so as to alter or hinder an action, or through force or threat of force: Why did the U.S. not intervene earlier in WW II?

interview [ˈintəvju:] – v. discuss formally with (somebody) for the purpose of an evaluation: We interviewed the job candidates

intimate [ˈintimeit,ˈintimit] – adj. marked by close acquaintance, association, or familiarity: intimate friend

intimation [.intiˈmeiʃən] – n. an indirect suggestion

intimidate [inˈtimideit] – v. make timid or fearful: Her boss intimidates her

intonation [.intəˈneiʃən] – n. rise and fall of the voice pitch

intricate [ˈintrikit] – adj. having many complexly arranged elements; elaborate: intricate lacework

intrigue [inˈtri:g] – n. a crafty and involved plot to achieve your (usually sinister) ends

intrinsic [inˈtrinsik] – adj. belonging to a thing by its very nature: form was treated as something intrinsic, as the very essence of the thing

introduce [.intrəˈdju:s] – v. cause to come to know personally: introduce the new neighbors to the community

introduction [.intrəˈdʌkʃən] – n. the act of beginning something new

introductory [.intrəˈdʌktəri] – adj. serving to open or begin: began the slide show with some introductory remarks

intrude [inˈtru:d] – v. enter uninvited: They intruded on our dinner party

intuition [.intju:ˈiʃən] – n. instinctive knowing (without the use of rational processes)

inundate [ˈinəndeit] – v. fill quickly beyond capacity; as with a liquid: the basement was inundated after the storm

invade [inˈveid] – v. march aggressively into another’s territory by military force for the purposes of conquest and occupation: Hitler invaded Poland on September 1, 1939

invader [inˈveidə] – n. someone who enters by force in order to conquer

invalid [ˈinvəli:d] – v. force to retire, remove from active duty, as of firemen

invalidate [inˈvælideit] – v. make invalid for use

invaluable [inˈvæljuəbl] – adj. having incalculable monetary, intellectual, or spiritual worth

invariably [inˈveəriəb(ə)li] – adv. without variation or change, in every case

invasion [inˈveiʒən] – n. any entry into an area not previously occupied: an invasion of tourists

invent [inˈvent] – v. come up with (an idea, plan, explanation, theory, or principle) after a mental effort

invention [inˈvenʃən] – n. the creation of something in the mind

inventor [inˈventə] – n. someone who is the first to think of or make something

inventory [ˈinvəntri] – n. a detailed list of all the items in stock

inverse [ˈinˈvə:s] – adj. reversed (turned backward) in order or nature or effect

inversely [inˈvəsli] – adv. in an inverse or contrary manner: inversely related

invert [inˈvə:t] – v. reverse the position, order, relation, or condition of: when forming a question, invert the subject and the verb

invest [inˈvest] – v. give qualities or abilities to

investigate [inˈvestigeit] – v. conduct an inquiry or investigation of: The district attorney’s office investigated reports of possible irregularities

investigation [in.vestiˈgeiʃən] – n. an inquiry into unfamiliar or questionable activities

investment [inˈvestmənt] – n. money that is invested with an expectation of profit

invigilate [inˈvidʒileit] – v. watch over (students taking an exam, to prevent cheating)

invincible [inˈvinsəbəl] – adj. incapable of being overcome or subdued: an invincible army

invisible [inˈvizəbl] – adj. impossible or nearly impossible to see; imperceptible by the eye: the invisible man

invitation [.inviˈteiʃən] – n. a request (spoken or written) to participate or be present or take part in something: an invitation to lunch

invite [inˈvait] – v. increase the likelihood of: invite criticism

invoice [ˈinvɔis] – n. an itemized statement of money owed for goods shipped or services rendered

involve [inˈvɔlv] – v. connect closely and often incriminatingly

involved [inˈvɔlvd] – adj. connected by participation or association or use: we accomplished nothing, simply because of the large number of people involved

involvement [inˈvɔlvmənt] – n. the act of sharing in the activities of a group

inward [ˈinwəd] – adj. relating to or existing in the mind or thoughts: a concern with inward reflections

inwards [ˈinwədz] – adv. toward the center or interior: move the needle further inwards!

Ireland [ˈaiələnd] – n. a republic consisting of 26 of 32 counties comprising the island of Ireland; achieved independence from the United Kingdom in 1921

Irish [ˈaiəriʃ] – n. whiskey made in Ireland chiefly from barley

iron [ˈaiən] – n. a golf club that has a relatively narrow metal head

ironical [aiəˈrɔnikəl] – adj. characterized by often poignant difference or incongruity between what is expected and what actually is: it was ironical that the well-planned scheme failed so completely

irony [ˈaiərəni] – n. witty language used to convey insults or scorn: irony is wasted on the stupid

irregular [iˈregjulə] – adj. contrary to rule or accepted order or general practice: irregular hiring practices

irregularity [.iregjuˈlæriti] – n. behavior that breaches the rule or etiquette or custom or morality

irresistible [.iriˈzistəbl] – adj. impossible to resist; overpowering: irresistible (or resistless) impulses

irrespective [.iriˈspektiv] – adv. in spite of everything; without regard to drawbacks

irrevocable [iˈrevəkəbəl] – adj. incapable of being retracted or revoked: firm and irrevocable is my doom

irrigate [ˈirigeit] – v. supply with water, as with channels or ditches or streams

irrigation [.iriˈgeiʃən] – n. supplying dry land with water by means of ditches etc

irritate [ˈiriteit] – v. excite to an abnormal condition, or chafe or inflame: Aspirin irritates my stomach

irritation [.iriˈteiʃən] – n. a sudden outburst of anger

Islam [ˈizlɑ:m, -læm, -ləm] – n. the civilization of Muslims collectively which is governed by the Muslim religion: Islam is predominant in northern Africa, the Middle East, Pakistan, and Indonesia

island [ˈailənd] – n. a land mass (smaller than a continent) that is surrounded by water

isle [ail] – n. a small island

isolate [ˈaisəleit] – v. place or set apart: They isolated the political prisoners from the other inmates

isolation [.aisəuˈleiʃən] – n. a state of separation between persons or groups

issue [ˈiʃju:] – n. an important question that is in dispute and must be settled: the issue could be settled by requiring public education for everyone

it [it] – n. the branch of engineering that deals with the use of computers and telecommunications to retrieve and store and transmit information

Italian [iˈtæljən] – n. the Romance language spoken in Italy

Italy [ˈitəli] – n. a republic in southern Europe on the Italian Peninsula; was the core of the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire between the 4th century BC and the 5th century AD

itch [itʃ] – v. have a strong desire or urge to do something: She is itching to start the project

item [ˈaitəm] – n. a distinct part that can be specified separately in a group of things that could be enumerated on a list: he noticed an item in the New York Times

itemize [ˈaitəmaiz] – v. specify individually

itinerary [aiˈtinərəri] – n. an established line of travel or access

ivory [ˈaivəri] – n. a shade of white the color of bleached bones

jacket [ˈdʒækit] – n. a short coat

jagged [ˈdʒægid] – adj. having a sharply uneven surface or outline: the jagged outline of the crags

jail [dʒeil] – n. a correctional institution used to detain persons who are in the lawful custody of the government (either accused persons awaiting trial or convicted persons serving a sentence)

jam [dʒæm] – v. press tightly together or cram

janitor [ˈdʒænitə] – n. someone employed to clean and maintain a building

January [ˈdʒænjuəri] – n. the first month of the year; begins 10 days after the winter solstice

Japan [dʒəˈpæn] – n. a constitutional monarchy occupying the Japanese Archipelago; a world leader in electronics and automobile manufacture and ship building

Japanese [dʒæpəˈni:z] – n. a native or inhabitant of Japan

jar [dʒɑ:] – v. be incompatible; be or come into conflict

jaw [dʒɔ:] – v. talk socially without exchanging too much information

jazz [dʒæz] – n. empty rhetoric or insincere or exaggerated talk: don’t give me any of that jazz

jealous [ˈdʒeləs] – adj. showing extreme cupidity; painfully desirous of another’s advantages: jealous of his success and covetous of his possessions

jealousy [ˈdʒeləsi] – n. zealous vigilance: cherish their official political freedom with fierce jealousy

jeep [dʒi:p] – n. a car suitable for traveling over rough terrain

jeer [dʒiə] – n. showing your contempt by derision

jelly [ˈdʒeli] – n. a preserve made of the jelled juice of fruit

jeopardise  – v. pose a threat to; present a danger to

jeopardize [ˈdʒepədaiz] – v. pose a threat to; present a danger to

jerk [dʒə:k] – n. a dull stupid fatuous person

Jesus [ˈdʒi:zəs] – n. a teacher and prophet born in Bethlehem and active in Nazareth; his life and sermons form the basis for Christianity (circa 4 BC – AD 29)

jet [dʒet] – n. the occurrence of a sudden discharge (as of liquid)

jettison [ˈdʒetisn, -tizn] – v. throw away, of something encumbering

Jew [dʒu:] – n. a person belonging to the worldwide group claiming descent from Jacob (or converted to it) and connected by cultural or religious ties

jewel [ˈdʒu:əl] – v. adorn or decorate with precious stones: jeweled dresses

jewelry [ˈdʒu:əlri] – n. an adornment (as a bracelet or ring or necklace) made of precious metals and set with gems (or imitation gems)

Jewish [ˈdʒu:iʃ] – adj. of or relating to Jews or their culture or religion: He is Jewish

jingle [ˈdʒiŋgl] – n. a metallic sound: the jingle of coins

job [dʒɔb] – n. the principal activity in your life that you do to earn money

jobless [ˈdʒɔblis] – adj. not having a job: jobless transients

jog [dʒɔg] – v. continue talking or writing in a desultory manner: This novel rambles on and jogs

join [dʒɔin] – v. become part of; become a member of a group or organization: He joined the Communist Party as a young man

joint [dʒɔint] – n. (anatomy) the point of connection between two bones or elements of a skeleton (especially if it allows motion)

joke [dʒəuk] – n. a humorous anecdote or remark intended to provoke laughter: he told a very funny joke

jolt [dʒəult] – n. a sudden jarring impact: the door closed with a jolt

jot [dʒɔt] – n. a brief (and hurriedly handwritten) note

journal [ˈdʒə:nl] – n. a daily written record of (usually personal) experiences and observations

journalism [ˈdʒə:nəlizəm] – n. newspapers and magazines collectively

journalist [ˈdʒə:nəlist] – n. a writer for newspapers and magazines

journey [ˈdʒə:ni] – v. travel upon or across

joy [dʒɔi] – n. the emotion of great happiness

joyful [ˈdʒɔifəl] – adj. full of high-spirited delight: a joyful heart

judge [dʒʌdʒ] – v. determine the result of (a competition)

judgement  – n. the legal document stating the reasons for a judicial decision

judicial [dʒu:ˈdiʃəl] – adj. decreed by or proceeding from a court of justice: a judicial decision

jug [dʒʌg] – n. a large bottle with a narrow mouth

juice [dʒu:s] – n. the liquid part that can be extracted from plant or animal tissue by squeezing or cooking

juicy [ˈdʒu:si] – adj. having strong sexual appeal: juicy barmaids

July [dʒu(:)ˈlai] – n. the month following June and preceding August

jumble [ˈdʒʌmbl] – n. a confused multitude of things

jump [dʒʌmp] – v. move forward by leaps and bounds: Can you jump over the fence?

junction [ˈdʒʌŋkʃən] – n. the place where two or more things come together

June [dʒu:n] – n. the month following May and preceding July

jungle [ˈdʒʌŋgl] – n. a location marked by an intense competition and struggle for survival

junior [ˈdʒu:njə] – n. term of address for a disrespectful and annoying male: look here, junior, it’s none of your business

junk [dʒʌŋk] – n. the remains of something that has been destroyed or broken up

Jupiter [ˈdʒu:pitə] – n. the largest planet and the 5th from the sun; has many satellites and is one of the brightest objects in the night sky

jury [ˈdʒuəri] – n. a body of citizens sworn to give a true verdict according to the evidence presented in a court of law

just [dʒʌst] – adv. and nothing more: just a scratch

justice [ˈdʒʌstis] – n. judgment involved in the determination of rights and the assignment of rewards and punishments

justifiable [ˈdʒʌstifaiəbl] – adj. capable of being justified

justification [dʒʌstifiˈkeiʃ(ə)n] – n. something (such as a fact or circumstance) that shows an action to be reasonable or necessary: he considered misrule a justification for revolution

justify [ˈdʒʌstifai] – v. show to be reasonable or provide adequate ground for

juvenile [ˈdʒu:vinail] – adj. of or relating to or characteristic of or appropriate for children or young people: juvenile diabetes

keen [ki:n] – adj. having or demonstrating ability to recognize or draw fine distinctions

keep [ki:p] – v. continue a certain state, condition, or activity

keeper [ˈki:pə] – n. someone in charge of other people: am I my brother’s keeper?

keeping [ˈki:piŋ] – n. conformity or harmony: his behavior was not in keeping with the occasion

kernel [ˈkə:nl] – n. the inner and usually edible part of a seed or grain or nut or fruit stone: black walnut kernels are difficult to get out of the shell

kerosene [ˈkerəsi:n] – n. a flammable hydrocarbon oil used as fuel in lamps and heaters

kettle [ˈketl] – n. a metal pot for stewing or boiling; usually has a lid

key [ki:] – n. metal device shaped in such a way that when it is inserted into the appropriate lock the lock’s mechanism can be rotated

keyboard [ˈki:bɔ:d] – n. device consisting of a set of keys on a piano or organ or typewriter or typesetting machine or computer or the like

keyhole [ˈki:həul] – n. the hole where a key is inserted

kick [kik] – v. drive or propel with the foot

kid [kid] – n. a young person of either sex: they’re just kids

kidnap [ˈkidnæp] – v. take away to an undisclosed location against their will and usually in order to extract a ransom: The industrialist’s son was kidnapped

kidney [ˈkidni] – n. either of two bean-shaped excretory organs that filter wastes (especially urea) from the blood and excrete them and water in urine: urine passes out of the kidney through ureters to the bladder

kill [kil] – v. cause to die; put to death, usually intentionally or knowingly: This man killed several people when he tried to rob a bank

killer [ˈkilə] – n. someone who causes the death of a person or animal

kilo [ˈki:ləʊ., ˈki] – n. one thousand grams; the basic unit of mass adopted under the Systeme International d’Unites: a kilogram is approximately 2.2 pounds

kilogram [ˈkiləgræm] – n. one thousand grams; the basic unit of mass adopted under the Systeme International d’Unites: a kilogram is approximately 2.2 pounds

kilometer [ˈkilə.mi:tə] – n. a metric unit of length equal to 1000 meters (or 0.621371 miles)

kilowatt [ˈkiləuwɔt] – n. a unit of power equal to 1000 watts

kin [kin] – n. group of people related by blood or marriage

kind [kaind] – adj. having or showing a tender and considerate and helpful nature; used especially of persons and their behavior: kind to sick patients

kindergarten [ˈkində.gɑ:tn] – n. a preschool for children age 4 to 6 to prepare them for primary school

kindle [ˈkindl] – v. catch fire: The dried grass of the prairie kindled, spreading the flames for miles

kindly [ˈkaindli] – adj. showing or motivated by sympathy and understanding and generosity: kindly criticism

kindness [ˈkaindnis] – n. the quality of being warmhearted and considerate and humane and sympathetic

king [kiŋ] – n. a competitor who holds a preeminent position

kingdom [ˈkiŋdəm] – n. a domain in which something is dominant: the untroubled kingdom of reason

kiss [kis] – n. the act of caressing with the lips (or an instance thereof)

kit [kit] – n. a case for containing a set of articles

kitchen [ˈkitʃin] – n. a room equipped for preparing meals

kite [kait] – n. a bank check that has been fraudulently altered to increase its face value

knee [ni:] – n. hinge joint in the human leg connecting the tibia and fibula with the femur and protected in front by the patella

kneel [ni:l] – n. supporting yourself on your knees

knife [naif] – n. edge tool used as a cutting instrument; has a pointed blade with a sharp edge and a handle

knight [nait] – n. a chessman shaped to resemble the head of a horse; can move two squares horizontally and one vertically (or vice versa)

knit [nit] – n. needlework created by interlacing yarn in a series of connected loops using straight eyeless needles or by machine

knob [nɔb] – n. a circular rounded projection or protuberance

knock [nɔk] – v. deliver a sharp blow or push :: He knocked the glass clear across the room

knot [nɔt] – n. a tight cluster of people or things: a small knot of women listened to his sermon

know [nəu] – v. be aware of the truth of something; have a belief or faith in something; regard as true beyond any doubt: I know that I left the key on the table

knowledge [ˈnɔlidʒ] – n. the psychological result of perception and learning and reasoning

knowledgeable [ˈnɔlidʒəbl] – adj. highly educated; having extensive information or understanding: a knowledgeable critic

label [ˈleibl] – v. pronounce judgment on: They labeled him unfit to work here

labor [ˈleibə] – n. productive work (especially physical work done for wages): his labor did not require a great deal of skill

laboratory [ˈlæbrətɔ:ri] – n. a workplace for the conduct of scientific research

laborer [ˈleibərə] – n. someone who works with their hands; someone engaged in manual labor

laborious [ləˈbɔ:riəs] – adj. characterized by effort to the point of exhaustion; especially physical effort: spent many laborious hours on the project

lace [leis] – v. spin,wind, or twist together

lack [læk] – n. the state of needing something that is absent or unavailable: there is a serious lack of insight into the problem

lad [læd] – n. a boy or man

ladder [ˈlædə] – n. steps consisting of two parallel members connected by rungs; for climbing up or down

laden [ˈleidn] – v. fill or place a load on

lady [ˈleidi] – n. a polite name for any woman: a nice lady at the library helped me

lag [læg] – v. hang (back) or fall (behind) in movement, progress, development, etc.

lake [leik] – n. a purplish red pigment prepared from lac or cochineal

lamb [læm] – n. young sheep

lame [leim] – n. someone who doesn’t understand what is going on

lament [ləˈment] – n. a cry of sorrow and grief: their pitiful laments could be heard throughout the ward

lamp [læmp] – n. an artificial source of visible illumination

land [lænd] – n. territory over which rule or control is exercised: he made it the law of the land

landing [ˈlændiŋ] – n. an intermediate platform in a staircase

landlady [ˈlænd.leidi] – n. a landlord who is a woman

landlord [ˈlændlɔ:d] – n. a landowner who leases to others

landscape [ˈlændskeip] – n. an expanse of scenery that can be seen in a single view

lane [lein] – n. a narrow way or road

language [ˈlæŋgwidʒ] – n. a systematic means of communicating by the use of sounds or conventional symbols: he taught foreign languages

languid [ˈlæŋgwid] – adj. lacking spirit or liveliness: a languid mood

lantern [ˈlæntən] – n. light in a transparent protective case

lap [læp] – n. the upper side of the thighs of a seated person: he picked up the little girl and plopped her down in his lap

lapse [læps] – v. pass into a specified state or condition

large [lɑ:dʒ] – adj. above average in size or number or quantity or magnitude or extent: a large city

largely [ˈlɑ:dʒli] – adv. on a large scale: the sketch was so largely drawn that you could see it from the back row

lark [lɑ:k] – n. North American songbirds having a yellow breast

laser [ˈleizə] – n. an acronym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation; an optical device that produces an intense monochromatic beam of coherent light

lash [læʃ] – v. beat severely with a whip or rod

last [lɑ:st] – adj. immediately past: last Thursday

late [leit] – adj. being or occurring at an advanced period of time or after a usual or expected time: late evening

lately [ˈleitli] – adv. in the recent past: lately the rules have been enforced

latent [ˈleitnt] – adj. potentially existing but not presently evident or realized: a latent fingerprint

later [ˈleitə] – adv. happening at a time subsequent to a reference time: he’s going to the store but he’ll be back here later

lateral [ˈlætərəl] – adj. situated at or extending to the side: the lateral branches of a tree

lathe [leið] – n. machine tool for shaping metal or wood; the workpiece turns about a horizontal axis against a fixed tool

Latin [ˈlætin] – adj. relating to people or countries speaking Romance languages: Latin America

latitude [ˈlætitju:d] – n. the angular distance between an imaginary line around a heavenly body parallel to its equator and the equator itself

latter [ˈlætə] – n. the second of two or the second mentioned of two: Tom and Dick were both heroes but only the latter is remembered today

lattice [ˈlætis] – n. an arrangement of points or particles or objects in a regular periodic pattern in 2 or 3 dimensions

laudable [ˈlɔ:dəbəl] – adj. worthy of high praise: applaudable efforts to save the environment

laugh [lɑ:f] – v. produce laughter

laughter [ˈlɑ:ftə] – n. the activity of laughing; the manifestation of joy or mirth or scorn: he enjoyed the laughter of the crowd

launch [lɔ:ntʃ] – v. set up or found

laundry [ˈlɔ:ndri] – n. workplace where clothes are washed and ironed

lavatory [ˈlævətəri] – n. a room or building equipped with one or more toilets

law [lɔ:] – n. the collection of rules imposed by authority: civilization presupposes respect for the law

lawful [ˈlɔ:fəl] – adj. according to custom or rule or natural law

lawn [lɔ:n] – n. a field of cultivated and mowed grass

lawyer [ˈlɔ:jə] – n. a professional person authorized to practice law; conducts lawsuits or gives legal advice

lax [læks] – adj. lacking in rigor or strictness: such lax and slipshod ways are no longer acceptable

lay [lei] – v. put in a horizontal position: lay the books on the table

layer [ˈleiə] – n. single thickness of usually some homogeneous substance

layman [ˈleimən] – n. someone who is not a clergyman or a professional person

layoff [ˈleiɔ:f] – n. the act of laying off an employee or a work force

layout [ˈleiaut] – n. a plan or design of something that is laid out

laziness [ˈleizinis] – n. inactivity resulting from a dislike of work

lazy [ˈleizi] – adj. moving slowly and gently: up a lazy river

lead [led,li:d] – n. an advantage held by a competitor in a race: he took the lead at the last turn

leader [ˈli:də] – n. a person who rules or guides or inspires others

leadership [ˈli:dəʃip] – n. the activity of leading: his leadership inspired the team

leading [ˈli:diŋ] – adj. indicating the most important performer or role: the leading man

leaf [li:f] – n. the main organ of photosynthesis and transpiration in higher plants

leaflet [ˈli:flit] – n. a thin triangular flap of a heart valve

league [li:g] – n. an association of sports teams that organizes matches for its members

leak [li:k] – n. soft watery rot in fruits and vegetables caused by fungi

leakage [ˈli:kidʒ] – n. the discharge of a fluid from some container

lean [li:n] – v. to incline or bend from a vertical position: She leaned over the banister

leap [li:p] – n. an abrupt transition: a successful leap from college to the major leagues

learn [lə:n] – v. gain knowledge or skills: She learned dancing from her sister

learner [ˈlə:nə] – n. works for an expert to learn a trade

learning [ˈlə:niŋ] – n. the cognitive process of acquiring skill or knowledge

lease [li:s] – v. let for money

least [li:st] – n. something that is of no importance: it is the least I can do

leather [ˈleðə] – n. an animal skin made smooth and flexible by removing the hair and then tanning

leave [li:v] – v. go away from a place: At what time does your train leave?

lecture [ˈlektʃə] – n. a speech that is open to the public: he attended a lecture on telecommunications

lecturer [ˈlektʃərə] – n. someone who lectures professionally

leeway [ˈli:wei] – n. (of a ship or plane) sideways drift

left [left] – n. those who support varying degrees of social or political or economic change designed to promote the public welfare

leftover [ˈleft.əuvə] – n. a small part or portion that remains after the main part no longer exists

leg [leg] – n. one of the supports for a piece of furniture

legal [ˈli:gəl] – adj. established by or founded upon law or official or accepted rules

legend [ˈledʒənd] – n. a story about mythical or supernatural beings or events

legendary [ˈledʒəndəri] – adj. celebrated in fable or legend: legendary exploits of Jesse James

legislate [ˈledʒisleit] – v. make laws, bills, etc. or bring into effect by legislation: We cannot legislate how people spend their free time

legislation [.ledʒisˈleiʃən] – n. the act of making or enacting laws

legitimate [liˈdʒitimit] – adj. of marriages and offspring; recognized as lawful

leisure [ˈli:ʒə] – n. time available for ease and relaxation: his job left him little leisure

lemon [ˈlemən] – n. yellow oval fruit with juicy acidic flesh

lemonade [.leməˈneid] – n. sweetened beverage of diluted lemon juice

lend [lend] – v. bestow a quality on: Her presence lends a certain cachet to the company

lending [ˈlendiŋ] – n. disposing of money or property with the expectation that the same thing (or an equivalent) will be returned

length [leŋθ] – n. the linear extent in space from one end to the other; the longest dimension of something that is fixed in place: the length of the table was 5 feet

lengthen [ˈleŋθən] – v. make longer

lenient [ˈli:niənt] – adj. not strict: lenient rules

Leninism [ˈleninizəm] – n. the political and economic theories of Lenin which provided the guiding doctrine of the Soviet Union; the modification of Marxism by Lenin stressed that imperialism is the highest form of capitalism (which shifts the struggle from developed to underdeveloped countries)

lens [lenz] – n. a transparent optical device used to converge or diverge transmitted light and to form images

leopard [ˈlepəd] – n. large feline of African and Asian forests usually having a tawny coat with black spots

less [les] – adj. (comparative of `little’ usually used with mass nouns) a quantifier meaning not as great in amount or degree: of less importance

lessen [ˈlesn] – v. decrease in size, extent, or range

lesson [ˈlesn] – n. a unit of instruction: he took driving lessons

let [let] – v. actively cause something to happen: I let it be known that I was not interested

lethal [ˈli:θəl] – adj. of an instrument of certain death: lethal weapon

letter [ˈletə] – n. a written message addressed to a person or organization: mailed an indignant letter to the editor

level [ˈlevl] – n. a position on a scale of intensity or amount or quality: a high level of care is required

lever [ˈlev] – n. a rigid bar pivoted about a fulcrum

levy [ˈlevi] – n. the act of drafting into military service

liability [.laiəˈbiliti] – n. the state of being legally obliged and responsible

liable [ˈlaiəbl] – adj. at risk of or subject to experiencing something usually unpleasant: she is liable to forget

liaison [liˈeizən] – n. a usually secretive or illicit sexual relationship

liar [ˈlaiə] – n. a person who has lied or who lies repeatedly

liberal [ˈlibərəl] – adj. showing or characterized by broad-mindedness: a liberal newspaper

liberate [ˈlibəreit] – v. give equal rights to; of women and minorities

liberation [.libəˈreiʃən] – n. the attempt to achieve equal rights or status: she worked for women’s liberation

liberty [ˈlibəti] – n. immunity from arbitrary exercise of authority: political independence

librarian [laiˈbrɛəriən] – n. a professional person trained in library science and engaged in library services

library [ˈlaibrəri] – n. a room where books are kept: they had brandy in the library

licence [ˈlaisəns] – n. excessive freedom; lack of due restraint

license [ˈlaisns] – n. a legal document giving official permission to do something

lick [lik] – v. beat thoroughly and conclusively in a competition or fight: We licked the other team on Sunday!

lid [lid] – n. either of two folds of skin that can be moved to cover or open the eye: his lids would stay open no longer

lie [lai] – v. be located or situated somewhere; occupy a certain position

lieutenant [lefˈtenənt; lju:ˈtenənt] – n. a commissioned military officer

life [laif] – n. the experience of being alive; the course of human events and activities: he could no longer cope with the complexities of life

lifetime [ˈlaiftaim] – n. the period during which something is functional (as between birth and death)

lift [lift] – v. raise from a lower to a higher position

light [lait] – adj. of comparatively little physical weight or density: a light load

lighten [ˈlaitn] – v. make more cheerful: the conversation lightened me up a bit

lighter [ˈlaitə] – n. a substance used to ignite or kindle a fire

lighthouse [ˈlaithaʊs] – n. a tower with a light that gives warning of shoals to passing ships

lightly [ˈlaitli] – adv. without good reason: one cannot say such things lightly

lightning [ˈlaitniŋ] – n. abrupt electric discharge from cloud to cloud or from cloud to earth accompanied by the emission of light

like [laik] – v. prefer or wish to do something: Would you like to come along to the movies?

likelihood [ˈlaiklihud] – n. the probability of a specified outcome

likely [ˈlaikli] – adj. has a good chance of being the case or of coming about: these services are likely to be available to us all before long

likeness [ˈlaiknis] – n. similarity in appearance or character or nature between persons or things: man created God in his own likeness

likewise [ˈlaikwaiz] – adv. in addition

liking [ˈlaikiŋ] – n. a feeling of pleasure and enjoyment: I’ve always had a liking for reading

lily [ˈlili] – n. any liliaceous plant of the genus Lilium having showy pendulous flowers

limb [lim] – n. any of the main branches arising from the trunk or a bough of a tree

lime [laim] – n. a white crystalline oxide used in the production of calcium hydroxide

limestone [ˈlaimstəun] – n. a sedimentary rock consisting mainly of calcium that was deposited by the remains of marine animals

limit [ˈlimit] – n. the greatest possible degree of something: to the limit of his ability

limitation [.limiˈteiʃən] – n. the quality of being limited or restricted: it is a good plan but it has serious limitations

limited [ˈlimitid] – adj. small in range or scope: limited war

limousine [ˈlimu(:)zi:n] – n. large luxurious car; usually driven by a chauffeur

limp [limp] – v. proceed slowly or with difficulty: the boat limped into the harbor

line [lain] – n. a formation of people or things one beside another: the line of soldiers advanced with their bayonets fixed

linear [ˈliniə] – adj. designating or involving an equation whose terms are of the first degree

linen [ˈlinin] – n. a fabric woven with fibers from the flax plant

liner [ˈlainə] – n. (baseball) a hit that flies straight out from the batter: the batter hit a liner to the shortstop

linger [ˈliŋgə] – v. remain present although waning or gradually dying: Her perfume lingered on

linguist [ˈliŋgwist] – n. a person who speaks more than one language

linguistics [liŋˈgwistiks] – n. the scientific study of language

lining [ˈlainiŋ] – n. a protective covering that protects an inside surface

link [liŋk] – n. a fastener that serves to join or connect: the walls are held together with metal links placed in the wet mortar during construction

lion [ˈlaiən] – n. large gregarious predatory feline of Africa and India having a tawny coat with a shaggy mane in the male

lioness [ˈlaiənis] – n. a female lion

lip [lip] – n. either of two fleshy folds of tissue that surround the mouth and play a role in speaking

lipstick [ˈlipstik] – n. makeup that is used to color the lips

liquid [ˈlikwid] – adj. filled or brimming with tears: sorrow made the eyes of many grow liquid

liquor [ˈlikə] – n. an alcoholic beverage that is distilled rather than fermented

list [list] – v. cause to lean to the side: Erosion listed the old tree

listen [ˈlisn] – v. hear with intention

listener [ˈlisənə] – n. someone who listens attentively

literacy [ˈlitərəsi] – n. the ability to read and write

literal [ˈlitərəl] – adj. being or reflecting the essential or genuine character of something: a literal solitude like a desert

literally [ˈlitərəli] – adv. (intensifier before a figurative expression) without exaggeration: our eyes were literally pinned to TV during the Gulf War

literary [ˈlitərəri] – adj. knowledgeable about literature: a literary style

literate [ˈlitərit] – adj. able to read and write

literature [ˈlitərətʃə] – n. creative writing of recognized artistic value

litre  – n. a metric unit of capacity, formerly defined as the volume of one kilogram of pure water under standard conditions; now equal to 1,000 cubic centimeters (or approximately 1.75 pints)

litter [ˈlitə] – n. the offspring at one birth of a multiparous mammal

little [ˈlitl] – adj. limited or below average in number or quantity or magnitude or extent: a little dining room

live [laiv,liv] – adj. actually being performed at the time of hearing or viewing: a live television program

livelihood [ˈlaivlihud] – n. the financial means whereby one lives: he could no longer earn his own livelihood

lively [ˈlaivli] – adj. full of life and energy: a lively discussion

liver [ˈlivə] – n. a person who has a special life style: a high liver

livestock [ˈlaivstɔk] – n. any animals kept for use or profit

living [ˈliviŋ] – adj. true to life; lifelike: the living image of her mother

load [ləud] – n. weight to be borne or conveyed

loaf [ləuf] – n. a shaped mass of baked bread that is usually sliced before eating

loan [ləun] – n. the temporary provision of money (usually at interest)

loath [ləuθ] – adj. unwillingness to do something contrary to your custom: loath to admit a mistake

lobby [ˈlɔbi] – n. a large entrance or reception room or area

lobster [ˈlɔbstə] – n. any of several edible marine crustaceans of the families Homaridae and Nephropsidae and Palinuridae

local [ˈləukəl] – adj. affecting only a restricted part or area of the body: local anesthesia

locality [ləuˈkæliti] – n. a surrounding or nearby region: it is a rugged locality

locate [ləuˈkeit] – v. determine or indicate the place, site, or limits of, as if by an instrument or by a survey: Our sense of sight enables us to locate objects in space

location [ləuˈkeiʃən] – n. a point or extent in space

lock [lɔk] – v. keep engaged

locker [ˈlɔkə] – n. a fastener that locks or closes

locomotive [.ləukəˈməutiv] – n. a wheeled vehicle consisting of a self-propelled engine that is used to draw trains along railway tracks

locust [ˈləukəst] – n. migratory grasshoppers of warm regions having short antennae

lodge [lɔdʒ] – n. English physicist who studied electromagnetic radiation and was a pioneer of radiotelegraphy (1851-1940)

lodger [ˈlɔdʒə] – n. a tenant in someone’s house

lodging [ˈlɔdʒiŋ] – n. structures collectively in which people are housed

lofty [ˈlɔfti] – adj. of high moral or intellectual value; elevated in nature or style: a noble and lofty concept

log [lɔg] – n. a segment of the trunk of a tree when stripped of branches

logic [ˈlɔdʒik] – n. the branch of philosophy that analyzes inference

logical [ˈlɔdʒikəl] – adj. capable of or reflecting the capability for correct and valid reasoning: a logical mind

loll [lɔl] – v. be lazy or idle

loneliness [ˈləʊnliniz] – n. the state of being alone in solitary isolation

lonely [ˈləunli] – adj. lacking companions or companionship: a lonely fisherman stood on a tuft of gravel

lonesome [ˈləunsəm] – adj. being the only one; single and isolated from others: a lonesome pine

long [lɔŋ] – adj. primarily spatial sense; of relatively great or greater than average spatial extension or extension as specified: a long road

longevity [lɔnˈdʒeviti] – n. duration of service: her longevity as a star

longing [ˈlɔŋiŋ] – n. prolonged unfulfilled desire or need

longitude [ˈlɔndʒitju:d] – n. the angular distance between a point on any meridian and the prime meridian at Greenwich

look [luk] – v. perceive with attention; direct one’s gaze towards: She looked over the expanse of land

loom [lu:m] – v. come into view indistinctly, often threateningly: Another air plane loomed into the sky

loop [lu:p] – n. fastener consisting of a metal ring for lining a small hole to permit the attachment of cords or lines

loose [lu:s] – adj. not compact or dense in structure or arrangement: loose gravel

loosen [ˈlu:sn] – v. make less severe or strict

lord [lɔ:d] – n. terms referring to the Judeo-Christian God

lorry [ˈlɔri] – n. a large low horse-drawn wagon without sides

lose [lu:z] – v. fail to keep or to maintain; cease to have, either physically or in an abstract sense

loss [lɔs] – n. gradual decline in amount or activity: weight loss

lost [lɔst] – adj. no longer in your possession or control; unable to be found or recovered: a lost child

lot [lɔt] – n. a parcel of land having fixed boundaries: he bought a lot on the lake

loth  – adj. unwillingness to do something contrary to your custom

lottery [ˈlɔtəri] – n. something that is regarded as a chance event: the election was just a lottery to them

loud [laud] – adj. characterized by or producing sound of great volume or intensity: a group of loud children

loudness [ˈlaʊdnis] – n. the magnitude of sound (usually in a specified direction)

loudspeaker [ˈlaudˈspi:kə] – n. electro-acoustic transducer that converts electrical signals into sounds loud enough to be heard at a distance

lounge [laundʒ] – n. an upholstered seat for more than one person

lovable [ˈlʌvəb(ə)l] – adj. having characteristics that attract love or affection: a mischievous but lovable child

love [lʌv] – n. a strong positive emotion of regard and affection: his love for his work

lovely [ˈlʌvli] – adj. appealing to the emotions as well as the eye

lover [ˈlʌvə] – n. an ardent follower and admirer

low [ləu] – adj. less than normal in degree or intensity or amount: low prices

lower [ˈləuə,ˈlauə] – v. cause to drop or sink

loyal [ˈlɔiəl] – adj. steadfast in allegiance or duty: loyal subjects

loyalty [ˈlɔiəlti] – n. feelings of allegiance

lubricate [ˈlu:brikeit] – v. apply a lubricant to: lubricate my car

lubrication [.lu:briˈkeiʃən] – n. an application of a lubricant to something

lucid [ˈlu:sid] – adj. (of language) transparently clear; easily understandable: lucid directions

luck [lʌk] – n. an unknown and unpredictable phenomenon that causes an event to result one way rather than another: bad luck caused his downfall

lucky [ˈlʌki] – adj. occurring by chance: a lucky escape

lucrative [ˈlu:krətiv] – adj. producing a sizeable profit

ludicrous [ˈlu:dikrəs] – adj. broadly or extravagantly humorous; resembling farce: ludicrous green hair

luggage [ˈlʌgidʒ] – n. cases used to carry belongings when traveling

lull [lʌl] – v. calm by deception: Don’t let yourself be lulled into a false state of security

lumber [ˈlʌmbə] – n. the wood of trees cut and prepared for use as building material

luminous [ˈlju:minəs] – adj. softly bright or radiant: a sky luminous with stars

lump [lʌmp] – n. a compact mass

lunar [ˈlu:nə] – adj. of or relating to or associated with the moon: lunar surface

lunch [lʌntʃ] – v. take the midday meal: At what time are you lunching?

luncheon [ˈlʌntʃən] – n. a midday meal

lung [lʌŋ] – n. either of two saclike respiratory organs in the chest of vertebrates; serves to remove carbon dioxide and provide oxygen to the blood

lure [lu] – n. qualities that attract by seeming to promise some kind of reward

lurk [lə:k] – v. lie in wait, lie in ambush, behave in a sneaky and secretive manner

luxurious [lʌgˈʒu:riəs] – adj. rich and superior in quality

luxury [ˈlʌkʃəri] – n. something that is an indulgence rather than a necessity

machinery [məˈʃi:nəri] – n. a system of means and activities whereby a social institution functions: the complex machinery of negotiation

mackintosh [ˈmækintɔʃ] – n. a lightweight waterproof (usually rubberized) fabric

macroeconomics [.mækrəu.i:kəˈnɔmiks] – n. the branch of economics that studies the overall working of a national economy

mad [mæd] – adj. roused to anger: she gets mad when you wake her up so early

madam [ˈmædəm] – n. a woman of refinement

madden [ˈmædən] – v. cause to go crazy; cause to lose one’s mind

madman [ˈmædmən] – n. an insane person

madness [ˈmædnis] – n. obsolete terms for legal insanity

magazine [.mægəˈzi:n] – n. product consisting of a paperback periodic publication as a physical object: tripped over a pile of magazines

magic [ˈmædʒik] – n. any art that invokes supernatural powers

magician [məˈdʒiʃən] – n. one who practices magic or sorcery

magistrate [ˈmædʒistreit] – n. a lay judge or civil authority who administers the law (especially one who conducts a court dealing with minor offenses)

magnanimous [mægˈnæniməs] – adj. noble and generous in spirit: a magnanimous conqueror

magnate [ˈmægneit] – n. a very wealthy or powerful businessman

magnet [ˈmægnit] – n. a characteristic that provides pleasure and attracts

magnetic [mægˈnetik] – adj. having the properties of a magnet; i.e. of attracting iron or steel: the hard disk is covered with a thin coat of magnetic material

magnetism [ˈmægnitizəm] – n. attraction for iron; associated with electric currents as well as magnets; characterized by fields of force

magnificent [mægˈnifisnt] – adj. characterized by grandeur: magnificent cathedrals

magnify [ˈmægnifai] – v. increase in size, volume or significance

magnitude [ˈmægnitju:d] – n. the property of relative size or extent (whether large or small): they tried to predict the magnitude of the explosion

maid [meid] – n. an unmarried girl (especially a virgin)

maiden [ˈmeidn] – n. an unmarried girl (especially a virgin)

mail [meil] – n. the bags of letters and packages that are transported by the postal service

mailbox [ˈmeilbɔks] – n. public box for deposit of mail

maim [meim] – v. injure or wound seriously and leave permanent disfiguration or mutilation: people were maimed by the explosion

main [mein] – adj. most important element: the main doors were of solid glass

mainland [ˈmeinlənd] – n. the main land mass of a country or continent; as distinguished from an island or peninsula

mainly [ˈmeinli] – adv. for the most part: he is mainly interested in butterflies

mainstream [ˈmeinstri:m] – n. the prevailing current of thought: his thinking was in the American mainstream

maintain [meinˈtein] – v. keep in a certain state, position, or activity; e.g.,

maintenance [ˈmeintinəns] – n. activity involved in maintaining something in good working order

maize [meiz] – n. a strong yellow color

majestic [məˈdʒestik] – adj. having or displaying great dignity or nobility: majestic cities

majesty [ˈmædʒisti] – n. impressiveness in scale or proportion

major [ˈmeidʒə] – adj. of greater importance or stature or rank: a major artist

majority [məˈdʒɔ:riti] – n. the property resulting from being or relating to the greater in number of two parts; the main part: the majority of his customers prefer it

make [meik] – v. engage in: make love, not war

maker [ˈmeikə] – n. terms referring to the Judeo-Christian God

making [ˈmeikiŋ] – n. the act that results in something coming to be: the making of measurements

malady [ˈmælədi] – n. any unwholesome or desperate condition

malaise [mæˈleiz] – n. physical discomfort (as mild sickness or depression)

malaria [məˈlɛəriə] – n. an infective disease caused by sporozoan parasites that are transmitted through the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito; marked by paroxysms of chills and fever

Malaysia [məˈleiʃə] – n. a constitutional monarchy in southeastern Asia on Borneo and the Malay Peninsula; achieved independence from the United Kingdom in 1957

male [meil] – n. a person who belongs to the sex that cannot have babies

malice [ˈmælis] – n. feeling a need to see others suffer

malicious [məˈliʃəs] – adj. having the nature of or resulting from malice: malicious gossip

malignant [məˈlignənt] – adj. dangerous to health; characterized by progressive and uncontrolled growth (especially of a tumor)

mall [mɔ:l, mæl] – n. a public area set aside as a pedestrian walk

malleable [ˈmæliəbəl] – adj. easily influenced

malnutrition [.mælnjuˈtriʃən] – n. a state of poor nutrition; can result from insufficient or excessive or unbalanced diet or from inability to absorb foods

maltreat [mælˈtri:t] – v. treat badly

mammal [ˈmæməl] – n. any warm-blooded vertebrate having the skin more or less covered with hair; young are born alive except for the small subclass of monotremes and nourished with milk

man [mæn] – n. someone who serves in the armed forces; a member of a military force

manacle [ˈmænəkəl] – n. shackle that consists of a metal loop that can be locked around the wrist; usually used in pairs

management [ˈmænidʒmənt] – n. those in charge of running a business

manager [ˈmænidʒə] – n. someone who controls resources and expenditures

managerial [.mænəˈdʒiəriəl] – adj. of or relating to the function or responsibility or activity of management

mandate [ˈmændeit] – n. a document giving an official instruction or command

mandatory [ˈmændətəri] – n. the recipient of a mandate

maneuver [məˈnu:və] – n. a military training exercise

manhood [ˈmænhud] – n. the state of being a man; manly qualities

mania [ˈmeiniə] – n. an irrational but irresistible motive for a belief or action

maniac [ˈmeiniæk] – n. an insane person

manifest [ˈmænifest] – v. provide evidence for; stand as proof of; show by one’s behavior, attitude, or external attributes: The buildings in Rome manifest a high level of architectural sophistication

manifestation [.mænifesˈteiʃən] – n. a clear appearance: a manifestation of great emotion

manifesto [.mæniˈfestəu] – n. a public declaration of intentions (as issued by a political party or government)

manifold [ˈmænifəuld] – n. a pipe that has several lateral outlets to or from other pipes

manipulate [məˈnipjuleit] – v. influence or control shrewdly or deviously: He manipulated public opinion in his favor

manipulation [mə.nipjuˈleiʃən] – n. exerting shrewd or devious influence especially for one’s own advantage: his manipulation of his friends was scandalous

mankind [mænˈkaind] – n. all of the living human inhabitants of the earth: she always used `humankind’ because `mankind’ seemed to slight the women

manly [ˈmænli] – adj. characteristic of a man: manly sports

manner [ˈmænə] – n. how something is done or how it happens: her dignified manner

mansion [ˈmænʃən] – n. (astrology) one of 12 equal areas into which the zodiac is divided

mantle [ˈmæntl] – n. the cloak as a symbol of authority: place the mantle of authority on younger shoulders

manual [ˈmænjuəl] – adj. of or relating to the hands: manual dexterity

manually [ˈmænjʊəli] – adv. by hand: this car shifts manually

manufacture [.mænjuˈfæktʃə] – v. put together out of artificial or natural components or parts: They manufacture small toys

manufactured [.mænjuˈfæktʃəd] – adj. produced in a large-scale industrial operation

manufacturer [.mænjuˈfæktʃərə] – n. someone who manufactures something

manure [məˈnjuə] – n. any animal or plant material used to fertilize land especially animal excreta usually with litter material

manuscript [ˈmænjuskript] – n. the form of a literary work submitted for publication

many [ˈmeni] – adj. a quantifier that can be used with count nouns and is often preceded by `as’ or `too’ or `so’ or `that’; amounting to a large but indefinite number: many temptations

map [mæp] – v. locate within a specific region of a chromosome in relation to known DNA or gene sequences: map the genes

maple [ˈmeipl] – n. any of numerous trees or shrubs of the genus Acer bearing winged seeds in pairs; north temperate zone

mar [mɑ:] – n. the month following February and preceding April

marble [ˈmɑ:bl] – n. a hard crystalline metamorphic rock that takes a high polish; used for sculpture and as building material

march  – n. the month following February and preceding April

margin [ˈmɑ:dʒin] – n. the boundary line or the area immediately inside the boundary

marginal [ˈmɑ:dʒinəl] – adj. at or constituting a border or edge: the marginal strip of beach

marine [məˈri:n] – adj. of or relating to the sea: marine explorations

mariner [ˈmærinə] – n. a man who serves as a sailor

marital [ˈmæritl] – adj. of or relating to the state of marriage: marital status

maritime [ˈmæritaim] – adj. relating to or involving ships or shipping or navigation or seamen: maritime law

mark [mɑ:k] – n. a distinguishing symbol: the owner’s mark was on all the sheep

marked [mɑ:kt] – adj. singled out for notice or especially for a dire fate: a marked man

market [ˈmɑ:kit] – n. the world of commercial activity where goods and services are bought and sold: without competition there would be no market

marketable [ˈmɑ:kitəbl] – adj. being in demand by especially employers: marketable skills

marketing [ˈmɑ:kitiŋ] – n. the exchange of goods for an agreed sum of money

marketplace [ˈmɑ:kitˈpleis] – n. the world of commercial activity where goods and services are bought and sold: they were driven from the marketplace

marking [ˈmɑ:kiŋ] – n. a distinguishing symbol

marriage [ˈmæridʒ] – n. two people who are married to each other: his second marriage was happier than the first

married [ˈmærid] – adj. joined in matrimony: a married man

marrow [ˈmærəu] – n. the fatty network of connective tissue that fills the cavities of bones

marry [ˈmæri] – v. perform a marriage ceremony

Mars  – n. (Roman mythology) Roman god of war and agriculture; father of Romulus and Remus; counterpart of Greek Ares

marsh [mɑ:ʃ] – n. low-lying wet land with grassy vegetation; usually is a transition zone between land and water: thousands of acres of marshland

marshal [ˈmɑ:ʃəl] – v. place in proper rank: marshal the troops

martial [ˈmɑ:ʃəl] – adj. (of persons) befitting a warrior

martyr [ˈmɑ:tə] – n. one who suffers for the sake of principle

marvel [ˈmɑ:vəl] – v. be amazed at: We marvelled at the child’s linguistic abilities

marvellous  – adj. extraordinarily good or great ; used especially as intensifiers

marvelous [ˈmɑ:viləs] – adj. extraordinarily good or great ; used especially as intensifiers: a marvelous collection of rare books

