Complete GRE Vocabulary Words


Below are the complete list of GRE Vocabulary Words identified by VocabularyShop and grouped together in the Select function.  When choosing GRE word group in the Select function, these GRE vocabulary words will be displayed in the Source List for you to choose for your study.

You can download this list of GRE vocabulary words at the bottom of this page and use it to plan your study and set up your priority and strategy.  For example, you can put all words you already knew into the Known List, leaving only the new words you need to learn in the Source List.  You can then figure out how much work is needed to reach your goal and make your plan accordingly.  There are words more important than the others for the GRE test, and there are words much easier or more difficult for you as well.  Your plan should be based on your situation and the information from the official GRE test website to enable you to reach your goal with maximum speed and efficiency.

In the GRE vocabulary words listed below, only the primary or the most popular definition is provided for each word.  You will see the complete dictionary definition and plenty of useful information of each word when you access the Dictionary Dialog in VocabularyShop.

 

abacus  – n. a tablet placed horizontally on top of the capital of a column as an aid in supporting the architrave

abase [əˈbeis] – v. cause to feel shame; hurt the pride of

abash [əˈbæʃ] – v. cause to be embarrassed; cause to feel self-conscious

abate [əˈbeit] – v. make less active or intense

abattoir [ˈæbətwɑ:] – n. a building where animals are butchered

abbreviate [əˈbri:vieit] – v. reduce in scope while retaining essential elements

abbreviation [ə.bri:viˈeiʃən] – n. a shortened form of a word or phrase

abdicate [ˈæbdikeit] – v. give up, such as power, as of monarchs and emperors, or duties and obligations: The King abdicated when he married a divorcee

abdomen [ˈæbdəmen] – n. the region of the body of a vertebrate between the thorax and the pelvis

abduct [æbˈdʌkt] – v. take away to an undisclosed location against their will and usually in order to extract a ransom

aberrant [æˈberənt] – n. one whose behavior departs substantially from the norm of a group

aberration [æbəˈreiʃən] – n. a state or condition markedly different from the norm

abet [əˈbet] – v. assist or encourage, usually in some wrongdoing

abettor [əˈbetə(r)] – n. one who helps or encourages or incites another

abeyance [əˈbeiəns] – n. temporary cessation or suspension

abhor [əbˈhɔ:] – v. find repugnant: She abhors cats

abhorrent [əbˈhɔrənt] – adj. offensive to the mind: an abhorrent deed

abide [əˈbaid] – v. dwell

abiding [əˈbaidiŋ] – adj. unceasing: an abiding belief

abject [ˈæbdʒekt] – adj. of the most contemptible kind: abject cowardice

abjure [əbˈdʒuə] – v. formally reject or disavow a formerly held belief, usually under pressure: She abjured her beliefs

ablution [əˈblu:ʃən] – n. the ritual washing of a priest’s hands or of sacred vessels

abnegate [ˈæbnigeit] – v. deny oneself (something); restrain, especially from indulging in some pleasure

abnegation [.æbniˈgeiʃən] – n. the denial and rejection of a doctrine or belief: abnegation of the Holy Trinity

abode [əˈbəud] – n. any address at which you dwell more than temporarily

abolitionism  – n. the doctrine that calls for the abolition of slavery

abominable [əˈbɔminəbəl] – adj. unequivocally detestable: abominable treatment of prisoners

abominate [əˈbɔmineit] – v. find repugnant

aboriginal [æbəˈridʒənəl] – adj. of or pertaining to members of the indigenous people of Australia

abortive [əˈbɔ:tiv] – adj. failing to accomplish an intended result: an abortive revolt

abound [əˈbaund] – v. be abundant or plentiful; exist in large quantities

aboveboard [əˈbʌvˈbɔ:d] – adj. without concealment or deception; honest: their business was open and aboveboard

abracadabra [.æbrəkəˈdæbrə] – n. gibberish and nonsense

abrade [əˈbreid] – v. wear away

abrasion [əˈbreiʒən] – n. erosion by friction

abrasive [əˈbreisiv] – adj. sharply disagreeable; rigorous: an abrasive character

abridge [əˈbridʒ] – v. reduce in scope while retaining essential elements

abridgment [əˈbridʒmənt] – n. a shortened version of a written work

abrogate [ˈæbrəgeit] – v. revoke formally

abscission [æbˈsiʒən] – n. shedding of flowers and leaves and fruit following formation of scar tissue in a plant

abscond [əbˈskɔnd] – v. run away; usually includes taking something or somebody along: the accountant absconded with the cash from the safe

absinth [ˈæbsinθ] – n. strong green liqueur flavored with wormwood and anise

absolution [.æbsəˈlu:ʃən] – n. the condition of being formally forgiven by a priest in the sacrament of penance

absolve [əbˈzɔlv] – v. grant remission of a sin to: The priest absolved him and told him to say ten Hail Mary’s

abstain [əbˈstein] – v. refrain from voting

abstemious [əbˈsti:miəs] – adj. sparing in consumption of especially food and drink: the pleasures of the table, never of much consequence to one naturally abstemious

abstinence [ˈæbstinəns] – n. the trait of abstaining (especially from alcohol)

abstinent  – n. a person who refrains from drinking intoxicating beverages

abstruse [əbˈstru:s] – adj. difficult to penetrate; incomprehensible to one of ordinary understanding or knowledge: the professor’s lectures were so abstruse that students tended to avoid them

absurdity [əbˈsə:diti] – n. a message whose content is at variance with reason

abundance [əˈbʌndəns] – n. the property of a more than adequate quantity or supply: an age of abundance

abusive [əˈbju:siv] – adj. expressing offensive reproach

abut [əˈbʌt] – v. lie adjacent to another or share a boundary

abysmal [əˈbizməl] – adj. very great; limitless: abysmal misery

abyss [əˈbis] – n. a bottomless gulf or pit; any unfathomable (or apparently unfathomable) cavity or chasm or void extending below (often used figuratively)

accede [ækˈsi:d] – v. yield to another’s wish or opinion

accentuate [əkˈsentʃueit] – v. to stress, single out as important

acclaim [əˈkleim] – v. praise vociferously

acclamation [.ækləˈmeiʃən] – n. enthusiastic approval

acclimate [əˈklaimit] – v. get used to a certain climate

acclivity [əˈkliviti] – n. an upward slope or grade (as in a road)

accolade [ˈækəleid] – n. a tangible symbol signifying approval or distinction

accommodating [əˈkɔmədeitiŋ] – adj. helpful in bringing about a harmonious adaptation: the warden was always accommodating in allowing visitors in

accomplice [əˈkʌmplis] – n. a person who joins with another in carrying out some plan (especially an unethical or illegal plan)

accordion [əˈkɔ:djən] – n. a portable box-shaped free-reed instrument; the reeds are made to vibrate by air from the bellows controlled by the player

accost [əˈkɔst] – v. speak to someone

accoutre  – v. provide with military equipment

accoutrement  – n. clothing that is worn or carried, but not part of your main clothing

accrete  – v. grow together (of plants and organs)

accretion [əˈkri:ʃən] – n. an increase by natural growth or addition

accrue [əˈkru:] – v. grow by addition: The interest accrues

acephalous  – adj. lacking a head or a clearly defined head: acephalous worms

acerbic  – adj. sour or bitter in taste

acerbity [əˈsə:biti] – n. a sharp bitterness

acetic [əˈsi:tik] – adj. relating to or containing acetic acid

achromatic [ækrəuˈmætik] – adj. having no hue

acidulous [əˈsidʒuləs] – adj. being sour to the taste

acme [ˈækmi] – n. the highest level or degree attainable; the highest stage of development: his landscapes were deemed the acme of beauty

acne [ˈækni] – n. an inflammatory disease involving the sebaceous glands of the skin; characterized by papules or pustules or comedones

acolyte [ˈækəlait] – n. someone who assists a priest or minister in a liturgical service; a cleric ordained in the highest of the minor orders in the Roman Catholic Church but not in the Anglican Church or the Eastern Orthodox Churches

acorn [ˈeikɔ:n] – n. fruit of the oak tree: a smooth thin-walled nut in a woody cup-shaped base

acoustic [əˈku:stik] – n. a remedy for hearing loss or deafness

acoustics [əˈku:stiks] – n. the study of the physical properties of sound

acquiesce [.ækwiˈes] – v. to agree or express agreement

acquiescence [ækwiˈesns] – n. acceptance without protest

acquiescent [.ækwiˈesənt] – adj. willing to carry out the orders or wishes of another without protest: too acquiescent to challenge authority

acquired [əˈkwaiəd] – adj. gotten through environmental forces: acquired characteristics (such as a suntan or a broken nose) cannot be passed on

acquisitive [əˈkwizitiv] – adj. eager to acquire and possess things especially material possessions or ideas: an acquisitive mind

acquit [əˈkwit] – v. pronounce not guilty of criminal charges

acquittal [əˈkwitl] – n. a judgment of not guilty

acrid [ˈækrid] – adj. strong and sharp: the acrid smell of burning rubber

acrimonious [ækriˈməuniəs] – adj. marked by strong resentment or cynicism: an acrimonious dispute

acrimony [ˈækriməni] – n. a rough and bitter manner

acrobat [ˈækrəbæt] – n. an athlete who performs acts requiring skill and agility and coordination

acronym [ˈækrənim] – n. a word formed from the initial letters of the several words in the name

acrophobia  – n. a morbid fear of great heights

actuarial [.æktjuˈɛəriəl] – adj. of or relating to the work of an actuary

actuary [ˈæktjuəri] – n. someone versed in the collection and interpretation of numerical data (especially someone who uses statistics to calculate insurance premiums)

actuate [ˈæktjueit] – v. put in motion or move to act: actuate the circuits

acuity  – n. sharpness of vision; the visual ability to resolve fine detail (usually measured by a Snellen chart)

acumen [əˈkjumən, əˈkju:mən] – n. a tapering point

adage [ˈædidʒ] – n. a condensed but memorable saying embodying some important fact of experience that is taken as true by many people

adagio [əˈdɑ:dʒəu] – n. a slow section of a pas de deux requiring great skill and strength by the dancers

adamant [ˈædəmənt] – n. very hard native crystalline carbon valued as a gem

adaptable [əˈdæptəbl] – adj. capable of adapting (of becoming or being made suitable) to a particular situation or use: to succeed one must be adaptable

addendum [əˈdendəm] – n. textual matter that is added onto a publication; usually at the end

addict [əˈdikt] – v. to cause (someone or oneself) to become dependent (on something, especially a narcotic drug)

addiction [əˈdikʃən] – n. an abnormally strong craving

addictive [əˈdiktiv] – adj. causing or characterized by addiction: addictive drugs

addle [ˈædl] – v. mix up or confuse

addled [ˈæd(ə)ld] – adj. (of eggs) no longer edible: an addled egg

adduce [əˈdju:s] – v. advance evidence for

adept [ˈædept] – n. someone who is dazzlingly skilled in any field

adherent [ədˈhiərənt] – n. someone who believes and helps to spread the doctrine of another

adhesive [ədˈhi:siv] – n. a substance that unites or bonds surfaces together

adipose [ˈædipəus] – adj. composed of animal fat: adipose tissue constitutes the fat of meat

adjoin [əˈdʒɔin] – v. be in direct physical contact with; make contact

adjourn [əˈdʒə:n] – v. close at the end of a session: The court adjourned

adjudicate [əˈdʒu:dikeit] – v. put on trial or hear a case and sit as the judge at the trial of

adjunct [ˈædʒʌŋkt] – n. something added to another thing but not an essential part of it

adjuration [ædʒuəˈreiʃən] – n. a solemn and earnest appeal to someone to do something

adjure [əˈdʒuə] – v. ask for or request earnestly

adjutant [ˈædʒutənt] – n. an officer who acts as military assistant to a more senior officer

ad-lib  – adj. with little or no preparation or forethought: his ad-lib comments showed poor judgment

admonish [ədˈmɔniʃ] – v. warn strongly; put on guard

admonition [ædməˈniʃən] – n. cautionary advice about something imminent (especially imminent danger or other unpleasantness): a letter of admonition about the dangers of immorality

admonitory [ədˈmɔnitəri] – adj. serving to warn

ado [əˈdu:] – n. a rapid active commotion

adobe [əˈdəubi] – n. sun-dried brick; used in hot dry climates

adorable [əˈdɔ:rəbəl] – adj. lovable especially in a childlike or naive way

adoration [.ædəˈreiʃən] – n. a feeling of profound love and admiration

adorn [əˈdɔ:n] – v. make more attractive by adding ornament, colour, etc.