Marxism [ˈmɑ:ksizəm] – n. the economic and political theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will ultimately be superseded by communism

Marxist [ˈmɑ:ksist] – n. emotionally charged terms used to refer to extreme radicals or revolutionaries

masculine [ˈmæskjulin] – adj. of grammatical gender

mask [mɑ:sk] – v. hide under a false appearance: He masked his disappointment

mass [mæs] – n. the property of a body that causes it to have weight in a gravitational field

massacre [ˈmæsəkə] – n. the savage and excessive killing of many people

massage [ˈməsɑ:ʒ] – v. manually manipulate (someone’s body), usually for medicinal or relaxation purposes

massive [ˈmæsiv] – adj. imposing in size or bulk or solidity: massive oak doors

mast [mɑ:st] – n. a vertical spar for supporting sails

master [ˈmɑ:stə] – n. an artist of consummate skill: a master of the violin

masterpiece [ˈmɑ:stəpi:s] – n. the most outstanding work of a creative artist or craftsman

mat [mæt] – n. a thick flat pad used as a floor covering

match [mætʃ] – v. be compatible, similar or consistent; coincide in their characteristics: The suspect’s fingerprints don’t match those on the gun

mate [meit] – n. a fellow member of a team: it was his first start against his former teammates

material [məˈtiəriəl] – adj. concerned with worldly rather than spiritual interests: material possessions

materialism [məˈtiəriəlizəm] – n. (philosophy) the philosophical theory that matter is the only reality

materialize [məˈtiəriəlaiz] – v. come into being; become reality: Her dream really materialized

maternal [məˈtə:nl] – adj. characteristic of a mother: warm maternal affection for her guest

mathematical [.mæθiˈmætikəl] – adj. relating to or having ability to think in or work with numbers: a mathematical whiz

mathematician [.mæθiməˈtiʃən] – n. a person skilled in mathematics

mathematics [.mæθiˈmætiks] – n. a science (or group of related sciences) dealing with the logic of quantity and shape and arrangement

maths [mæθs] – n. a science (or group of related sciences) dealing with the logic of quantity and shape and arrangement

matinee [ˈmætinei] – n. a theatrical performance held during the daytime (especially in the afternoon)

matrimony [ˈmætriməni] – n. the state of being a married couple voluntarily joined for life (or until divorce)

matter [ˈmætə] – n. a vaguely specified concern: several matters to attend to

mattress [ˈmætris] – n. a large thick pad filled with resilient material and often incorporating coiled springs, used as a bed or part of a bed

mature [məˈtjuə] – v. develop and work out fully in one’s mind: I need to mature my thoughts

maturity [məˈtjuəriti] – n. the period of time in your life after your physical growth has stopped and you are fully developed

maximize [ˈmæksmaiz] – v. make as big or large as possible

maximum [ˈmæksiməm] – n. the largest possible quantity

may [mei, me] – n. the month following April and preceding June

maybe [ˈmeibi] – adv. by chance

mayor [ˈmɛ] – n. the head of a city government

me [mi:] – n. a state in New England

meadow [ˈmedəu] – n. a field where grass or alfalfa are grown to be made into hay

meagre  – adj. deficient in amount or quality or extent

meal [mi:l] – n. any of the occasions for eating food that occur by custom or habit at more or less fixed times

mean [mi:n] – adj. approximating the statistical norm or average or expected value: the mean annual rainfall

meaning [ˈmi:niŋ] – n. the message that is intended or expressed or signified: what is the meaning of this sentence

means [mi:nz] – n. how a result is obtained or an end is achieved: a means of control

meantime [ˈmi:nˈtaim] – n. the time between one event, process, or period and another

meanwhile [ˈmi:nˈwail] – adv. at the same time but in another place: meanwhile, back at the ranch…

measure [ˈmeʒə] – n. any maneuver made as part of progress toward a goal: the situation called for strong measures

measurement [ˈmeʒəmənt] – n. the act or process of assigning numbers to phenomena according to a rule: the measurements were carefully done

meat [mi:t] – n. the flesh of animals (including fishes and birds and snails) used as food

mechanic [miˈkænik] – n. a craftsman skilled in operating machine tools

mechanical [miˈkænikəl] – adj. relating to or concerned with machinery or tools: mechanical arts

mechanically [miˈkænikəli] – adv. in a machinelike manner; without feeling: he smiled mechanically

mechanics [miˈkæniks] – n. the branch of physics concerned with the motion of bodies in a frame of reference

mechanism [ˈmekənizəm] – n. the atomic process that occurs during a chemical reaction: he determined unique mechanisms for the photochemical reactions

medal [ˈmedl] – n. an award for winning a championship or commemorating some other event

meddle [ˈmedl] – v. intrude in other people’s affairs or business; interfere unwantedly: Don’t meddle in my affairs!

mediate [ˈmidieit] – v. act between parties with a view to reconciling differences: He mediated a settlement

medical [ˈmedikəl] – adj. requiring or amenable to treatment by medicine especially as opposed to surgery: medical treatment

medicine [ˈmedisin] – n. the branches of medical science that deal with nonsurgical techniques

medieval [mediˈi:vəl] – adj. relating to or belonging to the Middle Ages

mediocre [.mi:diˈəukə] – adj. moderate to inferior in quality: they improved the quality from mediocre to above average

meditate [ˈmediteit] – v. reflect deeply on a subject

meditation [.mediˈteiʃən] – n. continuous and profound contemplation or musing on a subject or series of subjects of a deep or abstruse nature: the habit of meditation is the basis for all real knowledge

Mediterranean [.meditəˈreinjən] – n. the largest inland sea; between Europe and Africa and Asia

medium [ˈmi:diəm] – n. a means or instrumentality for storing or communicating information

meek [mi:k] – adj. humble in spirit or manner; suggesting retiring mildness or even cowed submissiveness: meek and self-effacing

meet [mi:t] – v. get together socially or for a specific purpose

melancholy [ˈmelənkəli] – n. a feeling of thoughtful sadness

melodious [miˈləudiəs] – adj. having a musical sound; especially a pleasing tune

melody [ˈmelədi] – n. a succession of notes forming a distinctive sequence

melon [ˈmelən] – n. any of numerous fruits of the gourd family having a hard rind and sweet juicy flesh

melt [melt] – v. reduce or cause to be reduced from a solid to a liquid state, usually by heating: melt butter

member [ˈmembə] – n. anything that belongs to a set or class: snakes are members of the class Reptilia

membership [ˈmembəʃip] – n. the state of being a member

memo [ˈmeməu] – n. a written proposal or reminder

memoir [ˈmemwɑ:] – n. an account of the author’s personal experiences

memorial [miˈmɔ:riəl] – n. a recognition of meritorious service

memorize [ˈmeməraiz] – v. commit to memory; learn by heart: Have you memorized your lines for the play yet?

memory [ˈmeməri] – n. the cognitive processes whereby past experience is remembered: he can do it from memory

menace [ˈmenis] – v. pose a threat to; present a danger to

mend [mend] – n. the act of putting something in working order again

mental [ˈmentl] – adj. involving the mind or an intellectual process: mental images of happy times

mentality [menˈtæliti] – n. mental ability

mention [ˈmenʃən] – n. a remark that calls attention to something or someone: she made frequent mention of her promotion

menu [ˈmenju:] – n. a list of dishes available at a restaurant: the menu was in French

mercantile [ˈmə:kəntail] – adj. profit oriented: preached a mercantile and militant patriotism

mercenary [ˈmə:sinəri] – adj. marked by materialism

merchandise [ˈmə:tʃəndaiz] – n. commodities offered for sale: good business depends on having good merchandise

merchant [ˈmə:tʃənt] – n. a businessperson engaged in retail trade

merciful [ˈmə:sifəl] – adj. (used conventionally of royalty and high nobility) gracious: our merciful king

mercury [ˈmə:kjuri] – n. a heavy silvery toxic univalent and bivalent metallic element; the only metal that is liquid at ordinary temperatures

mercy [ˈmə:si] – n. leniency and compassion shown toward offenders by a person or agency charged with administering justice: he threw himself on the mercy of the court

mere [miə] – adj. being nothing more than specified: a mere child

merely [ˈmiəli] – adv. and nothing more: I was merely asking

merge [mə:dʒ] – v. become one: the cells merge

merit [ˈmerit] – n. any admirable quality or attribute: work of great merit

mermaid [ˈmə:meid] – n. half woman and half fish; lives in the sea

merry [ˈmeri] – adj. offering fun and gaiety: a merry evening

mesh [meʃ] – n. contact by fitting together: the meshing of gears

mess [mes] – n. a state of confusion and disorderliness: the house was a mess

message [ˈmesidʒ] – n. a communication (usually brief) that is written or spoken or signaled: he sent a three-word message

messenger [ˈmesindʒə] – n. a person who carries a message

metabolism [məˈtæbəlizəm] – n. the marked and rapid transformation of a larva into an adult that occurs in some animals

metal [ˈmetl] – n. any of several chemical elements that are usually shiny solids that conduct heat or electricity and can be formed into sheets etc.

metallic [mi ˈtælik] – n. a yarn made partly or entirely of metal

metallurgy [meˈtælədʒi] – n. the science and technology of metals

metaphor [ˈmetəfə] – n. a figure of speech in which an expression is used to refer to something that it does not literally denote in order to suggest a similarity

meteoric [.mi:tiˈɔrik] – adj. of or pertaining to atmospheric phenomena, especially weather and weather conditions: meteoric (or meteorological) phenomena

meteorology [mi:tiəˈrɔlədʒi] – n. predicting what the weather will be

meter [ˈmi:tə] – n. the basic unit of length adopted under the Systeme International d’Unites (approximately 1.094 yards)

method [ˈmeθəd] – n. a way of doing something, especially a systematic way; implies an orderly logical arrangement (usually in steps)

methodology [meθəˈdɔlədʒi] – n. the branch of philosophy that analyzes the principles and procedures of inquiry in a particular discipline

meticulous [miˈtikjʊləs] – adj. marked by precise accordance with details: meticulous research

meticulously [meˈtikjuləsli] – adv. in a meticulous manner: the set was meticulously authentic

metre  – n. the basic unit of length adopted under the Systeme International d’Unites (approximately 1.094 yards)

metric [ˈmetrik] – n. a system of related measures that facilitates the quantification of some particular characteristic

metropolitan [.metrəˈpɔlitən] – n. a person who lives in a metropolis

Mexican [ˈmeksikən] – n. a native or inhabitant of Mexico

Mexico [ˈmeksikəʊ] – n. a republic in southern North America; became independent from Spain in 1810

microbe [ˈmaikrəub] – n. a minute life form (especially a disease-causing bacterium); the term is not in technical use

microcosm [ˈmaikrəkɔzəm] – n. a miniature model of something

microeconomics [.maikrə.i:kəˈnɔmiks] – n. the branch of economics that studies the economy of consumers or households or individual firms

microfilm [ˈmaikrəufilm] – n. film on which materials are photographed at greatly reduced size; useful for storage; a magnification system is used to read the material

microphone [ˈmaikrəfəun] – n. device for converting sound waves into electrical energy

microprocessor [.maikrəuˈprəusesər] – n. integrated circuit semiconductor chip that performs the bulk of the processing and controls the parts of a system: a microprocessor functions as the central processing unit of a microcomputer

microscope [ˈmaikrəskəup] – n. magnifier of the image of small objects: the invention of the microscope led to the discovery of the cell

microwave [ˈmaikrəuweiv] – n. kitchen appliance that cooks food by passing an electromagnetic wave through it; heat results from the absorption of energy by the water molecules in the food

midday [ˈmiddei] – n. the middle of the day

middle [ˈmidl] – n. an area that is approximately central within some larger region

middleman [ˈmid(ə)lmæn] – n. someone who buys large quantities of goods and resells to merchants rather than to the ultimate customers

middling [ˈmidliŋ] – n. any commodity of intermediate quality or size (especially when coarse particles of ground wheat are mixed with bran)

midnight [ˈmidnait] – n. 12 o’clock at night; the middle of the night: young children should not be allowed to stay up until midnight

midst [ˈmidst] – n. the location of something surrounded by other things: in the midst of the crowd

might [mait] – n. physical strength

mighty [ˈmaiti] – adj. having or showing great strength or force or intensity: struck a mighty blow

migrant [ˈmaigrənt] – n. traveler who moves from one region or country to another

migrate [ˈmaigreit] – v. move from one country or region to another and settle there: Many Germans migrated to South America in the mid-19th century

migration [maiˈgreiʃən] – n. the movement of persons from one country or locality to another

mild [maild] – adj. moderate in type or degree or effect or force; far from extreme: a mild winter storm

mildew [ˈmildju:] – n. a fungus that produces a superficial (usually white) growth on organic matter

mile [mail] – n. a unit of length equal to 1,760 yards or 5,280 feet; exactly 1609.344 meters

mileage [ˈmailidʒ] – n. the ratio of the number of miles traveled to the number of gallons of gasoline burned

milestone [ˈmailstəun] – n. stone post at side of a road to show distances

militant [ˈmilitənt] – adj. disposed to warfare or hard-line policies: militant nations

military [ˈmilitəri] – adj. of or relating to the study of the principles of warfare: military law

militia [miˈliʃə] – n. civilians trained as soldiers but not part of the regular army

milk [milk] – n. a white nutritious liquid secreted by mammals and used as food by human beings

milkman [ˈmilkmən] – n. someone who delivers milk

mill [mil] – n. a plant consisting of one or more buildings with facilities for manufacturing

miller [ˈmilə] – n. United States bandleader of a popular big band (1909-1944)

millimetre  – n. a metric unit of length equal to one thousandth of a meter

million [ˈmiljən] – n. the number that is represented as a one followed by 6 zeros

millionaire [.miljənˈɛə] – n. a person whose material wealth is valued at more than a million dollars

mimic [ˈmimik] – v. imitate (a person or manner), especially for satirical effect: The actor mimicked the President very accurately

mince [mins] – v. make less severe or harsh

mincer  – n. a kitchen utensil that cuts or chops food (especially meat) into small pieces

mind [maind] – n. that which is responsible for one’s thoughts and feelings; the seat of the faculty of reason: his mind wandered

mine [main] – n. explosive device that explodes on contact; designed to destroy vehicles or ships or to kill or maim personnel

miner [ˈmainə] – n. laborer who works in a mine

mineral [ˈminərəl] – adj. composed of matter other than plant or animal: the inorganic mineral world

mingle [ˈmiŋgl] – v. to bring or combine together or with something else: resourcefully he mingled music and dance

miniature [ˈminiətʃə] – n. painting or drawing included in a book (especially in illuminated medieval manuscripts)

minicomputer [ˈminikəm.pju:tə] – n. a digital computer of medium size

minimal [ˈminiməl] – adj. the least possible: needed to enforce minimal standards

minimize [ˈminimaiz] – v. make small or insignificant: Let’s minimize the risk

minimum [ˈminiməm] – n. the smallest possible quantity

minister [ˈministə] – n. a person authorized to conduct religious worship: clergymen are usually called ministers in Protestant churches

ministry [ˈministri] – n. building where the business of a government department is transacted

minor [ˈmainə] – adj. of lesser importance or stature or rank: a minor poet

minority [maiˈnɔ:riti] – n. a group of people who differ racially or politically from a larger group of which it is a part

mint [mint] – n. (often followed by `of’) a large number or amount or extent: he made a mint on the stock market

minus [ˈmainəs] – adj. on the negative side or lower end of a scale: minus 5 degrees

minute [ˈminit,maiˈnju:t] – n. a unit of time equal to 60 seconds or 1/60th of an hour: he ran a 4 minute mile

miracle [ˈmirəkl] – n. any amazing or wonderful occurrence

miraculous [miˈrækjuləs] – adj. peculiarly fortunate or appropriate; as if by divine intervention

mirage [ˈmirɑ:ʒ] – n. something illusory and unattainable

mire [ˈmaiə] – v. entrap: Our people should not be mired in the past

mirror [ˈmirə] – n. polished surface that forms images by reflecting light

misappropriate [.misəˈprəuprieit] – v. appropriate (as property entrusted to one’s care) fraudulently to one’s own use

miscarriage [misˈkæridʒ] – n. failure of a plan

miscarry [misˈkæri] – v. be unsuccessful

mischance [.misˈtʃɑ:ns] – n. an unpredictable outcome that is unfortunate

mischief [ˈmistʃif] – n. reckless or malicious behavior that causes discomfort or annoyance in others

misconceive [.miskənˈsi:v] – v. interpret in the wrong way

misdeed [.misˈdi:d] – n. improper or wicked or immoral behavior

miser [ˈmaizə] – n. a stingy hoarder of money and possessions (often living miserably)

miserable [ˈmizərəbl] – adj. deserving or inciting pity: miserable victims of war

misery [ˈmizəri] – n. a feeling of intense unhappiness: she was exhausted by her misery and grief

misfortune [misˈfɔ:tʃən] – n. unnecessary and unforeseen trouble resulting from an unfortunate event

misgiving [misˈgiviŋ] – n. uneasiness about the fitness of an action

misguided [misˈgaidid] – adj. poorly conceived or thought out

mishandle [ˈmisˈhændl] – v. make a mess of, destroy or ruin

mishap [ˈmishæp, misˈhæp] – n. an unpredictable outcome that is unfortunate

misinterpret [ˈmisinˈtə:prit] – v. interpret falsely

mislead [misˈli:d] – v. lead someone in the wrong direction or give someone wrong directions

misrepresent [.misrepriˈzent] – v. represent falsely: This statement misrepresents my intentions

Miss [mis] – n. a form of address for an unmarried woman

missile [ˈmisail] – n. a rocket carrying a warhead of conventional or nuclear explosives; may be ballistic or directed by remote control

missing [ˈmisiŋ] – adj. not able to be found: missing in action

mission [ˈmiʃən] – n. an operation that is assigned by a higher headquarters: the planes were on a bombing mission

missionary [ˈmiʃənəri] – n. someone who attempts to convert others to a particular doctrine or program

mist [mist] – v. make less visible or unclear

mistake [miˈsteik] – n. a wrong action attributable to bad judgment or ignorance or inattention: he made a bad mistake

mistaken [misˈteikən] – adj. wrong in e.g. opinion or judgment: a mistaken belief

mister [ˈmistə] – n. a form of address for a man

mistress [ˈmistris] – n. an adulterous woman; a woman who has an ongoing extramarital sexual relationship with a man

misty [ˈmisti] – adj. wet with mist: the misty evening

misunderstand [ˈmisʌndəˈstænd] – v. interpret in the wrong way

misuse [misˈju:z] – v. apply to a wrong thing or person; apply badly or incorrectly

mitigate [ˈmitigeit] – v. lessen or to try to lessen the seriousness or extent of

mitten [ˈmitn] – n. glove that encases the thumb separately and the other four fingers together

mix [miks] – v. open (a place) to members of all races and ethnic groups

mixer [ˈmiksə] – n. a party of people assembled to promote sociability and communal activity

mixture [ˈmikstʃə] – n. any foodstuff made by combining different ingredients: he drank a mixture of beer and lemonade

moan [məun] – n. an utterance expressing pain or disapproval

mob [mɔb] – n. a disorderly crowd of people

mobile [ˈməubail] – adj. migratory: a restless mobile society

mobilize [ˈməubilaiz] – v. make ready for action or use

mock [mɔk] – v. treat with contempt: The new constitution mocks all democratic principles

mode [məud] – n. how something is done or how it happens: their nomadic mode of existence

model [ˈmɔdl] – n. a hypothetical description of a complex entity or process: the computer program was based on a model of the circulatory and respiratory systems

moderate [ˈmɔdəreit,ˈmɔdərit] – v. preside over: John moderated the discussion

moderately [ˈmɔdəritli] – adv. with moderation; in a moderate manner: he drinks moderately

modern [ˈmɔdən] – adj. relating to a recently developed fashion or style: their offices are in a modern skyscraper

modernization [.mɔdənaiˈzeiʃən] – n. making modern in appearance or behavior: the modernization of Nigeria will be a long process

modernize [ˈmɔdən.aiz] – v. make repairs, renovations, revisions or adjustments to

modest [ˈmɔdist] – adj. marked by simplicity; having a humble opinion of yourself: a modest apartment

modesty [ˈmɔdisti] – n. freedom from vanity or conceit

modification [.mɔdifiˈkeiʃən] – n. the act of making something different (as e.g. the size of a garment)

modified [ˈmɔdifaid] – adj. changed in form or character: their modified stand made the issue more acceptable

modify [ˈmɔdifai] – v. make less severe or harsh or extreme: please modify this letter to make it more polite

modulate [ˈmɔdjuleit] – v. change the key of, in music: modulate the melody

module [ˈmɔdju:l] – n. one of the inherent cognitive or perceptual powers of the mind

moist [mɔist] – adj. slightly wet: a moist breeze

moisture [ˈmɔistʃə] – n. wetness caused by water

molecular [məuˈlekjulə] – adj. relating to simple or elementary organization: proceed by more and more detailed analysis to the molecular facts of perception

molecule [ˈmɔlikju:l] – n. (physics and chemistry) the simplest structural unit of an element or compound

molest [məˈlest] – v. harass or assault sexually; make indecent advances to

moment [ˈməumənt] – n. a particular point in time: the moment he arrived the party began

momentary [ˈməuməntəri] – adj. lasting for a markedly brief time: a momentary glimpse

momentous [məuˈmentəs] – adj. of very great significance: a momentous event

momentum [məuˈmentəm] – n. an impelling force or strength: the car’s momentum carried it off the road

monarch [ˈmɔnək] – n. a nation’s ruler or head of state usually by hereditary right

monarchy [ˈmɔnəki] – n. an autocracy governed by a monarch who usually inherits the authority

monastery [ˈmɔnəstri] – n. the residence of a religious community

Monday [ˈmʌndi, ˈmʌndei] – n. the second day of the week; the first working day

monetary [ˈmʌnə.teri] – adj. relating to or involving money: monetary rewards

money [ˈmʌni] – n. the most common medium of exchange; functions as legal tender: we tried to collect the money he owed us

monitor [ˈmɔnitə] – n. someone who supervises (an examination)

monk [mʌŋk] – n. a male religious living in a cloister and devoting himself to contemplation and prayer and work

monkey [ˈmʌŋki] – n. any of various long-tailed primates (excluding the prosimians)

monologue [ˈmɔnəlɔg] – n. speech you make to yourself

monopolize [məˈnɔpəlaiz] – v. have and control fully and exclusively: He monopolizes the laser printer

monopoly [məˈnɔpəli] – n. (economics) a market in which there are many buyers but only one seller: a monopoly on silver

monotonous [məˈnɔtənəs] – adj. tediously repetitious or lacking in variety: nothing is so monotonous as the sea

monotony [məˈnɔtəni] – n. the quality of wearisome constancy, routine, and lack of variety: he had never grown accustomed to the monotony of his work

monsoon [mɔnˈsu:n] – n. a seasonal wind in southern Asia; blows from the southwest (bringing rain) in summer and from the northeast in winter

monster [ˈmɔnstə] – n. an imaginary creature usually having various human and animal parts

monstrous [ˈmɔnstrəs] – adj. abnormally large

month [mʌnθ] – n. one of the twelve divisions of the calendar year: he paid the bill last month

monthly [ˈmʌnθli] – n. a periodical that is published every month (or 12 issues per year)

monument [ˈmɔnjumənt] – n. a structure erected to commemorate persons or events

monumental [.mɔnjuˈmentl] – adj. of outstanding significance: Einstein’s monumental contributions to physics

mood [mu:d] – n. a characteristic (habitual or relatively temporary) state of feeling

moon [mu:n] – n. the natural satellite of the Earth: men first stepped on the moon in 1969

moonlight [ˈmu:nlait] – n. the light of the Moon: moonlight is the smuggler’s enemy

moor [muə] – v. secure in or as if in a berth or dock

mop [mɔp] – v. make a sad face and thrust out one’s lower lip: mop and mow

moped [ˈməuped] – n. a motorbike that can be pedaled or driven by a low-powered gasoline engine

moral [ˈmɔrəl] – adj. psychological rather than physical or tangible in effect: a moral victory

morale [mɔˈrɑ:l] – n. a state of individual psychological well-being based upon a sense of confidence and usefulness and purpose

morality [məˈræliti] – n. concern with the distinction between good and evil or right and wrong; right or good conduct

morbid [ˈmɔ:bid] – adj. suggesting an unhealthy mental state: morbid interest in death

more [mɔ:] – adj. (comparative of `much’ used with mass nouns) a quantifier meaning greater in size or amount or extent or degree: more land

moreover [mɔ:rˈəuvə] – adv. in addition: the cellar was dark; moreover, mice nested there

morning [ˈmɔ:niŋ] – n. the time period between dawn and noon: I spent the morning running errands

mortal [ˈmɔ:tl] – adj. subject to death: mortal beings

mortgage [ˈmɔ:gidʒ] – n. a conditional conveyance of property as security for the repayment of a loan

mosaic [mɔˈzeiik] – n. art consisting of a design made of small pieces of colored stone or glass

Moslem [ˈmɔzlem, ˈmɔzlim] – n. a believer in or follower of Islam

mosque [mɔsk] – n. (Islam) a Muslim place of worship that usually has a minaret

mosquito [məsˈki:təu] – n. two-winged insect whose female has a long proboscis to pierce the skin and suck the blood of humans and animals

moss [mɔs] – n. tiny leafy-stemmed flowerless plants

most [məust] – adv. used to form the superlative: the king cobra is the most dangerous snake

mostly [ˈməustli] – adv. in large part; mainly or chiefly

motel [məuˈtel] – n. a motor hotel

moth [mɔθ] – n. typically crepuscular or nocturnal insect having a stout body and feathery or hairlike antennae

mother [ˈmʌðə] – n. a term of address for an elderly woman

motif [məuˈti:f] – n. a design or figure that consists of recurring shapes or colors, as in architecture or decoration

motion [ˈməuʃən] – n. the use of movements (especially of the hands) to communicate familiar or prearranged signals

motionless [ˈməʊʃ(ə)nlis] – adj. not in physical motion

motivate [ˈməutiveit] – v. give an incentive for action

motivation [.məutiˈveiʃən] – n. the condition of being motivated: his motivation was at a high level

motive [ˈməutiv] – n. a theme that is repeated or elaborated in a piece of music

motor [ˈməutə] – n. a nonspecific agent that imparts motion: happiness is the aim of all men and the motor of all action

motorcar [ˈməʊtəkɑ:(r)] – n. a motor vehicle with four wheels; usually propelled by an internal combustion engine

motorcycle [ˈməutəsaikl] – n. a motor vehicle with two wheels and a strong frame

motorist [ˈməutərist] – n. someone who drives (or travels in) an automobile

motorway [ˈməʊtəwei] – n. a broad highway designed for high-speed traffic

motto [ˈmɔtəu] – n. a favorite saying of a sect or political group

mould [məuld] – n. loose soil rich in organic matter

mount [maunt] – v. attach to a support: They mounted the aerator on a floating

mountain [ˈmauntin] – n. a land mass that projects well above its surroundings; higher than a hill

mountainous [ˈmauntinəs] – adj. having hills and crags

mourn [mɔ:n] – v. feel sadness: She is mourning her dead child

mournful [ˈmɔ:nful] – adj. expressing sorrow

mourning [ˈmɔ:niŋ] – n. state of sorrow over the death or departure of a loved one

mouse [maus] – n. a swollen bruise caused by a blow to the eye

moustache [məsˈtɑ:ʃ, mus-] – n. an unshaved growth of hair on the upper lip

mouth [mauθ] – n. the opening through which food is taken in and vocalizations emerge: he stuffed his mouth with candy

mouthful [ˈmauθful] – n. a small amount eaten or drunk

move [mu:v] – v. change residence, affiliation, or place of employment: We moved from Idaho to Nebraska

movement [ˈmu:vmənt] – n. a change of position that does not entail a change of location: movement is a sign of life

movie [ˈmu:vi] – n. a form of entertainment that enacts a story by sound and a sequence of images giving the illusion of continuous movement: they went to a movie every Saturday night

much [mʌtʃ] – adv. to a great degree or extent: she’s much better now

mucous [ˈmju:kəs] – adj. of or secreting or covered with or resembling mucus: mucous tissue

mud [mʌd] – n. water soaked soil; soft wet earth

muddle [ˈmʌdl] – n. a confused multitude of things

muddy [ˈmʌdi] – adj. (of soil) soft and watery: muddy barnyard

muffle [ˈmʌfl] – v. conceal or hide: muffle one’s anger

muffler [ˈmʌflə] – n. a tubular acoustic device inserted in the exhaust system that is designed to reduce noise

mug [mʌg] – n. a person who is gullible and easy to take advantage of

mule [mju:l] – n. hybrid offspring of a male donkey and a female horse; usually sterile

multilateral [.mʌltiˈlætərəl] – adj. having many parts or sides

multiple [ˈmʌltipl] – n. the product of a quantity by an integer: 36 is a multiple of 9

multiplication [.mʌltipliˈkeiʃən] – n. a multiplicative increase: repeated copying leads to a multiplication of errors

multiply [ˈmʌltiplai] – v. combine or increase by multiplication: He managed to multiply his profits

multitude [ˈmʌltitju:d] – n. a large indefinite number: a multitude of TV antennas

mumble [ˈmʌmbl] – v. talk indistinctly; usually in a low voice

mumps [mʌmps] – n. an acute contagious viral disease characterized by fever and by swelling of the parotid glands

mundane [mʌnˈdein] – adj. found in the ordinary course of events

municipal [mju:ˈnisipəl] – adj. relating or belonging to or characteristic of a municipality: municipal government

murder [ˈmə:də] – v. kill intentionally and with premeditation: The mafia boss ordered his enemies murdered

murderer [ˈmə:dərə] – n. a criminal who commits homicide (who performs the unlawful premeditated killing of another human being)

murmur [ˈmə:mə] – n. a low continuous indistinct sound; often accompanied by movement of the lips without the production of articulate speech

muscle [ˈmʌsl] – n. one of the contractile organs of the body

muscular [ˈmʌskjulə] – adj. of or relating to or consisting of muscle: muscular contraction

muse [mju:z] – n. in ancient Greek mythology any of 9 daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne; protector of an art or science

museum [mju:ˈziəm] – n. a depository for collecting and displaying objects having scientific or historical or artistic value

mushroom [ˈmʌʃrum] – n. common name for an edible agaric (contrasting with the inedible toadstool)

music [ˈmju:zik] – n. any agreeable (pleasing and harmonious) sounds: he fell asleep to the music of the wind chimes

musical [ˈmju:zikəl] – adj. talented in or devoted to music: comes from a very musical family

musician [mju:ˈziʃən] – n. artist who composes or conducts music as a profession

must [mʌst] – n. a necessary or essential thing: seat belts are an absolute must

mustard [ˈmʌstəd] – n. any of several cruciferous plants of the genus Brassica

muster [ˈmʌstə] – n. a gathering of military personnel for duty: he was thrown in the brig for missing muster

mutation [mju:ˈteiʃən] – n. (biology) an organism that has characteristics resulting from chromosomal alteration

mute [mju:t] – n. a deaf person who is unable to speak

mutter [ˈmʌtə] – n. a low continuous indistinct sound; often accompanied by movement of the lips without the production of articulate speech

mutton [ˈmʌtn] – n. meat from a mature domestic sheep

mutual [ˈmju:tʃuəl] – adj. common to or shared by two or more parties: the mutual interests of management and labor

myriad [ˈmiriəd] – n. a large indefinite number: he faced a myriad of details

mysterious [misˈtiəriəs] – adj. of an obscure nature: the new insurance policy is written without cryptic or mysterious terms

mystery [ˈmistəri] – n. something that baffles understanding and cannot be explained: how it got out is a mystery

mystic [ˈmistik] – adj. having an import not apparent to the senses nor obvious to the intelligence; beyond ordinary understanding: the mystical style of Blake

myth [miθ] – n. a traditional story accepted as history; serves to explain the world view of a people

mythology [miˈθɔlədʒi] – n. myths collectively; the body of stories associated with a culture or institution or person

naive [nɑˈi:v] – adj. marked by or showing unaffected simplicity and lack of guile or worldly experience: a teenager’s naive ignorance of life

naked [ˈneikid] – adj. completely unclothed: naked from the waist up

name [neim] – v. charge with a function; charge to be: She was named Head of the Committee

nameless [ˈneimlis] – adj. being or having an unknown or unnamed source: corporations responsible to nameless owners

namely [ˈneimli] – adv. as follows

namesake [ˈneimseik] – n. a person with the same name as another

nap [næp] – n. a period of time spent sleeping: there wasn’t time for a nap

napkin [ˈnæpkin] – n. a small piece of table linen that is used to wipe the mouth and to cover the lap in order to protect clothing

narcotic [nɑ:ˈkɔtik] – adj. inducing stupor or narcosis: narcotic drugs

narrate [næˈreit] – v. provide commentary for a film, for example

narration [næˈreiʃən] – n. the act of giving an account describing incidents or a course of events: his narration was hesitant

narrative [ˈnærətiv] – adj. consisting of or characterized by the telling of a story: narrative poetry

narrator [ˈnæreitə] – n. someone who tells a story

narrow [ˈnærəu] – adj. not wide: a narrow bridge

nasty [ˈnɑ:sti] – adj. offensive or even (of persons) malicious: in a nasty mood

natal [ˈneitl] – n. a region of eastern South Africa on the Indian Ocean

nation [ˈneiʃən] – n. a politically organized body of people under a single government: African nations

national [ˈnæʃənəl] – adj. limited to or in the interests of a particular nation: national interests

nationality [.næʃəˈnæliti] – n. the status of belonging to a particular nation by birth or naturalization

native [ˈneitiv] – adj. characteristic of or existing by virtue of geographic origin: the native North American sugar maple

natural [ˈnætʃərəl] – adj. existing in or produced by nature; not artificial or imitation: a natural pearl

naturally [ˈnætʃərəli] – adv. as might be expected: naturally, the lawyer sent us a huge bill

nature [ˈneitʃə] – n. the essential qualities or characteristics by which something is recognized: it is the nature of fire to burn

naughty [ˈnɔ:ti] – adj. suggestive of sexual impropriety: a naughty wink

nausea [ˈnɔ:sjə] – n. the state that precedes vomiting

nautical [ˈnɔ:tikəl] – adj. relating to or involving ships or shipping or navigation or seamen: nautical charts

naval [ˈneivəl] – adj. connected with or belonging to or used in a navy: naval history

navel [ˈneivəl] – n. a scar where the umbilical cord was attached: you were not supposed to show your navel on television

navigable [ˈnævigəbl] – adj. able to be sailed on or through safely: navigable waters

navigation [.næviˈgeiʃən] – n. the guidance of ships or airplanes from place to place

navy [ˈneivi] – n. an organization of military vessels belonging to a country and available for sea warfare

near [niə] – adj. not far distant in time or space or degree or circumstances: near neighbors

nearby [ˈniəbai] – adj. close at hand: the nearby towns

nearly [ˈniəli] – adv. (of actions or states) slightly short of or not quite accomplished; all but: he nearly fainted

neat [ni:t] – adj. clean or organized: her neat dress

necessarily [ˈnesəserili] – adv. in an essential manner: such expenses are necessarily incurred

necessary [ˈnesə.səri] – adj. absolutely essential

necessitate [niˈsesiteit] – v. require as useful, just, or proper

necessity [niˈsesiti] – n. the condition of being essential or indispensable

neck [nek] – n. a narrow elongated projecting strip of land

necklace [ˈneklis] – n. jewelry consisting of a cord or chain (often bearing gems) worn about the neck as an ornament (especially by women)

need [ni:d] – n. a condition requiring relief: she satisfied his need for affection

needful [ˈni:dful] – adj. necessary for relief or supply: provided them with all things needful

needle [ˈni:dl] – n. the leaf of a conifer

needless [ˈni:dlis] – adj. unnecessary and unwarranted: a strikers’ tent camp…was burned with needless loss of life

needy [ˈni:di] – adj. demanding or needing attention, affection, or reassurance to an excessive degree

negate [niˈgeit] – v. be in contradiction with

negation [niˈgeiʃən] – n. the speech act of negating

negative [ˈnegətiv] – adj. expressing or consisting of a negation or refusal or denial

neglect [niˈglekt] – n. lack of attention and due care

negligence [ˈneglidʒəns] – n. failure to act with the prudence that a reasonable person would exercise under the same circumstances

negligent [ˈneglidʒənt] – adj. characterized by neglect and undue lack of concern: negligent parents

negligible [ˈneglidʒəbl] – adj. so small as to be meaningless; insignificant: the effect was negligible

negotiable [niˈgəuʃjəbl] – adj. able to be negotiated or arranged by compromise: negotiable demands

negotiate [niˈgəuʃieit] – v. discuss the terms of an arrangement: They negotiated the sale of the house

negotiation [ni.gəuʃiˈeiʃən] – n. a discussion intended to produce an agreement: the buyout negotiation lasted several days

Negro [ˈni:grəu] – n. a person with dark skin who comes from Africa (or whose ancestors came from Africa)

neighbor [ˈneibə] – n. a person who lives (or is located) near another

neighborhood [ˈneibəhud] – n. a surrounding or nearby region: he always blames someone else in the immediate neighborhood

neighboring [ˈneibəriŋ] – adj. having a common boundary or edge; abutting; touching: neighboring cities

neither [ˈni:ðə] – adj. not either; not one or the other

nephew [ˈnefju:] – n. a son of your brother or sister

nerve [nə:v] – n. the courage to carry on

nervous [ˈnə:vəs] – adj. easily agitated: a nervous addict

nest [nest] – n. a structure in which animals lay eggs or give birth to their young

nestle [ˈnesl] – v. lie in a sheltered position: The little cottage nestles in the forest

net [net] – n. the excess of revenues over outlays in a given period of time (including depreciation and other non-cash expenses)

network [ˈnetwə:k] – n. an interconnected system of things or people: he owned a network of shops

neurosis [njuˈrəusis] – n. a mental or personality disturbance not attributable to any known neurological or organic dysfunction

neurotic [njuˈrɔtik] – adj. affected with emotional disorder

neutral [ˈnju:trəl] – adj. having no personal preference: a neutral observer

neutrality [nju:ˈtræliti] – n. nonparticipation in a dispute or war

neutralize [ˈnju:trəlaiz] – v. make ineffective by counterbalancing the effect of: Her optimism neutralizes his gloom

neutron [ˈnju:trɔn] – n. an elementary particle with 0 charge and mass about equal to a proton; enters into the structure of the atomic nucleus

never [ˈnevə] – adv. not ever; at no time in the past or future: I have never been to China

nevertheless [.nevəðəˈles] – adv. despite anything to the contrary (usually following a concession): while we disliked each other, nevertheless we agreed

new [nju:] – adj. not of long duration; having just (or relatively recently) come into being or been made or acquired or discovered: a new law

news [nju:z] – n. information about recent and important events: they awaited news of the outcome

newspaper [ˈnju:z.peipə] – n. a daily or weekly publication on folded sheets; contains news and articles and advertisements: he read his newspaper at breakfast

next [ˈnekst] – adj. immediately following in time or order: next in line

nibble [ˈnibəl] – v. bite off very small pieces: She nibbled on her cracker

nice [nais] – adj. pleasant or pleasing or agreeable in nature or appearance: what a nice fellow you are and we all thought you so nasty

nicety [ˈnaisiti] – n. conformity with some esthetic standard of correctness or propriety

nickel [ˈnikl] – n. a United States coin worth one twentieth of a dollar

nickname [ˈnikneim] – n. a familiar name for a person (often a shortened version of a person’s given name): Joe’s mother would not use his nickname and always called him Joseph

niece [ni:s] – n. a daughter of your brother or sister

night [nait] – n. the time after sunset and before sunrise while it is dark outside

nightgown [ˈnaitgaun] – n. lingerie consisting of a loose dress designed to be worn in bed by women

nightingale [ˈnaitiŋgeil] – n. European songbird noted for its melodious nocturnal song

nightmare [ˈnait.mɛə] – n. a situation resembling a terrifying dream

nil [nil] – n. a quantity of no importance: reduced to nil all the work we had done

nine [nain] – n. the cardinal number that is the sum of eight and one

nineteen [ˈnainˈti:n] – n. the cardinal number that is the sum of eighteen and one

ninety [ˈnainti] – n. the cardinal number that is the product of ten and nine

ninth [nainθ] – n. one part in nine equal parts

nitrogen [ˈnaitrədʒən] – n. a common nonmetallic element that is normally a colorless odorless tasteless inert diatomic gas; constitutes 78 percent of the atmosphere by volume; a constituent of all living tissues

no [nəu] – adv. referring to the degree to which a certain quality is present: he was no heavier than a child

nobility [nəuˈbiliti] – n. a privileged class holding hereditary titles

noble [ˈnəubl] – adj. impressive in appearance: a noble tree

nobody [ˈnəubɔdi] – n. a person of no influence

nod [nɔd] – v. lower and raise the head, as to indicate assent or agreement or confirmation: The teacher nodded when the student gave the right answer

noise [nɔiz] – n. sound of any kind (especially unintelligible or dissonant sound): he enjoyed the street noises

noisy [ˈnɔizi] – adj. full of or characterized by loud and nonmusical sounds: a noisy cafeteria

nominal [ˈnɔminəl] – adj. relating to or constituting or bearing or giving a name: the Russian system of nominal brevity

nominate [ˈnɔmineit] – v. propose as a candidate for some honor

nomination [nɔmiˈneiʃən] – n. the act of officially naming a candidate: the Republican nomination for Governor

nominee [.nɔmiˈni:] – n. a politician who is running for public office

none [nʌn] – n. a canonical hour that is the ninth hour of the day counting from sunrise

nonsense [ˈnɔnsens] – n. a message that seems to convey no meaning

noon [nu:n] – n. the middle of the day

norm [nɔ:m] – n. a standard or model or pattern regarded as typical: the current middle-class norm of two children per family

normal [ˈnɔ:məl] – adj. in accordance with scientific laws

normalization [.nɔ:məlaiˈzeiʃən] – n. the imposition of standards or regulations

normalize [ˈnɔ:məlaiz] – v. make normal or cause to conform to a norm or standard: normalize relations with China

normally [ˈnɔ:məli] – adv. under normal conditions

north [nɔ:θ] – n. the cardinal compass point that is at 0 or 360 degrees

northeast [ˈnɔ:θˈi:st] – n. the compass point midway between north and east; at 45 degrees

northern [ˈnɔ:ðən] – adj. situated in or oriented toward the north: the northern suburbs

northward [ˈnɔ:θwəd] – n. the cardinal compass point that is at 0 or 360 degrees

northwest [ˈnɔ:θˈwest] – n. the compass point midway between north and west; at 315 degrees

nose [nəuz] – n. the organ of smell and entrance to the respiratory tract; the prominent part of the face of man or other mammals: he has a cold in the nose

nostalgia [nɔˈstældʒə] – n. longing for something past

nostril [ˈnɔstril] – n. either one of the two external openings to the nasal cavity in the nose

not [nɔt] – adv. negation of a word or group of words: he does not speak French

notable [ˈnəutəbl] – adj. worthy of notice

notably [ˈnəʊtbəli] – adv. especially; in particular: notably in the social sciences, the professors teach too much

notary [ˈnəutəri] – n. someone legally empowered to witness signatures and certify a document’s validity and to take depositions

notation [nəuˈteiʃən] – n. a technical system of symbols used to represent special things

notch [nɔtʃ] – n. a V-shaped indentation: mandibular notch

note [nəut] – n. a brief written record: he made a note of the appointment

notebook [ˈnəutbuk] – n. a small compact portable computer

noted [ˈnəutid] – adj. widely known and esteemed

nothing [ˈnʌθiŋ] – n. a quantity of no importance: it looked like nothing I had ever seen before

notice [ˈnəutis] – n. an announcement containing information about an event: you didn’t give me enough notice

noticeable [ˈnəutisəbl] – adj. capable or worthy of being perceived: noticeable shadows under her eyes

notification [.nəutifiˈkeiʃən] – n. an accusation of crime made by a grand jury on its own initiative

notify [ˈnəutifai] – v. inform (somebody) of something

notion [ˈnəuʃən] – n. a vague idea in which some confidence is placed

notorious [nəuˈtɔ:riəs] – adj. known widely and usually unfavorably: a notorious gangster

notwithstanding [ˈnɔtwiθˈstændiŋ] – adv. despite anything to the contrary (usually following a concession)

nought  – n. a mathematical element that when added to another number yields the same number

noun [naun] – n. a content word that can be used to refer to a person, place, thing, quality, or action

nourish [ˈnʌriʃ] – v. provide with nourishment: This kind of food is not nourishing for young children

nourishment [ˈnʌriʃmənt] – n. the act of nourishing: her nourishment of the orphans saved many lives

novel [ˈnɔvəl] – n. an extended fictional work in prose; usually in the form of a story

novelette [.nɔvəˈlet] – n. a short novel

novelist [ˈnɔvəlist] – n. one who writes novels

novelty [ˈnɔvəlti] – n. originality by virtue of being new and surprising

November [nəuˈvembə] – n. the month following October and preceding December

novice [ˈnɔvis] – n. someone who has entered a religious order but has not taken final vows

now [nau] – adv. in the historical present; at this point in the narration of a series of past events: President Kennedy now calls in the National Guard

nowadays [ˈnauədeiz] – n. the period of time that is happening now; any continuous stretch of time including the moment of speech

nowhere [ˈnəuwɛə] – n. an insignificant place: he came out of nowhere

noxious [ˈnɔkʃəs] – adj. injurious to physical or mental health: noxious chemical wastes

nuance [ˈnju:ɑ:ns, njuˈɑns] – n. a subtle difference in meaning or opinion or attitude: without understanding the finer nuances you can’t enjoy the humor

nuclear [ˈnju:kliə] – adj. (weapons) deriving destructive energy from the release of atomic energy: nuclear war

nucleus [ˈnju:kliəs] – n. a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction

nuisance [ˈnju:sns] – n. a bothersome annoying person

null [nʌl] – n. a quantity of no importance

nullify [ˈnʌlifai] – v. declare invalid

numb [nʌm] – adj. lacking sensation: numb with cold

number [ˈnʌmbə] – n. the property possessed by a sum or total or indefinite quantity of units or individuals: he had a number of chores to do

numerate [ˈnju:mərət] – v. determine the number or amount of

numerical [nju:ˈmerikəl] – adj. measured or expressed in numbers: numerical value

numerous [ˈnju:mərəs] – adj. amounting to a large indefinite number: numerous times

nun [nʌn] – n. a woman religious

nurse [nə:s] – v. try to cure by special care of treatment, of an illness or injury: He nursed his cold with Chinese herbs

nursery [ˈnə:səri] – n. a child’s room for a baby

nurture [ˈnə:tʃə] – v. help develop, help grow: nurture his talents

nut [nʌt] – n. usually large hard-shelled seed

nutrition [nju:ˈtriʃən] – n. a source of materials to nourish the body

nylon [ˈnailɔn] – n. a thermoplastic polyamide; a family of strong resilient synthetic fibers

oar [ɔ:] – n. an implement used to propel or steer a boat

oasis [əuˈeisis] – n. a fertile tract in a desert (where the water table approaches the surface)

oath [əuθ] – n. profane or obscene expression usually of surprise or anger

obedience [əˈbi:djəns] – n. the act of obeying; dutiful or submissive behavior with respect to another person

obedient [əˈbi:djənt] – adj. dutifully complying with the commands or instructions of those in authority: an obedient soldier

obey [əˈbei] – v. be obedient to

object [əbˈdʒekt,ˈɔbdʒikt] – n. a tangible and visible entity; an entity that can cast a shadow: it was full of rackets, balls and other objects

objection [əbˈdʒekʃən] – n. the act of expressing earnest opposition or protest

objective [əbˈdʒektiv] – adj. undistorted by emotion or personal bias; based on observable phenomena: an objective appraisal

obligation [.ɔbliˈgeiʃən] – n. the social force that binds you to the courses of action demanded by that force: every right implies a responsibility; every opportunity, an obligation; every possession, a duty

obligatory [əˈbligə.təri] – adj. morally or legally constraining or binding: attendance is obligatory

oblige [əˈblaidʒ] – v. force somebody to do something

obliging [əˈblaidʒiŋ] – adj. showing a cheerful willingness to do favors for others: the obliging waiter was in no hurry for us to leave

oblique [əˈbli:k] – n. any grammatical case other than the nominative

obliterate [əˈblitəreit] – v. mark for deletion, rub off, or erase

oblivious [əˈbliviəs] – adj. (followed by `to’ or `of’) lacking conscious awareness of: oblivious of the mounting pressures for political reform

oblong [ˈɔblɔŋ] – adj. (of a leaf shape) having a somewhat elongated form with approximately parallel sides

obnoxious [əbˈnɔkʃəs] – adj. causing disapproval or protest

obscene [əbˈsi:n] – adj. designed to incite to indecency or lust: the dance often becomes flagrantly obscene

observance [əbˈzə:vəns] – n. a formal event performed on a special occasion

observation [.ɔbzəˈveiʃən] – n. the act of making and recording a measurement

observatory [əbˈzə:vətəri] – n. a structure commanding a wide view of its surroundings

observe [əbˈzə:v] – v. discover or determine the existence, presence, or fact of

observer [əbˈzə:və] – n. a person who becomes aware (of things or events) through the senses

obsess [əbˈses] – v. haunt like a ghost; pursue

obsession [əbˈseʃən] – n. an irrational motive for performing trivial or repetitive actions, even against your will

obsolete [ˈɔbsə.li:t] – adj. no longer in use: obsolete words

obstacle [ˈɔbstəkl] – n. something immaterial that stands in the way and must be circumvented or surmounted: lack of imagination is an obstacle to one’s advancement

obstinate [ˈɔbstinit] – adj. tenaciously unwilling or marked by tenacious unwillingness to yield

obstruct [əbˈstrʌkt] – v. hinder or prevent the progress or accomplishment of

obstruction [əbˈstrʌkʃən] – n. any structure that makes progress difficult

obtain [əbˈtein] – v. come into possession of: How did you obtain the visa?

obtainable [əbˈteinəb(ə)l] – adj. capable of being obtained: savings of up to 50 percent are obtainable

obvious [ˈɔbviəs] – adj. easily perceived by the senses or grasped by the mind: obvious errors

obviously [ˈɔbviəsli] – adv. unmistakably (`plain’ is often used informally for `plainly’): the answer is obviously wrong

occasion [əˈkeiʒən] – n. an event that occurs at a critical time: it was needed only on special occasions

occasional [əˈkeiʒənəl] – adj. occurring from time to time: took an occasional glass of wine

occasionally [əˈkeiʒənəli] – adv. now and then or here and there: he was arrogant and occasionally callous

Occident  – n. the countries of (originally) Europe and (now including) North America and South America

occidental [ɔksiˈdəntəl] – n. a native inhabitant of the Occident

occupation [.ɔkjuˈpeiʃən] – n. the principal activity in your life that you do to earn money

occupy [ˈɔkjupai] – v. keep busy with

occur [əˈkə:] – v. come to pass: Nothing occurred that seemed important

occurrence [əˈkʌrəns] – n. an event that happens

ocean [ˈəuʃən] – n. a large body of water constituting a principal part of the hydrosphere

oceania  – n. a large group of islands in the south Pacific including Melanesia and Micronesia and Polynesia (and sometimes Australasia and the Malay Archipelago)

oceanography [.əuʃiəˈnɔgrəfi] – n. the branch of science dealing with physical and biological aspects of the oceans

October [ɔkˈtəubə] – n. the month following September and preceding November

odd [ɔd] – adj. not divisible by two

odds [ɔdz] – n. the ratio by which one better’s wager is greater than that of another: he offered odds of two to one

odour  – n. the sensation that results when olfactory receptors in the nose are stimulated by particular chemicals in gaseous form

odyssey [ˈɔdisi] – n. a long wandering and eventful journey

off [ɔ:f] – adj. not in operation or operational: the oven is off

offence [əˈfens] – n. the action of attacking an enemy

offend [əˈfend] – v. cause to feel resentment or indignation: Her tactless remark offended me

offensive [əˈfensiv] – adj. for the purpose of attack rather than defense: offensive weapons

offer [ˈɔ:fə] – v. make available or accessible, provide or furnish: The conference center offers a health spa

offering [ˈɔfəriŋ] – n. money contributed to a religious organization

office [ˈɔ:fis] – n. place of business where professional or clerical duties are performed: he rented an office in the new building

officer [ˈɔ:fis] – n. any person in the armed services who holds a position of authority or command: an officer is responsible for the lives of his men

official [əˈfiʃəl] – adj. of or relating to an office: official privileges

offset [ˈɔf.set] – n. the time at which something is supposed to begin

offshore [.ɔfˈʃɔ:] – adj. (of winds) coming from the land: offshore winds

offspring [ˈɔ:fspriŋ] – n. the immediate descendants of a person: she was the mother of many offspring

often [ˈɔ:fən] – adv. many times at short intervals: we often met over a cup of coffee

oh [əu] – n. a midwestern state in north central United States in the Great Lakes region

oil [ɔil] – n. a slippery or viscous liquid or liquefiable substance not miscible with water

old [əuld] – adj. (used especially of persons) having lived for a relatively long time or attained a specific age: his mother is very old

olive [ˈɔliv] – n. evergreen tree cultivated in the Mediterranean region since antiquity and now elsewhere; has edible shiny black fruits

ominous [ˈɔminəs] – adj. threatening or foreshadowing evil or tragic developments: ominous rumblings of discontent

omission [əuˈmiʃən] – n. a mistake resulting from neglect

omit [əuˈmit] – v. leave undone or leave out

on [ɔn] – adj. (of events) planned or scheduled: the picnic is on, rain or shine

once [wʌns] – adv. as soon as: once we are home, we can rest

oncoming [ˈɔnkʌmiŋ] – n. the beginning or early stages

one [wʌn] – adj. used of a single unit or thing; not two or more

ongoing [ˈɔn.gəuiŋ] – adj. currently happening: an ongoing economic crisis

onion [ˈʌnjən] – n. bulbous plant having hollow leaves cultivated worldwide for its rounded edible bulb

onlooker [ˈɔn.lukə] – n. someone who looks on

only [ˈəunli] – adv. and nothing more: he was only a child

onset [ˈɔnset] – n. the beginning or early stages: the onset of pneumonia

onward [ˈɔnwəd] – adv. forward in time or order or degree: from the sixth century onward

opal [ˈəupəl] – n. a translucent mineral consisting of hydrated silica of variable color; some varieties are used as gemstones

opaque [əuˈpeik] – adj. not transmitting or reflecting light or radiant energy; impenetrable to sight: opaque windows of the jail

open [ˈəupən] – adj. affording unobstructed entrance and exit; not shut or closed: an open door

opener [ˈəupənə] – n. the first event in a series: she played Chopin for her opener

opening [ˈəupəniŋ] – n. a ceremony accompanying the start of some enterprise

opera [ˈɔpərə] – n. a drama set to music; consists of singing with orchestral accompaniment and an orchestral overture and interludes

operate [ˈɔpəreit] – v. direct or control; projects, businesses, etc.

operation [.ɔpəˈreiʃən] – n. a business especially one run on a large scale: a large-scale farming operation

operational [.ɔpəˈreiʃənəl] – adj. pertaining to a process or series of actions for achieving a result: operational difficulties

operative [ˈɔpərətiv, ˈɔpəreitiv] – adj. being in force or having or exerting force: operative regulations

operator [ˈɔpə.reitə] – n. an agent that operates some apparatus or machine: the operator of the switchboard

opinion [əˈpinjən] – n. a personal belief or judgment that is not founded on proof or certainty: my opinion differs from yours

opium [ˈəupjəm] – n. an addictive narcotic extracted from seed capsules of the opium poppy

opponent [əˈpəunənt] – n. a contestant that you are matched against

opportune [ˈɔpətju:n, .ɔpəˈt-] – adj. suitable or at a time that is suitable or advantageous especially for a particular purpose: an opportune place to make camp

opportunity [.ɔpəˈtju:niti] – n. a possibility due to a favorable combination of circumstances: the holiday gave us the opportunity to visit Washington

oppose [əˈpəuz] – v. fight against or resist strongly: The senator said he would oppose the bill

opposite [ˈɔpəzit] – adj. being directly across from each other; facing: And I on the opposite shore will be, ready to ride and spread the alarm

opposition [.ɔpəˈziʃən] – n. the relation between opposed entities

oppress [əˈpres] – v. come down on or keep down by unjust use of one’s authority: The government oppresses political activists

oppression [əˈpreʃən] – n. the act of subjugating by cruelty: the tyrant’s oppression of the people

opt [ɔpt] – v. select as an alternative over another: She opted for the job on the East coast

optical [ˈɔptikəl] – adj. relating to or using sight: an optical illusion

optimal [ˈɔptiməl] – adj. most desirable possible under a restriction expressed or implied: optimal concentration of a drug

optimism [ˈɔptimizəm] – n. a general disposition to expect the best in all things

optimistic [.ɔptiˈmistik] – adj. expecting the best in this best of all possible worlds: in an optimistic mood

optimize [ˈɔptimaiz] – v. modify to achieve maximum efficiency in storage capacity or time or cost: optimize a computer program

optimum [ˈɔptiməm] – n. most favorable conditions or greatest degree or amount possible under given circumstances

option [ˈɔpʃən] – n. one of a number of things from which only one can be chosen: what option did I have?

optional [ˈɔpʃənl] – adj. possible but not necessary; left to personal choice

or [ɔ:] – n. a state in northwestern United States on the Pacific

oral [ˈɔ:rəl] – adj. using speech rather than writing: an oral tradition

orange [ˈɔ:rindʒ] – n. a river in South Africa that flows generally westward to the Atlantic Ocean

orbit [ˈɔ:bit] – n. the (usually elliptical) path described by one celestial body in its revolution about another: he plotted the orbit of the moon

orchard [ˈɔ:tʃəd] – n. garden consisting of a small cultivated wood without undergrowth

orchestra [ˈɔ:kistrə] – n. a musical organization consisting of a group of instrumentalists including string players

ordeal [ɔ:ˈdi:l] – n. a severe or trying experience

order [ˈɔ:də] – n. (often plural) a command given by a superior (e.g., a military or law enforcement officer) that must be obeyed: the British ships dropped anchor and waited for orders from London

orderly [ˈɔ:dəli] – n. a soldier who serves as an attendant to a superior officer: the orderly laid out the general’s uniform

ordinarily [ˈɔ:dinərili] – adv. under normal conditions

ordinary [ˈɔ:dnri] – n. a judge of a probate court

ore [ɔ:] – n. a mineral that contains metal that is valuable enough to be mined

organ [ˈɔ:gən] – n. a fully differentiated structural and functional unit in an animal that is specialized for some particular function

organic [ɔ:ˈgænik] – adj. relating or belonging to the class of chemical compounds having a carbon basis: hydrocarbons are organic compounds

organism [ˈɔ:gənizəm] – n. a living thing that has (or can develop) the ability to act or function independently

organization [.ɔ:gənaiˈzeiʃən] – n. a group of people who work together

organizational [.ɔgənaiˈzeiʃənəl] – adj. of or relating to an organization: organizational structure

organize [ˈɔ:gənaiz] – v. create (as an entity)

orient [ˈɔ:riənt] – v. determine one’s position with reference to another point: We had to orient ourselves in the forest

oriental [.ɔ(:)riˈentl] – n. a member of an Oriental race; the term is regarded as offensive by Asians (especially by Asian Americans)

orientate [ˈɔ:riənteit] – v. determine one’s position with reference to another point

orientation [.ɔ:rienˈteiʃən] – n. an integrated set of attitudes and beliefs

origin [ˈɔridʒin] – n. the place where something begins, where it springs into being: Jupiter was the origin of the radiation

original [əˈridʒənl] – adj. preceding all others in time or being as first made or performed: the original inhabitants of the Americas

originality [.əridʒiˈnæliti] – n. the ability to think and act independently

originally [əˈridʒənəli] – adv. with reference to the origin or beginning

originate [əˈridʒineit] – v. come into existence; take on form or shape: A new religious movement originated in that country

ornament [ˈɔ:nəmənt] – n. something used to beautify

ornamental [.ɔ:nəˈmentl] – adj. serving an esthetic rather than a useful purpose

orphan [ˈɔ:fən] – n. a child who has lost both parents

orthodox [ˈɔ:θədɔks] – adj. of or pertaining to or characteristic of Judaism

oscillate [ˈɔsileit] – v. be undecided about something; waver between conflicting positions or courses of action: He oscillates between accepting the new position and retirement

oscillation [.ɔsiˈleiʃən] – n. (physics) a regular periodic variation in value about a mean

ostensible [ɔˈstensibəl] – adj. appearing as such but not necessarily so: the ostensible truth of their theories

ostentation [.ɔstenˈteiʃən] – n. a gaudy outward display

other [ˈʌðə] – adj. not the same one or ones already mentioned or implied: today isn’t any other day

otherwise [ˈʌðəwaiz] – adv. in another and different manner: she thought otherwise

ounce [auns] – n. a unit of weight equal to one sixteenth of a pound or 16 drams or 28.349 grams

oust [aust] – v. remove from a position or office: The chairman was ousted after he misappropriated funds

out [aut] – adj. not allowed to continue to bat or run: he was tagged out at second on a close play

outbreak [ˈautbreik] – n. a sudden violent spontaneous occurrence (usually of some undesirable condition): the outbreak of hostilities

outcast [ˈautkɑ:st] – n. a person who is rejected (from society or home)

outcome [ˈautkʌm] – n. something that results

outcry [ˈautkrai] – v. utter aloud; often with surprise, horror, or joy

outdated [.autˈdeitid] – adj. old; no longer valid or fashionable: outdated equipment

outdo [autˈdu:] – v. be or do something to a greater degree: She outdoes all other athletes

outdoor [ˈautdɔ:] – adj. located, suited for, or taking place in the open air: outdoor clothes

outdoors [ˈautˈdɔ:z] – n. where the air is unconfined: he wanted to get outdoors a little

outer [ˈautə] – adj. located outside: outer reality

outermost [ˈautəməust] – adj. situated at the farthest possible point from a center

outfit [ˈautfit] – n. any cohesive unit such as a military company

outlandish [autˈlændiʃ] – adj. conspicuously or grossly unconventional or unusual: the outlandish clothes of teenagers

outlaw [ˈautlɔ:] – adj. contrary to or forbidden by law: an outlaw strike

outlay [ˈautlei] – n. the act of spending or disbursing money

outlet [ˈautlet] – n. a place of business for retailing goods

outline [ˈautlain] – n. the line that appears to bound an object

outlook [ˈautluk] – n. a habitual or characteristic mental attitude that determines how you will interpret and respond to situations

outlying [ˈaut.lai-iŋ] – adj. relatively far from a center or middle: outlying settlements

output [ˈautput] – n. final product; the things produced

outrage [ˈautreidʒ] – n. a feeling of righteous anger

outrageous [autˈreidʒəs] – adj. grossly offensive to decency or morality; causing horror: subjected to outrageous cruelty

outright [ˈautˈrait] – adv. without restrictions or stipulations or further payments: buy outright

outset [ˈautset] – n. the time at which something is supposed to begin

outside [ˈautˈsaid] – adj. relating to or being on or near the outer side or limit: an outside margin

outsider [ˈ autˈsaidə] – n. someone who is excluded from or is not a member of a group

outskirts [ˈaut.skə:ts] – n. outlying areas (as of a city or town): they lived on the outskirts of Houston

outspoken [autˈspəukən] – adj. given to expressing yourself freely or insistently: outspoken in their opposition to segregation

outstanding [autˈstændiŋ] – adj. distinguished from others in excellence: did outstanding work in human relations

outstrip [autˈstrip] – v. be or do something to a greater degree

outturn [ˈaut.tə:n] – n. what is produced in a given time period

outward [ˈautwəd] – adj. relating to physical reality rather than with thoughts or the mind: a concern with outward beauty rather than with inward reflections

outweigh [autˈwei] – v. be heavier than

oval [ˈəuvəl] – n. a closed plane curve resulting from the intersection of a circular cone and a plane cutting completely through it

ovation [əuˈveiʃən] – n. enthusiastic recognition (especially one accompanied by loud applause)

oven [ˈʌvən] – n. kitchen appliance used for baking or roasting

over [ˈəuvə] – adv. at or to a point across intervening space etc.: come over and see us some time

overall [ˈəuvərɔ:l] – n. (usually plural) work clothing consisting of denim trousers (usually with a bib and shoulder straps)

overcast [ˈəuvəkɑ:st] – n. gloomy semidarkness caused by cloud cover

overcharge [.əuvəˈtʃɑ:dʒ] – v. rip off; ask an unreasonable price

overcoat [ˈəuvəkəut] – n. an additional protective coating (as of paint or varnish)

overcome [.əuvəˈkʌm] – v. get on top of; deal with successfully

overdue [ˈəuvəˈdju:] – adj. past due; not paid at the scheduled time: an overdue installment

overestimate [.əuvəˈesti.meit] – n. an appraisal that is too high

overextend [ˈəuvəiksˈtend] – v. strain excessively: He overextended himself when he accepted the additional assignment

overflow [.əuvəˈfləu,ˈəuvəfləu] – n. a large flow

overhaul [ˈəuvə.hɔ:l] – n. periodic maintenance on a car or machine: it was time for an overhaul on the tractor

overhead [ˈəuvəˈhed] – n. (computer science) the processing time required by a device prior to the execution of a command

overhear [.əuvəˈhiə] – v. hear, usually without the knowledge of the speakers: We overheard the conversation at the next table

overjoy  – v. cause to feel extremely joyful or happy: the economic growth overjoyed the German industry

overlap [ˈəuvəˈlæp,ˈəuvəlæp] – n. a representation of common ground between theories or phenomena: there was no overlap between their proposals

overlapping [ˈəuvəˈlæpiŋ] – n. covering with a design in which one element covers a part of another (as with tiles or shingles)

overload [ˈəuvəˈləud] – v. fill to excess so that function is impaired

overlook [.əuvəˈluk] – v. look past, fail to notice

overnight [ˈəuvəˈnait] – adv. during or for the length of one night: the fish marinates overnight

override [.əuvəˈraid] – v. rule against

overrun [.əuvəˈrʌn] – v. invade in great numbers

overseas [ˈəuvəˈsi:z] – adj. in a foreign country: overseas markets

oversee [.əuvəˈsi:] – v. watch and direct: Who is overseeing this project?

oversight [ˈəuvəsait] – n. an unintentional omission resulting from failure to notice something

overt [əuˈvə:t] – adj. open and observable; not secret or hidden: an overt lie

overtake [.əuvəˈteik] – v. travel past

overthrow [.əuvəˈθrəu] – n. the termination of a ruler or institution (especially by force)

overtime [ˈəuvətaim] – n. work done in addition to regular working hours

overture [ˈəuvətʃuə, -tjuə] – n. orchestral music played at the beginning of an opera or oratorio

overwhelm [.əuvəˈwelm] – v. overcome, as with emotions or perceptual stimuli

overwrought [.əuvəˈrɔ:t] – adj. deeply agitated especially from emotion

owe [əu] – v. be obliged to pay or repay

owing [ˈəuiŋ] – adj. owed as a debt

owl [aul] – n. nocturnal bird of prey with hawk-like beak and claws and large head with front-facing eyes

own [əun] – adj. belonging to or on behalf of a specified person (especially yourself); preceded by a possessive: for your own use

owner [ˈəunə] – n. a person who owns something: they are searching for the owner of the car

ownership [ˈəunəʃip] – n. the act of having and controlling property

ox [ɔks] – n. any of various wild bovines especially of the genera Bos or closely related Bibos

oxide [ˈɔksaid] – n. any compound of oxygen with another element or a radical

oxygen [ˈɔksidʒən] – n. a nonmetallic bivalent element that is normally a colorless odorless tasteless nonflammable diatomic gas; constitutes 21 percent of the atmosphere by volume; the most abundant element in the earth’s crust

oyster [ˈɔistə] – n. marine mollusks having a rough irregular shell; found on the sea bed mostly in coastal waters

pace [peis] – n. the rate of moving (especially walking or running)

pacific  – adj. relating to or bordering the Pacific Ocean

pacify [ˈpæsifai] – v. cause to be more favorably inclined; gain the good will of

pack [pæk] – v. arrange in a container: pack the books into the boxes

package [ˈpækidʒ] – n. a collection of things wrapped or boxed together

packaging [ˈpækidʒiŋ] – n. the business of packing: his business is packaging for transport

packet [ˈpækit] – n. a collection of things wrapped or boxed together

packing [ˈpækiŋ] – n. any material used especially to protect something

pad [pæd] – n. the large floating leaf of an aquatic plant (as the water lily)

paddle [ˈpædl] – v. play in or as if in water, as of small children

page [peidʒ] – n. English industrialist who pioneered in the design and manufacture of aircraft (1885-1962)

pageant [ˈpædʒənt] – n. an elaborate representation of scenes from history etc; usually involves a parade with rich costumes

pail [peil] – n. a roughly cylindrical vessel that is open at the top

pain [pein] – n. a symptom of some physical hurt or disorder: the patient developed severe pain and distension

painful [ˈpeinfəl] – adj. causing misery or pain or distress: the painful process of growing up

pains [peinz] – n. an effortful attempt to attain a goal

painstaking [ˈpeinz.teikiŋ] – adj. characterized by extreme care and great effort: painstaking research

paint [peint] – n. makeup consisting of a pink or red powder applied to the cheeks

painter [ˈpeintə] – n. a worker who is employed to cover objects with paint

painting [ˈpeintiŋ] – n. creating a picture with paints: he studied painting and sculpture for many years

pair [pɛə] – v. bring two objects, ideas, or people together: The student was paired with a partner for collaboration on the project

palace [ˈpælis] – n. a large and stately mansion

palatable [ˈpælətəbəl] – adj. acceptable to the taste or mind: palatable food

pale [peil] – adj. very light colored; highly diluted with white: pale seagreen

palm [pɑ:m] – n. the inner surface of the hand from the wrist to the base of the fingers

palpitate [ˈpælpiteit] – v. cause to throb or beat rapidly: Her violent feelings palpitated the young woman’s heart

pamper [ˈpæmpə] – v. treat with excessive indulgence: grandparents often pamper the children

pamphlet [ˈpæmflit] – n. a small book usually having a paper cover

pan [pæn] – n. cooking utensil consisting of a wide metal vessel

panda [ˈpændə] – n. large black-and-white herbivorous mammal of bamboo forests of China and Tibet; in some classifications considered a member of the bear family or of a separate family Ailuropodidae

pane [pein] – n. sheet glass cut in shapes for windows or doors

panel [ˈpænl] – n. sheet that forms a distinct (usually flat and rectangular) section or component of something

panic [ˈpænik] – n. an overwhelming feeling of fear and anxiety

panorama [.pænəˈrɑ:mə] – n. the visual percept of a region

panoramic [.pænəˈræmik] – adj. as from an altitude or distance: a panoramic view

pant [pænt] – n. the noise made by a short puff of steam (as from an engine)

panther [ˈpænθə] – n. a leopard in the black color phase

pantry [ˈpæntri] – n. a small storeroom for storing foods or wines

pants [pænts] – n. underpants worn by women

paper [ˈpeipə] – n. a material made of cellulose pulp derived mainly from wood or rags or certain grasses

papers [ˈpeipəz] – n. writing that provides information (especially information of an official nature)

par [pɑ:] – n. (golf) the standard number of strokes set for each hole on a golf course, or for the entire course: a par-5 hole

parachute [ˈpærəʃu:t] – n. rescue equipment consisting of a device that fills with air and retards your fall

parade [pəˈreid] – n. a ceremonial procession including people marching

paradise [ˈpærədais] – n. any place of complete bliss and delight and peace

paradox [ˈpærədɔks] – n. (logic) a statement that contradicts itself: `I always lie’ is a paradox because if it is true it must be false

paragraph [ˈpærəgrɑ:f] – n. one of several distinct subdivisions of a text intended to separate ideas; the beginning is usually marked by a new indented line

parallel [ˈpærəlel] – n. something having the property of being analogous to something else

paralyse  – v. make powerless and unable to function

paralysis [pəˈrælisis] – n. loss of the ability to move a body part

paralyze [ˈpærəlaiz] – v. make powerless and unable to function: The bureaucracy paralyzes the entire operation

parameter [pəˈræmitə] – n. a constant in the equation of a curve that can be varied to yield a family of similar curves

paramount [ˈpærəmaunt] – adj. having superior power and influence

paranoia [.pærəˈnɔiə] – n. a psychological disorder characterized by delusions of persecution or grandeur

paraphernalia [.pærəfəˈneiliə] – n. equipment consisting of miscellaneous articles needed for a particular operation or sport etc.

paraphrase [ˈpærəfreiz] – n. rewording for the purpose of clarification

parasite [ˈpærəsait] – n. a follower who hangs around a host (without benefit to the host) in hope of gain or advantage

parcel [ˈpɑ:sl] – n. a wrapped container

pardon [ˈpɑ:dn] – n. the act of excusing a mistake or offense

parent [ˈpɛərənt] – n. an organism (plant or animal) from which younger ones are obtained

Paris [ˈpæris] – n. the capital and largest city of France; and international center of culture and commerce

parish [ˈpæriʃ] – n. a local church community

park [pɑ:k] – n. a large area of land preserved in its natural state as public property: there are laws that protect the wildlife in this park

parliament [ˈpɑ:ləmənt] – n. a legislative assembly in certain countries

parlor [ˈpɑ:lə] – n. reception room in an inn or club where visitors can be received

parody [ˈpærədi] – n. a composition that imitates or misrepresents somebody’s style, usually in a humorous way

parrot [ˈpærət] – n. usually brightly colored zygodactyl tropical birds with short hooked beaks and the ability to mimic sounds

part [pɑ:t] – n. something determined in relation to something that includes it: he wanted to feel a part of something bigger than himself

partial [ˈpɑ:ʃəl] – adj. showing favoritism

partially [ˈpɑ:ʃəli] – adv. in part; in some degree; not wholly: He was partially paralyzed

participant [pɑ:ˈtisipənt] – n. someone who takes part in an activity

participate [pɑ:ˈtisipeit] – v. share in something

participation [pɑ:.tisiˈpeiʃən] – n. the act of sharing in the activities of a group

particle [ˈpɑ:tikl] – n. (nontechnical usage) a tiny piece of anything

particular [pəˈtikjulə] – adj. unique or specific to a person or thing or category: the particular demands of the job

particularly [pəˈtikjʊləli] – adv. to a distinctly greater extent or degree than is common: he was particularly fussy about spelling

partisan [.pɑ:tiˈzæn] – n. a fervent and even militant proponent of something

partition [pɑ:ˈtiʃən] – n. a vertical structure that divides or separates (as a wall divides one room from another)

partly [ˈpɑ:tli] – adv. in part; in some degree; not wholly: I felt partly to blame

partner [ˈpɑ:tnə] – n. an associate in an activity or endeavor or sphere of common interest: sexual partners

partnership [ˈpɑ:tnəʃip] – n. the members of a business venture created by contract

party [ˈpɑ:ti] – n. an organization to gain political power: in 1992 Perot tried to organize a third party at the national level

pass [pɑ:s] – v. go across or through: We passed the point where the police car had parked

passable [ˈpɑ:səbl] – adj. about average; acceptable

passage [ˈpæsidʒ] – n. a section of text; particularly a section of medium length

passenger [ˈpæsindʒə] – n. a traveler riding in a vehicle (a boat or bus or car or plane or train etc) who is not operating it

passion [ˈpæʃən] – n. a strong feeling or emotion

passionate [ˈpæʃənit] – adj. having or expressing strong emotions

passive [ˈpæsiv] – adj. lacking in energy or will: Much benevolence of the passive order may be traced to a disinclination to inflict pain upon oneself

passport [ˈpɑ:s.pɔ:t] – n. a document issued by a country to a citizen allowing that person to travel abroad and re-enter the home country

past [pɑ:st] – n. the time that has elapsed: forget the past

paste [peist] – n. any mixture of a soft and malleable consistency

pastime [ˈpɑ:s.taim] – n. a diversion that occupies one’s time and thoughts (usually pleasantly): sailing is her favorite pastime

pasture [ˈpæstʃ] – n. a field covered with grass or herbage and suitable for grazing by livestock

pat [pæt] – n. the sound made by a gentle blow

patch [pætʃ] – n. a small contrasting part of something: a patch of clouds

patent [ˈpætnt] – v. make open to sight or notice: His behavior has patented an embarrassing fact about him

paternity [pəˈtə:niti] – n. the state of being a father: tests were conducted to determine paternity

path [pɑ:θ] – n. a course of conduct: the path of virtue

pathetic [pəˈθetik] – adj. deserving or inciting pity: the shabby room struck her as extraordinarily pathetic

pathos [ˈpeiθɔs] – n. a quality that arouses emotions (especially pity or sorrow): the film captured all the pathos of their situation

patience [ˈpeiʃəns] – n. good-natured tolerance of delay or incompetence

patient [ˈpeiʃənt] – n. a person who requires medical care: the number of emergency patients has grown rapidly

patio [ˈpætiəu] – n. usually paved outdoor area adjoining a residence

patriot [ˈpeitriət, ˈpæt-] – n. one who loves and defends his or her country

patriotic [.pætriˈɔtik] – adj. inspired by love for your country

patriotism [ˈpætriətizəm, ˈpei-] – n. love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it: they rode the same wave of popular patriotism

patrol [pəˈtrəul] – n. a detachment used for security or reconnaissance

patron [ˈpeitrən] – n. a regular customer

patronage [ˈpætrənidʒ] – n. the act of providing approval and support

pattern [ˈpætən] – n. a perceptual structure: a visual pattern must include not only objects but the spaces between them

pause [pɔ:z] – n. a time interval during which there is a temporary cessation of something

pave [peiv] – n. a setting with precious stones so closely set that no metal shows

pavement [ˈpeivmənt] – n. material used to pave an area

paw [pɔ:] – n. a clawed foot of an animal especially a quadruped

pawn [pɔ:n] – n. an article deposited as security

pay [pei] – v. give money, usually in exchange for goods or services

payable [ˈpeiəbl] – n. a liability account showing how much is owed for goods and services purchased on credit: the problem was to match receivables and payables in the same currency

payment [ˈpeimənt] – n. a sum of money paid or a claim discharged

pea [pi:] – n. a leguminous plant of the genus Pisum with small white flowers and long green pods containing edible green seeds

peace [pi:s] – n. the state prevailing during the absence of war

peaceful [ˈpi:sfəl] – adj. not disturbed by strife or turmoil or war: a peaceful nation

peach [pi:tʃ] – n. cultivated in temperate regions

peacock [ˈpi:kɔk] – n. European butterfly having reddish-brown wings each marked with a purple eyespot

peak [pi:k] – n. the most extreme possible amount or value: voltage peak

peanut [ˈpi:nʌt] – n. a young child who is small for his age

pear [pɛə] – n. sweet juicy gritty-textured fruit available in many varieties

pearl [pə:l] – n. a smooth lustrous round structure inside the shell of a clam or oyster; much valued as a jewel

peasant [ˈpezənt] – n. a country person

peasantry [ˈpezəntri] – n. the class of peasants

pebble [ˈpebl] – n. a small smooth rounded rock

peck [pek] – v. hit lightly with a picking motion

peculiar [piˈkju:ljə] – adj. beyond or deviating from the usual or expected: the peculiar aromatic odor of cloves

peculiarity [pi.kju:liˈæriti] – n. an odd or unusual characteristic

peculiarly  – adv. uniquely or characteristically: these peculiarly cinematic elements

pedal [ˈpedl] – n. a sustained bass note

pedestrian [piˈdestriən] – n. a person who travels by foot

pedlar  – n. someone who travels about selling his wares (as on the streets or at carnivals)

peel [pi:l] – v. strip the skin off

peep [pi:p] – v. look furtively: He peeped at the woman through the window

peer [piə] – n. a person who is of equal standing with another in a group

peg [peg] – n. a wooden pin pushed or driven into a surface

pen [pen] – n. a writing implement with a point from which ink flows

penalty [ˈpenəlti] – n. the act of punishing

pencil [ˈpensl] – n. a thin cylindrical pointed writing implement; a rod of marking substance encased in wood

pending [ˈpendiŋ] – adj. awaiting conclusion or confirmation: business still pending

pendulum [ˈpendjuləm] – n. an apparatus consisting of an object mounted so that it swings freely under the influence of gravity

penetrate [ˈpenitreit] – v. pass into or through, often by overcoming resistance: The bullet penetrated her chest

penetration [peniˈtreiʃən] – n. clear or deep perception of a situation

penicillin [.peniˈsilin] – n. any of various antibiotics obtained from Penicillium molds (or produced synthetically) and used in the treatment of various infections and diseases

peninsular [piˈninsjulə] – adj. of or forming or resembling a peninsula: peninsular isolation

penny [ˈpeni] – n. a fractional monetary unit of Ireland and the United Kingdom; equal to one hundredth of a pound

pension [ˈpenʃən] – n. a regular payment to a person that is intended to allow them to subsist without working

people [ˈpi:pl] – n. (plural) any group of human beings (men or women or children) collectively: old people

pepper [ˈpepə] – n. sweet and hot varieties of fruits of plants of the genus Capsicum

perceive [pəˈsi:v] – v. to become aware of through the senses: I could perceive the ship coming over the horizon

percent [pəˈsent] – n. a proportion in relation to a whole (which is usually the amount per hundred)

percentage [pəˈsentidʒ] – n. a proportion in relation to a whole (which is usually the amount per hundred)

perceptible [pəˈseptəbl] – adj. capable of being perceived by the mind or senses: a perceptible limp

perception [pəˈsepʃən] – n. a way of conceiving something: Luther had a new perception of the Bible

perch [pə:tʃ] – n. support consisting of a branch or rod that serves as a resting place (especially for a bird)

percussion [pəˈkʌʃən] – n. tapping a part of the body for diagnostic purposes

perennial [pəˈreniəl] – adj. lasting three seasons or more: the common buttercup is a popular perennial plant

perfect [ˈpə:fikt] – adj. being complete of its kind and without defect or blemish: a perfect circle

perfection [pəˈfekʃən] – n. the state of being without a flaw or defect

perfectly [ˈpɜ:fiktli] – adv. completely and without qualification; used informally as intensifiers: a perfectly idiotic idea

perform [pəˈfɔ:m] – v. get (something) done

performance [pəˈfɔ:məns] – n. a dramatic or musical entertainment: they listened to ten different performances

performer [pəˈfɔ:mə(r)] – n. an entertainer who performs a dramatic or musical work for an audience

perfume [ˈpə:fju:m,pəˈfju:m] – n. a distinctive odor that is pleasant

perhaps [pəˈhæps] – adv. by chance: perhaps she will call tomorrow

peril [ˈperil] – n. a source of danger; a possibility of incurring loss or misfortune

perimeter [pəˈrimitə] – n. the boundary line or the area immediately inside the boundary

period [ˈpiəriəd] – n. an amount of time: a time period of 30 years

periodic [piəriˈɔdik] – adj. happening or recurring at regular intervals: the periodic appearance of the seventeen-year locust

periodical [.piəriˈɔdikəl] – n. a publication that appears at fixed intervals

periodically [.piəriˈɔdikɚli] – adv. in a sporadic manner

peripheral [pəˈrifərəl] – adj. on or near an edge or constituting an outer boundary; the outer area: Russia’s peripheral provinces

periphery [pəˈrifəri] – n. the outside boundary or surface of something

periscope [ˈperiskəup] – n. an optical instrument that provides a view of an otherwise obstructed field

perish [ˈperiʃ] – v. pass from physical life and lose all bodily attributes and functions necessary to sustain life: The children perished in the fire

perishable [ˈperiʃəbəl] – n. food that will decay rapidly if not refrigerated

permanence [ˈpə:mənəns] – n. the property of being able to exist for an indefinite duration

permanent [ˈpə:mənənt] – adj. continuing or enduring without marked change in status or condition or place: permanent secretary to the president

permanently [ˈpɜ:məntli] – adv. for a long time without essential change: he is permanently disabled

permeate [ˈpə:mieit] – v. spread or diffuse through: An atmosphere of distrust has permeated this administration

permissible [pəˈmisəbəl] – adj. that may be permitted especially as according to rule: permissible behavior in school

permission [pəˈmiʃən] – n. approval to do something: he asked permission to leave

permissive [pə(:)ˈmisiv] – adj. not preventive

permit [ˈpə:mit,pəˈmit] – n. the act of giving a formal (usually written) authorization

perpendicular [.pə:pənˈdikjulə] – n. a straight line at right angles to another line

perpetual [pəˈpetjuəl] – adj. continuing forever or indefinitely: hell’s perpetual fires

perplex [pəˈpleks] – v. be a mystery or bewildering to

perplexity [pəˈpleksiti] – n. trouble or confusion resulting from complexity

persecute [ˈpə:sikju:t] – v. cause to suffer: Jews were persecuted in the former Soviet Union

persecution [.pə:siˈkju:ʃən] – n. the act of persecuting (especially on the basis of race or religion)

perseverance [.pə:siˈviərəns] – n. persistent determination

persevere [.pə:siˈviə] – v. be persistent, refuse to stop

persist [pəˈsist] – v. continue to exist

persistence [pəˈsistəns, -ˈzis-] – n. the property of a continuous and connected period of time

persistent [pəˈsistənt] – adj. never-ceasing

person [ˈpə:sn] – n. a human being: there was too much for one person to do

personal [ˈpə:sənl] – adj. particular to a given individual

personality [.pə:səˈnæliti] – n. a person of considerable prominence: she is a Hollywood personality

personally [ˈpə:sənəli] – adv. as yourself: speaking personally, I would not want to go

personnel [.pə:səˈnel] – n. group of people willing to obey orders

perspective [pəˈspektiv] – n. a way of regarding situations or topics etc.

perspire [pəˈspaiə] – v. excrete perspiration through the pores in the skin

persuade [pəˈsweid] – v. win approval or support for

persuasion [pəˈsweiʒən] – n. a personal belief or judgment that is not founded on proof or certainty: I am not of your persuasion

pertain [pə(:)ˈtein] – v. be relevant to: My remark pertained to your earlier comments

pertinence [ˈpɜ:tinəns] – n. relevance by virtue of being applicable to the matter at hand

pertinent [ˈpə:tinənt] – adj. having precise or logical relevance to the matter at hand: a list of articles pertinent to the discussion

perturb [pəˈtə:b] – v. disturb in mind or make uneasy or cause to be worried or alarmed: She was rather perturbed by the news that her father was seriously ill

perusal [pəˈru:zəl] – n. reading carefully with intent to remember

peruse [pəˈru:z] – v. examine or consider with attention and in detail: Please peruse this report at your leisure

pervade [pəˈveid] – v. spread or diffuse through

perverse [pəˈvə:s] – adj. marked by a disposition to oppose and contradict: took perverse satisfaction in foiling her plans

pervert [pəˈvə:t, ˈpə:vət] – v. corrupt morally or by intemperance or sensuality

pessimism [ˈpesimizəm] – n. the feeling that things will turn out badly

pessimist [ˈpesimist] – n. a person who expects the worst

pessimistic [.pesiˈmistik] – adj. expecting the worst possible outcome

pest [pest] – n. any epidemic disease with a high death rate

pester [ˈpestə] – v. annoy persistently

pesticide [ˈpestisaid] – n. a chemical used to kill pests (as rodents or insects)

pet [pet] – n. a domesticated animal kept for companionship or amusement

petal [ˈpetl] – n. part of the perianth that is usually brightly colored

petition [piˈtiʃən] – n. a formal message requesting something that is submitted to an authority

petrol [ˈpetrəl] – n. a volatile flammable mixture of hydrocarbons (hexane and heptane and octane etc.) derived from petroleum; used mainly as a fuel in internal-combustion engines

petroleum [piˈtrəuliəm] – n. a dark oil consisting mainly of hydrocarbons

petty [ˈpeti] – adj. inferior in rank or status: petty officialdom

pharmaceutical [.fɑ:məˈsju:tikəl] – adj. of or relating to drugs used in medical treatment

pharmacy [ˈfɑ:məsi] – n. the art and science of preparing and dispensing drugs and medicines,

phase [feiz] – n. any distinct time period in a sequence of events

phenomenal [fiˈnɔminəl] – adj. exceedingly or unbelievably great

phenomenon [fəˈnɑ:minən] – n. any state or process known through the senses rather than by intuition or reasoning

philosopher [fiˈlɔsəfə] – n. a wise person who is calm and rational; someone who lives a life of reason with equanimity

philosophical [.filəˈsɔfikəl] – adj. characterized by the attitude of a philosopher; meeting trouble with level-headed detachment: philosophical resignation

philosophy [fiˈlɔsəfi] – n. a belief (or system of beliefs) accepted as authoritative by some group or school

phobia [ˈfəubiə] – n. an anxiety disorder characterized by extreme and irrational fear of simple things or social situations: phobic disorder is a general term for all phobias

phone [fəun] – n. electro-acoustic transducer for converting electric signals into sounds; it is held over or inserted into the ear: it was not the typing but the earphones that she disliked

phonetic [fəˈnetik] – adj. of or relating to speech sounds: phonetic transcription

phonetics [fəuˈnetiks] – n. the branch of acoustics concerned with speech processes including its production and perception and acoustic analysis

photo [ˈfəutəu] – n. a representation of a person or scene in the form of a print or transparent slide; recorded by a camera on light-sensitive material

photograph [ˈfəutəgrɑ:f, -græf] – n. a representation of a person or scene in the form of a print or transparent slide; recorded by a camera on light-sensitive material

photographer [fəˈtɔgrəfə] – n. someone who takes photographs professionally

photography [fəˈtɔgrəfi] – n. the process of producing images of objects on photosensitive surfaces

phrase [freiz] – n. an expression consisting of one or more words forming a grammatical constituent of a sentence

physical [ˈfizikəl] – adj. involving the body as distinguished from the mind or spirit: physical exercise

physically [ˈfizik(ə)li] – adv. in accord with physical laws: it is physically impossible

physician [fiˈziʃən] – n. a licensed medical practitioner

physicist [ˈfizisist] – n. a scientist trained in physics

physics [ˈfiziks] – n. the science of matter and energy and their interactions: his favorite subject was physics

physiological [.fiziəˈlɔdʒikəl] – adj. of or consistent with an organism’s normal functioning: physiological processes

physique [fiˈzi:k] – n. constitution of the human body

pianist [ˈpiənist, ˈpjænist] – n. a person who plays the piano

piano [piˈænəu,piˈɑ:nəu] – n. a keyboard instrument that is played by depressing keys that cause hammers to strike tuned strings and produce sounds

pick [pik] – v. select carefully from a group: She finally picked her successor

pickle [ˈpikl] – n. vegetables (especially cucumbers) preserved in brine or vinegar

pickpocket [ˈpik.pɔkit] – n. a thief who steals from the pockets or purses of others in public places

picnic [ˈpiknik] – n. a day devoted to an outdoor social gathering

pictorial [pikˈtɔ:riəl] – adj. pertaining to or consisting of pictures: pictorial perspective

picture [ˈpiktʃə] – n. a visual representation (of an object or scene or person or abstraction) produced on a surface: they showed us the pictures of their wedding

picturesque [.piktʃəˈresk] – adj. strikingly expressive: a picturesque description of the rainforest

pie [pai] – n. dish baked in pastry-lined pan often with a pastry top

piece [pi:s] – n. a separate part of a whole: an important piece of the evidence

piecemeal [ˈpi:smi:l] – adj. one thing at a time

pier [piə] – n. (architecture) a vertical supporting structure (as a portion of wall between two doors or windows)

pierce [piəs] – v. cut or make a way through: The path pierced the jungle

piety [ˈpaiəti] – n. righteousness by virtue of being pious

pig [pig] – n. domestic swine

pigeon [ˈpidʒin] – n. wild and domesticated birds having a heavy body and short legs

pigment [ˈpigmənt] – n. dry coloring material (especially a powder to be mixed with a liquid to produce paint, etc.)

pile [pail] – n. a collection of objects laid on top of each other

pilferage [ˈpilfəridʒ] – n. the act of stealing small amounts or small articles

pilgrim [ˈpilgrim] – n. someone who journeys in foreign lands

pilgrimage [ˈpilgrimidʒ] – n. a journey to a sacred place

pill [pil] – n. something that resembles a tablet of medicine in shape or size

pillar [ˈpilə] – n. a fundamental principle or practice: science eroded the pillars of superstition

pillow [ˈpiləu] – n. a cushion to support the head of a sleeping person

pilot [ˈpailət] – n. someone who is licensed to operate an aircraft in flight

pimple [ˈpimpəl] – n. a small inflamed elevation of the skin; a pustule or papule; common symptom in acne

pin [pin] – n. when a wrestler’s shoulders are forced to the mat

pinch [pintʃ] – n. a painful or straitened circumstance: the pinch of the recession

pine [pain] – n. a coniferous tree

pineapple [ˈpainæpl] – n. large sweet fleshy tropical fruit with a terminal tuft of stiff leaves; widely cultivated

pink [piŋk] – n. a light shade of red

pinnacle [ˈpinəkl] – n. (architecture) a slender upright spire at the top of a buttress of tower

pinpoint [ˈpinpɔint] – n. a very brief moment: they were strangers sharing a pinpoint of time together

pint [paint] – n. a British imperial capacity measure (liquid or dry) equal to 4 gills or 568.26 cubic centimeters

pioneer [.paiəˈniə] – v. open up an area or prepare a way: She pioneered a graduate program for women students

pious [ˈpaiəs] – adj. having or showing or expressing reverence for a deity: pious readings

pipe [paip] – n. a tube with a small bowl at one end; used for smoking tobacco

pipeline [ˈpaip.lain] – n. gossip spread by spoken communication

piracy [ˈpaiərəsi] – n. the act of plagiarizing; taking someone’s words or ideas as if they were your own

pirate [ˈpaiərit] – n. someone who uses another person’s words or ideas as if they were his own

pistol [ˈpistl] – n. a firearm that is held and fired with one hand

piston [ˈpistən] – n. United States neoclassical composer (1894-1976)

pit [pit] – n. a sizeable hole (usually in the ground): they dug a pit to bury the body

pitch  – v. throw or toss with a light motion

pitcher [ˈpitʃə] – n. an open vessel with a handle and a spout for pouring

pity [ˈpiti] – n. a feeling of sympathy and sorrow for the misfortunes of others: the blind are too often objects of pity

pivot [ˈpivət] – n. the person in a rank around whom the others wheel and maneuver

placard [ˈplækɑ:d] – v. post in a public place

place [pleis] – n. a point located with respect to surface features of some region: this is a nice place for a picnic

placid [ˈplæsid] – adj. (of a body of water) free from disturbance by heavy waves: a ribbon of sand between the angry sea and the placid bay

plagiarize [ˈpleidʒərɑiz] – v. take without referencing from someone else’s writing or speech; of intellectual property

plague [pleig] – n. any epidemic disease with a high death rate

plain [plein] – adj. clearly revealed to the mind or the senses or judgment: made his meaning plain

plaintive [ˈpleintiv] – adj. expressing sorrow

plan [plæn] – v. have the will and intention to carry out some action: He plans to be in graduate school next year

plane [plein] – n. an aircraft that has a fixed wing and is powered by propellers or jets: the flight was delayed due to trouble with the airplane

planet [ˈplænit] – n. a person who follows or serves another

planetarium [plæniˈteəriəm] – n. a building housing an instrument for projecting the positions of the planets onto a domed ceiling

plank [plæŋk] – v. set (something or oneself) down with or as if with a noise: He planked the money on the table

plankton [ˈplæŋktən] – n. the aggregate of small plant and animal organisms that float or drift in great numbers in fresh or salt water

plant [plɑ:nt] – v. fix or set securely or deeply: He planted a knee in the back of his opponent

plantation [plænˈteiʃən] – n. an estate where cash crops are grown on a large scale (especially in tropical areas)

plaster [ˈplɑ:stə] – v. apply a heavy coat to

plastic [ˈplæstik] – adj. capable of being molded or modeled (especially of earth or clay or other soft material): plastic substances such as wax or clay

plate [pleit] – n. a sheet of metal or wood or glass or plastic

plateau [ˈplætəu] – n. a relatively flat highland

platform [ˈplætfɔ:m] – n. a raised horizontal surface: the speaker mounted the platform

platinum [ˈplætinəm] – n. a heavy precious metallic element; grey-white and resistant to corroding; occurs in some nickel and copper ores and is also found native in some deposits

platitude [ˈplætitju:d] – n. a trite or obvious remark

plausible [ˈplɔ:zəbl] – adj. apparently reasonable and valid, and truthful: a plausible excuse

play [plei] – v. participate in games or sport: We played hockey all afternoon

player [ˈpleiə] – n. a person who participates in or is skilled at some game

playground [ˈpleigraund] – n. an area where many people go for recreation

playmate [ˈpleimeit] – n. a companion at play

playwright [ˈpleirait] – n. someone who writes plays

plea [pli:] – n. a humble request for help from someone in authority

plead [pli:d] – v. appeal or request earnestly: I pleaded with him to stop

pleasant [ˈpleznt] – adj. (of persons) having pleasing manners or behavior: I didn’t enjoy it and probably wasn’t a pleasant person to be around

please [pli:z] – v. be the will of or have the will (to): he could do many things if he pleased

pleased [pli:zd] – adj. feeling pleasurable satisfaction over something by which you measures your self-worth

pleasure [ˈpleʒə] – n. a fundamental feeling that is hard to define but that people desire to experience: he was tingling with pleasure

pledge [pledʒ] – v. promise solemnly and formally: I pledge that I will honor my wife

plenary [ˈpli:nəri] – adj. full in all respects: a plenary session of the legislature

plentiful [ˈplentifəl] – adj. existing in great number or quantity: rhinoceroses were once plentiful here

plenty [ˈplenti] – n. a full supply: there was plenty of food for everyone

pliable [ˈplaiəbəl] – adj. susceptible to being led or directed

plight [plait] – n. a situation from which extrication is difficult especially an unpleasant or trying one: the woeful plight of homeless people

plot [plɔt] – n. a secret scheme to do something (especially something underhand or illegal): they concocted a plot to discredit the governor

plough [plau] – n. a group of seven bright stars in the constellation Ursa Major

pluck [plʌk] – v. pull or pull out sharply: pluck the flowers off the bush

plug [plʌg] – n. blockage consisting of an object designed to fill a hole tightly

plumb [plʌm] – v. measure the depth of something

plumber [ˈplʌmə] – n. a craftsman who installs and repairs pipes and fixtures and appliances

plume [plu:m] – v. rip off; ask an unreasonable price

plummet [ˈplʌmit] – n. the metal bob of a plumb line

plump [plʌmp] – v. drop sharply

plunder [ˈplʌndə] – v. take illegally; of intellectual property: This writer plundered from famous authors

plunge [plʌndʒ] – v. thrust or throw into

plural [ˈpluərəl] – adj. composed of more than one member, set, or kind

plus [plʌs] – n. a useful or valuable quality

ply [plai] – v. give what is desired or needed, especially support, food or sustenance

pneumatic [nju(:)ˈmætik] – adj. of or relating to or using air (or a similar gas): pneumatic drill

pneumonia [nju(:)ˈməunjə] – n. respiratory disease characterized by inflammation of the lung parenchyma (excluding the bronchi) with congestion caused by viruses or bacteria or irritants

pocket [ˈpɔkit] – n. a small pouch inside a garment for carrying small articles

poem [ˈpəuim] – n. a composition written in metrical feet forming rhythmical lines

poet [ˈpəuit] – n. a writer of poems (the term is usually reserved for writers of good poetry)

poetry [ˈpəuitri] – n. literature in metrical form

point [pɔint] – n. a geometric element that has position but no extension: a point is defined by its coordinates

pointless [ˈpɔintləs] – adj. serving no useful purpose; having no excuse for being: a pointless remark

poise [pɔiz] – v. be motionless, in suspension: The bird poised for a few moments before it attacked

poison [ˈpɔizn] – n. any substance that causes injury or illness or death of a living organism

poisonous [ˈpɔizənəs] – adj. not safe to eat

poke [pəuk] – n. someone who takes more time than necessary; someone who lags behind

poker [ˈpəukə] – n. fire iron consisting of a metal rod with a handle; used to stir a fire

polar [ˈpəulə] – adj. having a pair of equal and opposite charges

polarity [pəuˈlæriti] – n. a relation between two opposite attributes or tendencies: he viewed it as a balanced polarity between good and evil

pole [pəul] – n. a long (usually round) rod of wood or metal or plastic

police [pəˈli:s] – v. maintain the security of by carrying out a patrol

policeman [pəˈli:smən] – n. a member of a police force

policy [ˈpɔlisi] – n. a plan of action adopted by an individual or social group: it was a policy of retribution

polish [ˈpɔliʃ] – n. the property of being smooth and shiny

polite [pəˈlait] – adj. showing regard for others in manners, speech, behavior, etc.