adornment [əˈdɔ:nmənt] – n. a decoration of color or interest that is added to relieve plainness

adroit [əˈdrɔit] – adj. quick or skillful or adept in action or thought: an exceptionally adroit pianist

adulate [ˈædʒuleit] – v. flatter in an obsequious manner

adulation [.ædʒuˈleiʃən] – n. servile flattery; exaggerated and hypocritical praise

adulterate [əˈdʌltəreit] – adj. mixed with impurities

adulterated [əˈdʌltəreitid] – adj. mixed with impurities

adumbrate [ˈædʌmbreit] – v. describe roughly or briefly or give the main points or summary of

adumbration [.ædʌmˈbreiʃən] – n. the act of providing vague advance indications; representing beforehand

advent [ˈædvent] – n. arrival that has been awaited (especially of something momentous): the advent of the computer

adventitious [ædvenˈtiʃəs] – adj. associated by chance and not an integral part: they had to decide whether his misconduct was adventitious or the result of a flaw in his character

adversary [ˈædvəsəri] – n. someone who offers opposition

adversity [ədˈvə:siti] – n. a state of misfortune or affliction: debt-ridden farmers struggling with adversity

advert [ˈædvə:t] – v. give heed (to)

advocacy [ˈædvəkəsi] – n. active support of an idea or cause etc.; especially the act of pleading or arguing for something

aegis [ˈi:dʒis] – n. kindly endorsement and guidance

aeon  – n. the longest division of geological time

aerate  – v. expose to fresh air: aerate your old sneakers

aerial [ˈɛəriəl] – n. a pass to a receiver downfield from the passer

aerie  – n. the lofty nest of a bird of prey (such as a hawk or eagle)

aeronautics [.eərəuˈnɔ:tiks] – n. the theory and practice of navigation through air or space

aesthete [ˈi:sθi:t] – n. one who professes great sensitivity to the beauty of art and nature

aesthetics [i:sˈθetiks] – n. (art) the branch of philosophy dealing with beauty and taste (emphasizing the evaluative criteria that are applied to art): traditional aesthetics assumed the existence of universal and timeless criteria of artistic value

affable [ˈæfəbəl] – adj. diffusing warmth and friendliness: an affable smile

affectation [.æfekˈteiʃən] – n. a deliberate pretense or exaggerated display

affected [əˈfektid] – adj. acted upon; influenced

affectionate [əˈfekʃənit] – adj. having or displaying warmth or affection: affectionate children

afferent [ˈæfərənt] – n. a nerve that passes impulses from receptors toward or to the central nervous system

affidavit [.æfiˈdeivit] – n. written declaration made under oath; a written statement sworn to be true before someone legally authorized to administer an oath

affiliate [əˈfilieit] – v. keep company with; hang out with: She affiliates with her colleagues

affiliation [ə.filiˈeiʃən] – n. a social or business relationship: a valuable financial affiliation

affirmation [əfə:ˈmeiʃən] – n. a statement asserting the existence or the truth of something

affirmative [əˈfə:mətiv] – adj. expecting the best: an affirmative outlook

affix [əˈfiks,ˈæfiks] – v. attach to: affix the seal here

afflatus [əˈfleitəs] – n. a strong creative impulse; divine inspiration: divine afflatus

afflict [əˈflikt] – v. cause great unhappiness for; distress: she was afflicted by the death of her parents

affliction [əˈflikʃən] – n. a state of great suffering and distress due to adversity

affluence [ˈæfluəns] – n. abundant wealth

affluent [ˈæfluənt] – n. a branch that flows into the main stream

affray [əˈfrei] – n. noisy quarrel

affront [əˈfrʌnt] – n. a deliberately offensive act or something producing the effect of deliberate disrespect

aficionado [ə.fiʃəˈnɑ:dəu] – n. a fan of bull fighting

afterlife  – n. life after death

aftermath [ˈɑ:ftəmæθ] – n. the consequences of an event (especially a catastrophic event): the aftermath of war

agape [əˈgeip] – n. (Christian theology) the love of God or Christ for mankind

agate [ˈægit] – n. an impure form of quartz consisting of banded chalcedony; used as a gemstone and for making mortars and pestles

agglomerate [əˈglɔməreit] – n. volcanic rock consisting of large fragments fused together

agglomeration [ə.glɔməˈreiʃən] – n. a jumbled collection or mass

aggrandize [əˈgrændaiz] – v. add details to

aggravate [ˈægrəveit] – v. make worse: This drug aggravates the pain

aggregation [ægriˈgeiʃən] – n. several things grouped together or considered as a whole

aggressor [əˈgresə(r)] – n. someone who attacks

aggrieve [əˈgri:v] – v. infringe on the rights of

aghast [əˈgɑ:st] – adj. struck with fear, dread, or consternation

agile [ˈædʒail] – adj. moving quickly and lightly: sleek and agile as a gymnast

agility [əˈdʒiliti] – n. the gracefulness of a person or animal that is quick and nimble

agitate [ˈædʒiteit] – v. try to stir up public opinion

agitated [ˈædʒiteitid] – adj. troubled emotionally and usually deeply: agitated parents

agitation [ædʒiˈteiʃən] – n. a mental state of extreme emotional disturbance

agnostic [ægˈnɔstik] – n. someone who is doubtful or noncommittal about something

agog [əˈgɔg] – adj. highly excited

agonized  – adj. expressing pain or agony: agonized screams

agrarian [əˈgrɛəriən] – adj. relating to rural matters: an agrarian (or agricultural) society

agronomist [əˈgrɔnəmist] – n. an expert in soil management and field-crop production

ailment [ˈeilmənt] – n. an often persistent bodily disorder or disease; a cause for complaining

airborne [ˈɛəbɔ:n] – adj. moved or conveyed by or through air

airtight [ˈeətait] – adj. having no weak points: an airtight defense

airy [ˈɛəri] – adj. not practical or realizable; speculative: airy theories about socioeconomic improvement

aisle [ail] – n. a long narrow passage (as in a cave or woods)

alabaster [ˈæləbɑ:stə] – n. a compact fine-textured, usually white gypsum used for carving

alacrity [əˈlækriti] – n. liveliness and eagerness: he accepted with alacrity

albino [ælˈbi:nəu] – n. a person with congenital albinism: white hair and milky skin; eyes are usually pink

alchemy [ˈælkəmi] – n. the way two individuals relate to each other: a mysterious alchemy brought them together

alcove [ˈælkəuv] – n. a small recess opening off a larger room

alias [ˈeiliəs] – n. a name that has been assumed temporarily

alibi  – n. (law) a defense by an accused person purporting to show that he or she could not have committed the crime in question

alienate [ˈeiljəneit] – v. arouse hostility or indifference in where there had formerly been love, affection, or friendliness: She alienated her friends when she became fanatically religious

alienated [ˈeiljəneitid] – adj. socially disoriented: we live in an age of rootless alienated people

align  – v. place in a line or arrange so as to be parallel or straight: align the car with the curb

alimentary [.æliˈmentəri] – adj. of or providing nourishment

alimony [ˈæliməni] – n. court-ordered support paid by one spouse to another after they are separated

alkali [ˈælkəlai] – n. any of various water-soluble compounds capable of turning litmus blue and reacting with an acid to form a salt and water

allay [əˈlei] – v. lessen the intensity of or calm

allegiance [əˈli:dʒəns] – n. the act of binding yourself (intellectually or emotionally) to a course of action

allegory [ˈæligəri] – n. a short moral story (often with animal characters)

allegro [əˈlegrəu] – n. a brisk and lively tempo

allergic [əˈlə:dʒik] – adj. having an allergy or peculiar or excessive susceptibility (especially to a specific factor): allergic children

allergy [ˈælədʒi] – n. hypersensitivity reaction to a particular allergen; symptoms can vary greatly in intensity

alleviate [əˈli:vieit] – v. provide physical relief, as from pain

alleviated  – adj. (of pain or sorrow) made easier to bear

alley [ˈæli] – n. a lane down which a bowling ball is rolled toward pins

alligator [ˈæligeitə] – n. either of two amphibious reptiles related to crocodiles but with shorter broader snouts

alliterate  – v. use alliteration as a form of poetry

alliteration [ə.litəˈreiʃən] – n. use of the same consonant at the beginning of each stressed syllable in a line of verse

allopathy  – n. the usual method of treating disease with remedies that produce effects differing from those produced by the disease itself

allude [əˈlu:d] – v. make a more or less disguised reference to: He alluded to the problem but did not mention it

allure [əˈljuə, əˈlur] – n. the power to entice or attract through personal charm

allurement [əˈljuəmənt] – n. attractiveness: its allurement was its remoteness

allusion [əˈlu:ʒən] – n. passing reference or indirect mention

alluvial [əˈlu:viəl] – adj. of or relating to alluvium

almond [ˈɑ:mənd] – n. small bushy deciduous tree native to Asia and North Africa having pretty pink blossoms and highly prized edible nuts enclosed in a hard green hull; cultivated in southern Australia and California

alms [ɑ:mz] – n. money or goods contributed to the poor

aloft [əˈlɔft] – adv. at or on or to the masthead or upper rigging of a ship: climbed aloft to unfurl the sail

aloof [əˈlu:f] – adj. remote in manner: stood apart with aloof dignity

alphabetical [.ælfəˈbetikəl] – adj. arranged in order according to the alphabet: dictionaries list words in alphabetical order

altercation [.ɔ:ltəˈkeiʃən] – n. noisy quarrel

altruism [ˈæltruizəm] – n. the quality of unselfish concern for the welfare of others

altruist [ˈæltruist] – n. someone who makes charitable donations intended to increase human well-being

altruistic  – adj. showing unselfish concern for the welfare of others

amalgam [əˈmælgəm] – n. a combination or blend of diverse things: his theory is an amalgam of earlier ideas

amalgamate [əˈmælgəmeit] – v. to bring or combine together or with something else

amass [əˈmæs] – v. collect or gather

amateurish [ˈæmətəriʃ] – adj. lacking professional skill or expertise: a very amateurish job

amatory [ˈæmətəri] – adj. expressive of or exciting sexual love or romance: her amatory affairs

amazon  – n. a large strong and aggressive woman

ambidextrous [.æmbiˈdekstrəs] – adj. equally skillful with each hand: an ambidextrous surgeon

ambience [ˈæmbiəns] – n. a particular environment or surrounding influence

ambivalence [æmˈbiveiləns] – n. mixed feelings or emotions

ambivalent [æmˈbivələnt] – adj. uncertain or unable to decide about what course to follow: was ambivalent about having children

amble [ˈæmbl] – n. a leisurely walk (usually in some public place)

ambrosia [æmˈbrəuziə, æmˈbrəuʒə] – n. a mixture of nectar and pollen prepared by worker bees and fed to larvae

ambrosial [æmˈbrəuʒiəl] – adj. extremely pleasing to the taste; sweet and fragrant: ambrosial food

ambulatory [ˈæmbjulətəri] – adj. relating to or adapted for walking: an ambulatory corridor

ambush [ˈæmbuʃ] – v. wait in hiding to attack

ameliorate [əˈmi:ljəreit] – v. to make better

amenable [əˈmi:nəbəl] – adj. disposed or willing to comply: someone amenable to persuasion

amenities  – n. things that make you comfortable and at ease

amenity [əˈmi:niti] – n. pleasantness resulting from agreeable conditions

amethyst [ˈæmiθist] – n. a transparent purple variety of quartz; used as a gemstone

amiable [ˈeimjəbl] – adj. disposed to please: an amiable villain with a cocky sidelong grin

amicable [ˈæmikəbəl] – adj. characterized by friendship and good will

amiss  – adv. away from the correct or expected course: something went badly amiss in the preparations

amity [ˈæmiti] – n. a cordial disposition

amnesia [æmˈni:ziə] – n. partial or total loss of memory

amnesty [ˈæmnəsti] – n. a period during which offenders are exempt from punishment

amok  – adv. wildly; without self-control

amorous [ˈæmərəs] – adj. inclined toward or displaying love: feeling amorous

amorphous [əˈmɔ:fəs] – adj. having no definite form or distinct shape: amorphous clouds of insects

amortization [ə.mɔ:tiˈzeiʃən] – n. the reduction of the value of an asset by prorating its cost over a period of years

amortize [əˈmɔ:taiz, æˈmərtaiz] – v. liquidate gradually

amphibian [æmˈfibiən] – n. a flat-bottomed motor vehicle that can travel on land or water

amphitheater [ˈæmfiθi:ətə] – n. a sloping gallery with seats for spectators (as in an operating room or theater)

amplitude [ˈæmplitju:d] – n. (physics) the maximum displacement of a periodic wave

amputate [ˈæmpjuteit] – v. remove surgically: amputate limbs

amuck [əˈmʌk] – adv. wildly; without self-control: when the restaurant caught fire the patrons ran amuck, blocking the exit

amulet [ˈæmjulit,-let] – n. a trinket or piece of jewelry usually hung about the neck and thought to be a magical protection against evil or disease

anachronism [əˈnækrənizəm] – n. something located at a time when it could not have existed or occurred

anachronistic  – adj. chronologically misplaced: English public schools are anachronistic

anaerobic  – adj. living or active in the absence of free oxygen: anaerobic bacteria

anaesthetic  – adj. relating to or producing insensibility

analgesia  – n. absence of the sense of pain without loss of consciousness

analgesic [.ænəlˈdʒi:zik] – n. a medicine used to relieve pain

analogous [əˈnæləgəs] – adj. similar or equivalent in some respects though otherwise dissimilar: brains and computers are often considered analogous

analogue [ˈænəlɔg] – n. something having the property of being analogous to something else

anarchic [ænˈɑ:kik] – adj. without law or control: the system is economically inefficient and politically anarchic

anarchist [ˈænəkist] – n. an advocate of anarchism

anarchy [ˈænəki] – n. a state of lawlessness and disorder (usually resulting from a failure of government)

anathema [əˈnæθimə] – n. a detested person: he is an anathema to me

ancestry [ˈænsistri] – n. the descendants of one individual

anchorite [ˈæŋkərait] – n. one retired from society for religious reasons

ancillary [ænˈsiləri] – adj. furnishing added support: an ancillary pump

andiron  – n. metal supports for logs in a fireplace: the andirons were too hot to touch

androgen  – n. male sex hormone that is produced in the testes and responsible for typical male sexual characteristics

androgynous  – adj. relating to or exhibiting both female and male sex organs but with a predominantly female appearance

anecdote [ˈænik.dəut] – n. short account of an incident (especially a biographical one)

anemia [əˈni:miə] – n. a deficiency of red blood cells

anemic [əˈni:mik] – adj. lacking vigor or energy: an anemic attempt to hit the baseball