politeness [pəˈlaitnis] – n. a courteous manner that respects accepted social usage

politic [ˈpɔlitik] – adj. marked by artful prudence, expedience, and shrewdness: it is neither polite nor politic to get into other people’s quarrels

political [pəˈlitikəl] – adj. of or relating to your views about social relationships involving authority or power: political opinions

politician [.pɔliˈtiʃən] – n. a leader engaged in civil administration

politics [ˈpɔlitiks] – n. social relations involving intrigue to gain authority or power: office politics is often counterproductive

poll [pəul] – n. an inquiry into public opinion conducted by interviewing a random sample of people

pollinate [ˈpɔlineit] – v. fertilize by transfering pollen

pollute [pəˈlu:t] – v. make impure: The industrial wastes polluted the lake

pollution [pəˈlu:ʃən] – n. the state of being polluted

polymer [ˈpɔlimə] – n. a naturally occurring or synthetic compound consisting of large molecules made up of a linked series of repeated simple monomers

pompous [ˈpɔmpəs] – adj. puffed up with vanity: a pompous speech

pond [pɔnd] – n. a small lake: the pond was too small for sailing

ponder [ˈpɔndə] – v. reflect deeply on a subject

ponderous [ˈpɔndərəs] – adj. slow and laborious because of weight: ponderous prehistoric beasts

pony [ˈpəuni] – n. a range horse of the western United States

pool [pu:l] – n. an excavation that is (usually) filled with water

poor [puə] – adj. deserving or inciting pity: Oh, you poor thing

pop [pɔp] – v. bulge outward: His eyes popped

popcorn [ˈpɔpkɔ:n] – n. corn having small ears and kernels that burst when exposed to dry heat

pope [pu:p] – n. the head of the Roman Catholic Church

popular [ˈpɔpjulə] – adj. regarded with great favor, approval, or affection especially by the general public: a popular tourist attraction

popularity [.pɔpjuˈlæriti] – n. the quality of being widely admired or accepted or sought after: his charm soon won him affection and popularity

popularize [ˈpɔpjuləraiz] – v. make understandable to the general public: Carl Sagan popularized cosmology in his books

population [.pɔpjuˈleiʃən] – n. the people who inhabit a territory or state: the population seemed to be well fed and clothed

porcelain [ˈpɔ:slin] – n. ceramic ware made of a more or less translucent ceramic

porch [pɔ:tʃ] – n. a structure attached to the exterior of a building often forming a covered entrance

pore [pɔ:, pɔə] – n. any tiny hole admitting passage of a liquid (fluid or gas)

pork [pɔ:k] – n. meat from a domestic hog or pig

porous [ˈpɔ:rəs] – adj. able to absorb fluids: the partly porous walls of our digestive system

porridge [ˈpɔridʒ] – n. soft food made by boiling oatmeal or other meal or legumes in water or milk until thick

port [pɔ:t] – v. put or turn on the left side, of a ship: port the helm

portable [ˈpɔ:təbl] – adj. of a motor designed to be attached to the outside of a boat’s hull: a portable outboard motor

porter [ˈpɔ:tə] – n. a person employed to carry luggage and supplies

portfolio [pɔ:tˈfəuliəu] – n. a large, flat, thin case for carrying loose papers or drawings or maps; usually leather: he remembered her because she was carrying a large portfolio

portion [ˈpɔ:ʃən] – n. something determined in relation to something that includes it: I read a portion of the manuscript

portrait [ˈpɔ:trit] – n. a word picture of a person’s appearance and character

portray [pɔ:ˈtrei] – v. make a portrait of: Goya wanted to portray his mistress, the Duchess of Alba

Portugal [ˈpɔ:tjugəl] – n. a republic in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula; Portuguese explorers and colonists in the 15th and 16th centuries created a vast overseas empire (including Brazil)

Portuguese [.pɔ:tjuˈgi:z] – n. a native or inhabitant of Portugal

pose [pəuz] – v. introduce: This poses an interesting question

position [pəˈziʃən] – n. the particular portion of space occupied by something

positive [ˈpɔzitiv] – adj. characterized by or displaying affirmation or acceptance or certainty etc.: a positive attitude

positively [ˈpɔzətivli] – adv. extremely: it was positively monumental

possess [pəˈzes] – v. have as an attribute, knowledge, or skill: he possesses great knowledge about the Middle East

possession [pəˈzeʃən] – n. the act of having and controlling property

possessive [pəˈzesiv] – adj. desirous of owning: small children are so possessive they will not let others play with their toys

possibility [.pɔsəˈbiliti] – n. a future prospect or potential

possible [ˈpɔsəbl] – n. something that can be done: politics is the art of the possible

possibly [ˈpɔsəbli] – adv. by chance: we may possibly run into them at the concert

post [pəust] – v. affix in a public place or for public notice: post a warning

postage [ˈpəustidʒ] – n. the charge for mailing something

postal [ˈpəustəl] – adj. of or relating to the system for delivering mail: postal delivery

postcard [ˈpəust.kɑ:d] – n. a card for sending messages by post without an envelope

poster [ˈpəustə] – n. someone who pastes up bills or placards on walls or billboards

posterity [pɔsˈteriti] – n. all of the offspring of a given progenitor: we must secure the benefits of freedom for ourselves and our posterity

postgraduate [pəustˈgrædjuit] – n. a student who continues studies after graduation

posthumous [ˈpɔstjuməs] – adj. occurring or coming into existence after a person’s death: a posthumous award

postman [ˈpəustmən] – n. a man who delivers the mail

postmortem [.pəustˈmɔ:təm] – n. discussion of an event after it has occurred

postpone [pəustˈpəun] – v. hold back to a later time: let’s postpone the exam

postponement [pəustˈpəunmənt] – n. time during which some action is awaited

postscript [ˈpəust.skript] – n. a note appended to a letter after the signature

postulate [ˈpɔstjuleit] – v. maintain or assert

posture [ˈpɔstʃə] – n. the arrangement of the body and its limbs

pot [pɔt] – n. metal or earthenware cooking vessel that is usually round and deep; often has a handle and lid

potato [pəˈteitəu] – n. an edible tuber native to South America; a staple food of Ireland

potent [ˈpəutənt] – adj. having great influence

potential [pəˈtenʃəl] – n. the inherent capacity for coming into being

potentiality [pə.tenʃiˈæliti] – n. the inherent capacity for coming into being

potion [ˈpəuʃən] – n. a medicinal or magical or poisonous beverage

pottery [ˈpɔtəri] – n. ceramic ware made from clay and baked in a kiln

poultry [ˈpəultri] – n. a domesticated gallinaceous bird thought to be descended from the red jungle fowl

pounce [pauns] – n. the act of pouncing

pound [paund] – n. 16 ounces avoirdupois: he got a hernia when he tried to lift 100 pounds

pour [pɔ:] – v. cause to run: pour water over the floor

poverty [ˈpɔvəti] – n. the state of having little or no money and few or no material possessions

powder [ˈpaudə] – n. a solid substance in the form of tiny loose particles; a solid that has been pulverized

power [ˈpauə] – n. possession of controlling influence: the deterrent power of nuclear weapons

powerful [ˈpauəfəl] – adj. strong enough to knock down or overwhelm

practicable [ˈpræktikəbl] – adj. usable for a specific purpose: a practicable solution

practical [ˈpræktikəl] – adj. concerned with actual use or practice: he is a very practical person

practically [ˈpræktikəli] – adv. almost; nearly: practically the first thing I saw when I got off the train

practice [ˈpræktis] – n. a customary way of operation or behavior: it is their practice to give annual raises

practise  – v. engage in a rehearsal (of)

practitioner [prækˈtiʃənə] – n. someone who practices a learned profession

pragmatic [prægˈmætik] – adj. concerned with practical matters: a matter-of-fact (or pragmatic) approach to the problem

prairie [ˈprɛəri] – n. a treeless grassy plain

praise [preiz] – n. an expression of approval and commendation: he always appreciated praise for his work

pray [prei] – v. call upon in supplication; entreat

prayer [prɛə] – n. the act of communicating with a deity (especially as a petition or in adoration or contrition or thanksgiving): the priest sank to his knees in prayer

preach [pri:tʃ] – v. deliver a sermon: The minister is not preaching this Sunday

preacher [ˈpri:tʃə(r)] – n. someone whose occupation is preaching the gospel

precarious [priˈkeəriəs] – adj. affording no ease or reassurance: a precarious truce

precaution [priˈkɔ:ʃən] – n. the trait of practicing caution in advance

precede [pri:ˈsi:d] – v. be earlier in time; go back further: Stone tools precede bronze tools

precedence [ˈpresidəns] – n. status established in order of importance or urgency: …its precedence as the world’s leading manufacturer of pharmaceuticals

precedent [ˈpresidənt] – n. an example that is used to justify similar occurrences at a later time

preceding [priˈsi:diŋ] – adj. existing or coming before

precious [ˈpreʃəs] – adj. characterized by feeling or showing fond affection for: children are precious

precipice [ˈpresipis] – n. a very steep cliff

precipitate [priˈsipiteit] – v. bring about abruptly: The crisis precipitated by Russia’s revolution

precise [priˈsais] – adj. sharply exact or accurate or delimited: a precise mind

precisely [priˈsaisli] – adv. in a precise manner: she always expressed herself precisely

precision [priˈsiʒən] – n. the quality of being reproducible in amount or performance: note the meticulous precision of his measurements

preclude [priˈklu:d] – v. keep from happening or arising; make impossible: Your role in the projects precludes your involvement in the competitive project

predecessor [ˈpri:disesə] – n. one who precedes you in time (as in holding a position or office)

predict [priˈdikt] – v. indicate by signs

predictable [priˈdiktəbəl] – adj. capable of being foretold

prediction [priˈdikʃən] – n. a statement made about the future

predisposition [.pri:dispəˈziʃən] – n. susceptibility to a pathogen

predominance [priˈdɔminəns] – n. the quality of being more noticeable than anything else

predominant [priˈdɔminənt] – adj. most frequent or common

preface [ˈprefis] – n. a short introductory essay preceding the text of a book

prefer [priˈfə:] – v. like better; value more highly: Some people prefer camping to staying in hotels

preferable [ˈprefərəbl] – adj. more desirable than another: coffee is preferable to tea

preferably [ˈprefərəbli] – adv. more readily or willingly: clean it well, preferably with warm water

preference [ˈprefərəns] – n. a strong liking: my own preference is for good literature

preferential [.prefəˈrenʃəl] – adj. manifesting partiality: preferential tariff rates

prefix [ˈpri:fiks] – n. an affix that is added in front of the word

pregnancy [ˈpregnənsi] – n. the state of being pregnant; the period from conception to birth when a woman carries a developing fetus in her uterus

pregnant [ˈpregnənt] – adj. carrying developing offspring within the body or being about to produce new life

prejudice [ˈpredʒudis] – v. influence (somebody’s) opinion in advance

preliminary [priˈliminəri] – n. a minor match preceding the main event

prelude [ˈprelju:d] – n. something that serves as a preceding event or introduces what follows

premature [.preməˈtʃuə] – adj. born after a gestation period of less than the normal time: a premature infant

premier [ˈpremjə] – n. the person who holds the position of head of the government in the United Kingdom

premise [ˈpremis] – v. set forth beforehand, often as an explanation: He premised these remarks so that his readers might understand

premises [ˈpremisiz] – n. land and the buildings on it: bread is baked on the premises

premium [ˈpri:miəm] – n. payment for insurance

preoccupy [pri(:)ˈɔkjupai] – v. engage or engross the interest or attention of beforehand or occupy urgently or obsessively

preparation [.prepəˈreiʃən] – n. the activity of putting or setting in order in advance of some act or purpose: preparations for the ceremony had begun

prepare [priˈpɛə] – v. make ready or suitable or equip in advance for a particular purpose or for some use, event, etc: prepare for war

prepared [priˈpɛəd] – adj. made ready or fit or suitable beforehand: a prepared statement

preposition [.prepəˈziʃən] – n. (linguistics) the placing of one linguistic element before another (as placing a modifier before the word it modifies in a sentence or placing an affix before the base to which it is attached)

prerogative [priˈrɔgətiv] – n. a right reserved exclusively by a particular person or group (especially a hereditary or official right): suffrage was the prerogative of white adult males

prescribe [prisˈkraib] – v. issue commands or orders for

prescribed [priˈskraibd] – adj. set down as a rule or guide

prescription [prisˈkripʃən] – n. a drug that is available only with written instructions from a doctor or dentist to a pharmacist: he told the doctor that he had been taking his prescription regularly

presence [ˈprezns] – n. the immediate proximity of someone or something: she blushed in his presence

present [ˈpreznt,priˈzent] – v. give an exhibition of to an interested audience

presentation [.prezenˈteiʃən] – n. a show or display; the act of presenting something to sight or view: the presentation of new data

presently [ˈprezntli] – adv. in the near future: she will arrive presently

preservation [.prezə(:)ˈveiʃən] – n. the activity of protecting something from loss or danger

preserve [priˈzə:v] – v. keep or maintain in unaltered condition; cause to remain or last: preserve the peace in the family

preset [ˈpri:ˈset] – adj. set in advance: a preset plan of action

preside [priˈzaid] – v. act as president: preside over companies and corporations

president [ˈprezidənt] – n. an executive officer of a firm or corporation

presidential [.preziˈdenʃəl] – adj. befitting a president: criticized the candidate for not looking presidential

press [pres] – v. force or impel in an indicated direction

pressure [ˈpreʃə] – n. the force applied to a unit area of surface; measured in pascals (SI unit) or in dynes (cgs unit): the compressed gas exerts an increased pressure

prestige [presˈti:ʒ] – n. a high standing achieved through success or influence or wealth etc.: he wanted to achieve power and prestige

prestigious [preˈstidʒəs] – adj. having an illustrious reputation; respected: a prestigious author

presumably [priˈzju:məbli] – adv. by reasonable assumption: presumably, he missed the train

presume [priˈzju:m] – v. take to be the case or to be true; accept without verification or proof

presumption [priˈzʌmpʃən] – n. an assumption that is taken for granted

pretend [priˈtend] – v. make believe with the intent to deceive

pretense [priˈtens] – n. the act of giving a false appearance

pretentious [priˈtenʃəs] – adj. making claim to or creating an appearance of (often undeserved) importance or distinction: a pretentious country house

pretext [ˈpri:tekst] – n. something serving to conceal plans; a fictitious reason that is concocted in order to conceal the real reason

pretty [ˈpriti] – adj. pleasing by delicacy or grace; not imposing: pretty girl

prevail [priˈveil] – v. be larger in number, quantity, power, status or importance

prevalence [ˈprevələns] – n. the quality of prevailing generally; being widespread: he was surprised by the prevalence of optimism about the future

prevalent [ˈprevələnt] – adj. most frequent or common

prevent [priˈvent] – v. keep from happening or arising; make impossible

prevention [priˈvenʃən] – n. the act of preventing: money was allocated to study the cause and prevention of influenza

previous [ˈpri:vjəs] – adj. just preceding something else in time or order: the previous owner

previously [ˈpri:vju:sli] – adv. at an earlier time or formerly: she had previously lived in Chicago

prey [prei] – n. animal hunted or caught for food

price [prais] – n. the property of having material worth (often indicated by the amount of money something would bring if sold): he puts a high price on his services

pricing [ˈpraisiŋ] – n. the evaluation of something in terms of its price

prick [prik] – v. make a small hole into, as with a needle or a thorn: The nurse pricked my finger to get a small blood sample

pride [praid] – n. a feeling of self-respect and personal worth

priest [pri:st] – n. a person who performs religious duties and ceremonies in a non-Christian religion

primarily [praiˈmərili] – adv. for the most part

primary [ˈpraiməri] – adj. of first rank or importance or value; direct and immediate rather than secondary: primary goals

prime [praim] – adj. first in rank or degree: the prime minister

primitive [ˈprimitiv] – adj. belonging to an early stage of technical development; characterized by simplicity and (often) crudeness: primitive movies of the 1890s

prince [prins] – n. a male member of a royal family other than the sovereign (especially the son of a sovereign)

princess [ˈprinˈses] – n. a female member of a royal family other than the queen (especially the daughter of a sovereign)

principal [ˈprinsəpəl] – n. the original amount of a debt on which interest is calculated

principally [ˈprinsipli] – adv. for the most part

principle [ˈprinsəpl] – n. a basic generalization that is accepted as true and that can be used as a basis for reasoning or conduct: their principles of composition characterized all their works

print [print] – n. a visible indication made on a surface: paw prints were everywhere

printer [ˈprintə] – n. (computer science) an output device that prints the results of data processing

prior [ˈpraiə] – adj. earlier in time

priority [praiˈɔriti] – n. status established in order of importance or urgency: national independence takes priority over class struggle

prism [ˈ prizəm] – n. a polyhedron with two congruent and parallel faces (the bases) and whose lateral faces are parallelograms

prison [ˈprizn] – n. a correctional institution where persons are confined while on trial or for punishment

prisoner [ˈprizənə] – n. a person who is confined; especially a prisoner of war

privacy [ˈpraivəsi] – n. the quality of being secluded from the presence or view of others

private [ˈpraivit] – adj. confined to particular persons or groups or providing privacy: a private place

privilege [ˈprivilidʒ] – n. a special advantage or immunity or benefit not enjoyed by all

privileged [ˈprivilidʒd] – adj. not subject to usual rules or penalties: a privileged statement

prize [praiz] – n. something given for victory or superiority in a contest or competition or for winning a lottery: the prize was a free trip to Europe

probability [.prɔbəˈbiliti] – n. the quality of being probable; a probable event or the most probable event: for a while mutiny seemed a probability

probable [ˈprɔbəbl] – adj. likely but not certain to be or become true or real: he foresaw a probable loss

probably [ˈprɔbəbli] – adv. with considerable certainty; without much doubt: He is probably out of the country

probation [prəˈbeiʃən] – n. a trial period during which an offender has time to redeem himself or herself

probe [prəub] – n. an inquiry into unfamiliar or questionable activities: there was a congressional probe into the scandal

problem [ˈprɔbləm] – n. a state of difficulty that needs to be resolved: she and her husband are having problems

problematic [prɔbləˈmætik] – adj. open to doubt or debate: If you ever get married, which seems to be extremely problematic

procedure [prəˈsi:dʒə] – n. a particular course of action intended to achieve a result: the procedure of obtaining a driver’s license

proceed [prəˈsi:d] – v. continue talking

proceeds [ˈprəʊsi:dz] – n. the income or profit arising from such transactions as the sale of land or other property

process [ˈprɑ:ses] – v. deal with in a routine way: process a loan

procession [prəˈseʃən, prəu-] – n. (theology) the origination of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost: the doctrine of the procession of the Holy Spirit from the Father and the Son

proclaim [prəˈkleim] – v. declare formally; declare someone to be something; of titles: He was proclaimed King

procure [prəˈkjuə] – v. get by special effort: He procured extra cigarettes even though they were rationed

procurement [prəˈkjuəmənt] – n. the act of getting possession of something: he was responsible for the procurement of materials and supplies

prodigious [prəˈdidʒəs] – adj. so great in size or force or extent as to elicit awe: a prodigious storm

produce [prəˈdju:s] – v. bring forth or yield: The tree would not produce fruit

producer [prəˈdju:sə] – n. someone who manufactures something

product [ˈprɔdəkt] – n. commodities offered for sale: that store offers a variety of products

production [prəˈdʌkʃən] – n. a presentation for the stage or screen or radio or television: have you seen the new production of Hamlet?

productive [prəˈdʌktiv] – adj. having the ability to produce or originate

productivity [.prɔdʌkˈtiviti] – n. (economics) the ratio of the quantity and quality of units produced to the labor per unit of time

profane [prəˈfein] – adj. not concerned with or devoted to religion: sacred and profane music

profess [prəˈfes] – v. confess one’s faith in, or allegiance to: The terrorists professed allegiance to their country

profession [prəˈfeʃən] – n. the body of people in a learned occupation: the news spread rapidly through the medical profession

professional [prəˈfeʃənəl] – adj. of or relating to or suitable as a profession: professional organizations

professor [prəˈfesə] – n. someone who is a member of the faculty at a college or university

proficiency [prəˈfiʃənsi] – n. the quality of having great facility and competence

proficient [prəˈfiʃənt] – adj. having or showing knowledge and skill and aptitude: a proficient engineer

profile [ˈprəufail] – n. an analysis (often in graphical form) representing the extent to which something exhibits various characteristics: a biochemical profile of blood

profit [ˈprɔfit] – n. the excess of revenues over outlays in a given period of time (including depreciation and other non-cash expenses)

profitable [ˈprɔfitəbl] – adj. yielding material gain or profit: profitable speculation on the stock market

profound [prəˈfaund] – adj. showing intellectual penetration or emotional depth: the differences are profound

profuse [prəˈfju:s] – adj. produced or growing in extreme abundance

program [ˈprəugræm] – n. a series of steps to be carried out or goals to be accomplished

programing  – n. setting an order and time for planned events

programmer [ˈprəʊgræmər] – n. a person who designs and writes and tests computer programs

progress [prəuˈgres] – n. gradual improvement or growth or development: great progress in the arts

progressive [prəˈgresiv] – adj. favoring or promoting reform (often by government action)

prohibit [prəˈhibit] – v. command against

prohibition [prəuhiˈbiʃən] – n. a law forbidding the sale of alcoholic beverages: in 1920 the 18th amendment to the Constitution established prohibition in the US

prohibitive [prəˈhibitiv, prəu-] – adj. tending to discourage (especially of prices): the price was prohibitive

project [prəˈdʒekt] – v. communicate vividly: He projected his feelings

projection [prəˈdʒekʃən] – n. a prediction made by extrapolating from past observations

projector [prəˈdʒektə] – n. an optical instrument that projects an enlarged image onto a screen

proletarian [.prəuleˈtɛəriən] – n. a member of the working class (not necessarily employed)

prolific [prəˈlifik] – adj. intellectually productive: a prolific writer

prologue [ˈprəulɔg] – n. an introduction to a play

prolong [prəˈlɔŋ] – v. lengthen in time; cause to be or last longer: We prolonged our stay

prominence [ˈprɔminəns] – n. relative importance

prominent [ˈprɔminənt] – adj. having a quality that thrusts itself into attention: a new theory is the most prominent feature of the book

promise [ˈprɔmis] – v. make a prediction about; tell in advance

promising [ˈprɔmisiŋ] – adj. showing possibility of achievement or excellence: a promising young man

promissory [ˈprɔmisəri] – adj. relating to or having the character of a promise: promissory note

promote [prəˈməut] – v. contribute to the progress or growth of

promotion [prəˈməuʃən] – n. a message issued in behalf of some product or cause or idea or person or institution

prompt [prɔmpt] – v. give an incentive for action

promptly [ˈprɔmptli] – adv. with little or no delay: the rescue squad arrived promptly

prone [prəun] – adj. having a tendency (to); often used in combination: a child prone to mischief

pronoun [ˈprəunaun] – n. a function word that is used in place of a noun or noun phrase

pronounce [prəˈnauns] – v. speak, pronounce, or utter in a certain way: She pronounces French words in a funny way

pronunciation [prə.nʌnsiˈeiʃən] – n. the manner in which someone utters a word: they are always correcting my pronunciation

proof [pru:f] – n. any factual evidence that helps to establish the truth of something: if you have any proof for what you say, now is the time to produce it

propaganda [,prɔpəˈgændə] – n. information that is spread for the purpose of promoting some cause

propagate [ˈprɔpəgeit] – v. transmit from one generation to the next: propagate these characteristics

propagation [.prɔpəˈgeiʃən] – n. the spreading of something (a belief or practice) into new regions

propel [prəˈpel] – v. cause to move forward with force: Steam propels this ship

propeller [prəˈpelə] – n. a mechanical device that rotates to push against air or water

proper [ˈprɔpə] – adj. having all the qualities typical of the thing specified: wanted a proper dinner; not just a snack

properly [ˈprɔpəli] – adv. in the right manner: please do your job properly!

property [ˈprɔpəti] – n. something owned; any tangible or intangible possession that is owned by someone: that hat is my property

prophecy [ˈprɔfisi] – n. knowledge of the future (usually said to be obtained from a divine source)

prophesy [ˈprɔfisi] – v. predict or reveal through, or as if through, divine inspiration

prophet [ˈprɔfit] – n. an authoritative person who divines the future

proportion [prəˈpɔ:ʃən] – n. the quotient obtained when the magnitude of a part is divided by the magnitude of the whole

proportional [prəˈpɔ:ʃənl] – adj. properly related in size or degree or other measurable characteristics; usually followed by `to’: the punishment ought to be proportional to the crime

proposal [prəˈpəuzəl] – n. an offer of marriage

propose [prəˈpəuz] – v. present for consideration, examination, criticism, etc.: He proposed a new plan for dealing with terrorism

proposition [.prɔpəˈziʃən] – n. (logic) a statement that affirms or denies something and is either true or false

proprietor [prəˈpraiətə] – n. (law) someone who owns (is legal possessor of) a business

proprietorship [prəˈpraiətə.ʃip] – n. an unincorporated business owned by a single person who is responsible for its liabilities and entitled to its profits

propriety [prəˈpraiəti] – n. correct or appropriate behavior

propulsion [prəˈpʌlʃən] – n. a propelling force

prose [prəuz] – n. ordinary writing as distinguished from verse

prosecute [ˈprɔsikju:t] – v. bring a criminal action against (in a trial): The State of California prosecuted O.J. Simpson

prosecution [.prɔsiˈkju:ʃən] – n. the institution and conduct of legal proceedings against a defendant for criminal behavior

prosecutor [ˈprɔsikju:tə] – n. a government official who conducts criminal prosecutions on behalf of the state

prospect [ˈprɔspekt] – n. the possibility of future success: his prospects as a writer are excellent

prospective [prəˈspektiv] – adj. of or concerned with or related to the future: prospective earnings

prospectus [prəˈspektəs] – n. a catalog listing the courses offered by a college or university

prosperity [prɔsˈperiti] – n. an economic state of growth with rising profits and full employment

prosperous [ˈprɔspərəs] – adj. in fortunate circumstances financially; moderately rich: a prosperous family

protect [prəˈtekt] – v. shield from danger, injury, destruction, or damage: Weatherbeater protects your roof from the rain

protection [prəˈtekʃən] – n. a covering that is intend to protect from damage or injury: they had no protection from the fallout

protectionism [prəˈtekʃ(ə)niz(ə)m] – n. the policy of imposing duties or quotas on imports in order to protect home industries from overseas competition

protective [prəˈtektiv] – adj. showing care: a protective mother

protein [ˈprəuti:n] – n. any of a large group of nitrogenous organic compounds that are essential constituents of living cells; consist of polymers of amino acids; essential in the diet of animals for growth and for repair of tissues; can be obtained from meat and eggs and milk and legumes: a diet high in protein

protest [ˈprəutest,prəˈtest] – n. a formal and solemn declaration of objection: they finished the game under protest to the league president

Protestant  – adj. of or relating to Protestants or Protestantism: Protestant churches

protocol [ˈprɔtəkɔl] – n. (computer science) rules determining the format and transmission of data

prototype [ˈprəutətaip] – n. a standard or typical example: he is the prototype of good breeding

protract [prəˈtrækt] – v. lengthen in time; cause to be or last longer

protrude [prəˈtru:d] – v. extend out or project in space

proud [praud] – adj. feeling self-respect or pleasure in something by which you measure your self-worth; or being a reason for pride: proud parents

prove [pru:v] – v. be shown or be found to be: She proved to be right

proverb [ˈprɔvə:b] – n. a condensed but memorable saying embodying some important fact of experience that is taken as true by many people

provide [prəˈvaid] – v. give something useful or necessary to: We provided the room with an electrical heater

province [ˈprɔvins] – n. the territory occupied by one of the constituent administrative districts of a nation

provincial [prəˈvinʃəl] – n. a country person

provision [prəˈviʒən] – n. a stipulated condition: he accepted subject to one provision

provisional [prəˈviʒənl] – adj. under terms not final or fully worked out or agreed upon: a provisional government

provocation [prɔvəˈkeiʃən] – n. unfriendly behavior that causes anger or resentment

provoke [prəˈvəuk] – v. call forth (emotions, feelings, and responses)

proximity [prɔkˈsimiti] – n. the property of being close together

proximo [ˈprɔksiməu] – adj. in or of the next month after the present

proxy [ˈprɔksi] – n. a person authorized to act for another

prudence [ˈpru:dəns] – n. discretion in practical affairs

prudent [ˈpru:dənt] – adj. careful and sensible; marked by sound judgment: a prudent manager

pry [prai] – v. to move or force, especially in an effort to get something open: Raccoons managed to pry the lid off the garbage pail

pseudonym [ˈsju:dənim] – n. a fictitious name used when the person performs a particular social role

psychiatry [saiˈkaiətri] – n. the branch of medicine dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders

psychological [.saikəˈlɔdʒikəl] – adj. mental or emotional as opposed to physical in nature: give psychological support

psychologist [saiˈkɔlədʒist] – n. a scientist trained in psychology

psychology [saiˈkɔlədʒi] – n. the science of mental life

public [ˈpʌblik] – n. people in general considered as a whole: he is a hero in the eyes of the public

publication [.pʌbliˈkeiʃən] – n. a copy of a printed work offered for distribution

publicity [pʌbˈlisiti] – n. a message issued in behalf of some product or cause or idea or person or institution

publicly [ˈpʌblikli] – adv. by the public or the people generally: publicly provided medical care

publish [ˈpʌbliʃ] – v. put into print: The newspaper published the news of the royal couple’s divorce

publisher [ˈpʌbliʃə(r)] – n. a person engaged in publishing periodicals or books or music

pudding [ˈpudiŋ] – n. any of various soft thick unsweetened baked dishes: corn pudding

puff [pʌf] – n. a short light gust of air

pull [pul] – v. direct toward itself or oneself by means of some psychological power or physical attributes: The ad pulled in many potential customers

pulley [ˈpuli] – n. a simple machine consisting of a wheel with a groove in which a rope can run to change the direction or point of application of a force applied to the rope

pulp [pʌlp] – n. any soft or soggy mass: he pounded it to a pulp

pulse [pʌls] – n. (electronics) a sharp transient wave in the normal electrical state (or a series of such transients)

pump [pʌmp] – v. deliver forth: pump bullets into the dummy

pumpkin [ˈpʌmpkin] – n. usually large pulpy deep-yellow round fruit of the squash family maturing in late summer or early autumn

punch [pʌntʃ] – n. (boxing) a blow with the fist

punctual [ˈpʌŋktjuəl] – adj. acting or arriving or performed exactly at the time appointed: she expected guests to be punctual at meals

punctuality [.pʌŋktjuˈæliti] – n. the quality or habit of adhering to an appointed time

punctuation [pʌŋktjʊˈeiʃ(ə)n] – n. something that makes repeated and regular interruptions or divisions

puncture [ˈpʌŋktʃə] – v. pierce with a pointed object; make a hole into: puncture a tire

pungent [ˈpʌndʒənt] – adj. strong and sharp: the pungent taste of radishes

punish [ˈpʌniʃ] – v. impose a penalty on; inflict punishment on: we had to punish the dog for soiling the floor again

punishment [ˈpʌniʃmənt] – n. the act of punishing

pupil [ˈpju:pl] – n. a learner who is enrolled in an educational institution

puppet [ˈpʌpit] – n. a person who is controlled by others and is used to perform unpleasant or dishonest tasks for someone else

puppy [ˈpʌpi] – n. a young dog

purchase [ˈpə:tʃəs] – n. the acquisition of something for payment: they closed the purchase with a handshake

purchaser [ˈpə:tʃəsə] – n. a person who buys

pure [pjuə] – adj. free of extraneous elements of any kind: pure air and water

purely [ˈpjʊəli] – adv. restricted to something

purge [pə:dʒ] – v. oust politically: Deng Xiao Ping was purged several times throughout his lifetime

purify [ˈpjuərifai] – v. make pure or free from sin or guilt

purity [ˈpjuəriti] – n. being undiluted or unmixed with extraneous material

purple [ˈpə:pl] – adj. of a color intermediate between red and blue

purpose [ˈpə:pəs] – n. an anticipated outcome that is intended or that guides your planned actions

purse [pə:s] – n. a container used for carrying money and small personal items or accessories (especially by women)

pursuance [pəˈsju:əns] – n. a search for an alternative that meets cognitive criteria: life is more than the pursuance of fame

pursuant [pəˈsju:ənt] – adj. (followed by `to’) in conformance to or agreement with: pursuant to our agreement

pursue [pəˈsju:] – v. carry out or participate in an activity; be involved in: She pursued many activities

pursuit [pəˈsju:t] – n. a search for an alternative that meets cognitive criteria: the pursuit of love

push [puʃ] – v. move with force,: He pushed the table into a corner

put [put] – v. cause to be in a certain state; cause to be in a certain relation: That song put me in awful good humor

puzzle [ˈpʌzl] – n. a particularly baffling problem that is said to have a correct solution: he loved to solve chessmate puzzles

pyramid [ˈpirəmid] – v. enlarge one’s holdings on an exchange on a continued rise by using paper profits as margin to buy additional amounts

qualification [.kwɔlifiˈkeiʃən] – n. an attribute that must be met or complied with and that fits a person for something: her qualifications for the job are excellent

qualified [ˈkwɔlifaid] – adj. meeting the proper standards and requirements and training for an office or position or task: many qualified applicants for the job

qualify [ˈkwɔlifai] – v. prove capable or fit; meet requirements

qualitative [ˈkwɔlitətiv] – adj. relating to or involving comparisons based on qualities

quality [ˈkwɔliti] – n. an essential and distinguishing attribute of something or someone: the quality of mercy is not strained

quantitative [ˈkwɔntitətiv] – adj. relating to the measurement of quantity: quantitative studies

quantity [ˈkwɔntiti] – n. an adequate or large amount: he had a quantity of ammunition

quarrel [ˈkwɔrəl] – n. an angry dispute: they had a quarrel

quarry [ˈkwɔri] – n. a surface excavation for extracting stone or slate: a British term for `quarry’ is `stone pit’

quart [kwɔ:t] – n. a British imperial capacity measure (liquid or dry) equal to 2 pints or 1.136 liters

quarter [ˈkwɔ:tə] – n. one of four equal parts: a quarter of a pound

quarterly [ˈkwɔ:təli] – adv. in three month intervals: interest is compounded quarterly

quartz [kwɔ:ts] – n. colorless glass made of almost pure silica

quay [ki:] – n. wharf usually built parallel to the shoreline

queen [ˈkwi:n] – n. the only fertile female in a colony of social insects such as bees and ants and termites; its function is to lay eggs

queer [kwiə] – v. hinder or prevent (the efforts, plans, or desires) of

quench [kwentʃ] – v. satisfy (thirst): The cold water quenched his thirst

query [ˈkwiəri] – n. an instance of questioning

quest [kwest] – v. make a search (for): Things that die with their eyes open and questing

question [ˈkwestʃən] – n. the subject matter at issue: the question of disease merits serious discussion

questionnaire [.kwestʃənˈɛ] – n. a form containing a set of questions; submitted to people to gain statistical information

queue [kju:] – n. a line of people or vehicles waiting for something

quick [kwik] – adj. accomplished rapidly and without delay: was quick to make friends

quicken [ˈkwikən] – v. move faster

quickly [ˈkwikli] – adv. with rapid movements: he works quickly

quiet [ˈkwaiət] – adj. characterized by an absence or near absence of agitation or activity: a quiet life

quietly [ˈkwaiətli] – adv. with low volume: she spoke quietly to the child

quietness [ˈkwaiətnis] – n. the property of making no sound

quilt [kwilt] – v. stitch or sew together: quilt the skirt

quit [kwit] – v. put an end to a state or an activity

quite [kwait] – adv. to a degree (not used with a negative): quite tasty

quiver [ˈkwivə] – n. an almost pleasurable sensation of fright

quiz [kwiz] – n. an examination consisting of a few short questions

quota [ˈkwəutə] – n. a prescribed number: all the salesmen met their quota for the month

quotation [kwəuˈteiʃən] – n. a short note recognizing a source of information or of a quoted passage

quote [kwəut] – v. repeat a passage from: He quoted the Bible to her

race [reis] – n. any competition: the race for the presidency

racial [ˈreiʃəl] – adj. of or related to genetically distinguished groups of people: racial groups

rack [ræk] – v. stretch to the limits: rack one’s brains

racket [ˈrækit] – n. a loud and disturbing noise

radar [ˈreidɑ:] – n. measuring instrument in which the echo of a pulse of microwave radiation is used to detect and locate distant objects

radial [ˈreidjəl] – adj. relating to or moving along or having the direction of a radius: radial velocity

radiant [ˈreidjənt] – adj. radiating or as if radiating light: a radiant sunrise

radiate [ˈreidieit] – v. send out rays or waves: The sun radiates heat

radiation [.reidiˈeiʃən] – n. the act of spreading outward from a central source

radical [ˈrædikəl,ˈrædikl] – n. (chemistry) two or more atoms bound together as a single unit and forming part of a molecule

radio [ˈreidiəu] – n. medium for communication

radioactive [.reidiəuˈæktiv] – adj. exhibiting or caused by radioactivity: radioactive isotope

radioactivity [ˈreidiəuækˈtiviti] – n. the spontaneous emission of a stream of particles or electromagnetic rays in nuclear decay

radish [ˈrædiʃ] – n. pungent fleshy edible root

radium [ˈreidjəm] – n. an intensely radioactive metallic element that occurs in minute amounts in uranium ores

radius [ˈreidiəs] – n. the length of a line segment between the center and circumference of a circle or sphere

raft [rɑ:ft] – n. (often followed by `of’) a large number or amount or extent

rag [ræg] – v. treat cruelly

rage [reidʒ] – n. a feeling of intense anger: his face turned red with rage

ragged [ˈrægid] – adj. being or dressed in clothes that are worn or torn: clothes as ragged as a scarecrow’s

raid [reid] – v. search without warning, make a sudden surprise attack on: The police raided the crack house

rail [reil] – v. complain bitterly

railroad [ˈreilrəud] – v. compel by coercion, threats, or crude means

railway [ˈreilwei] – n. a line of track providing a runway for wheels

rain [rein] – n. water falling in drops from vapor condensed in the atmosphere

rainbow [ˈreinbəu] – n. an illusory hope: chasing rainbows

raincoat [ˈreinkəut] – n. a water-resistant coat

rainfall [ˈrein.fɔ:l] – n. water falling in drops from vapor condensed in the atmosphere

rainy [ˈreini] – adj. (of weather) wet by periods of rain: rainy days

raise [reiz] – v. cause to be heard or known; express or utter: raise a shout

rake [reik] – v. sweep the length of: The gunfire raked the coast

rally [ˈræli] – n. a large gathering of people intended to arouse enthusiasm

ramble [ˈræmbl] – v. continue talking or writing in a desultory manner: This novel rambles on and jogs

rampant [ˈræmpənt] – adj. unrestrained and violent: rampant aggression

ranch [ræntʃ, rɑ:ntʃ] – n. farm consisting of a large tract of land along with facilities needed to raise livestock (especially cattle)

random [ˈrændəm] – adj. lacking any definite plan or order or purpose; governed by or depending on chance: a random choice

range [reindʒ] – n. an area in which something acts or operates or has power or control:: the range of a supersonic jet

rank [ræŋk] – n. a row or line of people (especially soldiers or police) standing abreast of one another: the entrance was guarded by ranks of policemen

ransom [ˈrænsəm] – n. money demanded for the return of a captured person

rapid [ˈræpid] – adj. done or occurring in a brief period of time: a rapid rise through the ranks

rapidly [ˈræpidli] – adv. with rapid movements

rapture [ˈræptʃə] – n. a state of being carried away by overwhelming emotion: listening to sweet music in a perfect rapture

rare [rɛə] – adj. not widely known; especially valued for its uncommonness: a rare word

rarely [ˈrɛəli] – adv. not often: we rarely met

rascal [ˈrɑ:skəl] – n. a deceitful and unreliable scoundrel

rash [ræʃ] – n. any red eruption of the skin

rat [ræt] – v. desert one’s party or group of friends, for example, for one’s personal advantage

rate [reit] – n. a magnitude or frequency relative to a time unit: they traveled at a rate of 55 miles per hour

rather [ˈrɑ:ðə] – adv. on the contrary: rather than disappoint the children, he did two quick tricks before he left

ratification [.rætifiˈkeiʃən] – n. making something valid by formally ratifying or confirming it: the ratification of the treaty

ratify [ˈrætifai] – v. approve and express assent, responsibility, or obligation

ratio [ˈreiʃiəu] – n. the relative magnitudes of two quantities (usually expressed as a quotient)

ration [ˈræʃən] – n. the food allowance for one day (especially for service personnel): the rations should be nutritionally balanced

rational [ˈræʃənəl] – adj. consistent with or based on or using reason: rational behavior

rattle [ˈrætl] – n. a baby’s toy that makes percussive noises when shaken

ravage [ˈrævidʒ] – v. make a pillaging or destructive raid on (a place), as in wartimes

rave [reiv] – v. participate in an all-night techno dance party

raw [rɔ:] – adj. (used especially of commodities) being unprocessed or manufactured using only simple or minimal processes: raw wool

ray [rei] – n. a column of light (as from a beacon)

razor [ˈreizə] – n. edge tool used in shaving

re [ri:] – n. the syllable naming the second (supertonic) note of any major scale in solmization

reach [ri:tʃ] – v. move forward or upward in order to touch; also in a metaphorical sense: Government reaches out to the people

react [riˈækt] – v. act against or in opposition to: She reacts negatively to everything I say

reaction [riˈækʃən] – n. (chemistry) a process in which one or more substances are changed into others: there was a chemical reaction of the lime with the ground water

reactionary [ri(:)ˈækʃənəri] – n. an extreme conservative; an opponent of progress or liberalism

reactor [ri(:)ˈæktə] – n. an electrical device used to introduce reactance into a circuit

reader [ˈri:də] – n. someone who contracts to receive and pay for a service or a certain number of issues of a publication

readily [ˈredili] – adv. without much difficulty: these snakes can be identified readily

reading [ˈri:diŋ] – n. the cognitive process of understanding a written linguistic message: his main reading was detective stories

ready [ˈredi] – adj. completely prepared or in condition for immediate action or use or progress: get ready

real [ˈri:əl] – adj. being or occurring in fact or actuality; having verified existence; not illusory: real objects

realism [ˈriəlizəm, ˈri:-] – n. the attribute of accepting the facts of life and favoring practicality and literal truth

realist [ˈriəlist] – n. a person who accepts the world as it literally is and deals with it accordingly

realistic [riəˈlistik] – adj. aware or expressing awareness of things as they really are: a realistic description

reality [riˈæləti] – n. all of your experiences that determine how things appear to you: for them demons were as much a part of reality as trees were

realization [.riəlaiˈzeiʃən] – n. coming to understand something clearly and distinctly: a growing realization of the risk involved

realize [ˈriəlaiz] – v. be fully aware or cognizant of

really [ˈriəli] – adv. in fact (used as intensifiers or sentence modifiers): really, you shouldn’t have done it

realm [relm] – n. a domain in which something is dominant: the rise of the realm of cotton in the south

reap [ri:p] – v. gather, as of natural products

rear [riə] – n. the back of a military formation or procession: infantrymen were in the rear

reason [ˈri:zn] – n. a rational motive for a belief or action: the reason that war was declared

reasonable [ˈri:znəbl] – adj. not excessive or extreme: reasonable prices

reasonably [ˈri:zənəbli] – adv. to a moderately sufficient extent or degree: the shoes are priced reasonably

reassure [.ri:əˈʃuə] – v. give or restore confidence in; cause to feel sure or certain: I reassured him that we were safe

rebate [ˈri:beit] – v. give a reduction in the price during a sale

rebel [ˈrebl,riˈbel] – n. someone who exhibits great independence in thought and action

rebellion [riˈbeljən] – n. refusal to accept some authority or code or convention: each generation must have its own rebellion

rebuke [riˈbju:k] – n. an act or expression of criticism and censure: he had to take the rebuke with a smile on his face

recall [riˈkɔ:l] – v. go back to something earlier

recede [riˈsi:d] – v. pull back or move away or backward

receipt [riˈsi:t] – n. an acknowledgment (usually tangible) that payment has been made

receive [riˈsi:v] – v. get something; come into possession of: receive payment

receiver [riˈsi:və] – n. set that receives radio or tv signals

recent [ˈri:snt] – adj. new: recent graduates

recently [ˈri:səntli] – adv. in the recent past: he was in Paris recently

reception [riˈsepʃən] – n. the manner in which something is greeted: she did not expect the cold reception she received from her superiors

receptionist [riˈsepʃənist] – n. a secretary whose main duty is to answer the telephone and receive visitors

recession [riˈseʃən] – n. a small concavity

recipe [ˈresipi] – n. directions for making something

recipient [riˈsipiənt] – n. a person who receives something

reciprocal [riˈsiprəkəl] – n. hybridization involving a pair of crosses that reverse the sexes associated with each genotype

recital [riˈsaitl] – n. the act of giving an account describing incidents or a course of events

recitation [resiˈteiʃ(ə)n] – n. a public instance of reciting or repeating (from memory) something prepared in advance: the program included songs and recitations of well-loved poems

recite [riˈsait] – v. repeat aloud from memory: she recited a poem

reckless [ˈreklis] – adj. marked by defiant disregard for danger or consequences: became the fiercest and most reckless of partisans

reckon [ˈrekən] – v. expect, believe, or suppose

reclaim [riˈkleim] – v. claim back

recline [riˈklain] – v. move the upper body backwards and down

recognition [.rekəgˈniʃən] – n. the process of recognizing something or someone by remembering: a politician whose recall of names was as remarkable as his recognition of faces

recognize [ˈrekəgnaiz] – v. accept (someone) to be what is claimed or accept his power and authority: We do not recognize your gods

recollect [.rekəˈlekt] – v. recall knowledge from memory; have a recollection

recollection [.rekəˈlekʃən] – n. the ability to recall past occurrences

recommend [.rekəˈmend] – v. push for something: The travel agent recommended strongly that we not travel on Thanksgiving Day

recommendation [.rekəmenˈdeiʃən] – n. something that recommends (or expresses commendation of) a person or thing as worthy or desirable

recompense [ˈrekəmpəns] – n. payment or reward (as for service rendered)

reconcile [ˈrekənsail] – v. make (one thing) compatible with (another)

reconnaissance [riˈkɔnisəns] – n. the act of reconnoitring (especially to gain information about an enemy or potential enemy): an exchange of fire occurred on a reconnaissance mission

record [ˈrekɔ:d,riˈkɔ:d] – n. the number of wins versus losses and ties a team has had: at 9-0 they have the best record in their league

recorder [riˈkɔ:də] – n. someone responsible for keeping records

recourse [riˈkɔ:s] – n. act of turning to for assistance: have recourse to the courts

recover [riˈkʌvə] – v. get over an illness or shock

recovery [riˈkʌvəri] – n. return to an original state: the recovery of the forest after the fire was surprisingly rapid

recreation [.rekriˈeiʃən] – n. an activity that diverts or amuses or stimulates: for recreation he wrote poetry and solved crossword puzzles

recruit [riˈkru:t] – v. register formally as a participant or member: The party recruited many new members

recruitment [riˈkru:tmənt] – n. the act of getting recruits; enlisting people for the army (or for a job or a cause etc.)

rectangle [ˈrektæŋgl] – n. a parallelogram with four right angles

rectification [.rektifiˈkeiʃən] – n. (chemistry) the process of refinement or purification of a substance by distillation

rectify [ˈrektifai] – v. math: determine the length of: rectify a curve

recur [riˈkə:] – v. happen or occur again: This is a recurring story

recurrence [riˈkʌrəns] – n. happening again (especially at regular intervals)

recycle [ri:ˈsaikl] – v. cause to repeat a cycle

red [red] – n. emotionally charged terms used to refer to extreme radicals or revolutionaries

redeem [riˈdi:m] – v. save from sins

redound [riˈdaund] – v. return or recoil: Fame redounds to the heroes

reduce [riˈdju:s] – v. make less complex: reduce a problem to a single question

reduction [riˈdʌkʃən] – n. the act of decreasing or reducing something

redundant [riˈdʌndənt] – adj. more than is needed, desired, or required: yet another book on heraldry might be thought redundant

reed [ri:d] – n. tall woody perennial grasses with hollow slender stems especially of the genera Arundo and Phragmites

reef [ri:f] – n. a submerged ridge of rock or coral near the surface of the water

reel [ri:l] – n. a roll of photographic film holding a series of frames to be projected by a movie projector

refer [riˈfə:] – v. be relevant to: There were lots of questions referring to her talk

referee [.refəˈri:] – n. (sports) the chief official (as in boxing or American football) who is expected to ensure fair play

reference [ˈrefrəns] – n. a remark that calls attention to something or someone: the speaker made several references to his wife

referendum [.refəˈrendəm] – n. a legislative act is referred for final approval to a popular vote by the electorate

referent [ˈrefrənt] – n. the first term in a proposition; the term to which other terms relate

refine [riˈfain] – v. improve or perfect by pruning or polishing: refine one’s style of writing

refined [riˈfaind] – adj. (used of persons and their behavior) cultivated and genteel: she was delicate and refined and unused to hardship

refinement [riˈfainmənt] – n. a highly developed state of perfection; having a flawless or impeccable quality: I admired the exquisite refinement of his prose

refinery [riˈfainəri] – n. an industrial plant for purifying a crude substance

reflect [riˈflekt] – v. manifest or bring back: This action reflects his true beliefs

reflection [riˈflekʃən] – n. a calm, lengthy, intent consideration

reform [riˈfɔ:rm] – v. make changes for improvement in order to remove abuse and injustices: reform a political system

refrain [riˈfrein] – v. resist doing something: He refrained from hitting him back

refresh [riˈfreʃ] – v. make (to feel) fresh: The cool water refreshed us

refreshing [riˈfreʃiŋ] – adj. imparting vitality and energy

refreshment [riˈfreʃmənt] – n. snacks and drinks served as a light meal

refrigerator [riˈfridʒə.reitə] – n. white goods in which food can be stored at low temperatures

refuge [ˈrefju:dʒ] – n. a safe place

refugee [.refjuˈdʒi:] – n. an exile who flees for safety

refund [ˈri:fʌnd] – n. money returned to a payer

refusal [riˈfju:zəl] – n. a message refusing to accept something that is offered

refuse [ˈrefju:s,riˈfju:z] – v. show unwillingness towards

refute [riˈfju:t] – v. overthrow by argument, evidence, or proof: The speaker refuted his opponent’s arguments

regard [riˈgɑ:d] – n. (usually preceded by `in’) a detail or point

regardless [riˈgɑ:dlis] – adj. (usually followed by `of’) without due thought or consideration: crushing the blooms with regardless tread

regeneration [ri.dʒenəˈreiʃən] – n. (biology) growth anew of lost tissue or destroyed parts or organs

regime [reiˈʒi:m] – n. the organization that is the governing authority of a political unit

regiment [ˈredʒimənt] – v. subject to rigid discipline, order, and systematization: regiment one’s children

region [ˈri:dʒən] – n. the extended spatial location of something: the farming regions of France

regional [ˈri:dʒənl] – adj. related or limited to a particular region: a regional dialect

register [ˈredʒistə] – v. record in writing; enter into a book of names or events or transactions

registrar [.redʒiˈstrɑ:] – n. a person employed to keep a record of the owners of stocks and bonds issued by the company

registration [.redʒisˈtreiʃən] – n. the act of enrolling

regret [riˈgret] – v. feel remorse for; feel sorry for; be contrite about

regretful [riˈgretful] – adj. feeling or expressing regret or sorrow or a sense of loss over something done or undone: felt regretful over his vanished youth

regretfully [riˈgretfəli] – adv. with regret (used in polite formulas): I must regretfully decline your kind invitation

regrettable [riˈgretəbl] – adj. deserving regret: regrettable remarks

regular [ˈregjulə] – adj. in accordance with fixed order or procedure or principle: his regular calls on his customers

regularity [.regjuˈlæriti] – n. a property of polygons: the property of having equal sides and equal angles

regularly [ˈregjʊləli] – adv. having a regular form: regularly shaped objects

regulate [ˈregju.leit,ˈregjuleit] – v. fix or adjust the time, amount, degree, or rate of: regulate the temperature

regulation [.regjuˈleiʃən] – n. an authoritative rule

rehabilitate [.ri:həˈbiliteit] – v. help to readapt, as to a former state of health or good repute: The prisoner was successfully rehabilitated

rehearsal [riˈhə:sl] – n. a practice session in preparation for a public performance (as of a play or speech or concert): he missed too many rehearsals

rehearse [riˈhə:s] – v. engage in a rehearsal (of)

reign [rein] – n. a period during which something or somebody is dominant or powerful: he was helpless under the reign of his egotism

reimburse [.ri:imˈbə:s] – v. pay back for some expense incurred: Can the company reimburse me for my professional travel?

reimbursement [.ri:imˈbə:smənt] – n. compensation paid (to someone) for damages or losses or money already spent etc.: he received reimbursement for his travel expenses

rein [rein] – v. keep in check

reinforce [.ri:inˈfɔ:s] – v. make stronger: he reinforced the concrete

reinforcement [.ri:inˈfɔ:smənt] – n. information that makes more forcible or convincing: his gestures provided eloquent reinforcement for his complaints

reiterate [ri:ˈitəreit] – v. to say, state, or perform again

reject [riˈdʒekt] – v. refuse to accept or acknowledge: I reject the idea of starting a war

rejection [riˈdʒekʃən] – n. the state of being rejected

rejoice [riˈdʒɔis] – v. feel happiness or joy

relapse [riˈlæps] – v. deteriorate in health: he relapsed

relate [riˈleit] – v. make a logical or causal connection: I cannot relate these events at all

related [riˈleitid] – adj. being connected either logically or causally or by shared characteristics: painting and the related arts

relation [riˈleiʃən] – n. an abstraction belonging to or characteristic of two entities or parts together

relationship [riˈleiʃənʃip] – n. a state of connectedness between people (especially an emotional connection): he didn’t want his wife to know of the relationship

relative [ˈrelətiv] – n. a person related by blood or marriage: police are searching for relatives of the deceased

relatively [ˈrelətivli] – adv. in a relative manner; by comparison to something else: the situation is relatively calm now

relativity [.reləˈtiviti] – n. the quality of being relative and having significance only in relation to something else

relax [riˈlæks] – v. become less tense, rest, or take one’s ease: He relaxed in the hot tub

relaxation [.ri:lækˈseiʃən] – n. (physiology) the gradual lengthening of inactive muscle or muscle fibers

relay [riˈlei] – n. the act of passing something along from one person or group to another: the relay was successful

release [riˈli:s] – n. merchandise issued for sale or public showing (especially a record or film): a new release from the London Symphony Orchestra

relentless [riˈlentləs] – adj. not to be placated or appeased or moved by entreaty: relentless persecution

relevant [ˈrelivənt] – adj. having a bearing on or connection with the subject at issue: the scientist corresponds with colleagues in order to learn about matters relevant to her own research

reliability [ri.laiəˈbiliti] – n. the quality of being dependable or reliable

reliable [riˈlaiəbl] – adj. worthy of being depended on: a reliable sourcSFLe of information

reliance [riˈlaiəns] – n. certainty based on past experience: he wrote the paper with considerable reliance on the work of other scientists

relief [riˈli:f] – n. the feeling that comes when something burdensome is removed or reduced: as he heard the news he was suddenly flooded with relief

relieve [riˈli:v] – v. free someone temporarily from his or her obligations

religion [riˈlidʒən] – n. a strong belief in a supernatural power or powers that control human destiny

religious [riˈlidʒəs] – adj. having or showing belief in and reverence for a deity: a religious man

relinquish [riˈliŋkwiʃ] – v. part with a possession or right: I am relinquishing my bedroom to the long-term house guest

relish [ˈreliʃ] – n. vigorous and enthusiastic enjoyment

reluctance [riˈlʌktəns] – n. (physics) opposition to magnetic flux (analogous to electric resistance)

reluctant [riˈlʌktənt] – adj. unwillingness to do something contrary to your custom: a reluctant smile

rely [riˈlai] – v. have confidence or faith in

remain [riˈmein] – v. continue in a place, position, or situation: despite student protests, he remained Dean for another year

remainder [riˈmeində] – n. something left after other parts have been taken away: there was no remainder

remains [riˈmeins] – n. any object that is left unused or still extant: I threw out the remains of my dinner

remark [riˈmɑ:k] – n. a statement that expresses a personal opinion or belief or adds information

remarkable [riˈmɑ:kəbl] – adj. unusual or striking: a remarkable sight

remedy [ˈremidi] – n. act of correcting an error or a fault or an evil

remember [riˈmembə] – v. recall knowledge from memory; have a recollection: I can’t remember saying any such thing

remembrance [riˈmembrəns] – n. the ability to recall past occurrences

remind [riˈmaind] – v. put in the mind of someone

reminiscence [.remiˈnisns] – n. a mental impression retained and recalled from the past

reminiscent [remiˈnis(ə)nt] – adj. serving to bring to mind

remit [riˈmit] – v. send (money) in payment: remit $25

remittance [riˈmitəns] – n. a payment of money sent to a person in another place

remnant [ˈremnənt] – n. a small part or portion that remains after the main part no longer exists

remorse [riˈmɔ:s] – n. a feeling of deep regret (usually for some misdeed)

remote [riˈməut] – adj. located far away spatially: remote stars

remoteness [riˈməutnis] – n. a disposition to be distant and unsympathetic in manner

removal [riˈmu:vəl] – n. dismissal from office

remove [riˈmu:v] – v. dispose of

remuneration [ri.mju:nəˈreiʃən] – n. the act of paying for goods or services or to recompense for losses: adequate remuneration for his work

Renaissance  – n. the revival of learning and culture

render [ˈrendə] – v. cause to become: The shot rendered her immobile

rendezvous [ˈrɔndivu:] – n. a meeting planned at a certain time and place

renew [riˈnju:] – v. reestablish on a new, usually improved, basis or make new or like new: We renewed our friendship after a hiatus of twenty years

renewable [riˈnju(:)əbl] – adj. capable of being renewed; replaceable: renewable energy such as solar energy is theoretically inexhaustible

renewal [riˈnju:əl] – n. the conversion of wasteland into land suitable for use of habitation or cultivation

renovation [.renəˈveʃən] – n. the act of improving by renewing and restoring: they are pursuing a general program of renovation to the entire property

rent [rent] – n. a payment or series of payments made by the lessee to an owner for use of some property, facility, equipment, or service

rental [ˈrentl] – n. the act of paying for the use of something (as an apartment or house or car)

repair [riˈpɛə] – v. make amends for; pay compensation for: One can never fully repair the suffering and losses of the Jews in the Third Reich

repatriate [ri:ˈpætrieit] – v. send someone back to his homeland against his will, as of refugees

repay [riˈpei] – v. pay back

repeal [riˈpi:l] – n. the act of abrogating; an official or legal cancellation

repeat [riˈpi:t] – v. to say, state, or perform again

repeatedly [riˈpi:tidli] – adv. several time: it must be washed repeatedly

repel [riˈpel] – v. cause to move back by force or influence: repel the enemy

repent [riˈpent] – v. turn away from sin or do penitence

repertoire [ˈrepətwɑ:] – n. the entire range of skills or aptitudes or devices used in a particular field or occupation

repetition [.repiˈtiʃən] – n. an event that repeats

repetitive [riˈpetitiv] – adj. characterized by repetition: repetitive movement

replace [riˈpleis] – v. take the place or move into the position of: Smith replaced Miller as CEO after Miller left

replacement [riˈpleismənt] – n. the act of furnishing an equivalent person or thing in the place of another

replenish [riˈpleniʃ] – v. fill something that had previously been emptied

reply [riˈplai] – n. the speech act of continuing a conversational exchange: he growled his reply

report [riˈpɔ:t] – n. a written document describing the findings of some individual or group

reportage [.repɔ:ˈtɑ:ʒ] – n. the news as presented by reporters for newspapers or radio or television

reporter [riˈpɔ:tə] – n. a person who investigates and reports or edits news stories

represent [.repriˈzent] – v. take the place of or be parallel or equivalent to

representation [.reprizenˈteiʃən] – n. a presentation to the mind in the form of an idea or image

representative [repriˈzentətiv] – n. an advocate who represents someone else’s policy or purpose

reproach [riˈprəutʃ] – n. a mild rebuke or criticism: words of reproach

reproduce [.ri:prəˈdju:s] – v. make a copy or equivalent of: reproduce the painting

reproduction [.ri:prəˈdʌkʃən] – n. the process of generating offspring

reptile [ˈreptail] – n. any cold-blooded vertebrate of the class Reptilia including tortoises, turtles, snakes, lizards, alligators, crocodiles, and extinct forms

republic [riˈpʌblik] – n. a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them

republican [riˈpʌblikən] – n. a member of the Republican Party

repudiate [riˈpju:dieit] – v. cast off: The parents repudiated their son

reputable [ˈrepjutəbl] – adj. having a good reputation: a reputable business

reputation [.repjuˈteiʃən] – n. the state of being held in high esteem and honor

repute [riˈpju:t] – n. the state of being held in high esteem and honor

request [riˈkwest] – v. express the need or desire for; ask for: She requested an extra bed in her room

require [riˈkwaiə] – v. consider obligatory; request and expect: We require our secretary to be on time

requirement [riˈkwaiəmənt] – n. anything indispensable: allow farmers to buy their requirements under favorable conditions

requisite [ˈrekwizit] – n. anything indispensable: a place where the requisites of water fuel and fodder can be obtained

rescind [riˈsind] – v. cancel officially

rescue [ˈreskju:] – v. free from harm or evil

research [riˈsə:tʃ] – n. systematic investigation to establish facts

researcher [ri:ˈsə:tʃə] – n. a scientist who devotes himself to doing research

resemblance [riˈzembləns] – n. similarity in appearance or external or superficial details

resemble [riˈzembl] – v. appear like; be similar or bear a likeness to: She resembles her mother very much

resent [riˈzent] – v. feel bitter or indignant about: She resents being paid less than her co-workers

resentful [riˈzentful] – adj. full of or marked by resentment or indignant ill will: resentful at the way he was treated

resentment [riˈzentmənt] – n. a feeling of deep and bitter anger and ill-will

reservation [.rezəˈveiʃən] – n. a statement that limits or restricts some claim: he recommended her without any reservations

reservoir [ˈrezəvwɑ:] – n. a large or extra supply of something: a reservoir of talent

reside [riˈzaid] – v. make one’s home in a particular place or community: may parents reside in Florida

residence [ˈrezidəns] – n. any address at which you dwell more than temporarily: a person can have several residences

resident [ˈrezidənt] – n. someone who lives at a particular place for a prolonged period or who was born there

residual [riˈzidjuəl] – n. something left after other parts have been taken away

resign [riˈzain] – v. leave (a job, post, or position) voluntarily: The chairman resigned when he was found to have misappropriated funds

resignation [.rezigˈneiʃən] – n. acceptance of despair

resilience [riˈziliəns] – n. an occurrence of rebounding or springing back

resist [riˈzist] – v. elude, especially in a baffling way

resistance [riˈzistəns] – n. the action of opposing something that you disapprove or disagree with: he encountered a general feeling of resistance from many citizens

resistant [riˈzistənt] – adj. relating to or conferring immunity (to disease or infection)

resolute [ˈrezə.lu:t] – adj. firm in purpose or belief; characterized by firmness and determination: stood resolute against the enemy

resolutely [ˈrezəlju:tli] – adv. showing firm determination or purpose: she resolutely refused to look at him or speak to him

resolution [.rezəˈlu:ʃən] – n. a formal expression by a meeting; agreed to by a vote

resonant [ˈrezənənt] – adj. serving to bring to mind

resort [riˈzɔ:t] – n. a frequently visited place

resource [riˈsɔ:s] – n. available source of wealth; a new or reserve supply that can be drawn upon when needed

respect [riˈspekt] – n. (usually preceded by `in’) a detail or point: it differs in that respect

respectable [risˈpektəbl] – adj. characterized by socially or conventionally acceptable morals: a respectable woman

respectful [riˈspektfəl] – adj. feeling or manifesting veneration

respectfully [risˈpektfuli] – adv. in a respectful manner: might I respectfully suggest to the Town Council that they should adopt a policy of masterly inactivity?

respective [riˈspektiv] – adj. considered individually: the respective club members

respectively [riˈspektivli] – adv. in the order given: the brothers were called Felix and Max, respectively

respiration [.respəˈreiʃən] – n. a single complete act of breathing in and out: thirty respirations per minute

respond [riˈspɔnd] – v. react verbally

response [riˈspɔns] – n. a result: this situation developed in response to events in Africa

responsibility [ri.spɔnsəˈbiliti] – n. the social force that binds you to the courses of action demanded by that force: every right implies a responsibility; every opportunity, an obligation; every possession, a duty

responsible [riˈspɔnsəbl] – adj. being the agent or cause: determined who was the responsible party

responsive [riˈspɑnsiv] – adj. readily reacting or replying to people or events or stimuli; showing emotion: children are often the quickest and most responsive members of the audience

rest [rest] – v. take a short break from one’s activities in order to relax

restaurant [ˈrestərɔnt] – n. a building where people go to eat

restless [ˈrestlis] – adj. worried and uneasy

restock [ˈri:ˈstɔk] – v. stock again: He restocked his land with pheasants

restore [riˈstɔ:] – v. return to its original or usable and functioning condition: restore the forest to its original pristine condition

restrain [riˈstrein] – v. keep under control; keep in check

restraint [riˈstreint] – n. discipline in personal and social activities: he was a model of polite restraint

restrict [riˈstrikt] – v. place limits on (extent or access): restrict the use of this parking lot

restriction [risˈtrikʃən] – n. a principle that limits the extent of something: I am willing to accept certain restrictions on my movements

restrictive [risˈtriktiv] – adj. (of tariff) protective of national interests by restricting imports

result [riˈzʌlt] – n. a phenomenon that follows and is caused by some previous phenomenon

resultant [riˈzʌltənt] – n. the final point in a process

resume [riˈzju:m] – v. take up or begin anew: We resumed the negotiations

retail [ˈri:teil] – n. the selling of goods to consumers; usually in small quantities and not for resale

retailer [ˈri:teilə,riˈteilə] – n. a merchant who sells goods at retail

retain [riˈtein] – v. hold back within: This soil retains water

retell [ri:ˈtel] – v. render verbally,: retell a story

reticent [ˈretisənt] – adj. temperamentally disinclined to talk

retire [riˈtaiə] – v. withdraw from active participation: He retired from chess

retirement [riˈtaiəmənt] – n. withdrawal from your position or occupation

retort [riˈtɔ:t] – n. a quick reply to a question or remark (especially a witty or critical one)

retreat [riˈtri:t] – n. (military) withdrawal of troops to a more favorable position to escape the enemy’s superior forces or after a defeat: the disorderly retreat of French troops

retrieve [riˈtri:v] – v. get or find back; recover the use of

retroactive [retrəʊˈæktiv] – adj. affecting things past: retroactive tax increase

retrospect [ˈretrəu.spekt] – n. contemplation of things past: in retrospect

return [riˈtə:n] – v. go or come back to place, condition, or activity where one has been before: return to your native land

reveal [riˈvi:l] – v. make visible

revelation [.revəˈleiʃən] – n. the speech act of making something evident

revenge [riˈvendʒ] – n. action taken in return for an injury or offense

revenue [ˈrevinju:] – n. the entire amount of income before any deductions are made

reverence [ˈrevərəns] – n. a feeling of profound respect for someone or something: the Chinese reverence for the dead

reverent [ˈrevərənt] – adj. feeling or showing profound respect or veneration: maintained a reverent silence

reverse [riˈvə:s] – n. a relation of direct opposition: we thought Sue was older than Bill but just the reverse was true

revert [riˈvə:t] – v. undergo reversion, as in a mutation

review [riˈvju:] – n. a new appraisal or evaluation

revise [riˈvaiz] – v. make revisions in: revise a thesis

revision [riˈviʒən] – n. the act of rewriting something

revival [riˈvaivəl] – n. bringing again into activity and prominence: the revival of trade

revive [riˈvaiv] – v. cause to regain consciousness: The doctors revived the comatose man

revoke [riˈvəuk] – v. fail to follow suit when able and required to do so

revolt [riˈvəult] – v. fill with distaste

revolution [.revəˈlu:ʃən] – n. a drastic and far-reaching change in ways of thinking and behaving: the industrial revolution was also a cultural revolution

revolutionary [.revəˈlu:ʃənəri] – adj. markedly new or introducing radical change: a revolutionary discovery

revolve [riˈvɔlv] – v. turn on or around an axis or a center: The Earth revolves around the Sun

reward [riˈwɔ:d] – n. a recompense for worthy acts or retribution for wrongdoing: virtue is its own reward

rewrite  – v. write differently; alter the writing of

rhetoric [ˈretərik] – n. using language effectively to please or persuade

rheumatism [ˈru:mətizəm] – n. any painful disorder of the joints or muscles or connective tissues

rhyme [raim] – n. correspondence in the sounds of two or more lines (especially final sounds)

rhythm [ˈriðəm] – n. recurring at regular intervals

rib [rib] – n. a teasing remark

ribbon [ˈribən] – n. any long object resembling a thin line: a mere ribbon of land

rice [rais] – n. grains used as food either unpolished or more often polished

rich [ritʃ] – adj. having an abundant supply of desirable qualities or substances (especially natural resources): blessed with a land rich in minerals

richness [ˈritʃnis] – n. the property of being extremely abundant: the idiomatic richness of English

rid [rid] – v. relieve from

riddle [ˈridl] – v. pierce with many holes: The bullets riddled his body

ride [raid] – v. sit and travel on the back of animal, usually while controlling its motions: Did you ever ride a camel?

ridge [ridʒ] – n. a long narrow natural elevation or striation

ridicule [ˈridikju:l] – n. language or behavior intended to mock or humiliate

ridiculous [riˈdikjuləs] – adj. inspiring scornful pity

rifle [ˈraifl] – v. steal goods; take as spoils

rig [rig] – n. a truck consisting of a tractor and trailer together

right [rait] – adj. being or located on or directed toward the side of the body to the east when facing north: my right hand

righteous [ˈraitʃəs] – adj. characterized by or proceeding from accepted standards of morality or justice: the…prayer of a righteous man availeth much

rigid [ˈridʒid] – adj. incapable of or resistant to bending: a rigid strip of metal

rigidity [riˈdʒiditi] – n. the physical property of being stiff and resisting bending

rigor [ˈrigə] – n. something hard to endure

rigorous [ˈrigərəs] – adj. rigidly accurate; allowing no deviation from a standard: rigorous application of the law

rim [rim] – n. the shape of a raised edge of a more or less circular object

ring [riŋ] – n. a toroidal shape: a ring of ships in the harbor

rinse [rins] – n. a liquid preparation used on wet hair to give it a tint

riot [ˈraiət] – n. a public act of violence by an unruly mob

riotous [ˈraiətəs] – adj. produced or growing in extreme abundance: their riotous blooming

rip [rip] – n. a dissolute man in fashionable society

ripe [raip] – adj. fully developed or matured and ready to be eaten or used: ripe peaches

ripen [ˈraipən] – v. grow ripe: The plums ripen in July

ripple [ˈripl] – n. a small wave on the surface of a liquid

rise [raiz] – v. move upward

risk [risk] – n. a venture undertaken without regard to possible loss or injury: he saw the rewards but not the risks of crime

risky [ˈriski] – adj. not financially safe or secure: anything that promises to pay too much can’t help being risky

ritual [ˈritjuəl] – n. any customary observance or practice

rival [ˈraivəl] – v. be equal to in quality or ability: Nothing can rival cotton for durability

rivalry [ˈraivəlri] – n. the act of competing as for profit or a prize

river [ˈrivə] – n. a large natural stream of water (larger than a creek): the river was navigable for 50 miles

rivet [ˈrivit] – v. direct one’s attention on something

road [rəud] – n. an open way (generally public) for travel or transportation

roam [rəum] – v. move about aimlessly or without any destination, often in search of food or employment: The gypsies roamed the woods

roar [rɔ:] – v. make a loud noise, as of wind, water, or vehicles: The water roared down the chute

roast [rəust] – n. negative criticism

rob [rɔb] – v. take something away by force or without the consent of the owner: The burglars robbed him of all his money

robber [ˈrɔbə] – n. a thief who steals from someone by threatening violence

robbery [ˈrɔbəri] – n. larceny by threat of violence

robe [rəub] – n. any loose flowing garment

robot [ˈrəubɔt] – n. a mechanism that can move automatically

robust [rəuˈbʌst] – adj. sturdy and strong in form, constitution, or construction: a robust body

rock [rɔk] – n. a lump or mass of hard consolidated mineral matter: he threw a rock at me

rocket [ˈrɔkit] – n. a jet engine containing its own propellant and driven by reaction propulsion

rod [rɔd] – n. a long thin implement made of metal or wood

role [rəul] – n. an actor’s portrayal of someone in a play

roll [rəul] – v. move along on or as if on wheels or a wheeled vehicle: The President’s convoy rolled past the crowds

roller [ˈrəulə] – n. a long heavy sea wave as it advances towards the shore

Roman [rɔmə] – adj. of or relating to or derived from Rome (especially ancient Rome): Roman architecture

romance [rəuˈmæns] – n. a relationship between two lovers

romantic [rəˈmæntik] – adj. belonging to or characteristic of Romanticism or the Romantic Movement in the arts: romantic poetry

romanticism [rəˈmæntisizəm] – n. impractical romantic ideals and attitudes

Rome [rəum] – n. the leadership of the Roman Catholic Church

roof [ru:f] – n. protective covering on top of a motor vehicle

room [ru:m] – n. an area within a building enclosed by walls and floor and ceiling: the rooms were very small but they had a nice view

rooster [ˈru:stə] – n. adult male chicken

root [ru:t] – n. the place where something begins, where it springs into being: communism’s Russian root

rope [rəup] – n. street names for flunitrazepan

rose [rəuz] – n. pinkish table wine from red grapes whose skins were removed after fermentation began

rosy [ˈrəuzi] – adj. reflecting optimism: a rosy future

rot [rɔt] – n. a state of decay usually accompanied by an offensive odor

rotary [ˈrəutəri] – n. a road junction at which traffic streams circularly around a central island: the accident blocked all traffic at the rotary

rotate [rəuˈteit] – v. turn on or around an axis or a center: The lamb roast rotates on a spit over the fire

rotation [rəuˈteiʃən] – n. (mathematics) a transformation in which the coordinate axes are rotated by a fixed angle about the origin

rotten [ˈrɔtn] – adj. very bad

rough [rʌf] – adj. having or caused by an irregular surface: trees with rough bark

roughly [ˈrʌfli] – adv. (of quantities) imprecise but fairly close to correct: roughly $3,000

round [raund] – n. a charge of ammunition for a single shot

roundabout [ˈraundəbaut] – n. a large, rotating machine with seats for children to ride or amusement

rouse [rauz] – v. become active

route [ru:t] – v. send documents or materials to appropriate destinations

routine [ru:ˈti:n] – n. an unvarying or habitual method or procedure

row [rəu,rau] – n. an arrangement of objects or people side by side in a line: a row of chairs

royal [ˈrɔiəl] – adj. of or relating to or indicative of or issued or performed by a king or queen or other monarch: the royal party

royalty [ˈrɔiəlti] – n. payment to the holder of a patent or copyright or resource for the right to use their property

rub [rʌb] – v. move over something with pressure: rub my hands

rubber [ˈrʌbə] – n. a waterproof overshoe that protects shoes from water or snow

rubbish [ˈrʌbiʃ] – n. worthless material that is to be disposed of

rude [ru:d] – adj. socially incorrect in behavior

ruffle [ˈrʌfl] – v. stir up (water) so as to form ripples

rug [rʌg] – n. floor covering consisting of a piece of thick heavy fabric (usually with nap or pile)

ruin [ˈruin] – n. an irrecoverable state of devastation and destruction: you have brought ruin on this entire family

ruinous [ˈruinəs, ˈru:i-] – adj. causing injury or blight; especially affecting with sudden violence or plague or ruin: a ruinous war

rule [ru:l] – n. a principle or condition that customarily governs behavior: it was his rule to take a walk before breakfast

ruler [ˈru:lə] – n. a person who rules or commands

ruling [ˈru:liŋ] – n. the reason for a court’s judgment (as opposed to the decision itself)

rumor [ˈru:mə] – n. gossip (usually a mixture of truth and untruth) passed around by word of mouth

rumour  – n. gossip (usually a mixture of truth and untruth) passed around by word of mouth

run [rʌn] – v. move fast by using one’s feet, with one foot off the ground at any given time: Don’t run–you’ll be out of breath

runner [ˈrʌnə(r)] – n. someone who imports or exports without paying duties

running [ˈrʌniŋ] – adj. (of fluids) moving or issuing in a stream: as mountain stream with freely running water

rupture [ˈrʌptʃə] – n. state of being torn or burst open

rural [ˈru:rəl] – adj. living in or characteristic of farming or country life: rural people

rush [rʌʃ] – n. the act of moving hurriedly and in a careless manner

Russia [ˈrʌʃə] – n. formerly the largest Soviet Socialist Republic in the USSR occupying eastern Europe and northern Asia

Russian [ˈrʌʃən] – n. the Slavic language that is the official language of Russia

rust [rʌst] – n. a red or brown oxide coating on iron or steel caused by the action of oxygen and moisture

rusty [ˈrʌsti] – adj. of the brown color of rust

ruthless [ˈru:θlis] – adj. without mercy or pity: an act of ruthless ferocity

sabotage [ˈsæbətɑ:ʒ] – n. a deliberate act of destruction or disruption in which equipment is damaged

sack [sæk] – n. a bag made of paper or plastic for holding customer’s purchases

sacred [ˈseikrid] – adj. concerned with religion or religious purposes: sacred texts

sacrifice [ˈsækrifais] – n. the act of losing or surrendering something as a penalty for a mistake or fault or failure to perform etc.

sad [sæd] – adj. experiencing or showing sorrow or unhappiness: feeling sad because his dog had died

saddle [ˈsædl] – n. a seat for the rider of a horse or camel

sadly [ˈsædli] – adv. in an unfortunate way: sadly he died before he could see his grandchild

sadness [ˈsædnis] – n. emotions experienced when not in a state of well-being

safe [seif] – adj. free from danger or the risk of harm: a safe trip

safeguard [ˈseifgɑ:d] – n. a precautionary measure warding off impending danger or damage or injury etc.: an insurance policy is a good safeguard

safely [ˈseifli] – adv. with safety; in a safe manner: we are safely out of there

safety [ˈseifti] – n. the state of being certain that adverse effects will not be caused by some agent under defined conditions: insure the safety of the children

sag [sæg] – v. droop, sink, or settle from or as if from pressure or loss of tautness

said [sed] – adj. being the one previously mentioned or spoken of: said party has denied the charges

sail [seil] – v. traverse or travel on (a body of water): We sailed the Atlantic

sailor [ˈseilə] – n. any member of a ship’s crew

saint [seint] – n. person of exceptional holiness

sake [seik] – n. a reason for wanting something done: for your sake

salability [.seiləˈbiliti] – n. the quality of being salable or marketable

salable [ˈseiləbl] – adj. capable of being sold; fit for sale

salad [ˈsæləd] – n. food mixtures either arranged on a plate or tossed and served with a moist dressing; usually consisting of or including greens

salary [ˈsæləri] – n. something that remunerates

sale [seil] – n. a particular instance of selling: he has just made his first sale

sales [seilz] – n. income (at invoice values) received for goods and services over some given period of time

salesman [ˈseilzmən] – n. a man salesperson

saline [ˈseilain] – n. an isotonic solution of sodium chloride and distilled water

salmon [ˈsæmən] – n. a tributary of the Snake River in Idaho

salt [sɔ:lt] – n. a compound formed by replacing hydrogen in an acid by a metal (or a radical that acts like a metal)

salty [ˈsɔ:lti] – adj. engagingly stimulating or provocative: salty language

salute [səˈlu:t] – v. propose a toast to

salvage [ˈsælvidʒ] – n. property or goods saved from damage or destruction

same [seim] – adj. closely similar or comparable in kind or quality or quantity or degree: curtains the same color as the walls

sample [ˈsæmpl] – n. a small part of something intended as representative of the whole

sampling [ˈsæmpliŋ] – n. items selected at random from a population and used to test hypotheses about the population

sanction [ˈsæŋkʃən] – n. formal and explicit approval

sand [sænd] – n. a loose material consisting of grains of rock or coral

sandwich [ˈsændwitʃ] – v. insert or squeeze tightly between two people or objects: She was sandwiched in her airplane seat between two fat men

sandy [ˈsændi] – adj. of hair color; pale yellowish to yellowish brown

sanitary [ˈsænitəri, -teri] – adj. free from filth and pathogens: sanitary conditions for preparing food

sanity [ˈsæniti] – n. normal or sound powers of mind

sarcasm [ˈsɑ:kæzəm] – n. witty language used to convey insults or scorn: he used sarcasm to upset his opponent

sarcastic [sɑ:ˈkæstik] – adj. expressing or expressive of ridicule that wounds

sardine [sɑ:ˈdi:n] – n. small fatty fish usually canned

satellite [ˈsætəlait] – n. man-made equipment that orbits around the earth or the moon

satire [ˈsætaiə] – n. witty language used to convey insults or scorn

satisfaction [.sætisˈfækʃən] – n. the contentment one feels when one has fulfilled a desire, need, or expectation: the chef tasted the sauce with great satisfaction

satisfactorily [sætisˈfæktərili] – adv. in a satisfactory manner

satisfactory [.sætisˈfæktəri] – adj. meeting requirements: the step makes a satisfactory seat

satisfy [ˈsætisfai] – v. meet the requirements or expectations of

saturate [ˈsætʃəreit] – v. infuse or fill completely

saturation [.sætʃəˈreiʃən] – n. the act of soaking thoroughly with a liquid

Saturday [ˈsætədi] – n. the seventh and last day of the week; observed as the Sabbath by Jews and some Christians

Saturn [ˈsætə(:)n] – n. a giant planet that is surrounded by three planar concentric rings of ice particles; the 6th planet from the sun

sauce [sɔ:s] – v. dress (food) with a relish

saucer [ˈsɔ:sə] – n. something with a round shape resembling a flat circular plate

sausage [ˈsɔ:sidʒ] – n. highly seasoned minced meat stuffed in casings

savage [ˈsævidʒ] – adj. (of persons or their actions) able or disposed to inflict pain or suffering: a savage slap

save [seiv] – v. to keep up and reserve for personal or special use: She saved the old family photographs in a drawer

savings [ˈseiviŋz] – n. a fund of money put by as a reserve

saw [sɔ:] – n. hand tool having a toothed blade for cutting

say [sei] – v. express in words

scale [skeil] – n. an ordered reference standard: judging on a scale of 1 to 10

scalpel [ˈskælpəl] – n. a thin straight surgical knife used in dissection and surgery

scaly [ˈskeili] – adj. having the body covered or partially covered with thin horny plates, as some fish and reptiles

scan [skæn] – v. examine minutely or intensely: the surgeon scanned the X-ray

scandal [ˈskændl] – n. disgraceful gossip about the private lives of other people

scant [skænt] – v. work hastily or carelessly; deal with inadequately and superficially

scapegoat [ˈskeipgəut] – n. someone who is punished for the errors of others

scar [skɑ:] – n. a mark left (usually on the skin) by the healing of injured tissue

scarce [skɛəs] – adj. deficient in quantity or number compared with the demand: fresh vegetables were scarce during the drought

scarcely [ˈskɛəsli] – adv. only a very short time before: had scarcely rung the bell when the door flew open

scarcity [ˈskɛəsiti] – n. a small and inadequate amount

scare [skɛə] – n. sudden mass fear and anxiety over anticipated events: a war scare

scared [skeəd] – adj. made afraid: too shocked and scared to move

scarf [skɑ:f] – v. masturbate while strangling oneself

scarlet [ˈskɑ:lit] – n. a variable color that is vivid red but sometimes with an orange tinge

scatter [ˈskætə] – v. to cause to separate and go in different directions: She waved her hand and scattered the crowds

scene [si:n] – n. the place where some action occurs: the police returned to the scene of the crime

scenery [ˈsi:nəri] – n. the painted structures of a stage set that are intended to suggest a particular locale: they worked all night painting the scenery

scenic [ˈsi:nik] – adj. of or relating to the stage or stage scenery: scenic design

scent [sent] – n. a distinctive odor that is pleasant

sceptical  – adj. marked by or given to doubt

schedule [ˈskedʒul] – n. a temporally organized plan for matters to be attended to

scheme [ski:m] – n. an elaborate and systematic plan of action

scholar [ˈskɔlə] – n. a learned person (especially in the humanities); someone who by long study has gained mastery in one or more disciplines

scholarship [ˈskɔləʃip] – n. financial aid provided to a student on the basis of academic merit

school [sku:l] – n. an educational institution: the school was founded in 1900

science [ˈsaiəns] – n. ability to produce solutions in some problem domain: the sweet science of pugilism

scientific [.saiənˈtifik] – adj. conforming with the principles or methods used in science: a scientific approach

scientist [ˈsaiəntist] – n. a person with advanced knowledge of one or more sciences

scissors [ˈsizəz] – n. an edge tool having two crossed pivoting blades

scoff [skɔf] – v. laugh at with contempt and derision

scold [skəuld] – v. censure severely or angrily: The mother scolded the child for entering a stranger’s car

scoop [sku:p] – n. a hollow concave shape made by removing something

scope [skəup] – n. an area in which something acts or operates or has power or control:: within the scope of an investigation

scorch [skɔ:tʃ] – v. make very hot and dry: The heat scorched the countryside

score [skɔ:] – n. a number or letter indicating quality (especially of a student’s performance): what was your score on your homework?

scorn [skɔ:n] – n. lack of respect accompanied by a feeling of intense dislike

scornful [ˈskɔ:nful] – adj. expressing extreme contempt

scotch [skɔtʃ] – n. a slight surface cut (especially a notch that is made to keep a tally)

Scotland [ˈskɔtlənd] – n. one of the four countries that make up the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; located on the northern part of the island of Great Britain; famous for bagpipes and plaids and kilts

Scotsman [ˈskɔtsmən] – n. a native or inhabitant of Scotland

Scottish [ˈskɔtiʃ] – n. the dialect of English used in Scotland

scout [skaut] – n. a person employed to keep watch for some anticipated event

scramble [ˈskræmbl] – v. to move hurriedly: The friend scrambled after them

scrap [skræp] – n. a small fragment of something broken off from the whole

scrape [skreip] – v. make by scraping: They scraped a letter into the stone

scratch [skrætʃ] – n. an abraded area where the skin is torn or worn off

scream [skri:m] – n. sharp piercing cry: her screaming attracted the neighbors

screech [skri:tʃ] – n. a high-pitched noise resembling a human cry: he ducked at the screechings of shells

screen [skri:n] – n. a white or silvered surface where pictures can be projected for viewing

screw [skru:] – n. someone who guards prisoners

screwdriver [ˈskru:.draivə] – n. a hand tool for driving screws; has a tip that fits into the head of a screw

script [skript] – n. a written version of a play or other dramatic composition; used in preparing for a performance

scroll [skrəul] – n. a round shape formed by a series of concentric circles (as formed by leaves or flower petals)

scrub [skrʌb] – v. clean with hard rubbing: She scrubbed his back

scrupulous [ˈskru:pjuləs] – adj. characterized by extreme care and great effort: scrupulous attention to details

scrutiny [ˈskru:tini] – n. the act of examining something closely (as for mistakes)

sculptor [ˈskʌlptə(r)] – n. a faint constellation in the southern hemisphere near Phoenix and Cetus

sculpture [ˈskʌlptʃə] – n. a three-dimensional work of plastic art

scum [skʌm] – n. worthless people

sea [si:] – n. anything apparently limitless in quantity or volume

seal [si:l] – n. a device incised to make an impression; used to secure a closing or to authenticate documents

seam [si:m] – n. joint consisting of a line formed by joining two pieces

seaman [ˈsi:mən] – n. a man who serves as a sailor

seaport [ˈsi:pɔ:t] – n. a sheltered port where ships can take on or discharge cargo

search [sə:tʃ] – n. the activity of looking thoroughly in order to find something or someone

seashore [ˈsi:ʃɔ:] – n. the shore of a sea or ocean

seaside [ˈsi:.said] – n. the shore of a sea or ocean regarded as a resort

season [ˈsi:zn] – n. a period of the year marked by special events or activities in some field: he celebrated his 10th season with the ballet company

seasonal [ˈsi:zənl] – n. a worker who finds employment only in certain seasons

seat [si:t] – n. the fleshy part of the human body that you sit on

seclude [siˈklu:d] – v. keep away from others

second [ˈsekənd] – n. 1/60 of a minute; the basic unit of time adopted under the Systeme International d’Unites

secondary [ˈsekənderi] – adj. inferior in rank or status

secondhand [ˈsekəndˈhænd] – adj. derived from what is primary or original; not firsthand: a secondhand report

secondly [ˈsekəndli] – adv. in the second place

secrecy [ˈsi:krisi] – n. the condition of being concealed or hidden

secret [ˈsi:krit] – adj. not open or public; kept private or not revealed: a secret formula

secretariat [.sekrəˈtɛəriət] – n. thoroughbred that won the triple crown in 1973

secretary [ˈsekrətri] – n. a person who is head of an administrative department of government

secretion [siˈkri:ʃən] – n. the organic process of synthesizing and releasing some substance

section [ˈsekʃən] – n. a self-contained part of a larger composition (written or musical): he always turns first to the business section

sectional [ˈsekʃənəl] – adj. consisting of or divided into sections: a sectional sofa

sector [ˈsektə] – n. a plane figure bounded by two radii and the included arc of a circle

secular [ˈsekjulə] – adj. of or relating to the doctrine that rejects religion and religious considerations

secure [siˈkjuə] – v. get by special effort

security [siˈkju:riti] – n. the state of being free from danger or injury: we support the armed services in the name of national security

sediment [ˈsedimənt] – n. matter that has been deposited by some natural process

see [si:] – v. perceive by sight or have the power to perceive by sight: You have to be a good observer to see all the details

seed [si:d] – v. distribute (players or teams) so that outstanding teams or players will not meet in the early rounds

seek [si:k] – v. try to get or reach: seek a position

seem [si:m] – v. give a certain impression or have a certain outward aspect: She seems to be sleeping

seemingly [ˈsi:miŋli] – adv. from appearances alone: the child is seemingly healthy but the doctor is concerned

seep [si:p] – v. pass gradually or leak through or as if through small openings

segment [ˈsegmənt] – n. one of several parts or pieces that fit with others to constitute a whole object: finished the final segment of the road

segregate [ˈsegrigeit] – v. divide from the main body or mass and collect: Many towns segregated into new counties

seismic [ˈsaizmik] – adj. subject to or caused by an earthquake or earth vibration

seize [si:z] – v. take hold of; grab: The sales clerk quickly seized the money on the counter

seizure [ˈsi:ʒə] – n. a sudden occurrence (or recurrence) of a disease: he suffered an epileptic seizure

seldom [ˈseldəm] – adv. not often

select [siˈlekt] – adj. of superior grade: select peaches

selection [siˈlekʃən] – n. an assortment of things from which a choice can be made: the store carried a large selection of shoes

self [self] – n. your consciousness of your own identity

selfish [ˈselfiʃ] – adj. concerned chiefly or only with yourself and your advantage to the exclusion of others

sell [sel] – v. exchange or deliver for money or its equivalent: She sells her body to survive and support her drug habit

seller [ˈselə] – n. someone who promotes or exchanges goods or services for money

semblance [ˈsembləns] – n. an outward or token appearance or form that is deliberately misleading: he hoped his claims would have a semblance of authenticity

semiconductor [.semikənˈdʌktə] – n. a conductor made with semiconducting material

seminar [ˈseminɑ:] – n. any meeting for an exchange of ideas

senate [ˈsenit] – n. assembly possessing high legislative powers

senator [ˈsenətə] – n. a member of a senate

send [send] – v. to cause or order to be taken, directed, or transmitted to another place

sender [ˈsendə] – n. someone who transmits a message: return to sender

senior [ˈsi:njə] – adj. older; higher in rank; longer in length of tenure or service: senior officer

sensation [senˈseiʃən] – n. an unelaborated elementary awareness of stimulation: a sensation of touch

sensational [senˈseiʃənəl] – adj. causing intense interest, curiosity, or emotion

sense [sens] – n. a general conscious awareness: a sense of security

senseless [ˈsenslis] – adj. not marked by the use of reason: a senseless act

sensible [ˈsensəbl] – adj. showing reason or sound judgment: a sensible choice

sensitive [ˈsensitiv] – adj. responsive to physical stimuli: a mimosa’s leaves are sensitive to touch

sensitivity [ˈsensiˈtiviti] – n. (physiology) responsiveness to external stimuli; the faculty of sensation: sensitivity to pain

sentence [ˈsentəns] – n. a string of words satisfying the grammatical rules of a language: he always spoke in grammatical sentences

sentiment [ˈsentimənt] – n. tender, romantic, or nostalgic feeling or emotion

sentimental [.sentiˈmentl] – adj. effusively or insincerely emotional: sentimental soap operas

separate [ˈsepəreit] – v. act as a barrier between; stand between

separately [ˈsepərətli] – adv. apart from others

separation [sepəˈreiʃən] – n. the state of lacking unity

September [səpˈtembə] – n. the month following August and preceding October

septic [ˈseptik] – adj. containing or resulting from disease-causing organisms: a septic sore throat

sequence [ˈsi:kwəns] – n. serial arrangement in which things follow in logical order or a recurrent pattern: the sequence of names was alphabetical

serene [siˈri:n] – adj. not agitated; without losing self-possession: he remained serene in the midst of turbulence

serenity [siˈreniti] – n. a disposition free from stress or emotion

series [ˈsiəri:z] – n. similar things placed in order or happening one after another: they were investigating a series of bank robberies

serious [ˈsiəriəs] – adj. concerned with work or important matters rather than play or trivialities: a serious student of history

seriously [ˈsiəriəsli] – adv. to a severe or serious degree: was seriously ill

sermon [ˈsə:mən] – n. a moralistic rebuke

serpent [ˈsə:pənt] – n. limbless scaly elongate reptile; some are venomous

servant [ˈsə:vənt] – n. in a subordinate position: the state cannot be a servant of the church

serve [sə:v] – v. contribute or conduce to: The scandal served to increase his popularity

service [ˈsə:vis] – n. work done by one person or group that benefits another: budget separately for goods and services

serviceable [ˈsə:visəbl] – adj. capable of being put to good use: a serviceable kitchen gadget

session [ˈseʃən] – n. a meeting for execution of a group’s functions: it was the opening session of the legislature

set [set] – v. put into a certain place or abstract location

setback [ˈsetbæk] – n. an unfortunate happening that hinders or impedes; something that is thwarting or frustrating

setting [ˈsetiŋ] – n. the context and environment in which something is set: the perfect setting for a ghost story

settle [ˈsetl] – v. take up residence and become established: The immigrants settled in the Midwest

settlement [ˈsetlmənt] – n. a community of people smaller than a town

settler  – n. a negotiator who settles disputes

seven [ˈsevn] – n. the cardinal number that is the sum of six and one

seventeen [.sevnˈti:n] – n. the cardinal number that is the sum of sixteen and one

seventh [ˈsevnθ] – n. one part in seven equal parts

seventy [ˈsevnti] – n. the cardinal number that is the product of ten and seven

several [ˈsevərəl] – adj. (used with count nouns) of an indefinite number more than 2 or 3 but not many: several letters came in the mail

severe [siˈviə] – adj. intensely or extremely bad or unpleasant in degree or quality: severe pain

severely [siˈviəli] – adv. with sternness; in a severe manner: peered severely over her glasses

sew [səu] – v. create (clothes) with cloth: Can the seamstress sew me a suit by next week?