anesthetic [.ænəsˈθetik] – adj. relating to or producing insensibility

anguish [ˈæŋgwiʃ] – n. extreme mental distress

angular [ˈæŋgjulə] – adj. measured by an angle or by the rate of change of an angle: angular momentum

anhydrous [ænˈhaidrəs] – adj. without water; especially without water of crystallization

animadversion [ænəmædˈvə:ʃən] – n. harsh criticism or disapproval

animadvert [.ænimædˈvə:t] – v. express one’s opinion openly and without fear or hesitation

animated [ˈænimeitid] – adj. having life or vigor or spirit: an animated and expressive face

animation [.æniˈmeiʃən] – n. the condition of living or the state of being alive

animosity [æniˈmɔsiti] – n. a feeling of ill will arousing active hostility

animus [ˈæniməs] – n. a feeling of ill will arousing active hostility

annals [ˈænəlz] – n. reports of the work of a society or learned body etc

anneal [əˈni:l] – v. bring to a desired consistency, texture, or hardness by a process of gradually heating and cooling

annex [əˈneks] – v. take (territory) as if by conquest: Hitler annexed Lithuania

annihilate [əˈnaiəleit] – v. kill in large numbers

annotate [ˈænəteit] – v. add explanatory notes to or supply with critical comments: The scholar annotated the early edition of a famous novel

annotation [.ænəuˈteiʃən] – n. a comment or instruction (usually added)

annuity [əˈnju:iti] – n. income from capital investment paid in a series of regular payments: his retirement fund was set up to be paid as an annuity

annul [əˈnʌl] – v. declare invalid: The contract was annulled

anode [ˈænəud] – n. a positively charged electrode by which electrons leave an electrical device

anodize  – v. coat a metal with an oxide coat

anodyne [ˈænədain] – n. a medicine used to relieve pain

anoint  – v. choose by or as if by divine intervention: She was anointed the head of the Christian fundamentalist group

anomalous [əˈnɔmələs] – adj. deviating from the general or common order or type: advanced forms of life may be anomalous in the universe

anomaly [əˈnɔməli] – n. deviation from the normal or common order or form or rule

anonymity [.ænəˈnimiti] – n. the state of being anonymous

anorexia [.ænəˈreksiə] – n. a prolonged disorder of eating due to loss of appetite

antagonism [ænˈtægənizəm] – n. a state of deep-seated ill-will

antagonist [ænˈtægənist] – n. someone who offers opposition

antagonize  – v. provoke the hostility of: Don’t antagonize your boss

antebellum  – adj. belonging to a period before a war especially the American Civil War

antecede [ˈæntiˈsi:d] – v. be earlier in time; go back further

antecedence [.æntiˈsi:dəns] – n. preceding in time

antecedent [.æntəˈsi:dənt] – n. someone from whom you are descended (but usually more remote than a grandparent)

antedate [ˈæntiˈdeit] – v. be earlier in time; go back further

antediluvian [.æntidiˈlu:viən] – n. any of the early patriarchs who lived prior to the Noachian deluge

antenna [ænˈtenə] – n. an electrical device that sends or receives radio or television signals

anterior [ænˈtiəriə] – adj. of or near the head end or toward the front plane of a body

anthem [ˈænθəm] – n. a song of devotion or loyalty (as to a nation or school)

anthology [ænˈθɔlədʒi] – n. a collection of selected literary passages

anthropoid [ˈænθrəpɔid] – n. person who resembles a nonhuman primate

anthropologist [ænθrəˈpɔlədʒist] – n. a social scientist who specializes in anthropology

anthropology [ænθrəˈpɔlədʒi] – n. the social science that studies the origins and social relationships of human beings

anthropomorphic [.ænθrəpəˈmɔ:fik] – adj. suggesting human characteristics for animals or inanimate things

antibiotic [.æntibaiˈɔtik] – n. a chemical substance derivable from a mold or bacterium that can kill microorganisms and cure bacterial infections: when antibiotics were first discovered they were called wonder drugs

antic [ˈæntik] – n. a ludicrous or grotesque act done for fun and amusement

anticipatory [æn.tisiˈpeitəri] – adj. in anticipation

anticlimax [æntiˈklaimæks] – n. a disappointing decline after a previous rise: the anticlimax of a brilliant career

antidote [ˈæntidəut] – n. a remedy that stops or controls the effects of a poison

antigen [ˈæntidʒən] – n. any substance (as a toxin or enzyme) that stimulates an immune response in the body (especially the production of antibodies)

antipathy [ænˈtipəθi] – n. a feeling of intense dislike

antiquate [ˈæntikweit] – v. make obsolete or old-fashioned

antiquated [ˈæntikweitid] – adj. so extremely old as seeming to belong to an earlier period

antiquity [ænˈtikwiti] – n. the historic period preceding the Middle Ages in Europe

antiseptic [.æntiˈseptik] – adj. thoroughly clean and free of or destructive to disease-causing organisms: doctors in antiseptic green coats

antithesis [ænˈtiθəsis] – n. exact opposite: his theory is the antithesis of mine

antithetic  – adj. sharply contrasted in character or purpose: practices entirely antithetical to her professed beliefs

antler [ˈæntlə] – n. deciduous horn of a member of the deer family

anvil [ˈænvil] – n. a heavy block of iron or steel on which hot metals are shaped by hammering

aorta [eiˈɔ:tə] – n. the large trunk artery that carries blood from the left ventricle of the heart to branch arteries

apartheid  – n. a social policy or racial segregation involving political and economic and legal discrimination against people who are not Whites; the former official policy in South Africa

apathetic [.æpəˈθetik] – adj. showing little or no emotion or animation: a woman who became active rather than apathetic as she grew older

apathy [ˈæpəθi] – n. an absence of emotion or enthusiasm

ape [eip] – n. any of various primates with short tails or no tail at all

aperitif [ə.periˈti:f] – n. alcoholic beverage taken before a meal as an appetizer

aperture [ˈæpətjuə] – n. a device that controls amount of light admitted

apex [ˈeipeks] – n. the highest point (of something)

aphasia [əˈfeiʒə] – n. inability to use or understand language (spoken or written) because of a brain lesion

aphorism [ˈæfərizəm] – n. a short pithy instructive saying

aphoristic  – adj. terse and witty and like a maxim

apiarist  – n. a farmer who keeps bees for their honey

apiary [ˈeipiəri] – n. a shed containing a number of beehives

apiculture [ˈeipi.kʌltʃə] – n. the cultivation of bees on a commercial scale for the production of honey

aplomb [əˈplɔm] – n. great coolness and composure under strain

apocalyptic [ə.pɔkəˈliptik] – adj. prophetic of devastation or ultimate doom

apocrypha [əˈpɔkrifə] – n. 14 books of the Old Testament included in the Vulgate (except for II Esdras) but omitted in Jewish and Protestant versions of the Bible; eastern Christian churches (except the Coptic Church) accept all these books as canonical; the Russian Orthodox Church accepts these texts as divinely inspired but does not grant them the same status

apocryphal [əˈpɔkrifəl] – adj. being of questionable authenticity

apogee [ˈæpədʒi:] – n. a final climactic stage

apolitical  – adj. politically neutral

apologetic [ə.pɔləˈdʒetik] – adj. offering or expressing apology: an apologetic note

apologist  – n. a person who argues to defend or justify some policy or institution: an apologist for capital punishment

apologue  – n. a short moral story (often with animal characters)

apophasis  – n. mentioning something by saying it will not be mentioned

apophthegm  – n. a short pithy instructive saying

apoplectic [.æpəˈplektik] – adj. pertaining to or characteristic of apoplexy: apoplectic seizure

apoplexy  – n. a sudden loss of consciousness resulting when the rupture or occlusion of a blood vessel leads to oxygen lack in the brain

apostasy [əˈpɔstəsi] – n. the act of abandoning a party for cause

apostate [əˈpɔsteit] – n. a disloyal person who betrays or deserts his cause or religion or political party or friend etc.

apostrophe [əˈpɔstrəfi] – n. address to an absent or imaginary person

apothecary [əˈpɔθikeri] – n. a health professional trained in the art of preparing and dispensing drugs

apothegm [ˈæpəθem] – n. a short pithy instructive saying

apotheosis [ə.pɔθiˈəusis] – n. model of excellence or perfection of a kind; one having no equal

appal  – v. strike with disgust or revulsion

appall [əˈpɔ:l] – v. strike with disgust or revulsion

apparel [əˈpærəl] – n. clothing in general: she was refined in her choice of apparel

apparition [.æpəˈriʃən] – n. a ghostly appearing figure: we were unprepared for the apparition that confronted us

appease [əˈpi:z] – v. cause to be more favorably inclined; gain the good will of

appeasement [əˈpi:zmənt] – n. the act of appeasing (as by acceding to the demands of)

appellation [.æpəˈleiʃən] – n. identifying word or words by which someone or something is called and classified or distinguished from others

append [əˈpend] – v. add to the very end: He appended a glossary to his novel where he used an invented language

appendage [əˈpendidʒ] – n. an external body part that projects from the body

appetizing [ˈæpitaiziŋ] – adj. appealing to or stimulating the appetite especially in appearance or aroma

apposite [ˈæpəzit] – adj. being of striking appropriateness and pertinence: the successful copywriter is a master of apposite and evocative verbal images

appraise [əˈpreiz] – v. evaluate or estimate the nature, quality, ability, extent, or significance of: I will have the family jewels appraised by a professional

appreciable [əˈpri:ʃəbl] – adj. enough to be estimated or measured: appreciable amounts of noxious wastes are dumped into the harbor

appreciative [əˈpri:ʃiətiv] – adj. feeling or expressive of gratitude: was appreciative of his efforts

apprehend [.æpriˈhend] – v. get the meaning of something

apprehension [.æpriˈhenʃən] – n. fearful expectation or anticipation: the student looked around the examination room with apprehension

apprehensive [.æpriˈhensiv] – adj. quick to understand: a kind and apprehensive friend

apprentice [əˈprentis] – n. works for an expert to learn a trade

apprise [əˈpraiz] – v. inform (somebody) of something

approachable [əˈprəutʃəbəl] – adj. capable of being read with comprehension: the tales seem more approachable than his more difficult novels

approbation [.æprəˈbeiʃən] – n. official approval

approbatory  – adj. expressing or manifesting praise or approval

appropriate [əˈprəupriət] – v. give or assign a resource to a particular person or cause

appropriation [ə.prəupriˈeiʃən] – n. money set aside (as by a legislature) for a specific purpose

appurtenance [əˈpə:tinəns] – n. equipment consisting of miscellaneous articles needed for a particular operation or sport etc.

apron [ˈeiprən] – n. a garment of cloth or leather or plastic that is tied about the waist and worn to protect your clothing

apropos [.æprəˈpəu] – adv. at an opportune time: your letter arrived apropos

apt [æpt] – adj. (usually followed by `to’) naturally disposed toward: he is apt to ignore matters he considers unimportant

aptitude [ˈæptitju:d] – n. inherent ability

aquatic [əˈkwætik] – adj. relating to or consisting of or being in water: an aquatic environment

aqueduct [ˈækwidʌkt] – n. a conduit that resembles a bridge but carries water over a valley

aquifer  – n. underground bed or layer yielding ground water for wells and springs etc

aquiline [ˈækwilain] – adj. curved down like an eagle’s beak

arabesque [.ærəˈbesk] – n. position in which the dancer has one leg raised behind and arms outstretched in a conventional pose

arable [ˈærəbəl] – adj. (of farmland) capable of being farmed productively

arachnid [əˈræknid] – n. air-breathing arthropods characterized by simple eyes and four pairs of legs

arbiter [ˈɑ:bitə] – n. someone with the power to settle matters at will: she was the final arbiter on all matters of fashion

arbitrate [ˈɑ:bitreit] – v. act between parties with a view to reconciling differences

arbitrator [ˈɑ:bitreitə] – n. someone chosen to judge and decide a disputed issue: the arbitrator’s authority derived from the consent of the disputants

arbor [ˈa:bə] – n. tree (as opposed to shrub)

arboreal [ɑ:ˈbɔ:riəl] – adj. of or relating to or formed by trees

arboretum [.ɑ:bəˈri:təm] – n. a facility where trees and shrubs are cultivated for exhibition

arcade [a:ˈkeid] – n. a covered passageway with shops and stalls on either side

arcane [ɑ:ˈkein] – adj. requiring secret or mysterious knowledge: the arcane science of dowsing

archaeology [.ɑ:kiˈɔlədʒi] – n. the branch of anthropology that studies prehistoric people and their cultures

archaic [ɑ:ˈkei-ik] – adj. so extremely old as seeming to belong to an earlier period: archaic laws

archer [ˈɑ:tʃə] – n. a person who is expert in the use of a bow and arrow

archetype [ˈɑ:kitaip] – n. something that serves as a model or a basis for making copies

archipelago [.ɑ:kiˈpeləgəu] – n. a group of many islands in a large body of water

archives [ˈɑ:kaivz] – n. collection of records especially about an institution

ardent [ˈɑ:dənt] – adj. characterized by intense emotion: ardent love

ardor [ˈɑ:də] – n. a feeling of strong eagerness (usually in favor of a person or cause): they were imbued with a revolutionary ardor

arduous [ˈɑ:djuəs] – adj. characterized by effort to the point of exhaustion; especially physical effort: worked their arduous way up the mining valley

argot [ˈɑ:gəu] – n. a characteristic language of a particular group (as among thieves)