sewer [ˈsju:ə, ˈsu:ə] – n. someone who sews: a sewer of fine gowns

sex [seks] – n. either of the two categories (male or female) into which most organisms are divided: the war between the sexes

sexual [ˈseksjuəl] – adj. having or involving sex: sexual reproduction

sexuality [.seksjuˈæliti] – n. the properties that distinguish organisms on the basis of their reproductive roles

shabby [ˈʃæbi] – adj. showing signs of wear and tear: shabby furniture

shade [ʃeid] – n. relative darkness caused by light rays being intercepted by an opaque body: it is much cooler in the shade

shadow [ˈʃædəu] – n. an unilluminated area

shadowy [ˈʃædəui] – adj. lacking clarity or distinctness: shadowy figures in the gloom

shady [ˈʃeidi] – adj. (of businesses and businessmen) unscrupulous: a shady operation

shaft [ʃɑ:ft] – n. a line that forms the length of an arrow pointer

shake [ʃeik] – v. move or cause to move back and forth

shallow [ˈʃæləu] – adj. not deep or strong; not affecting one deeply: shallow breathing

sham [ʃæm] – n. something that is a counterfeit; not what it seems to be

shamble [ˈʃæmbəl] – n. walking with a slow dragging motion without lifting your feet

shame [ʃeim] – v. surpass or beat by a wide margin

shameful [ˈʃeimfəl] – adj. giving offense to moral sensibilities and injurious to reputation: the wicked rascally shameful conduct of the bankrupt

shampoo [ʃæmˈpu:] – n. cleansing agent consisting of soaps or detergents used for washing the hair

shanty [ˈʃænti] – n. small crude shelter used as a dwelling

shape [ʃeip] – n. any spatial attributes (especially as defined by outline): he could barely make out their shapes

shapeless [ˈʃeiplis] – adj. lacking symmetry or attractive form: a shapeless hat on his head

share [ʃɛə] – n. assets belonging to or due to or contributed by an individual person or group: he wanted his share in cash

shark [ʃɑ:k] – n. a person who is ruthless and greedy and dishonest

sharp [ʃɑ:p] – adj. (of something seen or heard) clearly defined: a sharp photographic image

sharpen [ˈʃɑ:pən] – v. make crisp or more crisp and precise: We had to sharpen our arguments

sharpener [ˈʃɑ:pənə] – n. any implement that is used to make something (an edge or a point) sharper: a knife sharpener

sharply [ˈʃɑ:pli] – adv. in an aggressive manner: she was being sharply questioned

shatter [ˈʃætə] – v. break into many pieces: The wine glass shattered

shave [ʃeiv] – v. remove body hair with a razor

shear [ʃiə] – n. a large edge tool that cuts sheet metal by passing a blade through it

shed [ʃed] – v. get rid of: he shed his image as a pushy boss

sheep [ʃi:p] – n. woolly usually horned ruminant mammal related to the goat

sheepish [ˈʃi:piʃ] – adj. showing a sense of shame

sheer [ʃiə] – adj. complete and without restriction or qualification; sometimes used informally as intensifiers: got the job through sheer persistence

sheet [ʃi:t] – n. any broad thin expanse or surface: a sheet of ice

shelf [ʃelf] – n. a support that consists of a horizontal surface for holding objects

shell [ʃel] – n. the material that forms the hard outer covering of many animals

shelter [ˈʃeltə] – n. a structure that provides privacy and protection from danger

shepherd [ˈʃepəd] – n. a clergyman who watches over a group of people

sheriff [ˈʃerif] – n. the principal law-enforcement officer in a county

shield [ˈʃi:ld] – n. a protective covering or structure

shift [ʃift] – v. change place or direction

shilling [ˈʃiliŋ] – n. the basic unit of money in Uganda; equal to 100 cents

shimmer [ˈʃimə] – v. shine with a weak or fitful light: Beech leaves shimmered in the moonlight

shine [ʃain] – v. be bright by reflecting or casting light

shiny [ˈʃaini] – adj. reflecting light: saw the moon like a shiny dime on a deep blue velvet carpet

ship [ʃip] – v. transport commercially

shipbuilding [ˈʃipbildiŋ] – n. the construction of ships

shipment [ˈʃipmənt] – n. goods carried by a large vehicle

shipping [ˈʃipiŋ] – n. the commercial enterprise of moving goods and materials

shipwreck [ˈʃiprek] – v. ruin utterly: You have shipwrecked my career

shipyard [ˈʃipjɑ:d] – n. a workplace where ships are built or repaired

shirt [ʃə:t] – n. a garment worn on the upper half of the body

shiver [ˈʃivə] – n. a reflex motion caused by cold or fear or excitement

shoal [ʃəul] – n. a sandbank in a stretch of water that is visible at low tide

shock [ʃɔk] – n. the feeling of distress and disbelief that you have when something bad happens accidentally: he was numb with shock

shoe [ʃu:] – n. (card games) a case from which playing cards are dealt one at a time

shoemaker [ˈʃu:.meikə] – n. a person who makes or repairs shoes

shoot [ʃu:t] – v. hit with a missile from a weapon

shop [ʃɔp] – v. give away information about somebody

shopkeeper [ˈʃɔp.ki:pə] – n. a merchant who owns or manages a shop

shopping [ˈʃɔpiŋ] – n. searching for or buying goods or services: went shopping for a reliable plumber

shore [ʃɔ:] – v. support by placing against something solid or rigid: shore and buttress an old building

short [ʃɔ:t] – adj. primarily temporal sense; indicating or being or seeming to be limited in duration: a short life

shortage [ˈʃɔ:tidʒ] – n. the property of being an amount by which something is less than expected or required

shortcoming [ʃɔ:t.kʌmiŋ] – n. a failing or deficiency

shortcut [ˈʃɔ:tkʌt] – n. a route shorter than the usual one

shorten [ˈʃɔ:tn] – v. reduce in scope while retaining essential elements: The manuscript must be shortened

shorthand [ˈʃɔ:thænd] – n. a method of writing rapidly

shortly [ˈʃɔ:tli] – adv. in the near future: the book will appear shortly

shorts [ʃɔ:ts] – n. trousers that end at or above the knee

shot [ʃɔt] – n. the act of firing a projectile

shoulder [ˈʃəuldə] – n. the part of the body between the neck and the upper arm

shout [ʃaut] – v. utter in a loud voice; talk in a loud voice (usually denoting characteristic manner of speaking): My grandmother is hard of hearing–you’ll have to shout

shove [ʃʌv] – v. come into rough contact with while moving

shovel [ˈʃʌvl] – n. a hand tool for lifting loose material; consists of a curved container or scoop and a handle

show [ʃəu] – v. give an exhibition of to an interested audience: She shows her dogs frequently

shower [ˈʃauə] – n. a plumbing fixture that sprays water over you: they installed a shower in the bathroom

showroom [ˈʃəʊrʊm] – n. an area where merchandise (such as cars) can be displayed: in Britain a showroom is called a salesroom

shred [ʃred] – n. a tiny or scarcely detectable amount

shrewd [ʃru:d] – adj. marked by practical hardheaded intelligence: he was too shrewd to go along with them on a road that could lead only to their overthrow

shriek [ʃri:k] – n. sharp piercing cry

shrill [ʃril] – adj. having or emitting a high-pitched and sharp tone or tones: a shrill whistle

shrimp [ʃrimp] – n. disparaging terms for small people

shrine [ʃrain] – n. a place of worship hallowed by association with some sacred thing or person

shrink [ʃriŋk] – v. wither, as with a loss of moisture

shroud [ʃraud] – n. a line that suspends the harness from the canopy of a parachute

shrub [ʃrʌb] – n. a low woody perennial plant usually having several major stems

shrug [ʃrʌg] – n. a gesture involving the shoulders

shuffle [ˈʃʌfl] – v. walk by dragging one’s feet: he shuffled out of the room

shun [ʃʌn] – v. avoid and stay away from deliberately; stay clear of

shut [ʃʌt] – v. become closed

shutter [ˈʃʌtə] – n. a mechanical device on a camera that opens and closes to control the time of a photographic exposure

shuttle [ˈʃʌtl] – n. badminton equipment consisting of a ball of cork or rubber with a crown of feathers

shy [ʃai] – adj. lacking self-confidence

sick [sik] – adj. feeling nausea; feeling about to vomit

sicken [ˈsikən] – v. cause aversion in; offend the moral sense of: The pornographic pictures sickened us

sickle [ˈsikl] – n. an edge tool for cutting grass or crops; has a curved blade and a short handle

sickness [ˈsiknis] – n. impairment of normal physiological function affecting part or all of an organism

side [said] – n. a place within a region identified relative to a center or reference location: they always sat on the right side of the church

sidewalk [ˈsaidwɔ:k] – n. walk consisting of a paved area for pedestrians; usually beside a street or roadway

sideways [ˈsaidweiz] – adv. from the side; obliquely: a picture lit sideways

siege [si:dʒ] – n. the action of an armed force that surrounds a fortified place and isolates it while continuing to attack

sieve [siv] – v. examine in order to test suitability

sift [sift] – v. separate by passing through a sieve or other straining device to separate out coarser elements: sift the flour

sigh [sai] – n. an utterance made by exhaling audibly

sight [sait] – n. an instance of visual perception: the sight of his wife brought him back to reality

sightseeing [ˈsait.si:iŋ] – n. going about to look at places of interest

sign [sain] – n. a public display of a message: he posted signs in all the shop windows

signal [ˈsignəl] – n. any nonverbal action or gesture that encodes a message: signals from the boat suddenly stopped

signature [ˈsignitʃə] – n. your name written in your own handwriting

significance [sigˈnifikəns] – n. a meaning that is not expressly stated but can be inferred: the significance of his remark became clear only later

significant [sigˈnifikənt] – adj. important in effect or meaning: a significant change in tax laws

signify [ˈsignifai] – v. denote or connote

signpost [ˈsainpəʊst] – n. a post bearing a sign that gives directions or shows the way

silence [ˈsailəns] – n. the absence of sound: he needed silence in order to sleep

silent [ˈsailənt] – adj. marked by absence of sound: a silent house

silicon [ˈsilikən] – n. a tetravalent nonmetallic element; next to oxygen it is the most abundant element in the earth’s crust; occurs in clay and feldspar and granite and quartz and sand; used as a semiconductor in transistors

silk [silk] – n. a fabric made from the fine threads produced by certain insect larvae

silky [ˈsilki] – adj. having a smooth, gleaming surface reflecting light: silky skin

silly [ˈsili] – adj. ludicrous, foolish: a silly idea

silver [ˈsilvə] – n. a light shade of grey

similar [ˈsimilə] – adj. marked by correspondence or resemblance: similar food at similar prices

similarity [.simiˈlæriti] – n. the quality of being similar

simple [ˈsimpl] – adj. having few parts; not complex or complicated or involved: a simple problem

simplicity [simˈplisiti] – n. a lack of penetration or subtlety: they took advantage of her simplicity

simplify [ˈsimplifai] – v. make simpler or easier or reduce in complexity or extent: We had to simplify the instructions

simply [ˈsimpli] – adv. and nothing more: it is simply a matter of time

simulate [ˈsimjuleit] – v. reproduce someone’s behavior or looks

simultaneous [.saiməlˈteinjəs] – adj. occurring or operating at the same time

simultaneously [saiməlˈteiniəsli] – adv. at the same instant: they spoke simultaneously

sin [sin] – n. estrangement from god

sincere [sinˈsiə] – adj. open and genuine; not deceitful: he was a good man, decent and sincere

sincerely [sinˈsiəli] – adv. written formula for ending a letter

sincerity [sinˈseriti] – n. the quality of being open and truthful; not deceitful or hypocritical: his sincerity inspired belief

sinful [ˈsinful] – adj. having committed unrighteous acts: a sinful person

sing [siŋ] – v. produce tones with the voice: She was singing while she was cooking

singer [ˈsiŋə] – n. United States inventor of an improved chain-stitch sewing machine (1811-1875)

single [ˈsiŋgl] – adj. used of flowers having usually only one row or whorl of petals: single chrysanthemums resemble daisies and may have more than one row of petals

singular [ˈsiŋgjulə] – adj. unusual or striking: such poise is singular in one so young

sink [siŋk] – v. fall or descend to a lower place or level

sir [sə:] – n. term of address for a man

siren [ˈsaiərin] – n. a sea nymph (part woman and part bird) supposed to lure sailors to destruction on the rocks where the nymphs lived

sister [ˈsistə] – n. a female person who has the same parents as another person: my sister married a musician

sit [sit] – v. be seated

site [sait] – n. the piece of land on which something is located (or is to be located): a good site for the school

situate [ˈsitjueit] – v. determine or indicate the place, site, or limits of, as if by an instrument or by a survey

situated [ˈsitjueitid] – adj. situated in a particular spot or position: nicely situated on a quiet riverbank

situation [.sitjuˈeiʃən] – n. the general state of things; the combination of circumstances at a given time: the present international situation is dangerous

six [siks] – n. the cardinal number that is the sum of five and one

sixteen [ˈsiksˈti:n] – n. the cardinal number that is the sum of fifteen and one

sixth [siksθ] – n. one part in six equal parts

sixty [ˈsiksti] – n. the cardinal number that is the product of ten and six

sizable [ˈsaizəbl] – adj. fairly large: a sizable fortune

size [saiz] – n. the property resulting from being one of a series of graduated measurements (as of clothing): he wears a size 13 shoe

skate [skeit] – n. sports equipment that is worn on the feet to enable the wearer to glide along and to be propelled by the alternate actions of the legs

skating [ˈskeitiŋ] – n. the sport of gliding on skates

skeleton [ˈskelitn] – n. something reduced to its minimal form: the battalion was a mere skeleton of its former self

skeptical [ˈskeptikəl] – adj. denying or questioning the tenets of especially a religion: a skeptical approach to the nature of miracles

sketch [sketʃ] – n. preliminary drawing for later elaboration

ski [ski:] – n. narrow wood or metal or plastic runners used in pairs for gliding over snow

skiing [ˈʃi:iŋ, ˈski:iŋ] – n. a sport in which participants must travel on skis

skill [ˈskil] – n. an ability that has been acquired by training

skillful [ˈskilful] – adj. done with delicacy and skill

skim [skim] – v. travel on the surface of water

skin [skin] – n. a natural protective body covering and site of the sense of touch: your skin is the largest organ of your body

skip [skip] – v. bypass: He skipped a row in the text and so the sentence was incomprehensible

skirmish [ˈskə:miʃ] – n. a minor short-term fight

skirt [skə:t] – n. cloth covering that forms the part of a garment below the waist

skull [skʌl] – n. the bony skeleton of the head of vertebrates

sky [skai] – n. the atmosphere and outer space as viewed from the earth

skyscraper [ˈskaiskreipə(r)] – n. a very tall building with many stories

slab [slæb] – n. block consisting of a thick piece of something

slack [slæk] – v. avoid responsibilities and work, be idle

slag [slæg] – n. the scum formed by oxidation at the surface of molten metals

slam [slæm] – n. winning all or all but one of the tricks in bridge

slander [ˈslɑ:ndə] – n. words falsely spoken that damage the reputation of another

slang [slæŋ] – v. fool or hoax

slap [slæp] – n. a blow from a flat object (as an open hand)

slate [sleit] – n. thin layers of rock used for roofing

slaughter [ˈslɔ:tə] – n. the killing of animals (as for food)

slave [sleiv] – n. a person who is owned by someone

slavery [ˈsleivəri] – n. the state of being under the control of another person

slay [slei] – v. kill intentionally and with premeditation

sleep [sli:p] – n. a natural and periodic state of rest during which consciousness of the world is suspended: he didn’t get enough sleep last night

sleepy [ˈsli:pi] – adj. ready to fall asleep: beginning to feel sleepy

sleet [sli:t] – n. partially melted snow (or a mixture of rain and snow)

sleeve [sli:v] – n. the part of a garment that is attached at the armhole and that provides a cloth covering for the arm

slender [ˈslendə] – adj. very narrow

slice [slais] – n. a share of something: a slice of the company’s revenue

slide [slaid] – n. a small flat rectangular piece of glass on which specimens can be mounted for microscopic study

slight [slait] – adj. (quantifier used with mass nouns) small in quantity or degree; not much or almost none or (with `a’) at least some: there’s slight chance that it will work

slightly [ˈslaitli] – adv. to a small degree or extent: the children argued because one slice of cake was slightly larger than the other

slim [slim] – adj. small in quantity: a slim chance of winning

slip [slip] – n. a socially awkward or tactless act

slipper [ˈslipə] – n. a person who slips or slides because of loss of traction

slippery [ˈslipəri] – adj. not to be trusted: how extraordinarily slippery a liar the camera is

slit [slit] – n. a long narrow opening

slogan [ˈsləugən] – n. a favorite saying of a sect or political group

slope [sləup] – n. an elevated geological formation: he climbed the steep slope

slot [slɔt] – n. a position in a grammatical linguistic construction in which a variety of alternative units are interchangeable: he developed a version of slot grammar

slow [sləu] – adj. not moving quickly; taking a comparatively long time: a slow walker

slowdown [ˈsləudaun] – n. the act of slowing down or falling behind

slowly [ˈsləʊli] – adv. in music

sluggish [ˈslʌgiʃ] – adj. moving slowly: a sluggish stream

slum [slʌm] – n. a district of a city marked by poverty and inferior living conditions

slumber [ˈslʌmbə] – n. a natural and periodic state of rest during which consciousness of the world is suspended: calm as a child in dreamless slumber

slump [slʌmp] – v. assume a drooping posture or carriage

sly [slai] – adj. marked by skill in deception: sly as a fox

smack [smæk] – n. a blow from a flat object (as an open hand)

small [smɔ:l] – adj. limited or below average in number or quantity or magnitude or extent: a small car

smart [smɑ:t] – adj. showing mental alertness and calculation and resourcefulness

smash [smæʃ] – v. hit hard: He smashed a 3-run homer

smell [smel] – n. the sensation that results when olfactory receptors in the nose are stimulated by particular chemicals in gaseous form: she loved the smell of roses

smile [smail] – v. change one’s facial expression by spreading the lips, often to signal pleasure

smog [smɔg] – n. air pollution by a mixture of smoke and fog

smoke [sməuk] – n. a cloud of fine particles suspended in a gas

smoker [ˈsməukə] – n. a party for men only (or one considered suitable for men only)

smoking [ˈsməukiŋ] – n. a hot vapor containing fine particles of carbon being produced by combustion

smooth [smu:ð] – adj. having a surface free from roughness or bumps or ridges or irregularities: smooth skin

smoothly [ˈsmu:ðli] – adv. with no problems or difficulties: put the plans into effect quickly and smoothly

smother [ˈsmʌðə] – v. envelop completely: smother the meat in gravy

smuggle [ˈsmʌgl] – v. import or export without paying customs duties: She smuggled cigarettes across the border

smuggler [ˈsmʌglə(r)] – n. someone who imports or exports without paying duties

smuggling [ˈsmʌgliŋ] – n. secretly importing prohibited goods or goods on which duty is due

snack [snæk] – n. a light informal meal

snail [sneil] – n. freshwater or marine or terrestrial gastropod mollusk usually having an external enclosing spiral shell

snake [sneik] – n. limbless scaly elongate reptile; some are venomous

snap [snæp] – n. the act of catching an object with the hands: the infielder’s snap and throw was a single motion

snatch [snætʃ] – n. a small fragment: overheard snatches of their conversation

sneak [sni:k] – v. to go stealthily or furtively: ..stead of sneaking around spying on the neighbor’s house

sneer [sniə] – n. a facial expression of contempt or scorn; the upper lip curls

sneeze [sni:z] – n. a symptom consisting of the involuntary expulsion of air from the nose

sniff [snif] – v. perceive by inhaling through the nose: sniff the perfume

snob [snɔb] – n. a person regarded as arrogant and annoying

snobbery [ˈsnɔbəri] – n. the trait of condescending to those of lower social status

snobbish [ˈsnɔbiʃ] – adj. befitting or characteristic of those who incline to social exclusiveness and who rebuff the advances of people considered inferior

snore [snɔ:, snɔə] – n. the act of snoring or producing a snoring sound

snow [snəu] – n. precipitation falling from clouds in the form of ice crystals

snowman [ˈsnəʊmæn] – n. a figure of a person made of packed snow

snowstorm [ˈsnəustɔ:m] – n. a storm with widespread snowfall accompanied by strong winds

snowy [ˈsnəʊi] – adj. covered with snow: a long snowy winter

so [səu] – adv. to a very great extent or degree: the idea is so obvious

soak [səuk] – v. submerge in a liquid: I soaked in the hot tub for an hour

soap [səup] – n. a cleansing agent made from the salts of vegetable or animal fats

soar [sɔ:] – v. rise rapidly: the dollar soared against the yen

sob [sɔb] – n. a dyspneic condition

sober [ˈsəubə] – adj. not affected by a chemical substance (especially alcohol)

soccer [ˈsɔkə] – n. a football game in which two teams of 11 players try to kick or head a ball into the opponents’ goal

sociable [ˈsəuʃəbl] – adj. inclined to or conducive to companionship with others: a sociable occasion

social [ˈsəuʃəl] – adj. living together or enjoying life in communities or organized groups: a human being is a social animal

socialism [ˈsəuʃəlizəm] – n. a political theory advocating state ownership of industry

socialist [ˈsəuʃəlist] – n. a political advocate of socialism

society [səˈsaiəti] – n. a formal association of people with similar interests: they formed a small lunch society

sociologist [səʊsiəˈlɔdʒist] – n. a social scientist who studies the institutions and development of human society

sociology [.səusiˈɔlədʒi] – n. the study and classification of human societies

sock [sɔk] – n. hosiery consisting of a cloth covering for the foot; worn inside the shoe; reaches to between the ankle and the knee

soda [ˈsəudə] – n. a sweet drink containing carbonated water and flavoring: in New England they call sodas tonics

sodium [ˈsəudjəm, -diəm] – n. a silvery soft waxy metallic element of the alkali metal group; occurs abundantly in natural compounds (especially in salt water); burns with a yellow flame and reacts violently in water; occurs in sea water and in the mineral halite (rock salt)

sofa [ˈsəufə] – n. an upholstered seat for more than one person

soft [sɔft] – adj. yielding readily to pressure or weight

soften [ˈsɔ(:)fn] – v. lessen in force or effect: soften a shock

softly [ˈsɔftli] – adv. with low volume: speak softly but carry a big stick

softness [ˈsɔftnis] – n. the property of giving little resistance to pressure and being easily cut or molded

software [ˈsɔftwɛə] – n. (computer science) written programs or procedures or rules and associated documentation pertaining to the operation of a computer system and that are stored in read/write memory: the market for software is expected to expand

soil [sɔil] – n. the state of being covered with unclean things

solar [ˈsəulə] – adj. relating to or derived from the sun or utilizing the energies of the sun: solar eclipse

soldier [ˈsəuldʒə] – n. an enlisted man or woman who serves in an army: the soldiers stood at attention

sole [səul] – n. the underside of footwear or a golf club

solely [ˈsəu(l)li] – adv. without any others being included or involved: did it solely for money

solemn [ˈsɔləm] – adj. dignified and somber in manner or character and committed to keeping promises: a solemn promise

solicitor [səˈlisitə] – n. a British lawyer who gives legal advice and prepares legal documents

solid [ˈsɔlid] – adj. characterized by good substantial quality: solid comfort

solidarity [.sɔliˈdæriti] – n. a union of interests or purposes or sympathies among members of a group

solitary [ˈsɔlitəri] – adj. of plants and animals; not growing or living in groups or colonies: solitary bees

solitude [ˈsɔlitju:d] – n. a state of social isolation

solo [ˈsəuləu] – n. any activity that is performed alone without assistance

soluble [ˈsɔljubl] – adj. (of a substance) capable of being dissolved in some solvent (usually water)

solution [səˈlu:ʃən] – n. a statement that solves a problem or explains how to solve the problem: they were trying to find a peaceful solution

solve [sɔlv] – v. find the solution: solve an equation

solvency [ˈsɔlvənsi] – n. the ability to meet maturing obligations as they come due

solvent [ˈsɔlvənt] – n. a statement that solves a problem or explains how to solve the problem

some [sʌm] – adj. quantifier; used with either mass nouns or plural count nouns to indicate an unspecified number or quantity: have some milk

somebody [ˈsʌmbədi] – n. a human being

somehow [ˈsʌmhau] – adv. for some unspecified reason: It doesn’t seem fair somehow

someone [ˈsʌmwʌn] – n. a human being

sometime [ˈsʌmtaim] – adj. belonging to some prior time

sometimes [ˈsʌmtaimz] – adv. on certain occasions or in certain cases but not always: sometimes she wished she were back in England

somewhat [ˈsʌmwɔt] – adv. to a small degree or extent: his arguments were somewhat self-contradictory

somewhere [ˈsʌmwɛə] – n. an indefinite or unknown location: they moved to somewhere in Spain

son [sʌn] – n. a male human offspring: their son became a famous judge

song [sɔŋ] – n. a short musical composition with words: a successful musical must have at least three good songs

sonnet [ˈsɔnit] – n. a verse form consisting of 14 lines with a fixed rhyme scheme

soon [su:n] – adv. in the near future: the doctor will soon be here

soot [sut] – n. a black colloidal substance consisting wholly or principally of amorphous carbon and used to make pigments and ink

soothe [su:ð] – v. give moral or emotional strength to

sophisticated [səˈfistikeitid] – adj. having or appealing to those having worldly knowledge and refinement and savoir-faire: sophisticated young socialites

sophistication [sə.fistiˈkeiʃən] – n. uplifting enlightenment

sore [sɔ:] – adj. hurting

sorrow [ˈsɔrəu] – n. an emotion of great sadness associated with loss or bereavement: he tried to express his sorrow at her loss

sorrowful [ˈsɔrəuful] – adj. experiencing or marked by or expressing sorrow especially that associated with irreparable loss: sorrowful widows

sorry [ˈsɔri] – adj. bad; unfortunate: a sorry state of affairs

sort [sɔ:t] – n. an approximate definition or example: she wore a sort of magenta dress

soul [səul] – n. a human being

sound [saund] – adj. financially secure and safe: sound investments

soup [su:p] – n. liquid food especially of meat or fish or vegetable stock often containing pieces of solid food

sour [ˈsauə] – adj. smelling of fermentation or staleness

source [sɔ:s] – n. the place where something begins, where it springs into being: Pittsburgh is the source of the Ohio River

south [sauθ] – n. the cardinal compass point that is at 180 degrees

southeast [.sauθˈi:st] – n. the compass point midway between south and east; at 135 degrees

southern [ˈsʌðən] – adj. situated in or oriented toward the south: a southern exposure

southward [ˈsaʊθwəd] – n. the cardinal compass point that is at 180 degrees

southwest [.sauθˈwest] – n. the compass point midway between south and west; at 225 degrees

souvenir [ˈsu:vəniə] – n. something of sentimental value

sovereign [ˈsɔvrin] – adj. (of political bodies) not controlled by outside forces: a sovereign state

sovereignty [ˈsɔvrinti] – n. government free from external control

sow [səu,sau] – v. place (seeds) in or on the ground for future growth: She sowed sunflower seeds

soy [sɔi] – n. a source of oil; used for forage and soil improvement and as food

space [speis] – n. the unlimited expanse in which everything is located: they tested his ability to locate objects in space

spacecraft [ˈspeiskrɑ:ft] – n. a craft capable of traveling in outer space; technically, a satellite around the sun

spaceship [ˈspeisʃip] – n. a spacecraft designed to carry a crew into interstellar space (especially in science fiction)

spacious [ˈspeiʃəs] – adj. very large in expanse or scope: a spacious view

spade [speid] – n. a playing card in the major suit that has one or more black figures on it: she led a low spade

Spain [spein] – n. a parliamentary monarchy in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula; a former colonial power

span [spæn] – n. the complete duration of something: the job was finished in the span of an hour

Spanish [ˈspæniʃ] – n. the Romance language spoken in most of Spain and the countries colonized by Spain

spare [spɛə] – adj. thin and fit: the spare figure of a marathon runner

spark [spɑ:k] – n. a momentary flash of light

sparkle [ˈspɑ:kl] – v. reflect brightly: Unquarried marble sparkled on the hillside

sparrow [ˈspærəu] – n. any of several small dull-colored singing birds feeding on seeds or insects

sparse [spɑ:s] – adj. not dense: trees were sparse

spatial [ˈspeiʃəl] – adj. pertaining to or involving or having the nature of space: the first dimension to concentrate on is the spatial one

speak [spi:k] – v. exchange thoughts; talk with

speaker [ˈspi:kə] – n. electro-acoustic transducer that converts electrical signals into sounds loud enough to be heard at a distance

spear [spiə] – n. a long pointed rod used as a tool or weapon

special [ˈspeʃəl] – adj. unique or specific to a person or thing or category: the special features of a computer

specialist [ˈspeʃəlist] – n. an expert who is devoted to one occupation or branch of learning

speciality [.speʃiˈæliti] – n. a distinguishing trait

specialize [ˈspeʃəlaiz] – v. become more focus on an area of activity or field of study: She specializes in Near Eastern history

specialized [ˈspeʃəlaizd] – adj. developed or designed for a special activity or function: a specialized tool

specially [ˈspeʃəli] – adv. to a distinctly greater extent or degree than is common: an especially (or specially) cautious approach to the danger

specialty [ˈspeʃəlti] – n. a distinguishing trait

species [ˈspi:ʃi:z] – n. (biology) taxonomic group whose members can interbreed

specific [spiˈsifik] – adj. stated explicitly or in detail: needed a specific amount

specification [.spesifiˈkeiʃən] – n. a detailed description of design criteria for a piece of work

specify [ˈspesifai] – v. decide upon or fix definitely: specify the parameters

specimen [ˈspesimən] – n. an example regarded as typical of its class

spectacle [ˈspektəkl] – n. something or someone seen (especially a notable or unusual sight): the tragic spectacle of cripples trying to escape

spectacular [spekˈtækjulə] – adj. sensational in appearance or thrilling in effect: a spectacular display of northern lights

spectator [spekˈteitə] – n. a close observer; someone who looks at something (such as an exhibition of some kind): the spectators applauded the performance

spectrum [ˈspektrəm] – n. an ordered array of the components of an emission or wave

speculate [ˈspekjuleit] – v. to believe especially on uncertain or tentative grounds

speculation [.spekjuˈleiʃən] – n. a message expressing an opinion based on incomplete evidence

speculator [ˈspekjuleitə] – n. someone who makes conjectures without knowing the facts

speech [spi:tʃ] – n. the act of delivering a formal spoken communication to an audience

speed [spi:d] – n. distance travelled per unit time

speedy [ˈspi:di] – adj. accomplished rapidly and without delay: hoped for a speedy resolution of the problem

spell [spel] – v. indicate or signify: I’m afraid this spells trouble!

spelling [ˈspeliŋ] – n. forming words with letters according to the principles underlying accepted usage

spend [spend] – v. pay out: spend money

sphere [sfiə] – n. a particular environment or walk of life: his social sphere is limited

spice [spais] – n. aromatic substances of vegetable origin used as a preservative

spicy [ˈspaisi] – adj. having an agreeably pungent taste

spider [ˈspaidə] – n. a computer program that prowls the internet looking for publicly accessible resources that can be added to a database; the database can then be searched with a search engine

spill [spil] – v. cause or allow (a liquid substance) to run or flow from a container: spill the milk

spin [spin] – v. revolve quickly and repeatedly around one’s own axis

spiral [ˈspairəl] – n. a plane curve traced by a point circling about the center but at increasing distances from the center

spirit [ˈspirit] – n. the vital principle or animating force within living things

spiritual [ˈspiritjuəl] – adj. concerned with sacred matters or religion or the church: lords temporal and spiritual

spit [spit] – n. a narrow strip of land that juts out into the sea

spite [spait] – n. feeling a need to see others suffer

splash [splæʃ] – v. cause (a liquid) to spatter about, especially with force: She splashed the water around her

splendid [ˈsplendid] – adj. very good;of the highest quality

split [split] – n. extending the legs at right angles to the trunk (one in front and the other in back)

spoil [spɔil] – v. make a mess of, destroy or ruin

spokesman [ˈspəuksmən] – n. a male spokesperson

sponge [spʌndʒ] – v. ask for and get free; be a parasite

sponsor [ˈspɔnsə] – v. assume responsibility for or leadership of: The senator announced that he would sponsor the health care plan

sponsorship [ˈspɔnsəʃip] – n. the act of sponsoring (either officially or financially)

spontaneous [spɔnˈteiniəs] – adj. happening or arising without apparent external cause: spontaneous laughter

spoon [spu:n] – n. a piece of cutlery with a shallow bowl-shaped container and a handle; used to stir or serve or take up food

spoonful [ˈspu:nfʊl] – n. as much as a spoon will hold

sporadic [spəˈrædik] – adj. recurring in scattered and irregular or unpredictable instances: a city subjected to sporadic bombing raids

sport [spɔ:t] – n. an active diversion requiring physical exertion and competition

sportsman [ˈspɔ:tsmən] – n. someone who engages in sports

sportsmanship [ˈspɔ:tsmənʃip] – n. fairness in following the rules of the game

spot [spɔt] – n. a short section or illustration (as between radio or tv programs or in a magazine) that is often used for advertising

spotlight [ˈspɔtlait] – n. a focus of public attention

spouse [spauz] – n. a person’s partner in marriage

sprain [sprein] – n. a painful injury to a joint caused by a sudden wrenching of its ligaments

sprawl [sprɔ:l] – n. an aggregation or continuous network of urban communities

spray [sprei] – n. a quantity of small objects flying through the air: a spray of bullets

spread [spred] – n. process or result of distributing or extending over a wide expanse of space

spring [spriŋ] – n. the season of growth: the emerging buds were a sure sign of spring

sprinkle [ˈspriŋkl] – v. distribute loosely

sprint [sprint] – n. a quick run

sprout [spraut] – n. any new growth of a plant such as a new branch or a bud

spur [spə:] – n. a verbalization that encourages you to attempt something

spy [spai] – v. catch sight of

square [skwɛə] – n. (geometry) a plane rectangle with four equal sides and four right angles; a four-sided regular polygon: you can compute the area of a square if you know the length of its sides

squash [skwɔʃ] – n. any of numerous annual trailing plants of the genus Cucurbita grown for their fleshy edible fruits

squat [skwɔt] – n. exercising by repeatedly assuming a crouching position with the knees bent; strengthens the leg muscles

squeeze [skwi:z] – v. to compress with violence, out of natural shape or condition: squeeze a lemon

squirrel [ˈskwirəl] – n. a kind of arboreal rodent having a long bushy tail

stab [stæb] – n. a sudden sharp feeling: she felt a stab of excitement

stability [stəˈbiliti] – n. the quality or attribute of being firm and steadfast

stabilize [ˈsteibilaiz] – v. make stable and keep from fluctuating or put into an equilibrium: The drug stabilized her blood pressure

stable [ˈsteibl] – adj. firm and dependable; subject to little fluctuation: the economy is stable

stack [stæk] – n. an orderly pile

stadium [ˈsteidiəm] – n. a large structure for open-air sports or entertainments

staff [stɑ:f] – n. personnel who assist their superior in carrying out an assigned task: the hospital has an excellent nursing staff

stage [steidʒ] – n. any distinct time period in a sequence of events: we are in a transitional stage in which many former ideas must be revised or rejected

stagger [ˈstægə] – v. walk as if unable to control one’s movements: The drunken man staggered into the room

stagnant [ˈstægnənt] – adj. not circulating or flowing: stagnant water

stagnation [stægˈneiʃən] – n. a state of inactivity (in business or art etc): economic growth of less than 1% per year is considered to be economic stagnation

stain [stein] – n. a soiled or discolored appearance: the wine left a dark stain

stainless [ˈsteinlis] – n. steel containing chromium that makes it resistant to corrosion

stair [stɛə] – n. support consisting of a place to rest the foot while ascending or descending a stairway

staircase [ˈstɛəkeis] – n. a way of access (upward and downward) consisting of a set of steps

stake [steik] – n. (law) a right or legal share of something; a financial involvement with something: a stake in the company’s future

stale [steil] – adj. lacking freshness, palatability, or showing deterioration from age: stale bread

stalk [stɔ:k] – n. material consisting of seed coverings and small pieces of stem or leaves that have been separated from the seeds

stall [stɔ:l] – n. small area set off by walls for special use

stammer [ˈstæmə] – n. a speech disorder involving hesitations and involuntary repetitions of certain sounds

stamp [stæmp] – n. the distinctive form in which a thing is made

stand [stænd] – n. a support or foundation

standard [ˈstændəd] – n. a basis for comparison; a reference point against which other things can be evaluated: the schools comply with federal standards

standardize [ˈstændədaiz] – v. evaluate by comparing with a standard

standing [ˈstændiŋ] – adj. having a supporting base: a standing lamp

standpoint [ˈstændpɔint] – n. a mental position from which things are viewed

standstill [ˈstændstil] – n. a situation in which no progress can be made or no advancement is possible

staple [ˈsteipl] – n. a natural fiber (raw cotton, wool, hemp, flax) that can be twisted to form yarn: staple fibers vary widely in length

stapler [ˈsteiplə] – n. a machine that inserts staples into sheets of paper in order to fasten them together

star [stɑ:] – n. someone who is dazzlingly skilled in any field

starch [stɑ:tʃ] – n. a complex carbohydrate found chiefly in seeds, fruits, tubers, roots and stem pith of plants, notably in corn, potatoes, wheat, and rice; an important foodstuff and used otherwise especially in adhesives and as fillers and stiffeners for paper and textiles

stare [stɛə] – v. look at with fixed eyes: The students stared at the teacher with amazement

start [stɑ:t] – v. take the first step or steps in carrying out an action: Who will start?

startle [ˈstɑ:tl] – v. to stimulate to action: ..startled him awake

starvation [stɑ:ˈveiʃən] – n. a state of extreme hunger resulting from lack of essential nutrients over a prolonged period

starve [stɑ:v] – v. be hungry; go without food

state [steit] – n. the territory occupied by one of the constituent administrative districts of a nation: his state is in the deep south

statement [ˈsteitmənt] – n. a fact or assertion offered as evidence that something is true

statesman [ˈsteitsmən] – n. a man who is a respected leader in national or international affairs

static [ˈstætik] – adj. not in physical motion

station [ˈsteiʃən] – n. a facility equipped with special equipment and personnel for a particular purpose: he started looking for a gas station

stationary [ˈsteiʃənəri] – adj. standing still: the car remained stationary with the engine running

stationery [ˈsteiʃ(ə)nəri] – n. paper cut to an appropriate size for writing letters; usually with matching envelopes

statistical [stəˈtistikəl] – adj. of or relating to statistics: statistical population

statistics [stəˈtistiks] – n. a branch of applied mathematics concerned with the collection and interpretation of quantitative data and the use of probability theory to estimate population parameters

statue [ˈstætju:] – n. a sculpture representing a human or animal

status [ˈsteitəs] – n. a state at a particular time: the current status of the arms negotiations

statute [ˈstætju:t] – n. an act passed by a legislative body

stay [stei] – v. dwell: You can stay with me while you are in town

steadfast [ˈstedfɑ:st, -fæst] – adj. marked by firm determination or resolution; not shakable: steadfast resolve

steadily [ˈstedili] – adv. in a steady manner: he could still walk steadily

steady [ˈstedi] – adj. not subject to change or variation especially in behavior: a steady beat

steak [steik] – n. a slice of meat cut from the fleshy part of an animal or large fish

steal [sti:l] – v. take without the owner’s consent

steam [sti:m] – v. rise as vapor

steamer [ˈsti:mə] – n. a cooking utensil that can be used to cook food by steaming it

steel [sti:l] – n. a cutting or thrusting weapon that has a long metal blade and a hilt with a hand guard

steep [sti:p] – adj. having a sharp inclination: the steep attic stairs

steer [stiə] – v. direct the course; determine the direction of travelling

stem [stem] – n. a slender or elongated structure that supports a plant or fungus or a plant part or plant organ

stencil [ˈstensl, -sil] – n. a sheet of material (metal, plastic, cardboard, waxed paper, silk, etc.) that has been perforated with a pattern (printing or a design); ink or paint can pass through the perforations to create the printed pattern on the surface below

step [step] – n. any maneuver made as part of progress toward a goal: the police took steps to reduce crime

stereo [ˈsteriəu] – n. reproducer in which two microphones feed two or more loudspeakers to give a three-dimensional effect to the sound

stereotype [ˈsteriətaip] – n. a conventional or formulaic conception or image: regional stereotypes have been part of America since its founding

sterilize [ˈsterilaiz] – v. make free from bacteria

sterling [ˈstə:liŋ] – adj. highest in quality

stern [stə:n] – adj. not to be placated or appeased or moved by entreaty: the stern demands of parenthood

stevedore [ˈsti:vidɔ:] – n. a laborer who loads and unloads vessels in a port

stew [stju:] – v. be in a huff; be silent or sullen

steward [ˈstju:əd] – n. someone who manages property or other affairs for someone else

stewardess [ˈstju:ədis] – n. a woman steward on an airplane

stick [stik] – v. put, fix, force, or implant: stick your thumb in the crack

sticky [ˈstiki] – adj. moist as with undried perspiration and with clothing sticking to the body: felt sticky and chilly at the same time

stiff [stif] – adj. not moving or operating freely: a stiff hinge

still [stil] – adj. not in physical motion

stillness [ˈstilnis] – n. (poetic) tranquil silence

stimulate [ˈstimjuleit] – v. cause to do; cause to act in a specified manner

stimulation [.stimjuˈleiʃən] – n. the act of arousing an organism to action

stimulus [ˈstimjuləs] – n. any stimulating information or event; acts to arouse action

sting [stiŋ] – v. saddle with something disagreeable or disadvantageous

stink [stiŋk] – v. be extremely bad in quality or in one’s performance: This term paper stinks!

stipulate [ˈstipjuleit] – v. specify as a condition or requirement in a contract or agreement; make an express demand or provision in an agreement: The will stipulates that she can live in the house for the rest of her life

stipulation [.stipjuˈleiʃən] – n. an assumption on which rests the validity or effect of something else

stir [stə:] – v. move an implement through: stir the soup

stirring [ˈstə:riŋ] – n. agitating a liquid with an implement: constant stirring prevents it from burning on the bottom of the pan

stitch [stitʃ] – n. a link or loop or knot made by an implement in knitting, crocheting, embroidery, or sewing

stock [stɔk] – n. the capital raised by a corporation through the issue of shares entitling holders to an ownership interest (equity): he owns a controlling share of the company’s stock

stocking [ˈstɔkiŋ] – n. close-fitting hosiery to cover the foot and leg; come in matched pairs (usually used in the plural)

stomach [ˈstʌmək] – n. an enlarged and muscular saclike organ of the alimentary canal; the principal organ of digestion

stone [stəun] – n. a lump or mass of hard consolidated mineral matter

stony [ˈstəuni] – adj. showing unfeeling resistance to tender feelings

stool [stu:l] – n. a simple seat without a back or arms

stoop [stu:p] – v. bend one’s back forward from the waist on down: The young man stooped to pick up the girl’s purse

stop [stɔp] – n. the event of something ending: it came to a stop at the bottom of the hill

storage  – n. a depository for goods

store [stɔ:] – n. a mercantile establishment for the retail sale of goods or services

storey [ˈstɔ:ri] – n. a structure consisting of a room or set of rooms at a single position along a vertical scale

storm [stɔ:m] – v. behave violently, as if in state of a great anger

stormy [ˈstɔ:mi] – adj. characterized by violent emotions or behavior: a stormy argument

story [ˈstɔ:ri] – n. a piece of fiction that narrates a chain of related events

stout [staut] – adj. dependable: stout hearts

stove [stəuv] – n. a kitchen appliance used for cooking food: dinner was already on the stove

stow [stəu] – v. fill by packing tightly: stow the cart

stowage [ˈstəuidʒ] – n. a room in which things are stored

straight [streit] – adj. successive (without a break): sick for five straight days

straighten [ˈstreitn] – v. make straight

straightforward [streitˈfɔ:wəd] – adj. free from ambiguity: a straightforward set of instructions

strain [strein] – n. (physics) deformation of a physical body under the action of applied forces

strait [streit] – n. a narrow channel of the sea joining two larger bodies of water

strand [strænd] – n. line consisting of a complex of fibers or filaments that are twisted together to form a thread or a rope or a cable

strange [streindʒ] – adj. being definitely out of the ordinary and unexpected; slightly odd or even a bit weird: a strange exaltation that was indefinable

stranger [ˈstreindʒə] – n. anyone who does not belong in the environment in which they are found

strap [stræp] – n. hanger consisting of a loop of leather suspended from the ceiling of a bus or train; passengers hold onto it

strategic [strəˈti:dʒik] – adj. highly important to or an integral part of a strategy or plan of action especially in war: a strategic chess move

strategy [ˈstrætidʒi] – n. an elaborate and systematic plan of action

straw [strɔ:] – n. plant fiber used e.g. for making baskets and hats or as fodder

strawberry [ˈstrɔ:bəri] – n. sweet fleshy red fruit

stray [strei] – v. move about aimlessly or without any destination, often in search of food or employment

streak [stri:k] – n. an unbroken series of events: had a streak of bad luck

stream [stri:m] – n. a natural body of running water flowing on or under the earth

streamline [ˈstri:mlain] – v. contour economically or efficiently

street [stri:t] – n. a thoroughfare (usually including sidewalks) that is lined with buildings: they walked the streets of the small town

streetcar [ˈstri:tkɑ:] – n. a wheeled vehicle that runs on rails and is propelled by electricity

strength [streŋθ] – n. the property of being physically or mentally strong: fatigue sapped his strength

strengthen [ˈstreŋθən] – v. make strong or stronger: This exercise will strengthen your upper body

strenuous [ˈstrenjuəs] – adj. characterized by or performed with much energy or force: strenuous exercise

stress [stres] – n. (psychology) a state of mental or emotional strain or suspense: stress is a vasoconstrictor

stretch [stretʃ] – v. occupy a large, elongated area: The park stretched beneath the train line

strict [strikt] – adj. rigidly accurate; allowing no deviation from a standard: a strict vegetarian

strictly [ˈstriktli] – adv. in a stringent manner

stride [straid] – n. a step in walking or running

strife [straif] – n. lack of agreement or harmony

strike [straik] – v. deliver a sharp blow, as with the hand, fist, or weapon: the opponent refused to strike

striking [ˈstraikiŋ] – n. the physical coming together of two or more things

string [striŋ] – n. a lightweight cord

strip [strip] – v. take away possessions from someone: The Nazis stripped the Jews of all their assets

stripe [straip] – n. a piece of braid, usually on the sleeve, indicating military rank or length of service

strive [straiv] – v. attempt by employing effort

stroke [strəuk] – n. the maximum movement available to a pivoted or reciprocating piece by a cam

stroll [strəul] – n. a leisurely walk (usually in some public place)

stroller [ˈstrəulə] – n. someone who walks at a leisurely pace

strong [strɔŋ] – adj. not faint or feeble: a strong odor of burning rubber

stronghold [ˈstrɔŋhəʊld] – n. a strongly fortified defensive structure

strongly [ˈstrɔŋli] – adv. in a powerful manner

structural [ˈstrʌktʃərəl] – adj. relating to or having or characterized by structure: structural engineer

structure [ˈstrʌktʃə] – n. the manner of construction of something and the arrangement of its parts: artists must study the structure of the human body

struggle [ˈstrʌgl] – v. make a strenuous or labored effort: She struggled for years to survive without welfare

stubborn [ˈstʌbən] – adj. tenaciously unwilling or marked by tenacious unwillingness to yield

student [ˈstju:dənt] – n. a learner who is enrolled in an educational institution

studio [ˈstju:diəu] – n. workplace for the teaching or practice of an art: she ran a dance studio

study [ˈstʌdi] – n. a detailed critical inspection

stuff [stʌf] – n. the tangible substance that goes into the makeup of a physical object: wheat is the stuff they use to make bread

stuffy [ˈstʌfi] – adj. lacking fresh air: hot and stuffy and the air was blue with smoke

stumble [ˈstʌmbl] – v. walk unsteadily: The drunk man stumbled about

stump [stʌmp] – n. the base part of a tree that remains standing after the tree has been felled

stun [stʌn] – v. make senseless or dizzy by or as if by a blow: stun fish

stupid [ˈstju:pid] – adj. lacking or marked by lack of intellectual acuity

stupidity [stju(:)ˈpiditi] – n. a poor ability to understand or to profit from experience

sturdy [ˈstə:di] – adj. having rugged physical strength; inured to fatigue or hardships: sturdy young athletes

style [stail] – n. how something is done or how it happens: in the characteristic New York style

stylist [ˈstailist] – n. someone who cuts or beautifies hair

subdivide [ˈsʌbdiˈvaid] – v. divide into smaller and smaller pieces: This apartment cannot be subdivided any further!