aria [ˈɑ:riə] – n. an elaborate song for solo voice

arid [ˈærid] – adj. lacking sufficient water or rainfall: an arid climate

aristocracy [.ærisˈtɔkrəsi] – n. a privileged class holding hereditary titles

aristocrat [ˈæristəkræt] – n. a member of the aristocracy

armada [ɑ:ˈmɑ:də] – n. a large fleet

armistice [ˈɑ:mistis] – n. a state of peace agreed to between opponents so they can discuss peace terms

armory [ˈɑ:məri] – n. a collection of resources: he dipped into his intellectual armory to find an answer

aroma [əˈrəumə] – n. any property detected by the olfactory system

aromatic [.ærəˈmætik] – adj. (chemistry) of or relating to or containing one or more benzene rings: an aromatic organic compound

arraign [əˈrein] – v. call before a court to answer an indictment

arrant [ˈærənt] – adj. without qualification; used informally as (often pejorative) intensifiers: an arrant fool

arrears [əˈriəz] – n. the state of being behind in payments: an account in arrears

arrhythmic  – adj. lacking a steady rhythm: an arrhythmic heartbeat

arrogance [ˈærəgəns] – n. overbearing pride evidenced by a superior manner toward inferiors

arrogant [ˈærəgənt] – adj. having or showing feelings of unwarranted importance out of overbearing pride: an arrogant official

arrogate [ˈærəugeit] – v. demand as being one’s due or property; assert one’s right or title to

arroyo [əˈrɔiəu] – n. a stream or brook

arsenal [ˈɑ:sənl] – n. all the weapons and equipment that a country has

arsenic [ˈɑ:sənik] – n. a very poisonous metallic element that has three allotropic forms; arsenic and arsenic compounds are used as herbicides and insecticides and various alloys; found in arsenopyrite and orpiment and realgar

arson [ˈɑ:sən] – n. malicious burning to destroy property: the British term for arson is fire-raising

arsonist [ˈɑ:sənist] – n. a criminal who illegally sets fire to property

arteriosclerosis [ɑ:.tiəriəuskliəˈrəusis] – n. sclerosis of the arterial walls

artery [ˈɑ:təri] – n. a major thoroughfare that bears important traffic

artful [ˈɑ:tful] – adj. not straightforward or candid; giving a false appearance of frankness

arthritis [ɑ:ˈθraitis] – n. inflammation of a joint or joints

artifact  – n. a man-made object taken as a whole

artifice [ˈɑ:tifis] – n. a deceptive maneuver (especially to avoid capture)

artillery [ɑ:ˈtiləri] – n. large but transportable armament

artisan [ˈɑ:ti.zæn] – n. a skilled worker who practices some trade or handicraft

artless [ˈɑ:tləs] – adj. characterized by an inability to mask your feelings; not devious

ascend [əˈsend] – v. travel up,: We ascended the mountain

ascendancy [əˈsendənsi] – n. the state that exists when one person or group has power over another

ascendant [əˈsendənt] – n. position or state of being dominant or in control: that idea was in the ascendant

ascent [əˈsent] – n. an upward slope or grade (as in a road)

ascetic [əˈsetik] – adj. practicing great self-denial: Be systematically ascetic…do…something for no other reason than that you would rather not do it

asceticism [əˈsetisizəm] – n. the trait of great self-denial (especially refraining from worldly pleasures)

ascribe [əˈskraib] – v. attribute or credit to

aseptic [eiˈseptik] – adj. free of or using methods to keep free of pathological microorganisms: aseptic surgical instruments

ashen [ˈæʃən] – adj. anemic looking from illness or emotion: a face turned ashen

asinine [ˈæsinain] – adj. devoid of intelligence

askance [əˈskæns] – adv. with suspicion or disapproval: he looked askance at the offer

askew [əˈskju:] – adj. turned or twisted toward one side

asparagus [əˈspærəgəs] – n. plant whose succulent young shoots are cooked and eaten as a vegetable

asperity [æˈsperiti] – n. something hard to endure: the asperity of northern winters

aspersion [əˈspə:ʃən] – n. a disparaging remark: in the 19th century any reference to female sexuality was considered a vile aspersion

asphalt [ˈæsfælt] – n. a dark bituminous substance found in natural beds and as residue from petroleum distillation; consists mainly of hydrocarbons

asphyxia [æsˈfiksiə] – n. a condition in which insufficient or no oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged on a ventilatory basis; caused by choking or drowning or electric shock or poison gas

asphyxiate [æsˈfiksieit] – v. deprive of oxygen and prevent from breathing

aspirant [əˈspaiərənt] – n. an ambitious and aspiring young person: a lofty aspirant

aspire [əsˈpaiə] – v. have an ambitious plan or a lofty goal

assail [əˈseil] – v. attack someone physically or emotionally: Nightmares assailed him regularly

assay [əˈsei] – n. an appraisal of the state of affairs: they made an assay of the contents

assent [əˈsent] – n. agreement with a statement or proposal to do something: he gave his assent eagerly

assertive [əˈsə:tiv] – adj. aggressively self-assured: an energetic assertive boy who was always ready to argue

asseverate [əˈsevəreit] – v. state categorically

assiduity [.æsiˈdju:iti] – n. great and constant diligence and attention

assiduous [əˈsidjuəs] – adj. marked by care and persistent effort: her assiduous attempts to learn French

assimilate [əˈsimileit] – v. take up mentally

assuage [əˈsweidʒ] – v. cause to be more favorably inclined; gain the good will of

assured [əʃuəd] – adj. characterized by certainty or security: a tiny but assured income

asteroid [ˈæstərɔid] – adj. shaped like a star

asthma [ˈæsmə] – n. respiratory disorder characterized by wheezing; usually of allergic origin

astigmatic  – adj. of or relating to a defect in the eye or in a lens caused by a deviation from spherical curvature which prevents light rays from meeting at a common focus and so results in distorted images

astigmatism [əˈstigmətizəm] – n. (optics) defect in an optical system in which light rays from a single point fail to converge in a single focal point

astral [ˈæstrəl] – adj. being or relating to or resembling or emanating from stars: an astral body

astray [əsˈʒrei:] – adv. away from the right path or direction: he was led astray

astringent [əˈstrindʒənt] – adj. sour or bitter in taste

astrolabe [ˈæstrəleib] – n. an early form of sextant

astrology [əˈstrɔlədʒi] – n. a pseudoscience claiming divination by the positions of the planets and sun and moon

astronomical [.æstrəˈnɔmikəl] – adj. inconceivably large

astute [əˈstju:t] – adj. marked by practical hardheaded intelligence: an astute tenant always reads the small print in a lease

asunder [əˈsʌndə] – adj. widely separated especially in space: as wide asunder as pole from pole

asymmetric [.eisiˈmetrik] – adj. characterized by asymmetry in the spatial arrangement or placement of parts or components

asymmetrical [.eisiˈmetrikəl] – adj. irregular in shape or outline: asymmetrical features

atavism [ˈætəvizəm] – n. a reappearance of an earlier characteristic

atelier [əˈteliei] – n. a studio especially for an artist or designer

atheism [ˈeiθi-izəm] – n. the doctrine or belief that there is no God

atheist [ˈeiθiist] – n. someone who denies the existence of god

atheistic [.eiθiˈistik] – adj. rejecting any belief in gods

athletics [æθˈletiks] – n. an active diversion requiring physical exertion and competition

athwart [əˈθwɔ:t] – adv. at right angles to the center line of a ship

atlas [ˈætləs] – n. (Greek mythology) a Titan who was forced by Zeus to bear the sky on his shoulders

atonal [eiˈtəunl] – adj. characterized by avoidance of traditional western tonality

atone [əˈtəun] – v. make amends for

atonement [əˈtəunmənt] – n. compensation for a wrong

atrocious [əˈtrəuʃəs] – adj. shockingly brutal or cruel: murder is an atrocious crime

atrocity [əˈtrɔsiti] – n. the quality of being shockingly cruel and inhumane

atrophy [ˈætrəfi] – n. a decrease in size of an organ caused by disease or disuse

attenuate [əˈtenjueit] – v. weaken the consistency of (a chemical substance)

attest [əˈtest] – v. authenticate, affirm to be true, genuine, or correct, as in an official capacity: I attest this signature

attic [ˈætik] – n. floor consisting of open space at the top of a house just below roof; often used for storage

attire [əˈtaiə] – n. clothing of a distinctive style or for a particular occasion: formal attire

attribution [.ætriˈbju:ʃən] – n. assigning some quality or character to a person or thing: the attribution of language to birds

attrition [əˈtriʃən] – n. erosion by friction

atypical [eiˈtipikəl] – adj. not representative of a group, class, or type: a group that is atypical of the target audience

audacious [ɔ:ˈdeiʃəs] – adj. invulnerable to fear or intimidation: audacious explorers

audacity [ɔ:ˈdæsiti] – n. fearless daring

audible [ˈɔ:dibəl] – n. a football play is changed orally after both teams have assumed their positions at the line of scrimmage

audition [ɔ:ˈdiʃən] – n. a test of the suitability of a performer

auditory [ˈɔ:ditəri] – adj. of or relating to the process of hearing: auditory processing

auger [ˈɔ:gə] – n. a long flexible steel coil for dislodging stoppages in curved pipes

augment [ɔ:gˈment] – v. enlarge or increase: The recent speech of the president augmented tensions in the Near East

augmentation [.ɔ:gmenˈteiʃən] – n. the amount by which something increases

augur [ˈɔ:gə] – v. indicate by signs

augury [ˈɔ:gjuri] – n. an event that is experienced as indicating important things to come: he hoped it was an augury

aureole [ˈɔ:riəul] – n. the outermost region of the sun’s atmosphere; visible as a white halo during a solar eclipse

auricular [ɔ:ˈrikjulə] – adj. of or relating to near the ear

aurora [ɔ:ˈrɔ:rə] – n. the first light of day

auroral  – adj. characteristic of the dawn: a dim auroral glow

auscultation [.ɔ:skəlˈteiʃən] – n. listening to sounds within the body (usually with a stethoscope)

auspices [ˈɔ:spisiz] – n. kindly endorsement and guidance: the tournament was held under the auspices of the city council

auspicious [ɔ:ˈspiʃəs] – adj. auguring favorable circumstances and good luck: an auspicious beginning for the campaign

austere [ɔˈstiə] – adj. severely simple

austerity [ɔˈsteriti] – n. the trait of great self-denial (especially refraining from worldly pleasures)

authentic [ɔ:ˈθentik] – adj. conforming to fact and therefore worthy of belief: an authentic account by an eyewitness

authenticate [ɔ:ˈθentikeit] – v. establish the authenticity of something

authenticity [ɔ:θenˈtisiti] – n. undisputed credibility

authoritarian [ɔ:.θɔriˈteəriən] – adj. characteristic of an absolute ruler or absolute rule; having absolute sovereignty: an authoritarian regime

authoritative [ɔ:ˈθɔrətətiv] – adj. of recognized authority or excellence

authorization [.ɔ:θəraiˈzeiʃən] – n. a document giving an official instruction or command

authorize [ˈɔ:θəraiz] – v. give or delegate power or authority to: She authorized her assistant to sign the papers

autism [ˈɔ:tizəm] – n. (psychiatry) an abnormal absorption with the self; marked by communication disorders and short attention span and inability to treat others as people

autocracy [ɔ:ˈtɔkrəsi] – n. a political system governed by a single individual

autocrat [ˈɔ:təkræt] – n. a cruel and oppressive dictator

autocratic  – adj. offensively self-assured or given to exercising usually unwarranted power: an autocratic person

automatism [ɔ:ˈtɔmətizəm] – n. any reaction that occurs automatically without conscious thought or reflection (especially the undirected behavior seen in psychomotor epilepsy)

automaton [ɔ:ˈtɔmətən] – n. someone who acts or responds in a mechanical or apathetic way: only an automaton wouldn’t have noticed

autopsy [ˈɔ:tɔpsi] – n. an examination and dissection of a dead body to determine cause of death or the changes produced by disease

auxin  – n. a plant hormone that promotes root formation and bud growth

avalanche [ˈævəlɑ:nʃ] – n. a slide of large masses of snow and ice and mud down a mountain

avant-garde [.ævɔ:ŋ ˈgɑ:d] – adj. radically new or original: an avant-garde theater piece

avarice [ˈævəris] – n. reprehensible acquisitiveness; insatiable desire for wealth (personified as one of the deadly sins)

avaricious [ævəˈriʃəs] – adj. immoderately desirous of acquiring e.g. wealth: they are avaricious and will do anything for money

avatar [.ævəˈtɑ:] – n. a new personification of a familiar idea: the very avatar of cunning

avenge [əˈvendʒ] – v. take revenge for a perceived wrong: He wants to avenge the murder of his brother

aver [əˈvə:] – v. report or maintain

averse [əˈvə:s] – adj. (usually followed by `to’) strongly opposed: averse to taking risks

aversion [əˈvə:ʃən] – n. a feeling of intense dislike

avert [əˈvə:t] – v. prevent the occurrence of; prevent from happening: avert a strike

aviary [ˈeiviəri] – n. a building where birds are kept

avid [ˈævid] – adj. (often followed by `for’) ardently or excessively desirous: avid for adventure

avocation [.ævəˈkeiʃən] – n. an auxiliary activity

avouch [əˈvautʃ] – v. admit openly and bluntly; make no bones about

avow [əˈvau] – v. to declare or affirm solemnly and formally as true

avowal [əˈvauəl] – n. a statement asserting the existence or the truth of something

avulse  – v. separate by avulsion

avuncular [əˈvʌŋkjulə] – adj. resembling a uncle in kindness or indulgence

awash  – adj. covered with water: the main deck was afloat (or awash)

awe [ɔ:] – n. an overwhelming feeling of wonder or admiration: he stared over the edge with a feeling of awe

awe-inspiring  – adj. inspiring awe or admiration or wonder: the Grand Canyon is an awe-inspiring sight

awl [ɔ:l] – n. a pointed tool for marking surfaces or for punching small holes

awning [ˈɔ:niŋ] – n. a canopy made of canvas to shelter people or things from rain or sun

awry [əˈrai] – adj. turned or twisted toward one side: a…youth with a gorgeous red necktie all awry

axiom [ˈæksiəm] – n. a saying that is widely accepted on its own merits

axiomatic [.æksiəˈmætik] – adj. evident without proof or argument: an axiomatic truth

axle [ˈæksl] – n. a shaft on which a wheel rotates

azure [ˈæʒə, ˈæʒjuə] – n. a light shade of blue

babble  – v. to talk foolishly: The two women babbled and crooned at the baby

bacchanal [ˈbækənəl] – n. someone who engages in drinking bouts

bacchanalia  – n. an orgiastic festival in ancient Greece in honor of Dionysus (= Bacchus)

bacchanalian [.bækəˈneiliən] – adj. used of riotously drunken merrymaking: a night of bacchanalian revelry

backhanded  – adj. (of racket strokes) made across the body with back of hand facing direction of stroke

backlog [ˈbæklɔ:g] – n. the large log at the back of a hearth fire

backslide  – v. drop to a lower level, as in one’s morals or standards

badger [ˈbædʒə] – n. a native or resident of Wisconsin

badinage [ˈbædinɑ:ʒ] – n. frivolous banter

baffle [ˈbæfl] – v. be a mystery or bewildering to

baffling [ˈbæfliŋ] – adj. making great mental demands; hard to comprehend or solve or believe: a baffling problem

bagatelle [.bægəˈtel] – n. a light piece of music for piano

balderdash [ˈbɔ:ldədæʃ] – n. trivial nonsense

bale [beil] – n. a large bundle bound for storage or transport

baleful [ˈbeilfəl] – adj. deadly or sinister: the Florida eagles have a fierce baleful look

balk [bɔ:lk] – n. something immaterial that interferes with or delays action or progress

balky  – adj. stopping short and refusing to go on: a balky mule

ballad [ˈbæləd] – n. a narrative song with a recurrent refrain

ballast [ˈbæləst] – n. any heavy material used to stabilize a ship or airship

ballerina [.bæləˈri:nə] – n. a female ballet dancer

ballroom [ˈbɔ:lrum] – n. large room used mainly for dancing

ballyhoo [.bæliˈhu:] – n. blatant or sensational promotion

balm [bɑ:m] – n. any of various aromatic resinous substances used for healing and soothing

balmy [ˈbɑ:mi] – adj. informal or slang terms for mentally irregular: it used to drive my husband balmy

bamboozle [bæmˈbu:zəl] – v. conceal one’s true motives from especially by elaborately feigning good intentions so as to gain an end: He bamboozled his professors into thinking that he knew the subject well

banal [bəˈnɑ:l] – adj. repeated too often; overfamiliar through overuse

banality  – n. a trite or obvious remark

bandanna [bænˈdænə] – n. large and brightly colored handkerchief; often used as a neckerchief

bandy  – v. toss or strike a ball back and forth

bane [bein] – n. something causing misery or death: the bane of my life

baneful [ˈbeinfəl] – adj. exceedingly harmful

banish [ˈbæniʃ] – v. expel from a community or group

banister [ˈbænistə] – n. a railing at the side of a staircase or balcony to prevent people from falling

banter [ˈbæntə] – n. light teasing repartee

barb [bɑ:b] – n. an aggressive remark directed at a person like a missile and intended to have a telling effect

barbarity [bɑ:ˈbæriti] – n. the quality of being shockingly cruel and inhumane

barbarous [ˈbɑ:bərəs] – adj. (of persons or their actions) able or disposed to inflict pain or suffering: a barbarous crime

barbecue [ˈbɑ:bikju:] – n. a cookout in which food is cooked over an open fire; especially a whole animal carcass roasted on a spit

barbed [bɑ:bd] – adj. capable of wounding: a barbed compliment

bard  – n. a lyric poet

barefaced  – adj. with no effort to conceal: a barefaced lie

barge [bɑ:dʒ] – v. push one’s way: she barged into the meeting room

barometer [bəˈrɔmitə] – n. an instrument that measures atmospheric pressure

baron [ˈbærən] – n. a nobleman (in various countries) of varying rank

baroque [bəˈrɔk, bəˈrəuk] – n. elaborate and extensive ornamentation in decorative art and architecture that flourished in Europe in the 17th century

barque  – n. a sailing ship with 3 (or more) masts

barrage [ˈbærɑ:ʒ] – n. the rapid and continuous delivery of linguistic communication (spoken or written): a barrage of questions

barren [ˈbærən] – adj. providing no shelter or sustenance: barren lands

barricade [ˈbærikeid] – v. render unsuitable for passage: barricade the streets

barrister [ˈbæristə] – n. a British or Canadian lawyer who speaks in the higher courts of law on behalf of either the defense or prosecution

barter [ˈbɑ:tə] – n. an equal exchange: we had no money so we had to live by barter

barterer  – n. a trader who exchanges goods and not money

baseboard  – n. a molding covering the joint formed by a wall and the floor

bashful [ˈbæʃful] – adj. self-consciously timid: I never laughed, being bashful; lowering my head, I looked at the wall

bask [bɑ:sk] – v. derive or receive pleasure from; get enjoyment from; take pleasure in: She relished her fame and basked in her glory

bassoon [bəˈsu:n] – n. a double-reed instrument; the tenor of the oboe family

baste [beist] – v. cover with liquid before cooking: baste a roast

bastion  – n. a group that defends a principle: a bastion against corruption

bate  – v. moderate or restrain; lessen the force of: He bated his breath when talking about this affair

bathetic  – adj. effusively or insincerely emotional: a bathetic novel

baton [ˈbætɔn] – n. a thin tapered rod used by a conductor to lead an orchestra or choir

battalion [bəˈtæljən] – n. an army unit usually consisting of a headquarters and three or more companies

batten [ˈbætn] – n. stuffing made of rolls or sheets of cotton wool or synthetic fiber

bauble [ˈbɔ:bəl] – n. a mock scepter carried by a court jester

bauxite [ˈbɔ:ksait] – n. a clay-like mineral; the chief ore of aluminum; composed of aluminum oxides and aluminum hydroxides; used as an abrasive and catalyst

bawdy [ˈbɔ:di] – n. lewd or obscene talk or writing: they published a collection of Elizabethan bawdy

bawl [bɔ:l] – v. shout loudly and without restraint

bazaar [bəˈzɑ:] – n. a shop where a variety of goods are sold

beacon [ˈbi:kən] – n. a fire (usually on a hill or tower) that can be seen from a distance

beater [ˈbi:tə] – n. a worker who rouses wild game from under cover for a hunter

beatific [.biəˈtifik] – adj. experiencing or bestowing celestial joy: beatific peace

beatify [bi:ˈætifai] – v. fill with sublime emotion

beatitude [biˈætitju:d] – n. a state of supreme happiness

beaver [ˈbi:və] – n. a native or resident of Oregon

bedaub [biˈdɔ:b] – v. spread or daub (a surface)

bedeck [biˈdek] – v. decorate

bedizen [biˈdiz(ə)n] – v. decorate tastelessly

bedlam [ˈbedləm] – n. a state of extreme confusion and disorder

bedraggle [biˈdrægl] – v. make wet and dirty, as from rain

bedraggled [biˈdrægəld] – adj. limp and soiled as if dragged in the mud: the beggar’s bedraggled clothes

beefy [ˈbi:fi] – adj. muscular and heavily built: a beefy wrestler

beeline  – n. the most direct route: he made a beeline for the bathroom

beet [bi:t] – n. biennial Eurasian plant usually having a swollen edible root; widely cultivated as a food crop

befuddle  – v. be confusing or perplexing to; cause to be unable to think clearly: This question befuddled even the teacher

beget [biˈget] – v. make children

begrudge [biˈgrʌdʒ] – v. be envious of; set one’s heart on

beguile [biˈgail] – v. influence by slyness

beguiling  – adj. highly attractive and able to arouse hope or desire: the voice was low and beguiling

behemoth  – n. someone or something that is abnormally large and powerful

behold [biˈhəuld] – v. see with attention: behold Christ!

beholden [biˈhəuldn] – adj. under a moral obligation to someone

beholder [biˈhəuldə] – n. a person who becomes aware (of things or events) through the senses

behoove [biˈhəuv] – v. be appropriate or necessary: It behooves us to reflect on this matter

belabor [biˈleibə] – v. to work at or to absurd length: belabor the obvious

belabour  – v. to work at or to absurd length

belch [beltʃ] – v. expel gas from the stomach

beleaguer [biˈli:gə] – v. annoy persistently

belie [biˈlai] – v. be in contradiction with

belittle [biˈlitl] – v. cause to seem less serious; play down: Don’t belittle his influence

bellicose [ˈbelikəus] – adj. having or showing a ready disposition to fight: bellicose young officers

belligerence  – n. hostile or warlike attitude or nature

belligerent [biˈlidʒərənt] – adj. characteristic of an enemy or one eager to fight: a belligerent tone

bellwether  – n. someone who assumes leadership of a movement or activity

belongings [biˈlɔŋiŋz] – n. something owned; any tangible or intangible possession that is owned by someone

bemoan [biˈməun] – v. regret strongly

bemused  – adj. deeply absorbed in thought: as distant and bemused as a professor listening to the prattling of his freshman class

benediction [beniˈdikʃən] – n. the act of praying for divine protection

benefactor [ˈbeni.fæktə] – n. a person who helps people or institutions (especially with financial help)

beneficent [biˈnefisnt] – adj. doing or producing good: the most beneficent regime in history

benevolence [biˈnevələns] – n. disposition to do good

benevolent [biˈnevələnt] – adj. intending or showing kindness: a benevolent society

benighted [biˈnaitid] – adj. overtaken by night or darkness: benighted (or nighted) travelers hurrying toward home

benign [biˈnain] – adj. not dangerous to health; not recurrent or progressive (especially of a tumor)

benignity [biˈnigniti] – n. the quality of being kind and gentle

benison [ˈbenizn] – n. a spoken blessing

bent [bent] – n. a relatively permanent inclination to react in a particular way

bequeath [biˈkwi:ð] – v. leave or give by will after one’s death: My aunt bequeathed me all her jewelry

bequest [biˈkwest] – n. (law) a gift of personal property by will

berate [biˈreit] – v. censure severely or angrily

bereave [bəˈri:v] – v. deprive through death

bereaved  – n. a person who has suffered the death of someone they loved: the bereaved do not always need to be taken care of

bereavement [biˈri:vmənt] – n. state of sorrow over the death or departure of a loved one

bereft [biˈreft] – adj. unhappy in love; suffering from unrequited love

berserk [bəˈsə:k] – adj. frenzied as if possessed by a demon: berserk with grief

berth [bə:θ] – n. a job in an organization

beseech [biˈsi:tʃ] – v. ask for or request earnestly

beset [biˈset] – v. annoy continually or chronically

besiege [biˈsi:dʒ] – v. surround so as to force to give up: The Turks besieged Vienna

besmirch [biˈsmə:tʃ] – v. charge falsely or with malicious intent; attack the good name and reputation of someone

bespeak [biˈspi:k] – v. be a signal for or a symptom of

bestial [ˈbestjəl] – adj. resembling a beast; showing lack of human sensibility: a bestial nature

bestow [biˈstəu] – v. present: bestow an honor on someone

betoken [biˈtəukən] – v. be a signal for or a symptom of

betroth [biˈtrəuð] – v. give to in marriage

beverage [ˈbevəridʒ] – n. any liquid suitable for drinking: may I take your beverage order?

bevy [ˈbevi] – n. a large gathering of people of a particular type: he was surrounded by a bevy of beauties in bathing attire

beware [biˈwɛə] – v. be on one’s guard; be cautious or wary about; be alert to

bewilder [biˈwildə] – v. cause to be confused emotionally

bewitch  – v. attract; cause to be enamored

bibliography [.bibliˈɔgrəfi] – n. a list of writings with time and place of publication (such as the writings of a single author or the works referred to in preparing a document etc.)

bibliophile [ˈbibliəufail] – n. someone who loves (and usually collects) books

bibulous [ˈbibjuləs] – adj. given to or marked by the consumption of alcohol: a bibulous fellow

bicameral [baiˈkæmərəl] – adj. composed of two legislative bodies

bicker [ˈbikə] – n. a quarrel about petty points

biennial [baiˈeniəl] – adj. having a life cycle lasting two seasons: a biennial life cycle

bifurcate [ˈbaifəkeit] – v. split or divide into two

bifurcated  – adj. divided into or made up of two parts: socially bifurcated populations

bigot [ˈbigət] – n. a prejudiced person who is intolerant of any opinions differing from his own

bigotry [ˈbigətri] – n. the intolerance and prejudice of a bigot

bilateral [baiˈlætərəl] – adj. having identical parts on each side of an axis

bilingual [baiˈliŋgwəl] – n. a person who speaks two languages fluently

bilious [ˈbiliəs] – adj. relating to or containing bile

bilk  – v. cheat somebody out of what is due, especially money

billingsgate  – n. foul-mouthed or obscene abuse

billow [ˈbiləu] – v. rise up as if in waves: smoke billowed up into the sky

binge [bindʒ] – n. any act of immoderate indulgence: an emotional binge

biosphere [ˈbaiəsfiə] – n. the regions of the surface and atmosphere of the Earth (or other planet) where living organisms exist

birch [ˈbə:tʃ] – n. any betulaceous tree or shrub of the genus Betula having a thin peeling bark

biting  – adj. capable of wounding: a biting aphorism

bivouac [ˈbivuəæk] – n. temporary living quarters specially built by the army for soldiers

blab [blæb] – v. divulge confidential information or secrets

blackball  – v. expel from a community or group

blackmail [ˈblækmeil] – v. exert pressure on someone through threats

blanch [blɑ:ntʃ] – v. turn pale, as if in fear

bland [blænd] – adj. lacking taste or flavor or tang: a bland diet

blandish  – v. praise somewhat dishonestly

blandishment [ˈblændiʃmənt] – n. flattery intended to persuade

blare [bleə] – v. make a strident sound

blarney [ˈblɑ:ni] – n. flattery designed to gain favor

blase [ˈblɑ:zei] – adj. very sophisticated especially because of surfeit; versed in the ways of the world: the blase traveler refers to the ocean he has crossed as `the pond’

blaspheme [blæsˈfi:m] – v. utter obscenities or profanities

blasphemous [ˈblæsfiməs] – adj. grossly irreverent toward what is held to be sacred: blasphemous rites of a witches’ Sabbath

blasphemy [ˈblæsfimi] – n. blasphemous behavior; the act of depriving something of its sacred character

blatant [ˈbleitənt] – adj. without any attempt at concealment; completely obvious: blatant disregard of the law

blazon [ˈbleizn] – n. the official symbols of a family, state, etc.