subdue [sʌbˈdju:] – v. put down by force or intimidation

subject [ˈsʌbdʒekt] – n. something (a person or object or scene) selected by an artist or photographer for graphic representation: a moving picture of a train is more dramatic than a still picture of the same subject

subjective [səbˈdʒektiv] – adj. taking place within the mind and modified by individual bias: a subjective judgment

subjunctive [səbˈdʒʌŋktiv] – n. a mood that represents an act or state (not as a fact but) as contingent or possible

submarine [ˈsʌbməri:n] – v. move forward or under in a sliding motion: The child was injured when he submarined under the safety belt of the car

submerge [səbˈmə:dʒ] – v. sink below the surface; go under or as if under water

submit [səbˈmit] – v. refer for judgment or consideration: The lawyers submitted the material to the court

subordinate [səˈbɔ:dineit] – adj. lower in rank or importance

subordination [sə.bɔ:diˈneiʃən] – n. the semantic relation of being subordinate or belonging to a lower rank or class

subscribe [səbˈskraib] – v. offer to buy, as of stocks and shares: The broker subscribed 500 shares

subscription [səbˈskripʃən] – n. a payment for consecutive issues of a newspaper or magazine for a given period of time

subsequence [ˈsʌbsikwəns] – n. something that follows something else

subsequent [ˈsʌbsikwənt] – adj. following in time or order: subsequent developments

subsequently [ˈsʌbsikwəntli] – adv. happening at a time subsequent to a reference time: he apologized subsequently

subside [səbˈsaid] – v. wear off or die down: The pain subsided

subsidiary [səbˈsidjəri] – n. an assistant subject to the authority or control of another

subsidy [ˈsʌbsidi] – n. a grant paid by a government to an enterprise that benefits the public: a subsidy for research in artificial intelligence

substance [ˈsʌbstəns] – n. the real physical matter of which a person or thing consists: DNA is the substance of our genes

substantial [səbˈstænʃəl] – adj. fairly large: won by a substantial margin

substantiate [sʌbsˈtænʃieit] – v. establish or strengthen as with new evidence or facts

substitute [ˈsʌbstitju:t] – n. a person or thing that takes or can take the place of another

substitution [.sʌbstiˈtju:ʃən] – n. the act of putting one thing or person in the place of another:: he sent Smith in for Jones but the substitution came too late to help

subtitle [ˈsʌb.taitl] – n. translation of foreign dialogue of a movie or TV program; usually displayed at the bottom of the screen

subtle [ˈsʌtl] – adj. difficult to detect or grasp by the mind or analyze: his whole attitude had undergone a subtle change

subtract [səbˈtrækt] – v. take off or away: this prefix was subtracted when the word was borrowed from French

subtraction [səbˈtrækʃən] – n. an arithmetic operation in which the difference between two numbers is calculated: the subtraction of three from four leaves one

suburb [ˈsʌbə:b] – n. a residential district located on the outskirts of a city

suburban [səˈbə:bən] – adj. relating to or characteristic of or situated in suburbs: suburban population

subway [ˈsʌbwei] – n. an electric railway operating below the surface of the ground (usually in a city): in Paris the subway system is called the `metro’ and in London it is called the `tube’ or the `underground’

succeed [səkˈsi:d] – v. be the successor (of): Will Charles succeed to the throne?

success [səkˈses] – n. an event that accomplishes its intended purpose: let’s call heads a success and tails a failure

successful [səkˈsesfəl] – adj. having succeeded or being marked by a favorable outcome: a successful architect

successfully [səkˈsesfʊli] – adv. with success; in a successful manner: she performed the surgery successfully

succession [səkˈseʃən] – n. a following of one thing after another in time

successive [səkˈsesiv] – adj. in regular succession without gaps

successor [səkˈsesə] – n. a person who follows next in order: he was President Lincoln’s successor

succinct [səkˈsiŋkt] – adj. briefly giving the gist of something: succinct comparisons

succumb [səˈkʌm] – v. consent reluctantly

such [sʌtʃ] – adj. of so extreme a degree or extent: such weeping

suck [sʌk] – v. draw into the mouth by creating a practical vacuum in the mouth: suck the poison from the place where the snake bit

sudden [ˈsʌdn] – adj. happening without warning or in a short space of time: a sudden storm

suddenly [ˈsʌdənli] – adv. happening unexpectedly: suddenly she felt a sharp pain in her side

sue [su:] – n. French writer whose novels described the sordid side of city life (1804-1857)

suffer [ˈsʌfə] – v. undergo or be subjected to: He suffered the penalty

suffering [ˈsʌfəriŋ] – n. a state of acute pain

suffice [səˈfais] – v. be sufficient; be adequate, either in quality or quantity: A ‘B’ grade doesn’t suffice to get me into medical school

sufficient [səˈfiʃənt] – adj. of a quantity that can fulfill a need or requirement but without being abundant: sufficient food

sufficiently [səˈfiʃəntli] – adv. to a sufficient degree: she was sufficiently fluent in Mandarin

suffix [ˈsʌfiks] – n. an affix that is added at the end of the word

sugar [ˈʃugə] – n. a white crystalline carbohydrate used as a sweetener and preservative

suggest [səˈdʒest] – v. make a proposal, declare a plan for something

suggestion [səˈdʒestʃən] – n. a proposal offered for acceptance or rejection: it was a suggestion we couldn’t refuse

suicide [ˈsu:ə.said] – n. the act of killing yourself: it is a crime to commit suicide

suit [sju:t] – n. a comprehensive term for any proceeding in a court of law whereby an individual seeks a legal remedy: the family brought suit against the landlord

suitable [ˈsju:təbl] – adj. meant or adapted for an occasion or use: a tractor suitable (or fit) for heavy duty

suitcase [ˈsu:tkeis] – n. a portable rectangular container for carrying clothes

suite [swi:t] – n. a musical composition of several movements only loosely connected

sullen [ˈsʌlən] – adj. showing a brooding ill humor: a sullen crowd

sulphur [ˈsʌlfə] – n. an abundant tasteless odorless multivalent nonmetallic element; best known in yellow crystals; occurs in many sulphide and sulphate minerals and even in native form (especially in volcanic regions)

sultry [ˈsʌltri] – adj. sexually exciting or gratifying: a sultry look

sum [sʌm] – n. a quantity of money: he borrowed a large sum

summarize [ˈsʌməraiz] – v. be a summary of: The abstract summarizes the main ideas in the paper

summary [ˈsʌməri] – adj. performed speedily and without formality: a summary execution

summer [ˈsʌmə] – n. the period of finest development, happiness, or beauty: the golden summer of his life

summit [ˈsʌmit] – n. the highest level or degree attainable; the highest stage of development: the summit of his ambition

summon [ˈsʌmən] – v. call in an official matter, such as to attend court

sun [sʌn] – n. the star that is the source of light and heat for the planets in the solar system: the sun contains 99.85% of the mass in the solar system

sunburn [ˈsʌnbə:n] – n. a browning of the skin resulting from exposure to the rays of the sun

Sunday [ˈsʌndi] – n. first day of the week; observed as a day of rest and worship by most Christians

sunflower [ˈsʌnflauə] – n. any plant of the genus Helianthus having large flower heads with dark disk florets and showy yellow rays

sunlight [ˈsʌnlait] – n. the rays of the sun

sunny [ˈsʌni] – adj. bright and pleasant; promoting a feeling of cheer: a gay sunny room

sunrise [ˈsʌnraiz] – n. the first light of day

sunset [ˈsʌnset] – n. atmospheric phenomena accompanying the daily disappearance of the sun

sunshine [ˈsʌnʃain] – n. the rays of the sun

super [ˈsu:pə] – adj. of the highest quality: a super party

superb [sjuˈpə:b] – adj. of surpassing excellence: a superb actor

superficial [.su:pəˈfiʃəl] – adj. concerned with or comprehending only what is apparent or obvious; not deep or penetrating emotionally or intellectually: superficial similarities

superfluous [su:ˈpə:fluəs, sju:-] – adj. serving no useful purpose; having no excuse for being

superintend [.su:pərinˈtend, .sju:-] – v. watch and direct

superintendent [.sju:pərinˈtendənt] – n. a person who directs and manages an organization

superior [su:ˈpiəriə] – adj. of or characteristic of high rank or importance: a superior ruler

superiority [sju.piəriˈɔriti] – n. the quality of being at a competitive advantage

supermarket [ˈsju:pə.mɑ:kit] – n. a large self-service grocery store selling groceries and dairy products and household goods

supersede [.sju:pəˈsi:d] – v. take the place or move into the position of

supersonic [ˈsju:pəˈsɔnik] – adj. (of speed) greater than the speed of sound in a given medium (especially air): a supersonic bomber flies so fast that it must release its bombs while the target is still over the horizon

superstition [.sju:pəˈstiʃən] – n. an irrational belief arising from ignorance or fear

superstitious [.sju:pəˈstiʃəs] – adj. showing ignorance of the laws of nature and faith in magic or chance: finally realized that the horror he felt was superstitious in origin

superstructure [ˈsu:pə.strʌktʃə, ˈsju:-] – n. structure consisting of the part of a ship above the main deck

supervise [ˈsju:pəvaiz] – v. watch and direct

supervision [.sju:pəˈviʒən] – n. management by overseeing the performance or operation of a person or group

supervisor [ˈsju:pəvaizə] – n. a program that controls the execution of other programs

supper [ˈsʌpə] – n. a light evening meal; served in early evening if dinner is at midday or served late in the evening at bedtime

supplement [ˈsʌpliment] – n. textual matter that is added onto a publication; usually at the end

supplementary [.sʌpliˈmentəri] – adj. functioning in a supporting capacity

supplier [səˈplaiə] – n. someone whose business is to supply a particular service or commodity

supply [səˈplai] – v. give something useful or necessary to

support [səˈpɔ:t] – n. aiding the cause or policy or interests of: the president no longer has the support of his own party

supporter [səˈpɔ:tə] – n. a person who backs a politician or a team etc.: all their supporters came out for the game

suppose [səˈpəuz] – v. express a supposition

supposedly [səˈpəuzidli] – adv. believed or reputed to be the case

supposition [.sʌpəˈziʃən] – n. a message expressing an opinion based on incomplete evidence

suppress [səˈpres] – v. to put down by force or authority: suppress a nascent uprising

suppression [səˈpreʃən] – n. the failure to develop some part or organ

supreme [sju:ˈpri:m] – adj. final or last in your life or progress: the supreme sacrifice

surcharge [ˈsə:tʃɑ:dʒ] – v. charge an extra fee, as for a special service

sure [ʃuə] – adj. exercising or taking care great enough to bring assurance: be sure to lock the doors

surely [ˈʃuəli] – adv. definitely or positively (`sure’ is sometimes used informally for `surely’): the results are surely encouraging

surface [ˈsə:fis] – n. the outer boundary of an artifact or a material layer constituting or resembling such a boundary: there is a special cleaner for these surfaces

surge [sə:dʒ] – v. rise and move, as in waves or billows: The army surged forward

surgeon [ˈsə:dʒən] – n. a physician who specializes in surgery

surgery [ˈsə:dʒəri] – n. the branch of medical science that treats disease or injury by operative procedures: he is professor of surgery at the Harvard Medical School

surmise [ˈsə:maiz] – v. infer from incomplete evidence

surmount [səˈmaunt] – v. get on top of; deal with successfully

surname [ˈsə:neim] – n. the name used to identify the members of a family (as distinguished from each member’s given name)

surpass [səˈpɑ:s] – v. distinguish oneself

surplus [ˈsə:pləs] – n. a quantity much larger than is needed

surprise [səˈpraiz] – n. the astonishment you feel when something totally unexpected happens to you

surprising [səˈpraiziŋ] – adj. causing surprise or wonder or amazement: the report shows a surprising lack of hard factual data

surrender [səˈrendə] – n. acceptance of despair

surround [səˈraund] – v. extend on all sides of simultaneously; encircle: The forest surrounds my property

surroundings [səˈraundiŋz] – n. the environmental condition

survey [sə:ˈvei] – v. consider in a comprehensive way

surveyor [sə:ˈveiə] – n. an engineer who determines the boundaries and elevations of land or structures

survival [səˈvaivəl] – n. a natural process resulting in the evolution of organisms best adapted to the environment

survive [səˈvaiv] – v. continue to live through hardship or adversity: These superstitions survive in the backwaters of America

survivor [səˈvaivə] – n. one who lives through affliction: the survivors of the fire were taken to a hospital

susceptible [səˈseptəbl] – adj. (often followed by `of’ or `to’) yielding readily to or capable of: susceptible to colds

suspect [səsˈpekt] – v. imagine to be the case or true or probable: I suspect he is a fugitive

suspend [səsˈpend] – v. hang freely: The secret police suspended their victims from the ceiling and beat them

suspense [səsˈpens] – n. apprehension about what is going to happen

suspension [səˈspenʃən] – n. a time interval during which there is a temporary cessation of something

suspicion [səsˈpiʃən] – n. an impression that something might be the case

suspicious [səsˈpiʃəs] – adj. openly distrustful and unwilling to confide

sustain [səsˈtein] – v. lengthen or extend in duration or space: We sustained the diplomatic negotiations as long as possible

sustenance [ˈsʌstənəns] – n. a source of materials to nourish the body

swallow [ˈswɔləu] – v. pass through the esophagus as part of eating or drinking

swamp [swɔmp] – n. low land that is seasonally flooded; has more woody plants than a marsh and better drainage than a bog

swan [swɔn] – v. to declare or affirm solemnly and formally as true

swarm [swɔ:m] – n. a moving crowd

sway [swei] – v. move back and forth or sideways: the tall building swayed

swear [swɛə] – v. utter obscenities or profanities

sweat [swet] – n. agitation resulting from active worry: he’s in a sweat about exams

sweater [ˈswetə] – n. a crocheted or knitted garment covering the upper part of the body

Swede [swi:d] – n. a native or inhabitant of Sweden

Sweden [ˈswi:dn] – n. a Scandinavian kingdom in the eastern part of the Scandinavian Peninsula

Swedish [ˈswi:diʃ] – n. a Scandinavian language that is the official language of Sweden and one of two official languages of Finland

sweep [swi:p] – v. force into some kind of situation, condition, or course of action

sweet [swi:t] – adj. having or denoting the characteristic taste of sugar

sweeten [ˈswi:tn] – v. make sweeter, more pleasant, or more agreeable: sweeten a deal

sweetheart [ˈswi:thɑ:t] – n. a person loved by another person

sweetness [ˈswi:tnis] – n. the taste experience when sugar dissolves in the mouth

swell [swel] – v. increase in size, magnitude, number, or intensity: The music swelled to a crescendo

swerve [swə:v] – n. the act of turning aside suddenly

swift [swift] – n. United States meat-packer who began the use of refrigerated railroad cars (1839-1903)

swim [swim] – v. travel through water: We had to swim for 20 minutes to reach the shore

swing [swiŋ] – v. move in a curve or arc, usually with the intent of hitting: swing a bat

swirl [swə:l] – v. turn in a twisting or spinning motion: The leaves swirled in the autumn wind

Swiss [swis] – n. the natives or inhabitants of Switzerland

switch [switʃ] – n. an event in which one thing is substituted for another

Switzerland [ˈswitsələnd] – n. a landlocked federal republic in central Europe

sword [sɔ:d] – n. a cutting or thrusting weapon that has a long metal blade and a hilt with a hand guard

syllable [ˈsiləbl] – n. a unit of spoken language larger than a phoneme: the word `pocket’ has two syllables

syllabus [ˈsiləbəs] – n. an integrated course of academic studies

symbol [ˈsimbəl] – n. an arbitrary sign (written or printed) that has acquired a conventional significance

symbolize [ˈsimbəlaiz] – v. represent or identify by using a symbol; use symbols: The poet symbolizes love in this poem

symmetric [siˈmetrik] – adj. having similarity in size, shape, and relative position of corresponding parts

symmetry [ˈsimitri] – n. balance among the parts of something

sympathetic [.simpəˈθetik] – adj. expressing or feeling or resulting from sympathy or compassion or friendly fellow feelings; disposed toward: sympathetic to the students’ cause

sympathize [ˈsimpəθaiz] – v. share the feelings of; understand the sentiments of

sympathy [ˈsimpəθi] – n. an inclination to support or be loyal to or to agree with an opinion

symphony [ˈsimfəni] – n. a large orchestra; can perform symphonies: we heard the Vienna symphony

symposium [simˈpəuziəm] – n. a meeting or conference for the public discussion of some topic especially one in which the participants form an audience and make presentations

symptom [ˈsimptəm] – n. anything that accompanies X and is regarded as an indication of X’s existence

synchronize [ˈsiŋkrənaiz] – v. happen at the same time

synonym [ˈsinənim] – n. two words that can be interchanged in a context are said to be synonymous relative to that context

synthesis [ˈsinθisis] – n. the process of producing a chemical compound (usually by the union of simpler chemical compounds)

synthetic [sinˈθetik] – adj. not of natural origin; prepared or made artificially: synthetic leather

system [ˈsistəm] – n. instrumentality that combines interrelated interacting artifacts designed to work as a coherent entity: he bought a new stereo system

systematic [.sistiˈmætik] – adj. characterized by order and planning: the investigation was very systematic

systematically [sistəˈmætikəli] – adv. in a systematic or consistent manner: they systematically excluded women

tablet [ˈtæblit] – n. a number of sheets of paper fastened together along one edge

taboo [təˈbu:, tæˈbu:] – n. an inhibition or ban resulting from social custom or emotional aversion

tabulate [ˈtæbjuleit] – v. shape or cut with a flat surface

tacit [ˈtæsit] – adj. implied by or inferred from actions or statements: a tacit agreement

tack [tæk] – n. the heading or position of a vessel relative to the trim of its sails

tackle [ˈtækl] – n. the person who plays that position on a football team: the right tackle is a straight A student

tact [tækt] – n. consideration in dealing with others and avoiding giving offense

tactful [ˈtæktful] – adj. having or showing a sense of what is fitting and considerate in dealing with others: she was tactful enough not to shatter his illusion

tactic [ˈtæktik] – n. a plan for attaining a particular goal

tactics [ˈtæktiks] – n. the branch of military science dealing with detailed maneuvers to achieve objectives set by strategy

tag [tæg] – n. a label associated with something for the purpose of identification: semantic tags were attached in order to identify different meanings of the word

tail [teil] – n. the time of the last part of something: the tail of the storm

tailor [ˈteilə] – v. adjust to a specific need or market: tailor your needs to your surroundings

take [teik] – v. carry out: take action

tale [teil] – n. a trivial lie

talent [ˈtælənt] – n. natural abilities or qualities

talk [tɔ:k] – v. express in speech: She talks a lot of nonsense

talkative [ˈtɔ:kətiv] – adj. full of trivial conversation

tall [tɔ:l] – adj. lofty in style: he engages in so much tall talk, one never really realizes what he is saying

tally [ˈtæli] – v. be compatible, similar or consistent; coincide in their characteristics

tame [teim] – v. correct by punishment or discipline

tamper [ˈtæmpə] – v. play around with or alter or falsify, usually secretively or dishonestly: Someone tampered with the documents on my desk

tan [tæn] – n. a browning of the skin resulting from exposure to the rays of the sun

tangible [ˈtændʒəbəl] – adj. perceptible by the senses especially the sense of touch: skin with a tangible roughness

tangle [ˈtæŋgl] – v. force into some kind of situation, condition, or course of action

tank [tæŋk] – n. a large (usually metallic) vessel for holding gases or liquids

tanker [ˈtæŋkə] – n. a cargo ship designed to carry crude oil in bulk

tap [tæp] – v. draw from or dip into to get something: tap one’s memory

tape [teip] – n. a long thin piece of cloth or paper as used for binding or fastening: he used a piece of tape for a belt

tar [tɑ:] – n. a man who serves as a sailor

tare [tɛə] – n. an adjustment made for the weight of the packaging in order to determine the net weight of the goods

target [ˈtɑ:git] – n. a reference point to shoot at

tariff [ˈtærif] – n. a government tax on imports or exports

tarnish [ˈtɑ:niʃ] – n. discoloration of metal surface caused by oxidation

task [tɑ:sk] – n. a specific piece of work required to be done as a duty or for a specific fee: the endless task of classifying the samples

taste [teist] – n. a strong liking

tasteful [ˈteistful] – adj. free from what is tawdry or unbecoming

tax [tæks] – v. set or determine the amount of (a payment such as a fine)

taxation [tækˈseiʃən] – n. charge against a citizen’s person or property or activity for the support of government

taxi [ˈtæksi] – v. travel slowly: The plane taxied down the runway

tea [ti:] – n. dried leaves of the tea shrub; used to make tea: the store shelves held many different kinds of tea

teach [ti:tʃ] – v. impart skills or knowledge to

teacher [ˈti:tʃə] – n. a personified abstraction that teaches: books were his teachers

teaching [ˈti:tʃiŋ] – n. a doctrine that is taught: the teachings of religion

teacup [ˈti:kʌp] – n. a cup from which tea is drunk

team [ti:m] – n. a cooperative unit (especially in sports)

teapot [ˈti:pɔt] – n. pot for brewing tea; usually has a spout and handle

tear [tɛə,tiə] – v. to separate or be separated by force

tease [ti:z] – v. annoy persistently: The children teased the boy because of his stammer

technical [ˈteknikəl] – adj. characterizing or showing skill in or specialized knowledge of applied arts and sciences: a technical problem

technician [tekˈniʃən] – n. someone known for high skill in some intellectual or artistic technique

technique [tekˈni:k] – n. a practical method or art applied to some particular task

technological [.teknəˈlɔdʒikəl] – adj. based in scientific and industrial progress: a technological civilization

technology [tekˈnɔlədʒi] – n. the practical application of science to commerce or industry

tedious [ˈti:diəs] – adj. so lacking in interest as to cause mental weariness: tedious days on the train

teem [ti:m] – v. move in large numbers

teenager [ˈti:n.eidʒə] – n. a juvenile between the onset of puberty and maturity

teens [ti:nz] – n. the time of life between the ages of 12 and 20

telecommunication [.telikəmju:niˈkeiʃən] – n. (often plural) systems used in transmitting messages over a distance electronically

telefax  – v. send something via a facsimile machine

telegram [ˈteligræm] – n. a message transmitted by telegraph

telegraph [ˈteligrɑ:f] – n. apparatus used to communicate at a distance over a wire (usually in Morse code)

telephone [ˈtelifəun] – n. transmitting speech at a distance

telescope [ˈteliskəup] – v. crush together or collapse: In the accident, the cars telescoped

television [ˈteli.viʒən] – n. broadcasting visual images of stationary or moving objects

telex [ˈteleks] – n. a character printer connected to a telegraph that operates like a typewriter

tell [tel] – v. express in words: tell me what is bothering you

teller [ˈtelə] – n. United States physicist (born in Hungary) who worked on the first atom bomb and the first hydrogen bomb (1908-2003)

telling [ˈteliŋ] – n. an act of narration

temperament [ˈtempərəmənt] – n. your usual mood

temperate [ˈtempərit] – adj. (of weather or climate) free from extremes; mild; or characteristic of such weather or climate: a temperate region

temperature [ˈtempritʃə] – n. the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment (corresponding to its molecular activity)

temple [ˈtempl] – n. place of worship consisting of an edifice for the worship of a deity

tempo [ˈtempəu] – n. (music) the speed at which a composition is to be played

temporary [ˈtempəreri] – adj. not permanent; not lasting: temporary housing

tempt [tempt] – v. dispose or incline or entice to: We were tempted by the delicious-looking food

temptation [tempˈteiʃən] – n. something that seduces or has the quality to seduce

ten [ten] – n. the cardinal number that is the sum of nine and one; the base of the decimal system

tenable [ˈtenəbəl] – adj. based on sound reasoning or evidence

tenacious [tiˈneiʃəs] – adj. good at remembering: tenacious memory

tenancy [ˈtenənsi] – n. an act of being a tenant or occupant

tenant [ˈtenənt] – n. someone who pays rent to use land or a building or a car that is owned by someone else: the landlord can evict a tenant who doesn’t pay the rent

tend [tend] – v. have care of or look after: She tends to the children

tendency [ˈtendənsi] – n. an attitude of mind especially one that favors one alternative over others: a tendency to be too strict

tender [ˈtendə] – adj. given to sympathy or gentleness or sentimentality: a tender heart

tennis [ˈtenis] – n. a game played with rackets by two or four players who hit a ball back and forth over a net that divides the court

tenor [ˈtenə] – n. the adult male singing voice above baritone

tense [tens] – v. increase the tension on: alternately relax and tense your calf muscle

tension [ˈtenʃən] – n. (psychology) a state of mental or emotional strain or suspense: he suffered from fatigue and emotional tension

tent [tent] – n. a portable shelter (usually of canvas stretched over supporting poles and fastened to the ground with ropes and pegs): he pitched his tent near the creek

tentacle [ˈtentikəl] – n. any of various elongated tactile or prehensile flexible organs that occur on the head or near the mouth in many animals; used for feeling or grasping or locomotion

tentative [ˈtentətiv] – adj. under terms not final or fully worked out or agreed upon: just a tentative schedule

tenth [tenθ] – n. position ten in a countable series of things

term [tə:m] – n. a word or expression used for some particular thing: he learned many medical terms

terminable [ˈtə:minəbl] – adj. capable of being terminated after a designated time: terminable employees

terminal [ˈtə:minl] – adj. of or relating to or situated at the ends of a delivery route: freight pickup is a terminal service

terminate [ˈtə:mineit] – v. bring to an end or halt: The attack on Poland terminated the relatively peaceful period after WW I

termination [.tə:miˈneiʃən] – n. a coming to an end of a contract period

terminology [.tə:miˈnɔlədʒi] – n. a system of words used to name things in a particular discipline: legal terminology

terrace [ˈterəs] – n. usually paved outdoor area adjoining a residence

terrain [teˈrein] – n. a piece of ground having specific characteristics or military potential: they decided to attack across the rocky terrain

terrestrial [tiˈrestriəl] – adj. of or relating to or inhabiting the land as opposed to the sea or air

terrible [ˈterəbl] – adj. exceptionally bad or displeasing: terrible handwriting

terribly [ˈteribli] – adv. used as intensifiers: terribly interesting

terrific [təˈrifik] – adj. very great or intense: a terrific noise

terrify [ˈterifai] – v. fill with terror; frighten greatly

territorial [.teriˈtɔ:riəl] – adj. of or relating to a territory: the territorial government of the Virgin Islands

territory [ˈteritəri] – n. a region marked off for administrative or other purposes

terror [ˈterə] – n. an overwhelming feeling of fear and anxiety

terrorism [ˈterəriz(ə)m] – n. the calculated use of violence (or the threat of violence) against civilians in order to attain goals that are political or religious or ideological in nature; this is done through intimidation or coercion or instilling fear

terrorist [ˈterərist] – n. a radical who employs terror as a political weapon; usually organizes with other terrorists in small cells; often uses religion as a cover for terrorist activities

terse [tə:s] – adj. brief and to the point; effectively cut short: short and terse and easy to understand

test [test] – v. examine someone’s knowledge of something: The teacher tests us every week

testify [ˈtestifai] – v. provide evidence for

testimony [ˈtestiməni] – n. a solemn statement made under oath

text [tekst] – n. a passage from the Bible that is used as the subject of a sermon: the preacher chose a text from Psalms to introduce his sermon

textbook [ˈtekstbuk] – n. a book prepared for use in schools or colleges: his economics textbook is in its tenth edition

textile [ˈtekstail] – n. artifact made by weaving or felting or knitting or crocheting natural or synthetic fibers

textual [ˈtekstjuəl] – adj. of or relating to or based on a text: textual analysis

texture [ˈtekstʃə] – n. the feel of a surface or a fabric: the wall had a smooth texture

thank [θæŋk] – v. express gratitude or show appreciation to

thankful [ˈθæŋkfəl] – adj. feeling or showing gratitude: a thankful smile

thanks [θæŋks] – n. an acknowledgment of appreciation

thaw [θɔ:] – n. warm weather following a freeze; snow and ice melt: they welcomed the spring thaw

theatre [ˈθiətə] – n. the art of writing and producing plays

theatrical [θiˈætrikəl] – adj. suited to or characteristic of the stage or theater: a theatrical pose

theft [θeft] – n. the act of taking something from someone unlawfully

theme [θi:m] – n. a unifying idea that is a recurrent element in literary or artistic work: it was the usual `boy gets girl’ theme

then [ðen] – adv. subsequently or soon afterward (often used as sentence connectors): then he left

theoretical [θiəˈretikəl] – adj. concerned primarily with theories or hypotheses rather than practical considerations: theoretical science

theory [ˈθiəri] – n. a tentative insight into the natural world; a concept that is not yet verified but that if true would explain certain facts or phenomena: a scientific hypothesis that survives experimental testing becomes a scientific theory

therapy [ˈθerəpi] – n. (medicine) the act of caring for someone (as by medication or remedial training etc.): heat therapy gave the best relief

there [ðɛə] – adv. in or at that place: they have lived there for years

thereafter [ðɛəˈæftə] – adv. from that time on: thereafter he never called again

thereby [ˈðɛəˈbai] – adv. by that means or because of that: He knocked over the red wine, thereby ruining the table cloth

therefore [ðɛəˈfɔ:] – adv. (used to introduce a logical conclusion) from that fact or reason or as a result: therefore X must be true

therefrom  – adv. from that circumstance or source: public interest and a policy deriving therefrom

therein [ðɛərˈin] – adv. (formal) in or into that thing or place: they can read therein what our plans are

thereof [ðɛərˈɔv, -ˈɔf] – adv. of or concerning this or that: a problem and the solution thereof

thereon [ðɛəˈɔn] – adv. on that: text and commentary thereon

therewith [ðɛəˈwiθ.-ˈwið] – adv. with that or this or it: I have learned that whatever state I am, therewith to be content

thermal [ˈθə:məl,ˈθə:ml] – adj. relating to or associated with heat: thermal movements of molecules

thermometer [θəˈmɔmitə] – n. measuring instrument for measuring temperature

thermostat [ˈθə:məstæt] – n. a regulator for automatically regulating temperature by starting or stopping the supply of heat

thesaurus [θiˈsɔ:rəs] – n. a book containing a classified list of synonyms

thesis [ˈθi:sis] – n. an unproved statement put forward as a premise in an argument

thick [θik] – adj. having component parts closely crowded together: thick crowds

thicken [ˈθikən] – v. become thick or thicker: The sauce thickened

thickness [ˈθiknis] – n. the dimension through an object as opposed to its length or width

thief [θi:f] – n. a criminal who takes property belonging to someone else with the intention of keeping it or selling it

thigh [θai] – n. the part of the leg between the hip and the knee

thin [θin] – adj. lacking excess flesh: you can’t be too rich or too thin

thing [θiŋ] – n. a special situation: this thing has got to end

think [θiŋk] – v. judge or regard; look upon; judge: I think he is very smart

thinker [ˈθiŋkə] – n. an important intellectual

thinking [ˈθiŋkiŋ] – n. the process of using your mind to consider something carefully: thinking always made him frown

third [θə:d] – n. one of three equal parts of a divisible whole: it contains approximately a third of the minimum daily requirement

thirst [θə:st] – n. a physiological need to drink

thirsty [ˈθə:sti] – adj. needing moisture: thirsty fields under a rainless sky

thirteen [ˈθə:ti:n] – n. the cardinal number that is the sum of twelve and one

thirty [ˈθə:ti] – n. the cardinal number that is the product of ten and three

thorn [θɔ:n] – n. something that causes irritation and annoyance: he’s a thorn in my flesh

thorough [ˈθʌrə] – adj. painstakingly careful and accurate: our accountant is thorough

thoroughly [ˈθʌrəli] – adv. in an exhaustive manner: we searched the files thoroughly

though [ðəu] – adv. (postpositive) however: it might be unpleasant, though

thought [θɔ:t] – n. the content of cognition; the main thing you are thinking about: the thought never entered my mind

thoughtful [ˈθɔ:tfəl] – adj. having intellectual depth: a deeply thoughtful essay

thoughtless [ˈθɔ:tlis] – adj. without care or thought for others: the thoughtless saying of a great princess on being informed that the people had no bread; `Let them eat cake’

thousand [ˈθauzənd] – n. the cardinal number that is the product of 10 and 100

thrash [θræʃ] – v. move or stir about violently: The feverish patient thrashed around in his bed

thread [θred] – v. to move or cause to move in a sinuous, spiral, or circular course

threat [θret] – n. something that is a source of danger: earthquakes are a constant threat in Japan

threaten [ˈθretn] – v. to utter intentions of injury or punishment against:: He threatened me when I tried to call the police

three [θri:] – n. the cardinal number that is the sum of one and one and one

threshold [ˈθreʃhəuld] – n. the starting point for a new state or experience: on the threshold of manhood

thrift [θrift] – n. any of numerous sun-loving low-growing evergreens of the genus Armeria having round heads of pink or white flowers

thrifty [ˈθrifti] – adj. careful and diligent in the use of resources

thrill [θril] – v. feel sudden intense sensation or emotion: he was thrilled by the speed and the roar of the engine

thriller [ˈθrilə] – n. a suspenseful adventure story or play or movie

thrive [θraiv] – v. grow vigorously

throat [θrəut] – n. the passage to the stomach and lungs; in the front part of the neck below the chin and above the collarbone

throbbing [ˈθrɔbiŋ] – n. an instance of rapid strong pulsation (of the heart): he felt a throbbing in his head

throne [θrəun] – n. the chair of state for a monarch, bishop, etc.: the king sat on his throne

throng [θrɔŋ] – n. a large gathering of people

through [θru:] – adv. from beginning to end: read this book through

throughout [θru:ˈaut] – adv. from first to last

throw [θrəu] – v. move violently, energetically, or carelessly

thrust [θrʌst] – v. push forcefully: He thrust his chin forward

thumb [θʌm] – n. the thick short innermost digit of the forelimb

thumbtack [ˈθʌmtæk] – n. a tack for attaching papers to a bulletin board or drawing board

thunder [ˈθʌndə] – v. move fast, noisily, and heavily: The bus thundered down the road

thunderstorm [ˈθʌndəstɔ:m] – n. a storm resulting from strong rising air currents; heavy rain or hail along with thunder and lightning

Thursday [ˈθə:zdi] – n. the fifth day of the week; the fourth working day

thus [ðʌs] – adv. in the way indicated: set up the pieces thus

tick [tik] – n. a metallic tapping sound: he counted the ticks of the clock

ticket [ˈtikit] – n. a commercial document showing that the holder is entitled to something (as to ride on public transportation or to enter a public entertainment)

tickle [ˈtikl] – v. touch (a body part) lightly so as to excite the surface nerves and cause uneasiness, laughter, or spasmodic movements

tide [taid] – n. the periodic rise and fall of the sea level under the gravitational pull of the moon

tidy [ˈtaidi] – adj. marked by order and cleanliness in appearance or habits: a tidy person

tie [tai] – n. a social or business relationship: he was sorry he had to sever his ties with other members of the team

tiger [ˈtaigə] – n. a fierce or audacious person: he’s a tiger on the tennis court

tight [tait] – adj. closely constrained or constricted or constricting: tight skirts

tighten [ˈtaitən] – v. become tight or tighter: The rope tightened

tightly [ˈtaitli] – adv. securely fixed or fastened: the window was tightly sealed

tigress [ˈtaigris] – n. a female tiger

tile [tail] – n. a flat thin rectangular slab (as of fired clay or rubber or linoleum) used to cover surfaces

till [til] – n. a treasury for government funds

tilt [tilt] – n. a contentious speech act; a dispute where there is strong disagreement

timber [ˈtimbə] – n. the wood of trees cut and prepared for use as building material

time [taim] – n. an instance or single occasion for some event: this time he succeeded

timely [ˈtaimli] – adj. done or happening at the appropriate or proper time: a timely warning

timetable [ˈtaim.teibl] – n. a schedule listing events and the times at which they will take place

timid [ˈtimid] – adj. showing fear and lack of confidence

timidity [tiˈmiditi] – n. fear of the unknown or unfamiliar or fear of making decisions

tin [tin] – n. metal container for storing dry foods such as tea or flour

tinge [tindʒ] – n. a slight but appreciable amount

tiny [ˈtaini] – adj. very small: tiny feet

tip [tip] – v. cause to tilt: tip the screen upward

tiptoe [ˈtiptəu] – n. the tip of a toe

tire [ˈtaiə] – v. lose interest or become bored with something or somebody: I’m so tired of your mother and her complaints about my food

tired [ˈtaiəd] – adj. depleted of strength or energy: tired mothers with crying babies

tiresome [ˈtaiəsəm] – adj. so lacking in interest as to cause mental weariness: the tiresome chirping of a cricket

tissue [ˈtiʃu] – n. part of an organism consisting of an aggregate of cells having a similar structure and function

title [ˈtaitl] – n. a heading that names a statute or legislative bill; may give a brief summary of the matters it deals with

toad [təud] – n. any of various tailless stout-bodied amphibians with long hind limbs for leaping; semiaquatic and terrestrial species

toast [təust] – n. a celebrity who receives much acclaim and attention: he was the toast of the town

tobacco [təˈbækəu] – n. aromatic annual or perennial herbs and shrubs

today [təˈdei] – n. the present time or age: the world of today

toddle [ˈtɔdl] – v. walk unsteadily: small children toddle

toe [təu] – v. drive obliquely: toe a nail

together [təˈgeðə] – adv. in contact with each other or in proximity: the leaves stuck together

toil [tɔil] – n. productive work (especially physical work done for wages)

toilet [ˈtɔilit] – n. a plumbing fixture for defecation and urination

token [ˈtəukən] – n. an individual instance of a type of symbol: the word`error’ contains three tokens of `r’

tolerable [ˈtɔlərəbl] – adj. capable of being borne or endured: the climate is at least tolerable

tolerance [ˈtɔlərəns] – n. a disposition to allow freedom of choice and behavior

tolerant [ˈtɔlərənt] – adj. showing respect for the rights or opinions or practices of others

tolerate [ˈtɔləreit] – v. put up with something or somebody unpleasant: he learned to tolerate the heat

toll [təul] – n. a fee levied for the use of roads or bridges (used for maintenance)

tomato [təˈmeitəu] – n. mildly acid red or yellow pulpy fruit eaten as a vegetable

tomb [tu:m] – n. a place for the burial of a corpse (especially beneath the ground and marked by a tombstone)

tombstone [ˈtu:mstəun] – n. a stone that is used to mark a grave

tomorrow [təˈmɔrəu] – n. the day after today: what are our tasks for tomorrow?

ton [tʌn] – n. a British unit of weight equivalent to 2240 pounds

tone [tʌn] – n. the quality of a person’s voice: he began in a conversational tone

toneless [ˈtəunləs] – adj. lacking in tone or expression: his toneless mechanical voice

tongue [tʌŋ] – n. a mobile mass of muscular tissue covered with mucous membrane and located in the oral cavity

tonic [ˈtɔnik] – adj. employing variations in pitch to distinguish meanings of otherwise similar words

tonight [təˈnait] – n. the present or immediately coming night

tonnage [ˈtʌnidʒ] – n. a tax imposed on ships that enter the US; based on the tonnage of the ship

tonne  – n. a unit of weight equivalent to 1000 kilograms

too [tu:] – adv. in addition: he has a Mercedes, too

tool [tu:l] – n. an implement used in the practice of a vocation

tooth [tu:θ] – n. hard bonelike structures in the jaws of vertebrates; used for biting and chewing or for attack and defense

toothache [ˈtu:θeik] – n. an ache localized in or around a tooth

toothbrush [ˈtu:θbrʌʃ] – n. small brush; has long handle; used to clean teeth

toothpaste [ˈtu:θpeist] – n. a dentifrice in the form of a paste

top [tɔp] – n. the upper part of anything: the mower cuts off the tops of the grass

topic [ˈtɔpik] – n. the subject matter of a conversation or discussion: it was a very sensitive topic

torch [tɔ:tʃ] – n. a light usually carried in the hand; consists of some flammable substance

torment [ˈtɔ:ment,tɔ:ˈment] – n. unbearable physical pain

tornado [tɔ:ˈneidəu] – n. a purified and potent form of cocaine that is smoked rather than snorted; highly addictive

torpedo [tɔ:ˈpi:dəu] – n. a professional killer who uses a gun

torrent [ˈtɔrənt] – n. a heavy rain

tortoise [ˈtɔ:təs] – n. usually herbivorous land turtles having clawed elephant-like limbs; worldwide in arid area except Australia and Antarctica

torture [ˈtɔ:tʃə] – n. extreme mental distress

toss [tɔs] – v. lightly throw to see which side comes up

total [ˈtəutl] – v. add up in number or quantity

totally [ˈtɔt(ə)li] – adv. to a complete degree or to the full or entire extent (`whole’ is often used informally for `wholly’): a totally new situation

touch [tʌtʃ] – v. make physical contact with, come in contact with: She never touched her husband

touchy [ˈtʌtʃi] – adj. quick to take offense

tough [tʌf] – adj. not given to gentleness or sentimentality: a tough character

tour [tuə] – n. a journey or route all the way around a particular place or area: they took an extended tour of Europe

tourism [ˈtʊəriz(ə)m] – n. the business of providing services to tourists

tourist [ˈtuərist] – n. someone who travels for pleasure

tournament [ˈtuənəmənt] – n. a sporting competition in which contestants play a series of games to decide the winner

tow [təu] – n. the act of hauling something (as a vehicle) by means of a hitch or rope: the truck gave him a tow to the garage

towel [ˈtauəl] – n. a rectangular piece of absorbent cloth (or paper) for drying or wiping

tower [ˈtauə] – n. a structure taller than its diameter; can stand alone or be attached to a larger building

town [taun] – n. an urban area with a fixed boundary that is smaller than a city: they drive through town on their way to work

toxic [ˈtɔksik] – adj. of or relating to or caused by a toxin or poison: suffering from exposure to toxic substances

toy [tɔi] – n. a nonfunctional replica of something else (frequently used as a modifier): a toy stove

trace [treis] – v. follow, discover, or ascertain the course of development of something: trace the student’s progress

track [træk] – n. evidence pointing to a possible solution

tract [trækt] – n. an extended area of land

traction [ˈtrækʃən] – n. the friction between a body and the surface on which it moves (as between an automobile tire and the road)

tractor [ˈtræktə] – n. a wheeled vehicle with large wheels; used in farming and other applications

trade [treid] – n. the commercial exchange (buying and selling on domestic or international markets) of goods and services: Venice was an important center of trade with the East

trademark [ˈtreidmɑ:k] – n. a distinctive characteristic or attribute

trader [ˈtreidə] – n. someone who purchases and maintains an inventory of goods to be sold

tradesman [ˈtreidzmən] – n. a merchant who owns or manages a shop

tradition [trəˈdiʃən] – n. an inherited pattern of thought or action

traditional [trəˈdiʃənəl] – adj. pertaining to time-honored orthodox doctrines: the simple security of traditional assumptions has vanished

traffic [ˈtræfik] – n. buying and selling; especially illicit trade

tragedy [ˈtrædʒidi] – n. an event resulting in great loss and misfortune

tragic [ˈtrædʒik] – adj. very sad; especially involving grief or death or destruction: a tragic face

trail [treil] – v. to lag or linger behind

train [trein] – v. develop (children’s) behavior by instruction and practice; especially to teach self-control: Is this dog trained?

trainee [treiˈni:] – n. someone who is being trained

trainer [ˈtreinə] – n. simulator consisting of a machine on the ground that simulates the conditions of flying a plane

training [ˈtreiniŋ] – n. activity leading to skilled behavior

trait [treit] – n. a distinguishing feature of your personal nature

traitor [ˈtreitə] – n. someone who betrays his country by committing treason

tram [træm] – n. a four-wheeled wagon that runs on tracks in a mine: a tramcar carries coal out of a coal mine

tramp [træmp] – n. a disreputable vagrant: a homeless tramp

trample [ˈtræmpl] – v. tread or stomp heavily or roughly: The soldiers trampled across the fields

tranquil [ˈtræŋkwil] – adj. (of a body of water) free from disturbance by heavy waves: a lake of tranquil blue water reflecting a tranquil blue sky

tranquility [træŋˈkwiliti] – n. a disposition free from stress or emotion

transact [trænsˈækt] – v. conduct business: transact with foreign governments

transaction [trænˈzækʃən] – n. the act of transacting within or between groups (as carrying on commercial activities): no transactions are possible without him

transcend [trænˈsend] – v. be greater in scope or size than some standard

transcript [ˈtrænskript] – n. a reproduction of a written record (e.g. of a legal or school record)

transfer [trænsˈfə:] – v. move from one place to another: transfer the data

transferable [trænsˈfɜ:rəb(ə)l] – adj. capable of being moved or conveyed from one place to another

transform [trænsˈfɔ:m] – v. change or alter in form, appearance, or nature: This experience transformed her completely

transformation [.trænsfəˈmeiʃən] – n. a qualitative change

transformer [trænsˈfɔ:mə(r), trɑ:-] – n. an electrical device by which alternating current of one voltage is changed to another voltage

transfuse [trænsˈfju:z] – v. impart gradually: transfuse love of music into the students

transgress [trænsˈgres] – v. act in disregard of laws, rules, contracts, or promises

transistor [trænˈzistə] – n. a semiconductor device capable of amplification

transit [ˈtrænsit] – v. make a passage or journey from one place to another

transition [trænˈziʃən] – n. the act of passing from one state or place to the next

translate [trænsˈleit] – v. restate (words) from one language into another language: I have to translate when my in-laws from Austria visit the U.S.