bleach [bli:tʃ] – n. the whiteness that results from removing the color from something: a complete bleach usually requires several applications

bleachers [ˈbli:tʃə(r)z] – n. an outdoor grandstand without a roof; patrons are exposed to the sun as linens are when they are bleached

blemish [ˈblemiʃ] – v. mar or spoil the appearance of

blench [blentʃ] – v. turn pale, as if in fear

blight [blait] – n. any plant disease resulting in withering without rotting

bliss [blis] – n. a state of extreme happiness

blithe [ˈblaið] – adj. lacking or showing a lack of due concern: spoke with blithe ignorance of the true situation

blitz [ˈblits] – n. (American football) defensive players try to break through the offensive line

blizzard [ˈblizəd] – n. a storm with widespread snowfall accompanied by strong winds

bloat  – n. swelling of the rumen or intestinal tract of domestic animals caused by excessive gas

blockade [blɔˈkeid] – v. hinder or prevent the progress or accomplishment of

blockbuster [ˈblɔk.bʌstə] – n. a large bomb used to demolish extensive areas (as a city block)

blotch [blɔtʃ] – n. an irregularly shaped spot

blotto [ˈblɔtəu] – adj. very drunk

blowhard  – n. a very boastful and talkative person

bludgeon [ˈblʌdʒən] – v. overcome or coerce as if by using a heavy club: The teacher bludgeoned the students into learning the math formulas

blues [blu:z] – n. a state of depression: he had a bad case of the blues

bluff [blʌf] – n. a high steep bank (usually formed by river erosion)

blunder [ˈblʌndə] – v. commit a faux pas or a fault or make a serious mistake: I blundered during the job interview

blunt [blʌnt] – v. make less intense: blunted emotions

blur [blə:] – v. become glassy; lose clear vision

blurb  – n. a promotional statement (as found on the dust jackets of books): the author got all his friends to write blurbs for his book

blurt [blə:t] – v. utter impulsively: He blurted out the secret

blush [blʌʃ] – n. a rosy color (especially in the cheeks) taken as a sign of good health

bluster  – n. noisy confusion and turbulence: he was awakened by the bluster of their preparations

bode [bəud] – v. indicate by signs: These signs bode bad news

boding  – n. a feeling of evil to come: a steadily escalating sense of foreboding

bodyguard [ˈbɔdi.gɑ:d] – n. someone who escorts and protects a prominent person

bog [bɔg] – v. cause to slow down or get stuck: The vote would bog down the house

boggle [ˈbɔgəl] – v. startle with amazement or fear

bogus [ˈbəugəs] – adj. fraudulent; having a misleading appearance

Bohemian  – n. a native or inhabitant of Bohemia in the Czech Republic

boisterous [ˈbɔistərəs] – adj. noisy and lacking in restraint or discipline: a boisterous crowd

bolster [ˈbəulstə] – v. support and strengthen: bolster morale

bombardment  – n. the rapid and continuous delivery of linguistic communication (spoken or written): a bombardment of mail complaining about his mistake

bombast [ˈbɔmbæst] – n. pompous or pretentious talk or writing

bombastic [bɔmˈbæstik] – adj. ostentatiously lofty in style

bonanza [bəuˈnænzə] – n. an especially rich vein of precious ore

bonhomie  – n. a disposition to be friendly and approachable (easy to talk to)

bonnet [ˈbɔnit] – n. a hat tied under the chin

bonny [ˈbɔni] – adj. very pleasing to the eye: my bonny lass

boo  – n. a cry or noise made to express displeasure or contempt

bookish  – adj. characterized by diligent study and fondness for reading: a bookish farmer who always had a book in his pocket

boon [bu:n] – n. a desirable state: a spanking breeze is a boon to sailors

boor [buə] – n. a crude uncouth ill-bred person lacking culture or refinement

boorish [ˈbuəriʃ] – adj. ill-mannered and coarse and contemptible in behavior or appearance: was boorish and insensitive

booster [ˈbu:stə] – n. a person who backs a politician or a team etc.

bootless  – adj. unproductive of success

booze [bu:z] – n. an alcoholic beverage that is distilled rather than fermented

botanical [bəˈtænikəl] – n. a drug made from part of a plant (as the bark or root or leaves)

botany [ˈbɔtəni] – n. all the plant life in a particular region or period: the botany of China

botch  – n. an embarrassing mistake

bottleneck [ˈbɔtl.nek] – n. a narrowing that reduces the flow through a channel

botulism [ˈbɔtʃulizəm] – n. food poisoning from ingesting botulin; not infectious; affects the CNS; can be fatal if not treated promptly

boudoir [buˈdwɑ:] – n. a lady’s bedroom or private sitting room

bouillon [ˈbu:jɔn] – n. a clear seasoned broth

boulder [ˈbəuldə] – n. a large smooth mass of rock detached from its place of origin

bounteous [ˈbauntiəs] – adj. given or giving freely: the bounteous goodness of God

bountiful [ˈbauntiful] – adj. given or giving freely: bountiful compliments

bouquet [bu:ˈkei] – n. an arrangement of flowers that is usually given as a present

bout [baut] – n. (sports) a division during which one team is on the offensive

bovine [ˈbəuvain] – adj. of or relating to or belonging to the genus Bos (cattle)

bowdlerize  – v. edit by omitting or modifying parts considered indelicate: bowdlerize a novel

bower [ˈbauə] – n. a framework that supports climbing plants

boycott [ˈbɔikɔt] – n. a group’s refusal to have commercial dealings with some organization in protest against its policies

brace [breis] – n. a support that steadies or strengthens something else: he wore a brace on his knee

bracing [ˈbreisiŋ] – n. a structural member used to stiffen a framework

brackish [ˈbrækiʃ] – adj. distasteful and unpleasant; spoiled by mixture: a thin brackish gruel

brag [bræg] – n. an instance of boastful talk: his brag is worse than his fight

braggadocio  – n. vain and empty boasting

braggart [ˈbrægət] – n. a very boastful and talkative person

braid [breid] – n. trimming used to decorate clothes or curtains

brandish [ˈbrændiʃ] – v. move or swing back and forth

brash  – adj. offensively bold: a brash newcomer disputed the age-old rules for admission to the club

brassy  – adj. tastelessly showy

brattish  – adj. (used of an ill-mannered child) impolitely unruly

bravado [brəˈvɑ:dəu] – n. a swaggering show of courage

bravura  – n. brilliant and showy technical skill: in a final bravura the ballerina appeared to be floating in water

brawl [brɔ:l] – n. an uproarious party

brawn  – n. possessing muscular strength

brawny [ˈbrɔ:ni] – adj. (of a person) possessing physical strength and weight; rugged and powerful

bray [brei] – v. reduce to small pieces or particles by pounding or abrading

brazen [ˈbreizən] – adj. unrestrained by convention or propriety: brazen arrogance

brazier [ˈbreiʒə] – n. large metal container in which coal or charcoal is burned; warms people who must stay outside for long times

breviary [ˈbri:viəri] – n. (Roman Catholic Church) a book of prayers to be recited daily certain priests and members of religious orders

brevity [ˈbreviti] – n. the use of brief expressions

bribe [braib] – n. payment made to a person in a position of trust to corrupt his judgment

bridle [ˈbraidl] – v. anger or take offense: She bridled at his suggestion to elope

brimful [ˈbrim.ful] – adj. filled to capacity: a brimful cup

brindled [ˈbrindəld] – adj. having a grey or brown streak or a pattern or a patchy coloring; used especially of the patterned fur of cats

brink [briŋk] – n. a region marking a boundary

broach [brəutʃ] – n. a decorative pin worn by women

brocade [brəˈkeid] – n. thick heavy expensive material with a raised pattern

broil [brɔil] – v. heat by a natural force: The sun broils the valley in the summer

bromide [ˈbrəumaid] – n. a trite or obvious remark

bronchitis [brɔŋˈkaitis] – n. inflammation of the membranes lining the bronchial tubes

brooch [bru:tʃ] – n. a decorative pin worn by women

browbeat [ˈbraubi:t] – v. be bossy towards

browse [brauz] – v. shop around; not necessarily buying

bruit  – v. tell or spread rumors

brunt  – n. main force of a blow etc: bore the brunt of the attack

brusque [bru:sk, brusk] – adj. marked by rude or peremptory shortness: try to cultivate a less brusque manner

brutal [ˈbru:tl] – adj. (of persons or their actions) able or disposed to inflict pain or suffering: brutal beatings

brutality [bru:ˈtæləti] – n. the trait of extreme cruelty

buccaneer  – n. someone who robs at sea or plunders the land from the sea without having a commission from any sovereign nation

buck [bʌk] – n. a gymnastic horse without pommels and with one end elongated; used lengthwise for vaulting

buckle [ˈbʌkəl] – v. fold or collapse: His knees buckled

bucolic [bju:ˈkɔlik] – n. a country person

budge [bʌdʒ] – v. move very slightly

buffer [ˈbʌfə] – n. (chemistry) an ionic compound that resists changes in its pH

buffet [ˈbʌfit] – n. a piece of furniture that stands at the side of a dining room; has shelves and drawers

buffoon [bəˈfu:n] – n. a rude or vulgar fool

buffoonery [bə`fU:nəri] – n. acting like a clown or buffoon

bug [bʌg] – n. general term for any insect or similar creeping or crawling invertebrate

bugaboo [ˈbʌgəbu:] – n. an imaginary monster used to frighten children

buggy [ˈbʌgi] – adj. informal or slang terms for mentally irregular

bulge [bʌldʒ] – v. swell or protrude outwards: His stomach bulged after the huge meal

bullion [ˈbuljən] – n. a mass of precious metal

bully [ˈbuli] – n. a cruel and brutal fellow

bulwark [ˈbulwək] – n. an embankment built around a space for defensive purposes

bum [bʌm] – n. a person who is deemed to be despicable or contemptible: throw the bum out

bumble [ˈbʌmbəl] – v. make a mess of, destroy or ruin

bumper [ˈbʌmpə] – n. a glass filled to the brim (especially as a toast): we quaffed a bumper of ale

bumpkin [ˈbʌmpkin] – n. a person who is not very intelligent or interested in culture

bumptious [ˈbʌmpʃəs] – adj. offensively self-assertive

bungle [ˈbʌŋgl] – v. make a mess of, destroy or ruin

buoy [bɔi] – v. float on the surface of water

buoyancy [ˈbɔiənsi] – n. cheerfulness that bubbles to the surface

buoyant [ˈbɔiənt] – adj. tending to float on a liquid or rise in air or gas: buoyant balloons

burgeon [ˈbə:dʒən] – v. grow and flourish: The burgeoning administration

burlesque [bə:ˈlesk] – n. a theatrical entertainment of broad and earthy humor; consists of comic skits and short turns (and sometimes striptease)

burnish [ˈbə:niʃ] – n. the property of being smooth and shiny

burrow [ˈbʌrəu] – n. a hole made by an animal, usually for shelter

buskin  – n. a boot reaching halfway up to the knee

bust [bʌst] – v. ruin completely: He busted my radio!

busybody  – n. a person who meddles in the affairs of others

butt [bʌt] – n. thick end of the handle

buttress [ˈbʌtrəs] – v. make stronger or defensible: buttress your thesis

buxom [ˈbʌksəm] – adj. (of a woman’s body) having a large bosom and pleasing curves

bygone [ˈbai.gɔ:n] – n. past events to be put aside: let bygones be bygones

bypass [ˈbaipɑ:s] – n. a highway that encircles an urban area so that traffic does not have to pass through the center

byre [baiə] – n. a barn for cows

cabal [kəˈbæl] – n. a clique (often secret) that seeks power usually through intrigue

cache [kæʃ] – n. a hidden storage space (for money or provisions or weapons)

cachet [ˈkæʃei] – n. an indication of approved or superior status

cacophonous  – adj. having an unpleasant sound: as cacophonous as a henyard

cacophony [kəˈkɔfəni] – n. a loud harsh or strident noise

cadaver [kəˈdeivə] – n. the dead body of a human being: the cadaver was intended for dissection

cadaverous [kəˈdævərəs] – adj. very thin especially from disease or hunger or cold

cadence [ˈkeidəns] – n. (prosody) the accent in a metrical foot of verse

cadet [kəˈdet] – n. a military trainee (as at a military academy)

cadge [kædʒ] – v. ask for and get free; be a parasite

cagey [ˈkeidʒi] – adj. showing self-interest and shrewdness in dealing with others: a cagey lawyer

caisson  – n. an ornamental sunken panel in a ceiling or dome

cajole [kəˈdʒəul] – v. influence or urge by gentle urging, caressing, or flattering

calamitous [kəˈlæmitəs] – adj. (of events) having extremely unfortunate or dire consequences; bringing ruin: a calamitous defeat

calamity [kəˈlæmiti] – n. an event resulting in great loss and misfortune: the whole city was affected by the irremediable calamity

calcify [ˈkælsifai] – v. become inflexible and unchanging: Old folks can calcify

calculated  – adj. carefully thought out in advance: a calculated insult

calculating [ˈkælkjuleitiŋ] – adj. used of persons: the most calculating and selfish men in the community

caldron  – n. a very large pot that is used for boiling

caliber [ˈkælibə] – n. a degree or grade of excellence or worth: an executive of low caliber

calibrate [ˈkælibreit] – v. make fine adjustments or divide into marked intervals for optimal measuring: calibrate an instrument

calibre  – n. a degree or grade of excellence or worth

calligrapher  – n. someone skilled in penmanship

calligraphy [kəˈligrəfi] – n. beautiful handwriting

callous [ˈkæləs] – adj. emotionally hardened: a callous indifference to suffering

callow [ˈkæləu] – adj. young and inexperienced

callus [ˈkæləs] – n. an area of skin that is thick or hard from continual pressure or friction (as the sole of the foot)

calorific [.kæləˈrifik] – adj. heat-generating: the calorific properties of fuels

calumniate [kəˈlʌmni-eit] – v. charge falsely or with malicious intent; attack the good name and reputation of someone

calumny [ˈkæləmni] – n. a false accusation of an offense or a malicious misrepresentation of someone’s words or actions

camaraderie  – n. the quality of affording easy familiarity and sociability

cameo [kæmiəu] – n. engraving or carving in low relief on a stone (as in a brooch or ring)

camouflage [ˈkæmuflɑ:ʒ] – n. an outward semblance that misrepresents the true nature of something

canard [kæˈnɑ:d] – n. a deliberately misleading fabrication

canary [kəˈnɛəri] – n. someone acting as an informer or decoy for the police

candela [kænˈdi:lə] – n. the basic unit of luminous intensity adopted under the Systeme International d’Unites; equal to 1/60 of the luminous intensity per square centimeter of a black body radiating at the temperature of 2,046 degrees Kelvin

candid [ˈkændid] – adj. characterized by directness in manner or speech; without subtlety or evasion: I gave them my candid opinion

candidature [ˈkændiditʃə] – n. the campaign of a candidate to be elected

candor [ˈkændə] – n. ability to make judgments free from discrimination or dishonesty

cane [kein] – n. a stick that people can lean on to help them walk

canine [ˈkeinain] – n. one of the four pointed conical teeth (two in each jaw) located between the incisors and the premolars

canker [ˈkæŋkə] – n. a fungal disease of woody plants that causes localized damage to the bark

cannibal [ˈkænibəl] – n. a person who eats human flesh

cannibalism [ˈkænibəlizɚm] – n. the practice of eating the flesh of your own kind

canny [ˈkæni] – adj. showing self-interest and shrewdness in dealing with others

canon [ˈkænən] – n. a priest who is a member of a cathedral chapter

canonical [kəˈnɔnikəl] – adj. of or relating to or required by canon law

canopy [ˈkænəpi] – n. the transparent covering of an aircraft cockpit

cant [kænt] – n. stock phrases that have become nonsense through endless repetition

cantankerous [kænˈtæŋkərəs] – adj. stubbornly obstructive and unwilling to cooperate

cantata [kænˈtɑ:tə] – n. a musical composition for voices and orchestra based on a religious text

canter [ˈkæntə] – n. a smooth three-beat gait; between a trot and a gallop

canto [ˈkæntəu] – n. the highest part (usually the melody) in a piece of choral music

canvass [ˈkænvəs] – n. the setting for a narrative or fictional or dramatic account

canyon [ˈkænjən] – n. a ravine formed by a river in an area with little rainfall

capacious [kəˈpeiʃəs] – adj. large in capacity: she carried a capacious bag

caparison [kəˈpærisən] – n. stable gear consisting of a decorated covering for a horse, especially (formerly) for a warhorse

caper [ˈkeipə] – n. any of numerous plants of the genus Capparis

capillary [kəˈpiləri] – n. any of the minute blood vessels connecting arterioles with venules

capitation [.kæpiˈteiʃən] – n. a tax levied on the basis of a fixed amount per person

capitulate [kəˈpitjuleit] – v. surrender under agreed conditions

capitulation [kə.pitʃuˈleiʃən] – n. a document containing the terms of surrender

caprice [kəˈpri:s] – n. a sudden desire

capricious [kəˈpriʃəs] – adj. changeable: a capricious summer breeze

capsize [kæpˈsaiz] – v. overturn accidentally: Don’t rock the boat or it will capsize!

caption [ˈkæpʃən] – n. translation of foreign dialogue of a movie or TV program; usually displayed at the bottom of the screen

captious [ˈkæpʃəs] – adj. tending to find and call attention to faults: a captious pedant

captivate [ˈkæptiveit] – v. attract; cause to be enamored

captivation [.kæptiˈveiʃən] – n. the state of being intensely interested (as by awe or terror)

carafe [kəˈræf] – n. a bottle with a stopper; for serving wine or water

carapace [ˈkærəpeis] – n. hard outer covering or case of certain organisms such as arthropods and turtles

carat [ˈkærət] – n. a unit of weight for precious stones = 200 mg

carcinogenic  – adj. causing or tending to cause cancer: the carcinogenic action of certain chemicals

cardigan [ˈkɑ:digən] – n. knitted jacket that is fastened up the front with buttons or a zipper

cardinal [ˈkɑ:dinəl] – n. the number of elements in a mathematical set; denotes a quantity but not the order

cardiologist  – n. a specialist in cardiology; a specialist in the structure and function and disorders of the heart

careen [kəˈri:n] – v. walk as if unable to control one’s movements

carefree  – adj. cheerfully irresponsible: carefree with his money

caret [ˈkærit] – n. a mark used by an author or editor to indicate where something is to be inserted into a text

careworn  – adj. showing the wearing effects of overwork or care or suffering: looking careworn as she bent over her mending

caribou [ˈkæribu:] – n. Arctic deer with large antlers in both sexes; called `reindeer’ in Eurasia and `caribou’ in North America

caricature [.kærikəˈtjuə] – n. a representation of a person that is exaggerated for comic effect

carillon [ˈkæriljən] – n. set of bells hung in a bell tower

carmine [ˈkɑ:min] – n. a variable color averaging a vivid red

carnage [ˈkɑ:nidʒ] – n. the savage and excessive killing of many people

carnal [ˈkɑ:nəl] – adj. marked by the appetites and passions of the body: carnal knowledge

carnation [kɑ:ˈneiʃən] – n. a pink or reddish-pink color

carnival [ˈkɑ:nivəl] – n. a festival marked by merrymaking and processions

carnivore [ˈkɑ:nivɔ:] – n. a terrestrial or aquatic flesh-eating mammal: terrestrial carnivores have four or five clawed digits on each limb

carnivorous [kɑ:ˈnivərəs] – adj. (used of plants as well as animals) feeding on animals: carnivorous plants are capable of trapping and digesting small animals especially insects

carol [ˈkærəl] – n. joyful religious song celebrating the birth of Christ

carousal [kəˈrauzəl] – n. revelry in drinking; a merry drinking party

carouse [kəˈrauz] – n. revelry in drinking; a merry drinking party

carp  – n. any of various freshwater fish of the family Cyprinidae

carping [ˈkarpiŋ] – n. persistent petty and unjustified criticism

carrion [ˈkæriən] – n. the dead and rotting body of an animal; unfit for human food

cartographer [kɑ:ˈtɔgrəfə] – n. a person who makes maps

caryatid [.kæriˈætid] – n. a supporting column carved in the shape of a person

cascade [kæˈskeid] – n. a small waterfall or series of small waterfalls

caste [kɑ:st] – n. social status or position conferred by a system based on class: lose caste by doing work beneath one’s station

castigate [ˈkæstigeit] – v. censure severely

castigation  – n. a severe scolding

castrate  – v. deprive of strength or vigor

cataclysm [ˈkætəklizəm] – n. a sudden violent change in the earth’s surface

cataclysmic  – adj. severely destructive: cataclysmic nuclear war

catalysis [kəˈtælisis] – n. acceleration of a chemical reaction induced the presence of material that is chemically unchanged at the end of the reaction: of the top 50 commodity chemicals, 30 are created directly by catalysis and another 6 are made from raw materials that are catalytically produced

catalyst [ˈkætəlist] – n. (chemistry) a substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected

catalyze [ˈkætəlaiz] – v. change by catalysis or cause to catalyze

catapult [ˈkætəpʌlt] – n. a plaything consisting of a Y-shaped stick with elastic between the arms; used to propel small stones

cataract [ˈkætərækt] – n. an eye disease that involves the clouding or opacification of the natural lens of the eye

catastrophe [kəˈtæstrəfi] – n. an event resulting in great loss and misfortune

catcall  – n. a cry expressing disapproval

catechism [ˈkæti.kizəm] – n. a series of question put to an individual (such as a political candidate) to elicit their views

categorical [.kætiˈgɔrikəl] – adj. not modified or restricted by reservations: a categorical denial

caterpillar [ˈkætəpilə] – n. a wormlike and often brightly colored and hairy or spiny larva of a butterfly or moth

catharsis [kæˈθɑ:sis] – n. (psychoanalysis) purging of emotional tensions

cathartic [kæˈθɑ:tik] – adj. emotionally purging

cathode [ˈkæθəud] – n. a negatively charged electrode that is the source of electrons entering an electrical device

catholic  – adj. of or relating to or supporting Catholicism

caucus [ˈkɔ:kəs] – n. a closed political meeting

caulk [kɔ:k] – n. a waterproof filler and sealant that is used in building and repair to make watertight

caustic [ˈkɔ:stik] – adj. harsh or corrosive in tone: caustic jokes about political assassination, talk-show hosts and medical ethics

cauterize [ˈkɔ:təraiz] – v. burn, sear, or freeze (tissue) using a hot iron or electric current or a caustic agent: The surgeon cauterized the wart

cavalcade [.kævəlˈkeid] – n. a procession of people traveling on horseback

cavalier [.kævəˈliə] – n. a gallant or courtly gentleman

cavalry [ˈkævəlri] – n. troops trained to fight on horseback

caveat  – n. a warning against certain acts: a caveat against unfair practices

cavern [ˈkævən] – n. any large dark enclosed space: his eyes were dark caverns

cavil [ˈkævəl] – n. an evasion of the point of an argument by raising irrelevant distinctions or objections

cavity [ˈkæviti] – n. a sizeable hole (usually in the ground)

cavort  – v. play boisterously

cede [si:d] – v. give over; surrender or relinquish to the physical control of another

celebrated [ˈselibreitid] – adj. widely known and esteemed: a celebrated musician

celebrity [siˈlebriti] – n. a widely known person: he was a baseball celebrity

celerity [siˈleriti] – n. a rate that is rapid

celestial [siˈlestiəl] – adj. of or relating to the sky: celestial map

celibacy [ˈselibəsi] – n. an unmarried status

celibate [ˈselibit] – n. an unmarried person who has taken a religious vow of chastity

censor [ˈsensə] – n. someone who censures or condemns

censorious [senˈsɔ:riəs] – adj. harshly critical or expressing censure: was censorious of petty failings

censorship [ˈsensəʃip] – n. counterintelligence achieved by banning or deleting any information of value to the enemy

censure [ˈsenʃə] – n. harsh criticism or disapproval

centaur [ˈsentɔ:] – n. (classical mythology) a mythical being that is half man and half horse

centrifugal [senˈtrifjugəl] – adj. tending to move away from a center: centrifugal force

centrifuge  – n. an apparatus that uses centrifugal force to separate particles from a suspension

centripetal [senˈtripitl] – adj. tending to move toward a center: centripetal force

centurion [senˈtjuriən] – n. (ancient Rome) the leader of 100 soldiers

cephalic [siˈfælik] – adj. of or relating to the head

ceramic [siˈræmik] – n. an artifact made of hard brittle material produced from nonmetallic minerals by firing at high temperatures

ceramics [siˈræmiks] – n. the art of making and decorating pottery

cerebral [ˈseribrəl] – adj. involving intelligence rather than emotions or instinct: a cerebral approach to the problem

cerebration [.seriˈbreiʃən] – n. the process of using your mind to consider something carefully

cerebrum [səˈri:brəm] – n. anterior portion of the brain consisting of two hemispheres; dominant part of the brain in humans

ceremonious [seriˈməunjəs] – adj. rigidly formal or bound by convention: their ceremonious greetings did not seem heartfelt

certitude  – n. total certainty or greater certainty than circumstances warrant

cessation [seˈseiʃ(ə)n] – n. a stopping: a cessation of the thunder

cession [ˈseʃən] – n. the act of ceding

cetacean [siˈteiʃjən] – n. large aquatic carnivorous mammal with fin-like forelimbs no hind limbs, including: whales; dolphins; porpoises; narwhals

chafe [tʃeif] – v. become or make sore by or as if by rubbing

chaff [tʃɑ:f, tʃæf] – n. material consisting of seed coverings and small pieces of stem or leaves that have been separated from the seeds