translation [trænsˈleiʃən] – n. a written communication in a second language having the same meaning as the written communication in a first language

translator [trænsˈleitə] – n. someone who mediates between speakers of different languages

translucent [trænzˈlusənt, træns-] – adj. allowing light to pass through diffusely: translucent amber

transmission [trænsˈmiʃən] – n. communication by means of transmitted signals

transmit [trænzˈmit] – v. transfer to another

transparent [trænsˈperənt] – adj. transmitting light; able to be seen through with clarity: transparent crystal

transplant [trænsˈplɑ:nt] – v. lift and reset in another soil or situation

transport [trænsˈpɔ:t] – n. the commercial enterprise of moving goods and materials

transportation [.trænspəˈteiʃən] – n. a facility consisting of the means and equipment necessary for the movement of passengers or goods

transship [trænsˈʃip] – v. transfer for further transportation from one ship or conveyance to another

transverse [ˈtrænzvə:s] – adj. extending or lying across; in a crosswise direction; at right angles to the long axis: from the transverse hall the stairway ascends gracefully

trap [træp] – n. a device in which something (usually an animal) can be caught and penned

trauma [ˈtrɔ:mə, ˈtraumə] – n. any physical damage to the body caused by violence or accident or fracture etc.

travel [ˈtrævl] – v. undertake a journey or trip

traveler [ˈtrævlə] – n. a person who changes location

traverse [ˈtrævə(:)s] – n. a horizontal beam that extends across something

tray [trei] – n. an open receptacle for holding or displaying or serving articles or food

tread [tred] – v. put down or press the foot, place the foot: For fools rush in where angels fear to tread

treason [ˈtri:zn] – n. a crime that undermines the offender’s government

treasure [ˈtreʒə] – n. accumulated wealth in the form of money or jewels etc.: the pirates hid their treasure on a small island in the West Indies

treasurer [ˈtreʒərə] – n. an officer charged with receiving and disbursing funds

treat [tri:t] – v. interact in a certain way

treatise [ˈtri:tiz, -tis] – n. a formal exposition

treatment [ˈtri:tmənt] – n. the management of someone or something: the treatment of water sewage

treaty [ˈtri:ti] – n. a written agreement between two states or sovereigns

treble [ˈtrebəl] – adj. having or denoting a high range: the boy still had a fine treble voice

tree [tri:] – v. force a person or an animal into a position from which he cannot escape

trek [trek] – n. a journey by ox wagon (especially an organized migration by a group of settlers)

tremble [ˈtrembl] – n. a reflex motion caused by cold or fear or excitement

tremendous [triˈmendəs] – adj. extraordinarily large in size or extent or amount or power or degree: tremendous sweeping plains

trench [trentʃ] – v. impinge or infringe upon: This matter entrenches on other domains

trend [trend] – n. a general direction in which something tends to move: the trend of the stock market

trespass [ˈtrespəs, -pæs] – v. enter unlawfully on someone’s property: Don’t trespass on my land!

trial [ˈtraiəl] – n. the act of testing something: in the experimental trials the amount of carbon was measured separately

triangle [ˈtraiæŋgl] – n. a three-sided polygon

triangular [traiˈæŋgjulə] – adj. having three sides

tribe [traib] – n. a social division of (usually preliterate) people

tributary [ˈtribjutəri] – adj. (of a stream) flowing into a larger stream

tribute [ˈtribju:t] – n. something given or done as an expression of esteem

trick [trik] – n. a cunning or deceitful action or device: he played a trick on me

trickle [ˈtrikl] – n. flowing in drops; the formation and falling of drops of liquid

tricky [ˈtriki] – adj. not to be trusted

trifle [ˈtraifl] – n. a cold pudding made of layers of sponge cake spread with fruit or jelly; may be decorated with nuts, cream, or chocolate

trigger [ˈtrigə] – n. lever that activates the firing mechanism of a gun

trim [trim] – v. remove the edges from and cut down to the desired size: trim the photograph

trip [trip] – n. a journey for some purpose (usually including the return): he took a trip to the shopping center

triple [ˈtripl] – n. a base hit at which the batter stops safely at third base

triplicate [ˈtriplikit] – n. one of three copies; any of three things that correspond to one another exactly

triumph [ˈtraiəmf] – v. prove superior

triumphant [traiˈʌmfənt] – adj. experiencing triumph

trivial [ˈtriviəl] – adj. (informal) small and of little importance

trolley [ˈtrɔli] – n. a wheeled vehicle that runs on rails and is propelled by electricity

troop [tru:p] – n. a group of soldiers

tropic [ˈtrɔpik] – n. either of two parallels of latitude about 23.5 degrees to the north and south of the equator representing the points farthest north and south at which the sun can shine directly overhead and constituting the boundaries of the Torrid Zone or tropics

tropical [ˈtrɔpikəl] – adj. of or relating to the tropics, or either tropic: tropical year

trot [trɔt] – n. a slow pace of running

trouble [ˈtrʌbl] – n. a source of difficulty: one trouble after another delayed the job

troublesome [ˈtrʌblsəm] – adj. difficult to deal with: a troublesome infection

troupe [tru:p] – n. organization of performers and associated personnel (especially theatrical)

truant [ˈtru:ənt] – n. one who is absent from school without permission

truce [tru:s] – n. a state of peace agreed to between opponents so they can discuss peace terms

truck [trʌk] – n. an automotive vehicle suitable for hauling

truly [ˈtru:li] – adv. with sincerity; without pretense: we are truly sorry for the inconvenience

trumpet [ˈtrʌmpit] – n. a brass musical instrument with a brilliant tone; has a narrow tube and a flared bell and is played by means of valves

trunk [trʌŋk] – n. the main stem of a tree; usually covered with bark; the bole is usually the part that is commercially useful for lumber

trust [trʌst] – n. certainty based on past experience: he put more trust in his own two legs than in the gun

trustworthy [ˈtrʌst.wə:ði] – adj. worthy of trust or belief: a trustworthy report

truth [tru:θ] – n. a fact that has been verified: at last he knew the truth

truthful [ˈtru:θful] – adj. conforming to truth: a truthful statement

try [trai] – v. make an effort or attempt

tub [tʌb] – n. a relatively large open container that you fill with water and use to wash the body

tube [tju:b] – n. conduit consisting of a long hollow object (usually cylindrical) used to hold and conduct objects or liquids or gases

tuberculosis [tju.bə:kjuˈləusis] – n. infection transmitted by inhalation or ingestion of tubercle bacilli and manifested in fever and small lesions (usually in the lungs but in various other parts of the body in acute stages)

tuck [tʌk] – n. eatables (especially sweets)

Tuesday [ˈtju:zdi] – n. the third day of the week; the second working day

tug [tʌg] – v. pull hard: The prisoner tugged at the chains

tuition [tju:ˈiʃən] – n. a fee paid for instruction (especially for higher education): tuition and room and board were more than $25,000

tulip [ˈtju:lip] – n. any of numerous perennial bulbous herbs having linear or broadly lanceolate leaves and usually a single showy flower

tumble [ˈtʌmbl] – v. fall down, as if collapsing: The tower of the World Trade Center tumbled after the plane hit it

tumour  – n. an abnormal new mass of tissue that serves no purpose

tumult [ˈtju:mʌlt] – n. a state of commotion and noise and confusion

tuna [ˈtju:nə] – n. tropical American prickly pear of Jamaica

tune [tju:n] – n. a succession of notes forming a distinctive sequence

tunnel [ˈtʌnəl] – n. a passageway through or under something, usually underground (especially one for trains or cars): the tunnel reduced congestion at that intersection

turbine [ˈtə:bin] – n. rotary engine in which the kinetic energy of a moving fluid is converted into mechanical energy by causing a bladed rotor to rotate

turbulent [ˈtə:bjulənt] – adj. characterized by unrest or disorder or insubordination: a turbulent and unruly childhood

turf [tə:f] – n. surface layer of ground containing a mat of grass and grass roots

Turk [tə:k] – n. a native or inhabitant of Turkey

turkey [ˈtə:ki] – n. large gallinaceous bird with fan-shaped tail; widely domesticated for food

turmoil [ˈtə:mɔil] – n. a violent disturbance

turn [tə:n] – v. change orientation or direction, also in the abstract sense: The mugger turned and fled before I could see his face

turning [ˈtə:niŋ] – n. the act of changing or reversing the direction of the course

turnip [ˈtə:nip] – n. widely cultivated plant having a large fleshy edible white or yellow root

turnover [ˈtə:n.əuvə] – n. the ratio of the number of workers that had to be replaced in a given time period to the average number of workers

turtle [ˈtə:tl] – n. a sweater or jersey with a high close-fitting collar

tutor [ˈtju:tə] – v. act as a guardian to someone

twelfth [twelfθ] – n. position 12 in a countable series of things

twelve [twelv] – n. the cardinal number that is the sum of eleven and one

twentieth [ˈtwentiiθ] – n. position 20 in a countable series of things

twenty [ˈtwenti] – n. the cardinal number that is the sum of nineteen and one

twice [twais] – adv. two times: I called her twice

twig [twig] – v. understand, usually after some initial difficulty

twilight [ˈtwailait] – n. the time of day immediately following sunset: he loved the twilight

twin [twin] – n. (astrology) a person who is born while the sun is in Gemini

twinkle [ˈtwiŋkl] – n. a rapid change in brightness; a brief spark or flash

twist [twist] – n. an unforeseen development

two [tu:] – n. the cardinal number that is the sum of one and one or a numeral representing this number

type [taip] – n. a subdivision of a particular kind of thing: what type of sculpture do you prefer?

typewriter [ˈtaip.raitə] – n. hand-operated character printer for printing written messages one character at a time

typhoon [taiˈfu:n] – n. a tropical cyclone occurring in the western Pacific or Indian oceans

typical [ˈtipikəl] – adj. exhibiting the qualities or characteristics that identify a group or kind or category: a typical American girl

typist [ˈtaipist] – n. someone paid to operate a typewriter

tyrannical [tiˈrænikəl] – adj. marked by unjust severity or arbitrary behavior: a tyrannical parent

tyranny [ˈtirəni] – n. dominance through threat of punishment and violence

tyrant [ˈtaiərənt] – n. a cruel and oppressive dictator

tyre  – n. a port in southern Lebanon on the Mediterranean Sea; formerly a major Phoenician seaport famous for silks

ugly [ˈʌgli] – adj. displeasing to the senses: an ugly face

ulcer [ˈʌlsə] – n. a circumscribed inflammatory and often suppurating lesion on the skin or an internal mucous surface resulting in necrosis of tissue

ultimate [ˈʌltimit] – adj. furthest or highest in degree or order; utmost or extreme: the ultimate achievement

ultimately [ˈʌltimətli] – adv. as the end result of a succession or process: ultimately he had to give in

ultimatum [.ʌltiˈmeitəm] – n. a final peremptory demand

ultimo [ˈʌltiməu] – adj. in or of the month preceding the present one

ultrasonic [ˈʌltrəˈsɔnik] – adj. having frequencies above those of audible sound

ultraviolet [ˈʌltrəˈvaiəlit] – adj. having or employing wavelengths shorter than light but longer than X-rays; lying outside the visible spectrum at its violet end: ultraviolet radiation

umbrella [ʌmˈbrelə] – n. a lightweight handheld collapsible canopy

unable [ʌnˈeibl] – adj. (usually followed by `to’) not having the necessary means or skill or know-how: unable to get to town without a car

unacceptable [ˈʌnəkˈseptəbl] – adj. not adequate to give satisfaction: the coach told his players that defeat was unacceptable

unaccommodating [ˈʌnəˈkɔmədeitiŋ] – adj. not accommodating: the unaccommodating bus driver pulled out while she was banging on the door

unanimous [juˈnæniməs] – adj. in complete agreement: a unanimous decision

unavoidable [ˈʌnəˈvɔidəbl] – adj. impossible to avoid or evade:: an unavoidable accident

unbearable [ˈʌnˈbɛərəbl] – adj. incapable of being put up with

uncalled-for  – adj. not required or requested: uncalled-for suggestions

uncertain [ʌnˈsə:tn] – adj. lacking or indicating lack of confidence or assurance: uncertain of his convictions

uncertainty [ʌnˈsə:tnti] – n. being unsettled or in doubt or dependent on chance: the uncertainty of the outcome

uncle [ˈʌŋkl] – n. the brother of your father or mother; the husband of your aunt

uncomfortable [ʌnˈkʌmftəbl] – adj. conducive to or feeling mental discomfort: this kind of life can prove disruptive and uncomfortable

uncommon [ˈʌnˈkɔmən] – adj. not common or ordinarily encountered; unusually great in amount or remarkable in character or kind: uncommon birds

unconditional [.ʌnkənˈdiʃənəl] – adj. not conditional: unconditional surrender

unconditionally [.ʌnkənˈdiʃənəli] – adv. not subject to a condition: he accepted the offer unconditionally

unconscious [ʌnˈkɔnʃəs] – adj. not conscious; lacking awareness and the capacity for sensory perception as if asleep or dead: lay unconscious on the floor

uncover [ʌnˈkʌvə] – v. make visible

under [ˈʌndə] – adv. down to defeat, death, or ruin: their competitors went under

undercharge [.ʌndəˈtʃɑ:dʒ] – n. a price that is too low

underestimate [ˈʌndərˈestimeit] – v. assign too low a value to: Don’t underestimate the value of this heirloom-you may sell it at a good price

undergo [.ʌndəˈgəu] – v. pass through: The chemical undergoes a sudden change

undergraduate [.ʌndəˈgrædʒuət] – n. a university student who has not yet received a first degree

underground [ˈʌndəgraund] – n. a secret group organized to overthrow a government or occupation force

underline [.ʌndəˈlain] – v. give extra weight to (a communication)

underlying [.ʌndəˈlaiiŋ] – adj. in the nature of something though not readily apparent: an underlying meaning

undermentioned  – adj. about to be mentioned or specified

undermine [.ʌndəˈmain] – v. destroy property or hinder normal operations

underneath [.ʌndəˈni:θ] – adv. under or below an object or a surface; at a lower place or level; directly beneath: we could see the original painting underneath

understand [.ʌndəˈstænd] – v. know and comprehend the nature or meaning of: She did not understand her husband

understanding [.ʌndəˈstændiŋ] – n. the statement (oral or written) of an exchange of promises: there was an understanding between management and the workers

undertake [.ʌndəˈteik] – v. enter upon an activity or enterprise

undertaking [.ʌndəˈteikiŋ] – n. the trade of a funeral director

underwear [ˈʌndəwɛə] – n. undergarment worn next to the skin and under the outer garments

underwrite [.ʌndəˈrait] – v. guarantee financial support of

underwriter [ˈʌndəraitə] – n. an agent who sells insurance

undo [ˈʌnˈdu:] – v. cancel, annul, or reverse an action or its effect: I wish I could undo my actions

undoubtedly [ʌnˈdautidli] – adv. without doubt; certainly: it’s undoubtedly very beautiful

undue [ˈʌnˈdju:] – adj. not yet payable: an undue loan

unduly [ˈʌnˈdju:li] – adv. to an undue degree: she was unduly pessimistic about her future

uneasy [ʌnˈi:zi] – adj. lacking a sense of security or affording no ease or reassurance: farmers were uneasy until rain finally came

unemployment [ˈʌnimˈplɔimənt] – n. the state of being unemployed or not having a job: unemployment is a serious social evil

uneven [ʌnˈi:vən] – adj. not even or uniform as e.g. in shape or texture: an uneven color

unexpected [ˈʌnikˈspektid] – adj. not expected or anticipated: unexpected guests

unfair [ʌnˈfɛə] – adj. not fair; marked by injustice or partiality or deception: used unfair methods

unfit [ˈʌnˈfit] – adj. below the required standards for a purpose: an unfit parent

unfold [ʌnˈfəuld] – v. develop or come to a promising stage

unfortunate [ʌnˈfɔ:tʃənit] – adj. not favored by fortune; marked or accompanied by or resulting in ill fortune: an unfortunate turn of events

unfortunately [ʌnˈfɔ:tjʊnətli] – adv. by bad luck: unfortunately it rained all day

ungainly [ʌnˈgeinli] – adj. lacking grace in movement or posture: a gawky lad with long ungainly legs

unhappy [ʌnˈhæpi] – adj. experiencing or marked by or causing sadness or sorrow or discontent: unhappy over her departure

uniform [ˈju:nifɔ:m] – adj. always the same; showing a single form or character in all occurrences: a street of uniform tall white buildings

uniformly [ˈju:nifɔ:mli] – adv. in a uniform manner: a uniformly bright surface

unify [ˈju:nifai] – v. become one

unilateral [.ju:niˈlætərəl] – adj. involving only one part or side: unilateral paralysis

uninterested [ˈʌnˈintristid] – adj. not having or showing interest: an uninterested spectator

union [ˈju:njən] – n. an organization of employees formed to bargain with the employer: you have to join the union in order to get a job

unique [ju:ˈni:k] – adj. radically distinctive and without equal: Bach was unique in his handling of counterpoint

unit [ˈju:nit] – n. any division of quantity accepted as a standard of measurement or exchange: the dollar is the United States unit of currency

unite [ju:ˈnait] – v. become one

united [juˈnaitid] – adj. of or relating to two people who are married to each other

unity [ˈju:niti] – n. an undivided or unbroken completeness or totality with nothing wanting: he took measures to insure the territorial unity of Croatia

universal [.ju:niˈvə:səl] – n. (linguistics) a grammatical rule (or other linguistic feature) that is found in all languages

universally [ju:niˈvɜ:səli] – adv. everywhere: people universally agree on this

universe [ˈju:nivə:s] – n. everything that exists anywhere: they study the evolution of the universe

university [.ju:niˈvə:siti] – n. a large and diverse institution of higher learning created to educate for life and for a profession and to grant degrees

unjust [ˈʌnˈdʒʌst] – adj. not fair; marked by injustice or partiality or deception

unkind [ʌnˈkaind] – adj. lacking kindness: a thoughtless and unkind remark

unknown [ˈʌnˈnəun] – adj. not known: an unknown amount

unlawful [ˈʌnˈlɔ:ful] – adj. not conforming to legality, moral law, or social convention

unlike [ˈʌnˈlaik] – adj. marked by dissimilarity: for twins they are very unlike

unlikely [ʌnˈlaikli] – adj. not likely to be true or to occur or to have occurred: legislation on the question is highly unlikely

unlimited [ʌnˈlimitid] – adj. having no limits in range or scope: to start with a theory of unlimited freedom is to end up with unlimited despotism

unload [ˈʌnˈləud] – v. take the load off (a container or vehicle): unload the truck

unlock [ˈʌnˈlɔk] – v. open the lock of: unlock the door

unlucky [ʌnˈlʌki] – adj. having or bringing misfortune: Friday the 13th is an unlucky date

unmerchantable  – adj. not fit for sale

unnecessary [ʌnˈnesisəri] – adj. not necessary

unobtainable [ˈʌnəbˈteinəbl] – adj. not capable of being obtained: timber is virtually unobtainable in the islands

unpaid [ˈʌnˈpeid] – adj. not paid: unpaid wages

unpleasant [ʌnˈpleznt] – adj. disagreeable to the senses, to the mind, or feelings: an unpleasant personality

unprecedented [ʌnˈpresidəntid] – adj. having no precedent; novel: an unprecedented expansion in population and industry

unravel [ʌnˈrævəl] – v. become or cause to become undone by separating the fibers or threads of: unravel the thread

unreasonable [ʌnˈri:znəbl] – adj. not reasonable; not showing good judgment

unrest [ʌnˈrest] – n. a state of agitation or turbulent change or development: social unrest

unsalable [ˈʌnˈseiləbl] – adj. impossible to sell

unsatisfactory [ˈʌn.sætisfæktəri] – adj. not giving satisfaction: shops should take back unsatisfactory goods

unstable [ˈʌnˈsteibl] – adj. lacking stability or fixity or firmness: unstable political conditions

unsuitable [ˈʌnˈsju:təbl] – adj. not meant or adapted for a particular purpose: a solvent unsuitable for use on wood surfaces

untie [ˈʌnˈtai] – v. undo the ties of: They untied the prisoner

untold [.ʌnˈtəuld] – adj. of an incalculable amount: untold suffering

unusable [ʌnˈju:zəbəl] – adj. not capable of being used

unusual [ʌnˈju:ʒuəl] – adj. not usual or common or ordinary: a scene of unusual beauty

unwarranted [ˈʌnˈwɔrəntid] – adj. incapable of being justified or explained

unwelcome [ʌnˈwelkəm] – adj. not welcome; not giving pleasure or received with pleasure: unwelcome publicity

unwilling [ˈʌnˈwiliŋ] – adj. not disposed or inclined toward: an unwilling assistant

unworkable [ˈʌnˈwə:kəbl] – adj. not capable of being carried out or put into practice

up [ʌp] – adj. being or moving higher in position or greater in some value; being above a former position or level: the anchor is up

upbringing [ˈʌpbriŋiŋ]] – n. properties acquired during a person’s formative years

update [ʌpˈdeit] – v. modernize or bring up to date: We updated the kitchen in the old house

uphold [ʌpˈhəuld] – v. keep or maintain in unaltered condition; cause to remain or last

upkeep [ˈʌpki:p] – n. activity involved in maintaining something in good working order

upper [ˈʌpə] – n. the higher of two berths

upright [ˈʌpˈrait] – adj. in a vertical position; not sloping: an upright post

uprising [ʌpˈraiziŋ] – n. organized opposition to authority; a conflict in which one faction tries to wrest control from another

uproar [ˈʌprɔ:] – n. a state of commotion and noise and confusion

upset [ʌpˈset] – n. an unhappy and worried mental state: she didn’t realize the upset she caused me

upside [ˈʌpsaid] – n. the highest or uppermost side of anything

upstairs [ˈʌpˈstɛəz] – adv. on a floor above: they lived upstairs

up-to-date [ˈʌptəˈdeit] – adj. reflecting the latest information or changes: an up-to-date issue of the magazine

upward [ˈʌpwəd] – adj. directed up: the cards were face upward

uranium [juəˈreiniəm] – n. a heavy toxic silvery-white radioactive metallic element; occurs in many isotopes; used for nuclear fuels and nuclear weapons

urban [ˈə:bən] – adj. relating to or concerned with a city or densely populated area: urban sociology

urge [ə:dʒ] – v. force or impel in an indicated direction: I urged him to finish his studies

urgent [ˈə:dʒənt] – adj. compelling immediate action: the urgent words `Hurry! Hurry!’

urgently [ˈə:dʒəntli] – adv. with great urgency: health care reform is needed urgently

us [ʌs] – n. North American republic containing 50 states – 48 conterminous states in North America plus Alaska in northwest North America and the Hawaiian Islands in the Pacific Ocean; achieved independence in 1776

usage [ˈju:sidʒ] – n. the act of using

use [ju:z] – n. the act of using: he warned against the use of narcotic drugs

useful [ˈju:sfəl] – adj. being of use or service: the girl felt motherly and useful

usefulness [ˈju:sfʊlnis] – n. the quality of being of practical use

useless [ˈju:slis] – adj. having no beneficial use or incapable of functioning usefully: a kitchen full of useless gadgets

user [ˈju:zə] – n. a person who uses something or someone selfishly or unethically

usual [ˈju:ʒuəl] – adj. occurring or encountered or experienced or observed frequently or in accordance with regular practice or procedure: grew the usual vegetables

usually [ˈju:ʒuəli] – adv. under normal conditions: usually she was late

utensil [ju:ˈtensl] – n. an implement for practical use (especially in a household)

utility [ju:ˈtiliti] – n. a company that performs a public service; subject to government regulation

utilization [.ju:tilaiˈzeiʃən] – n. the act of using: skilled in the utilization of computers

utilize [ˈju:tilaiz] – v. put into service; make work or employ for a particular purpose or for its inherent or natural purpose: How do you utilize this tool?

utmost [ˈʌtməust] – adj. of the greatest possible degree or extent or intensity: utmost contempt

utter [ˈʌtə] – v. articulate; either verbally or with a cry, shout, or noise: He uttered a curse

utterance [ˈʌtərəns] – n. the use of uttered sounds for auditory communication

utterly [ˈʌtəli] – adv. completely and without qualification; used informally as intensifiers: utterly miserable

vacant [ˈveikənt] – adj. void of thought or knowledge: a vacant mind

vacation [veiˈkeiʃən] – n. leisure time away from work devoted to rest or pleasure: we get two weeks of vacation every summer

vaccinate [ˈvæksineit] – v. perform vaccinations or produce immunity in by inoculation: We vaccinate against scarlet fever

vaccination [.væksiˈneiʃən] – n. the scar left following inoculation with a vaccine

vacuum [ˈvækjuəm] – n. the absence of matter

vague [veig] – adj. not clearly understood or expressed: their descriptions of human behavior become vague, dull, and unclear

vain [vein] – adj. characteristic of false pride; having an exaggerated sense of self-importance: vain about her clothes

vainly [ˈveinli] – adv. to no avail: the city fathers tried vainly to find a solution

valid [ˈvælid] – adj. well grounded in logic or truth or having legal force: a valid inference

validity [væˈliditi] – n. the quality of having legal force or effectiveness

valley [ˈvæli] – n. a long depression in the surface of the land that usually contains a river

valuable [ˈvæljuəbl] – adj. having worth or merit or value: a valuable friend

valuation [.væljuˈeiʃən] – n. an appraisal of the value of something: he set a high valuation on friendship

value [ˈvælju:] – n. a numerical quantity measured or assigned or computed: the value assigned was 16 milliseconds

valued [ˈvælju:d] – adj. held in great esteem for admirable qualities especially of an intrinsic nature: a valued friend

valve [vælv] – n. a structure in a hollow organ (like the heart) with a flap to insure one-way flow of fluid through it

van [væn] – n. the leading units moving at the head of an army

vanish [ˈvæniʃ] – v. get lost, as without warning or explanation

vanity [ˈvæniti] – n. feelings of excessive pride

vanquish [ˈvæŋkwiʃ] – v. come out better in a competition, race, or conflict

vapor [ˈveipə] – n. a visible suspension in the air of particles of some substance

variable [ˈvɛəriəbl] – n. a quantity that can assume any of a set of values

variance [ˈvɛəriəns] – n. an event that departs from expectations

variant [ˈvɛəriənt] – n. an event that departs from expectations

variation [.vɛəriˈeiʃən] – n. an instance of change; the rate or magnitude of change

varied [ˈvɛərid] – adj. widely different: varied motives prompt people to join a political party

variety [vəˈraiəti] – n. noticeable heterogeneity: the range and variety of his work is amazing

various [ˈvɛəriəs] – adj. of many different kinds purposefully arranged but lacking any uniformity: his disguises are many and various

varnish [ˈvɑ:niʃ] – n. a coating that provides a hard, lustrous, transparent finish to a surface

vary [ˈvɛəri] – v. become different in some particular way, without permanently losing one’s or its former characteristics or essence

vase [veis] – n. an open jar of glass or porcelain used as an ornament or to hold flowers

vast [vɑ:st] – adj. unusually great in size or amount or degree or especially extent or scope: at vast (or immense) expense

vault [vɔ:lt] – n. a burial chamber (usually underground)

vegetable [ˈvedʒitəbl] – n. edible seeds or roots or stems or leaves or bulbs or tubers or nonsweet fruits of any of numerous herbaceous plant

vegetarian [.vedʒiˈtɛəriən] – n. eater of fruits and grains and nuts; someone who eats no meat or fish or (often) any animal products

vegetation [.vedʒiˈteiʃən] – n. all the plant life in a particular region or period: Pleistocene vegetation

vehement [ˈviəmənt] – adj. marked by extreme intensity of emotions or convictions; inclined to react violently; fervid: vehement dislike

vehicle [ˈvi:ikl] – n. a conveyance that transports people or objects

veil [veil] – n. a membranous covering attached to the immature fruiting body of certain mushrooms

vein [vein] – n. a distinctive style or manner: he continued in this vein for several minutes

velocity [viˈlɔsiti] – n. distance travelled per unit time

velvet [ˈvelvit] – adj. smooth and soft to sight or hearing or touch or taste

vender [ˈvendə] – n. someone who promotes or exchanges goods or services for money

venerate [ˈvenəreit] – v. regard with feelings of respect and reverence; consider hallowed or exalted or be in awe of: We venerate genius

vengeance [ˈvendʒəns] – n. the act of taking revenge (harming someone in retaliation for something harmful that they have done) especially in the next life: For vengeance I would do nothing. This nation is too great to look for mere revenge

vent [vent] – n. a hole for the escape of gas or air

ventilate [ˈventileit] – v. expose to cool or cold air so as to cool or freshen

ventilation [ventiˈleiʃən] – n. the act of supplying fresh air and getting rid of foul air

venture [ˈventʃə] – n. an investment that is very risky but could yield great profits

Venus [ˈvi:nəs] – n. goddess of love; counterpart of Greek Aphrodite

verb [və:b] – n. a content word that denotes an action, occurrence, or state of existence

verbal [ˈvə:bəl] – adj. communicated in the form of words: verbal imagery

verdict [ˈvə:dikt] – n. (law) the findings of a jury on issues of fact submitted to it for decision; can be used in formulating a judgment

verge [və:dʒ] – n. a region marking a boundary

verification [.verifiˈkeiʃən] – n. additional proof that something that was believed (some fact or hypothesis or theory) is correct

verify [ˈverifai] – v. confirm the truth of: Please verify that the doors are closed

versatile [ˈvə:sətail] – adj. having great diversity or variety: his vast and versatile erudition

verse [və:s] – n. literature in metrical form

versed [və:st] – adj. thoroughly acquainted through study or experience

version [ˈvə:ʃən] – n. an interpretation of a matter from a particular viewpoint: his version of the fight was different from mine

vertical [ˈvə:tikəl] – adj. at right angles to the plane of the horizon or a base line: a vertical camera angle

very [ˈveri] – adj. precisely as stated: the very center of town

vessel [ˈvesl] – n. a tube in which a body fluid circulates

vest [vest] – v. provide with power and authority: They vested the council with special rights

veteran [ˈvetərən] – n. a serviceman who has seen considerable active service: the veterans laughed at the new recruits

veto [ˈvi:təu] – n. a vote that blocks a decision

vex [veks] – v. cause annoyance in; disturb, especially by minor irritations

viable [ˈvaiəbəl] – adj. capable of being done with means at hand and circumstances as they are

vibrate [ˈvaibreit] – v. shake, quiver, or throb; move back and forth rapidly, usually in an uncontrolled manner

vibration [vaiˈbreiʃən] – n. a shaky motion

vice [vais] – n. moral weakness

vicinity [viˈsiniti] – n. a surrounding or nearby region: the plane crashed in the vicinity of Asheville

vicious [ˈviʃəs] – adj. (of persons or their actions) able or disposed to inflict pain or suffering: vicious kicks

victim [ˈviktim] – n. an unfortunate person who suffers from some adverse circumstance

victorious [vikˈtɔ:riəs] – adj. having won: the victorious entry

victory [ˈviktəri] – n. a successful ending of a struggle or contest: a narrow victory

video [ˈvidiəu] – n. the visible part of a television transmission

view [vju:] – n. a way of regarding situations or topics etc.: consider what follows from the positivist view

viewer [ˈvju:ə] – n. a close observer; someone who looks at something (such as an exhibition of some kind): television viewers

viewpoint [ˈvju:pɔint] – n. a mental position from which things are viewed: we should consider this problem from the viewpoint of the Russians

vigilant [ˈvidʒilənt] – adj. carefully observant or attentive; on the lookout for possible danger: the vigilant eye of the town watch

vigor [ˈvigə] – n. forceful exertion

vigorous [ˈvigərəs] – adj. characterized by forceful and energetic action or activity: a vigorous hiker

villa [ˈvilə] – n. Mexican revolutionary leader (1877-1923)

village [ˈvilidʒ] – n. a community of people smaller than a town

villain [ˈvilən] – n. a wicked or evil person; someone who does evil deliberately

vindicate [ˈvindikeit] – v. show to be right by providing justification or proof: vindicate a claim

vine [vain] – n. a plant with a weak stem that derives support from climbing, twining, or creeping along a surface

vinegar [ˈvinigə] – n. dilute acetic acid

violate [ˈvaiəleit] – v. act in disregard of laws, rules, contracts, or promises: violate the basic laws or human civilization

violation [.vaiəˈleiʃən] – n. a crime less serious than a felony

violence [ˈvaiələns] – n. an act of aggression (as one against a person who resists): he may accomplish by craft in the long run what he cannot do by force and violence in the short one

violent [ˈvaiələnt] – adj. acting with or marked by or resulting from great force or energy or emotional intensity: a violent attack

violet [ˈvaiəlit] – n. a variable color that lies beyond blue in the spectrum

violin [.vaiəˈlin] – n. bowed stringed instrument that is the highest member of the violin family; this instrument has four strings and a hollow body and an unfretted fingerboard and is played with a bow

virgin [ˈvə:dʒin] – n. a person who has never had sex

virtual [ˈvə:tjuəl] – adj. being actually such in almost every respect: the once elegant temple lay in virtual ruin

virtually [ˈvɜ:tjʊəli] – adv. in essence or effect but not in fact: the strike virtually paralyzed the city

virtue [ˈvə:tju:] – n. the quality of doing what is right and avoiding what is wrong

virtuous [ˈvə:tjuəs] – adj. morally excellent

virus [ˈvaiərəs] – n. a harmful or corrupting agency: bigotry is a virus that must not be allowed to spread

visa [ˈvi:zə] – v. approve officially: The list of speakers must be visaed

viscous [ˈviskəs] – adj. having a relatively high resistance to flow

visible [ˈvizəbl] – adj. capable of being seen; or open to easy view: a visible object

vision [ˈviʒən] – n. a vivid mental image: he had a vision of his own death

visit [ˈvizit] – v. go to see a place, as for entertainment

visitor [ˈvizitə] – n. someone who visits

visual [ˈvizjuəl] – adj. relating to or using sight: visual powers

visualize [ˈviʒuəlaiz] – v. imagine; conceive of; see in one’s mind

vital [ˈvaitl] – adj. urgently needed; absolutely necessary: vital for a healthy society

vitamin [ˈvaitəmin] – n. any of a group of organic substances essential in small quantities to normal metabolism

vivid [ˈvivid] – adj. evoking lifelike images within the mind: a vivid description

vividly [ˈvividli] – adv. in a vivid manner: he described his adventures vividly

vividness [ˈvividnis] – n. interest and variety and intensity: the characters were delineated with exceptional vividness

vocabulary [vəˈkæbjuləri] – n. a listing of the words used in some enterprise

vocation [vəuˈkeiʃən] – n. the particular occupation for which you are trained

vocational [vəuˈkeiʃənəl] – adj. of or relating to a vocation or occupation; especially providing or undergoing training in special skills: vocational school

vogue [vəug] – n. the popular taste at a given time: leather is the latest vogue

voice [vɔis] – n. the distinctive quality or pitch or condition of a person’s speech: A shrill voice sounded behind us

voiceless [ˈvɔislis] – adj. produced without vibration of the vocal cords

void [vɔid] – v. declare invalid: void a plea

volatile [ˈvɔlətail] – adj. evaporating readily at normal temperatures and pressures: volatile oils

volcano [vɔlˈkeinəu] – n. a fissure in the earth’s crust (or in the surface of some other planet) through which molten lava and gases erupt

volley [ˈvɔli] – v. hit before it touches the ground: volley the tennis ball

volleyball [ˈvɔlibɔ:l] – n. a game in which two teams hit an inflated ball over a high net using their hands

volt [vəult] – n. a unit of potential equal to the potential difference between two points on a conductor carrying a current of 1 ampere when the power dissipated between the two points is 1 watt; equivalent to the potential difference across a resistance of 1 ohm when 1 ampere of current flows through it

voltage [ˈvəultidʒ] – n. the difference in electrical charge between two points in a circuit expressed in volts

volume [ˈvɔljum] – n. the amount of 3-dimensional space occupied by an object: the gas expanded to twice its original volume

voluntary [ˈvɔləntəri] – n. (military) a person who freely enlists for service

volunteer [.vɔlənˈtiə] – n. (military) a person who freely enlists for service

vomit [ˈvɔmit] – n. the reflex act of ejecting the contents of the stomach through the mouth

vote [vəut] – n. the opinion of a group as determined by voting: they put the question to a vote

voter [ˈvəʊtə(r)] – n. a citizen who has a legal right to vote

voting [ˈvəʊtiŋ] – n. a choice that is made by counting the number of people in favor of each alternative

vouch [vaʊtʃ] – v. give personal assurance; guarantee: Will he vouch for me?

voucher [ˈvautʃə] – n. a document that serves as evidence of some expenditure

vow [vaʊ] – n. a solemn pledge (to oneself or to another or to a deity) to do something or to behave in a certain manner: they took vows of poverty

vowel [ˈvauəl] – n. a speech sound made with the vocal tract open

voyage [ˈvɔiidʒ] – n. an act of traveling by water

vulgar [ˈvʌlgə] – adj. lacking refinement or cultivation or taste: appealing to the vulgar taste for violence

vulnerability [.vʌlnərəˈbiləti] – n. susceptibility to injury or attack

vulnerable [ˈvʌlnərəbl] – adj. susceptible to attack: a vulnerable bridge

wag [wæg] – n. a witty amusing person who makes jokes

wage [weidʒ] – n. something that remunerates: wages were paid by check

wager [ˈweidʒə] – n. the act of gambling

waggon  – n. any of various kinds of wheeled vehicles drawn by an animal or a tractor

wagon [ˈwægən] – n. any of various kinds of wheeled vehicles drawn by an animal or a tractor

wail [weil] – v. emit long loud cries: wail in self-pity

waist [weist] – n. the narrowing of the body between the ribs and hips

wait [weit] – v. stay in one place and anticipate or expect something: I had to wait on line for an hour to get the tickets

waiter [ˈweitə] – n. a person whose occupation is to serve at table (as in a restaurant)

waitress [ˈweitris] – n. a woman waiter

waive [weiv] – v. do without or cease to hold or adhere to

wake [weik] – v. stop sleeping

waken [ˈweikən] – v. stop sleeping

walk [wɔ:k] – v. use one’s feet to advance; advance by steps: We walked instead of driving

walker [ˈwɔ:kə] – n. United States writer (born in 1944)

wall [wɔ:l] – n. (anatomy) a layer (a lining or membrane) that encloses a structure: stomach walls

wallet [ˈwɔlit] – n. a pocket-size case for holding papers and paper money

walnut [ˈwɔ:lnət] – n. any of various trees of the genus Juglans

wander [ˈwɔndə] – v. move about aimlessly or without any destination, often in search of food or employment: the wandering Jew

wane [wein] – v. grow smaller: Interest in the project waned

want [wɔnt] – v. have need of: This piano wants the attention of a competent tuner

war [wɔ:] – n. the waging of armed conflict against an enemy: thousands of people were killed in the war

ward [wɔ:d] – n. a person who is under the protection or in the custody of another

warden [ˈwɔ:dn] – n. the chief official in charge of a prison

wardrobe [ˈwɔ:drəub] – n. a tall piece of furniture that provides storage space for clothes; has a door and rails or hooks for hanging clothes

ware [wɛə] – n. commodities offered for sale

warehouse [ˈwɛəhaus] – n. a storehouse for goods and merchandise

warehousing [ˈwɛəhauziŋ] – n. depositing in a warehouse: publishers reduced print runs to cut down the cost of warehousing

warfare [ˈwɔ:fɛə] – n. the waging of armed conflict against an enemy

warm [wɔ:m] – adj. having or producing a comfortable and agreeable degree of heat or imparting or maintaining heat: a warm body

warmly [ˈwɔ:mli] – adv. in a hearty manner: We welcomed her warmly

warmth [wɔ:mθ] – n. the sensation caused by heat energy

warn [wɔ:n] – v. notify of danger, potential harm, or risk: The director warned him that he might be fired

warrant [ˈwɔ:rənt] – n. a writ from a court commanding police to perform specified acts

warranty [ˈwɔrənti] – n. a written assurance that some product or service will be provided or will meet certain specifications

warrior [ˈwɔriə] – n. someone engaged in or experienced in warfare

warship [ˈwɔ:.ʃip] – n. a government ship that is available for waging war

wary [ˈweəri, ˈweri] – adj. openly distrustful and unwilling to confide

wash [wɔʃ] – v. clean with some chemical process

wasp [wɔsp] – n. a white person of Anglo-Saxon ancestry who belongs to a Protestant denomination

waste [weist] – v. spend thoughtlessly; throw away: He wasted his inheritance on his insincere friends

wasteful [ˈweistfəl] – adj. inefficient in use of time and effort and materials: a clumsy and wasteful process

watch [wɔtʃ] – v. look attentively: watch a basketball game

watchful [ˈwɔtʃfəl] – adj. engaged in or accustomed to close observation

water [ˈwɔ:tə] – n. once thought to be one of four elements composing the universe (Empedocles)

waterfall [ˈwɔ:təfɔ:l] – n. a steep descent of the water of a river

waterfront [ˈwɔ:təfrʌnt] – n. the area of a city (such as a harbor or dockyard) alongside a body of water

waterproof [ˈwɔ:təpru:f] – n. a water-resistant coat

watertight [ˈwɔ:tətait] – adj. without flaws or loopholes: a watertight alibi

watery [ˈwɔ:təri] – adj. wet with secreted or exuded moisture such as sweat or tears

watt [wɔt] – n. Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry (1736-1819)

wave [weiv] – n. a movement like that of a sudden occurrence or increase in a specified phenomenon: a wave of settlers

wavelength [ˈweiv.leŋθ] – n. a shared orientation leading to mutual understanding: they are on the same wavelength

waver [ˈweivə] – v. pause or hold back in uncertainty or unwillingness

wax [wæks] – v. go up or advance

way [wei] – n. how something is done or how it happens: a lonely way of life

weak [wi:k] – adj. wanting in physical strength: a weak pillar

weakness [ˈwi:knis] – n. powerlessness revealed by an inability to act: in spite of their weakness the group remains active

wealth [welθ] – n. the state of being rich and affluent; having a plentiful supply of material goods and money: great wealth is not a sign of great intelligence

wealthy [ˈwelθi] – adj. having an abundant supply of money or possessions of value: wealthy corporations

weapon [ˈwepən] – n. any instrument or instrumentality used in fighting or hunting: he was licensed to carry a weapon

wear [wɛə] – v. be dressed in: She was wearing yellow that day

weary [ˈwiəri] – v. exhaust or get tired through overuse or great strain or stress

weather [ˈweðə] – v. face and withstand with courage

weave [wi:v] – v. create a piece of cloth by interlacing strands of fabric, such as wool or cotton

weaver [ˈwi:və] – n. finch-like African and Asian colonial birds noted for their elaborately woven nests

web [web] – n. an intricate trap that entangles or ensnares its victim

wedding [ˈwediŋ] – n. the social event at which the ceremony of marriage is performed

wedge [wedʒ] – n. any shape that is triangular in cross section

Wednesday [ˈwenzdei] – n. the fourth day of the week; the third working day

weed [wi:d] – n. any plant that crowds out cultivated plants

week [wi:k] – n. any period of seven consecutive days: it rained for a week

weekday [ˈwi:kdei] – n. any day except Sunday (and sometimes except Saturday)

weekend [ˈwi:kˈend] – n. a time period usually extending from Friday night through Sunday; more loosely defined as any period of successive days including one and only one Sunday

weekly [ˈwi:kli] – n. a periodical that is published every week (or 52 issues per year)

weep [wi:p] – v. shed tears because of sadness, rage, or pain

weigh [wei] – v. show consideration for; take into account

weight [weit] – n. the vertical force exerted by a mass as a result of gravity

weird [wiəd] – adj. suggesting the operation of supernatural influences: the three weird sisters

welcome [ˈwelkəm] – v. accept gladly: I welcome your proposals

weld [weld] – n. European mignonette cultivated as a source of yellow dye; naturalized in North America

welfare [ˈwelfɛə] – n. governmental provision of economic assistance to persons in need: she lives on welfare

well [wel] – adv. thoroughly or completely; fully; often used as a combining form: The problem is well understood

well-to-do [.weltəˈdu:] – adj. in fortunate circumstances financially; moderately rich: well-to-do members of the community

west [west] – n. the countries of (originally) Europe and (now including) North America and South America

western [ˈwestən] – adj. of or characteristic of regions of the United States west of the Mississippi River

westerner [ˈwestənə] – n. an inhabitant of a western area; especially of the U.S.

westward [ˈwestwəd] – n. the cardinal compass point that is a 270 degrees

wet [wet] – adj. covered or soaked with a liquid such as water: a wet bathing suit

whale [weil] – n. a very large person; impressive in size or qualities

wharf [(h)wɔ:f] – n. a platform built out from the shore into the water and supported by piles; provides access to ships and boats

whatever [wɔtˈevə] – adj. one or some or every or all without specification: give me whatever peaches you don’t want

wheat [wi:t] – n. annual or biennial grass having erect flower spikes and light brown grains

wheel [wi:l] – n. forces that provide energy and direction: the wheels of government began to turn

whereabouts [ˈ(h)wɛərəˈbauts] – n. the general location where something is: I questioned him about his whereabouts on the night of the crime

wherever [wɛərˈevə] – adv. where in the world

while [wail] – n. a period of indeterminate length (usually short) marked by some action or condition: he was here for a little while

whip [wip] – v. defeat thoroughly

whirl [wə:l] – v. turn in a twisting or spinning motion

whisker [ˈhwiskə] – n. a very small distance or space: they lost the election by a whisker

whisky [ˈwiski] – n. a liquor made from fermented mash of grain

whisper [ˈwispə] – n. speaking softly without vibration of the vocal cords

whistle [ˈwisl] – v. move with, or as with, a whistling sound: The bullets whistled past him

white [wait] – n. a member of the Caucasoid race

whitewash [ˈwaitwɔʃ] – n. a defeat in which the losing person or team fails to score

who [hu:] – n. a United Nations agency to coordinate international health activities and to help governments improve health services

whole [həul] – adj. (of siblings) having the same parents: whole brothers and sisters

wholesale [ˈhəulseil] – adv. on a large scale without careful discrimination: I buy food wholesale

wholesaler [ˈhəulˈseilə] – n. someone who buys large quantities of goods and resells to merchants rather than to the ultimate customers

wholesome [ˈhəulsəm] – adj. conducive to or characteristic of physical or moral well-being: wholesome attitude

wholly [ˈhəulli] – adv. to a complete degree or to the full or entire extent (`whole’ is often used informally for `wholly’): he was wholly convinced

why [wai] – n. the cause or intention underlying an action or situation, especially in the phrase `the whys and wherefores’

wide [waid] – adj. having great (or a certain) extent from one side to the other: wide roads

widely [ˈwaidli] – adv. to a great degree: her work is widely known

widen [ˈwaidn] – v. make (clothes) larger

widespread [ˈwaidspred] – adj. widely circulated or diffused: a widespread doctrine

widow [ˈwidəu] – n. a woman whose husband is dead especially one who has not remarried

widower [ˈwidəuə] – n. a man whose wife is dead especially one who has not remarried

width [widθ] – n. the extent of something from side to side

wield [wi:ld] – v. have and exercise: wield power and authority

wife [waif] – n. a married woman; a man’s partner in marriage

wild [waild] – adj. marked by extreme lack of restraint or control: wild talk

wilderness [ˈwildənis] – n. (politics) a state of disfavor: he led the Democratic party back from the wilderness

will [wil] – n. the capability of conscious choice and decision and intention

willing [ˈwiliŋ] – adj. disposed or inclined toward: a willing participant

willingly [ˈwiliŋli] – adv. in a willing manner: I willingly accept

willingness [ˈwiliŋnis] – n. cheerful compliance: he expressed his willingness to help

willow [ˈwiləu] – n. any of numerous deciduous trees and shrubs of the genus Salix

win [win] – v. obtain advantages, such as points, etc.

wind [waind,wind] – n. a tendency or force that influences events: the winds of change

winding [ˈwaindiŋ] – adj. marked by repeated turns and bends: winding roads are full of surprises

windmill [ˈwindmil] – n. generator that extracts usable energy from winds

window [ˈwindəu] – n. a transparent opening in a vehicle that allow vision out of the sides or back; usually is capable of being opened

windy [ˈwindi] – adj. not practical or realizable; speculative

wine [wain] – n. fermented juice (of grapes especially)

winery [ˈwainəri] – n. distillery where wine is made

wing [wiŋ] – n. a movable organ for flying (one of a pair)

wink [wiŋk] – v. gleam or glow intermittently

winner [ˈwinə] – n. a gambler who wins a bet

winter [ˈwintə] – v. spend the winter: We wintered on the Riviera

wipe [waip] – n. the act of rubbing or wiping

wire [ˈwaiə] – v. provide with electrical circuits: wire the addition to the house

wireless [ˈwaiəlis] – n. medium for communication

wisdom [ˈwizdəm] – n. accumulated knowledge or erudition or enlightenment

wise [waiz] – adj. marked by the exercise of good judgment or common sense in practical matters: a wise decision

wish [wiʃ] – v. feel or express a desire or hope concerning the future or fortune of

 

IELTS Vocabulary Words