chagrin [ˈʃægrin] – n. strong feelings of embarrassment

chalice [ˈtʃælis] – n. a bowl-shaped drinking vessel; especially the Eucharistic cup

chameleon [kəˈmi:liən] – n. a changeable or inconstant person

champ [tʃæmp] – v. chew noisily

chandelier [.ʃændəˈliə] – n. branched lighting fixture; often ornate; hangs from the ceiling

chant [tʃɑ:nt] – v. utter monotonously and repetitively and rhythmically: The students chanted the same slogan over and over again

chantey  – n. a rhythmical work song originally sung by sailors

chaotic [keiˈɔtik] – adj. lacking a visible order or organization

chaperon [ˈʃæpərəun] – n. one who accompanies and supervises a young woman or gatherings of young people

chaplain  – n. a clergyman ministering to some institution

char  – n. a human female employed to do housework: the char will clean the carpet

characterization [.kæriktəraiˈzeiʃən] – n. a graphic or vivid verbal description: the pamphlet contained brief characterizations of famous Vermonters

charade  – n. a composition that imitates or misrepresents somebody’s style, usually in a humorous way

charades  – n. player acts out a phrase for others to guess

charisma [kəˈrizmə] – n. a personal attractiveness or interestingness that enables you to influence others

charismatic [.kærizˈmætik] – adj. possessing an extraordinary ability to attract: a charismatic leader

charlatan [ˈʃɑ:lətn] – n. a flamboyant deceiver; one who attracts customers with tricks or jokes

chary [ˈtʃeəri] – adj. characterized by great caution and wariness: chary of the risks involved

chasm [ˈkæzəm] – n. a deep opening in the earth’s surface

chassis [ˈʃæsi] – n. alternative names for the body of a human being

chaste [tʃeist] – adj. morally pure (especially not having experienced sexual intercourse): a holy woman innocent and chaste

chasten [ˈtʃeisən] – v. censure severely

chastise [tʃæsˈtaiz] – v. censure severely: She chastised him for his insensitive remarks

chastity [ˈtʃæstiti] – n. abstaining from sexual relations (as because of religious vows)

chateau [ˈʃɑ:təu] – n. an impressive country house (or castle) in France

chattel [ˈtʃætl] – n. personal as opposed to real property; any tangible movable property (furniture or domestic animals or a car etc)

chauvinism [ˈʃəuvinizəm] – n. fanatical patriotism

chauvinist [ˈʃəuvinist] – n. a person with a prejudiced belief in the superiority of his or her own kind

checkered [ˈtʃekəd] – adj. patterned with alternating squares of color

checkmate [ˈtʃekmeit] – n. complete victory

cheetah [ˈtʃi:tə] – n. long-legged spotted cat of Africa and southwestern Asia having nonretractile claws; the swiftest mammal; can be trained to run down game

chef [ʃef] – n. a professional cook

chequer  – v. mark into squares or draw squares on; draw crossed lines on

cherubic  – adj. having a sweet nature befitting an angel or cherub: a cherubic face

chevron [ˈʃevrən] – n. V-shaped sleeve badge indicating military rank and service

chiaroscuro  – n. a monochrome picture made by using several different shades of the same color

chic [ʃi:k] – n. elegance by virtue of being fashionable

chicanery [ʃiˈkeinəri] – n. the use of tricks to deceive someone (usually to extract money from them)

chide [tʃaid] – v. censure severely or angrily

chimera [kaiˈmiərə] – n. a grotesque product of the imagination

chimerical [kaiˈmerikəl] – adj. produced by a wildly fanciful imagination: his Utopia is not a chimerical commonwealth but a practical improvement on what already exists

chink [tʃiŋk] – n. (ethnic slur) offensive term for a person of Chinese descent

chinless [ˈtʃinləs] – adj. having a receding chin

chipmunk [ˈtʃipmʌŋk] – n. a burrowing ground squirrel of western America and Asia; has cheek pouches and a light and dark stripe running down the body

chiromancy [ˈkaiərəumænsi] – n. telling fortunes by lines on the palm of the hand

chiropodist [kiˈrɔpədist] – n. a specialist in care for the feet

chirp [tʃə:p] – v. make high-pitched sounds: the birds were chirping in the bushes

chisel [ˈtʃizəl] – v. engage in deceitful behavior; practice trickery or fraud: Who’s chiseling on the side?

chivalrous [ˈʃivəlrəs] – adj. being attentive to women like an ideal knight

chivalry [ˈʃivəlri] – n. courtesy towards women

choleric [ˈkɔlərik] – adj. easily moved to anger: men of the choleric type take to kicking and smashing

choppy [ˈtʃɔpi] – adj. marked by abrupt transitions: choppy prose

chore [tʃɔ:] – n. a specific piece of work required to be done as a duty or for a specific fee: the farmer’s morning chores

choreography [.kɔ(:)riˈɔgrəfi] – n. a show involving artistic dancing

chortle [ˈtʃɔ:tl] – n. a soft partly suppressed laugh

chromatic [krəuˈmætik] – adj. able to refract light without spectral color separation: chromatic lens

chromosome [ˈkrəuməsəum] – n. a threadlike strand of DNA in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order: humans have 22 chromosome pairs plus two sex chromosomes

chronicle  – n. a record or narrative description of past events

chronological [.krɔnəˈlɔdʒikəl] – adj. relating to or arranged according to temporal order: chronological age

chronometer [krəˈnɔmitə] – n. an accurate clock (especially used in navigation)

chrysanthemum [kriˈsænθəməm] – n. any of numerous perennial Old World herbs having showy brightly colored flower heads of the genera Chrysanthemum, Argyranthemum, Dendranthema, Tanacetum; widely cultivated

chubby [ˈtʃʌbi] – adj. sufficiently fat so as to have a pleasing fullness of figure: a chubby child

chuck [tʃʌk] – v. throw carelessly: chuck the ball

chuckle [ˈtʃʌkl] – n. a soft partly suppressed laugh

chump [tʃʌmp] – n. a person who is gullible and easy to take advantage of

chunk [tʃʌŋk] – n. a compact mass

chunky [ˈtʃʌŋki] – adj. like or containing small sticky lumps: the dumplings were chunky pieces of uncooked dough

churl [tʃə:l] – n. a crude uncouth ill-bred person lacking culture or refinement

churlish [ˈtʃə:liʃ] – adj. rude and boorish

cider [ˈsaidə] – n. a beverage made from juice pressed from apples

ciliated [ˈsilieitid] – adj. having a margin or fringe of hairlike projections

cinch [sintʃ] – n. any undertaking that is easy to do

cinder [ˈsində] – n. a fragment of incombustible matter left after a wood or coal or charcoal fire

cipher [ˈsaifə] – n. a message written in a secret code

circlet [ˈsə:klit] – n. decorated metal band worn around the head

circuitous [sə:ˈkju:itəs] – adj. marked by obliqueness or indirection in speech or conduct: the explanation was circuitous and puzzling

circumambulate  – v. walk around something

circumlocution [.sə:kəmləˈkju:ʃən] – n. a style that involves indirect ways of expressing things

circumlocutory  – adj. roundabout and unnecessarily wordy: had a preference for circumlocutious (or circumlocutory) rather than forthright expression

circumscribe [ˈsə:kəmskraib] – v. draw a line around

circumspect [ˈsə:kəmspekt] – adj. heedful of potential consequences: circumspect actions

circumvent [.sə:kəmˈvent] – v. surround so as to force to give up

cistern [ˈsistən] – n. a sac or cavity containing fluid especially lymph or cerebrospinal fluid

citadel [ˈsitədəl] – n. a stronghold into which people could go for shelter during a battle

citation  – n. an official award (as for bravery or service) usually given as formal public statement

civility [siˈviliti] – n. formal or perfunctory politeness

clairvoyance [kleəˈvɔiəns] – n. apparent power to perceive things that are not present to the senses

clairvoyant [klɛəˈvɔiənt] – adj. perceiving things beyond the natural range of the senses

clam [klæm] – n. a piece of paper money worth one dollar

clamber [ˈklæmbə] – n. an awkward climb: reaching the crest was a real clamber

clammy [ˈklæmi] – adj. unpleasantly cool and humid: a clammy handshake

clamor [ˈklæmə] – v. make loud demands: he clamored for justice and tolerance

clamorous [ˈklæmərəs] – adj. conspicuously and offensively loud; given to vehement outcry: a clamorous uproar

clamour  – v. utter or proclaim insistently and noisily

clamp [klæmp] – v. impose or inflict forcefully: The military government clamped a curfew onto the capital

clampdown [ˈklæmpdaun] – n. sudden restriction on an activity

clandestine [klænˈdestin] – adj. conducted with or marked by hidden aims or methods: clandestine intelligence operations

clanger  – n. a conspicuous mistake whose effects seem to reverberate: he dropped a clanger

clangor [ˈklæŋgə, -ŋə] – v. make a loud resonant noise: the alarm clangored throughout the building

clannish [ˈklæniʃ] – adj. characteristic of a clan especially in being unified: clannish loyalty

clapper [ˈklæpə] – n. someone who applauds

clarification [.klærifiˈkeiʃən] – n. an interpretation that removes obstacles to understanding: the professor’s clarification helped her to understand the textbook

clarion [ˈklæriən] – n. a medieval brass instrument with a clear shrill tone

claustrophobia [.klɔ:strəˈfəubiə] – n. a morbid fear of being closed in a confined space

clavicle [ˈklævikəl] – n. bone linking the scapula and sternum

cleavage [ˈkli:vidʒ] – n. the state of being split or cleft: there was a cleavage between the liberal and conservative members

cleave [kli:v] – v. separate or cut with a tool, such as a sharp instrument: cleave the bone

cleaver [ˈkli:və] – n. a butcher’s knife having a large square blade

cleft [kleft] – n. a split or indentation in something (as the palate or chin)

clemency [ˈklemənsi] – n. good weather with comfortable temperatures

clement [ˈklemənt] – adj. (of weather or climate) physically mild: clement weather

clench [klentʃ] – n. a small slip noose made with seizing

cliche [ˈkli:ʃei] – n. a trite or obvious remark

clientele [.kli:ɑ:nˈteil] – n. customers collectively: they have an upper class clientele

climacteric [klaiˈmæktərik] – n. a period in a man’s life corresponding to menopause

climactic [klaiˈmæktik] – adj. consisting of or causing a climax: a climactic development

clime  – n. the weather in some location averaged over some long period of time: plants from a cold clime travel best in winter

clinch [klintʃ] – v. secure or fasten by flattening the ends of nails or bolts: The girder was clinched into the wall

clip [klip] – n. a metal frame or container holding cartridges; can be inserted into an automatic gun

clipper  – n. a fast sailing ship used in former times

clique [kli:k] – n. an exclusive circle of people with a common purpose

clog [klɔg] – v. become or cause to become obstructed: The leaves clog our drains in the Fall

cloister [ˈklɔistə] – n. residence that is a place of religious seclusion (such as a monastery)

closed-minded  – adj. not ready to receive to new ideas

closet [ˈklɔzit] – n. a small room (or recess) or cabinet used for storage space

clot [klɔt] – v. change from a liquid to a thickened or solid state

cloture  – n. a rule for limiting or ending debate in a deliberative body

cloudburst [ˈklaudbə:st] – n. a heavy rain

clout  – n. a target used in archery

clown [klaun] – n. a rude or vulgar fool

cloy [klɔi] – v. supply or feed to surfeit

coadjutor [kəuˈædʒutə] – n. an assistant to a bishop

coagulant [kəʊˈægjʊlənt] – n. an agent that produces coagulation

coagulate [kəuˈægjuleit] – v. change from a liquid to a thickened or solid state: coagulated blood

coalesce [.kəuəˈles] – v. mix together different elements

coax [kəuks] – n. a transmission line for high-frequency signals

cobbler [ˈkɔblə] – n. a person who makes or repairs shoes

cockade [kɔˈkeid] – n. an ornament (such as a knot of ribbon or a rosette) usually worn on the hat

coda  – n. the closing section of a musical composition

coddle [ˈkɔdl] – v. treat with excessive indulgence: Let’s not mollycoddle our students!

codicil [ˈkəudisil] – n. a supplement to a will; a testamentary instrument intended to alter an already executed will

codify [ˈkɔdifai, ˈkəu-] – v. organize into a code or system, such as a body of law

coerce [kəuˈə:s] – v. to cause to do through pressure or necessity, by physical, moral or intellectual means :

coercion [kəuˈə:ʃən] – n. the act of compelling by force of authority

coeval [kəuˈi:vəl] – n. a person of nearly the same age as another

coffer [ˈkɔfə] – n. an ornamental sunken panel in a ceiling or dome

cog [kɔg] – n. a subordinate who performs an important but routine function: he was a small cog in a large machine

cogency [ˈkəudʒənsi] – n. persuasive relevance

cogent [ˈkəudʒənt] – adj. powerfully persuasive: a cogent argument

cogitate [ˈkɔdʒiteit] – v. consider carefully and deeply; reflect upon; turn over in one’s mind

cogitation [.kɔdʒiˈteiʃən] – n. a carefully considered thought about something: his cogitations were dutifully recorded in his daybook

cognate [ˈkɔgneit] – adj. related in nature

cognizance [ˈkɔgnizəns] – n. having knowledge of

cognizant [ˈkɔnizənt] – adj. (sometimes followed by `of’) having or showing knowledge or understanding or realization or perception

cognomen [kɔgˈnəumən] – n. a familiar name for a person (often a shortened version of a person’s given name)

cohabit  – v. share living quarters; usually said of people who are not married and live together as a couple

cohere [kəuˈhiə] – v. come or be in close contact with; stick or hold together and resist separation: The sushi rice grains cohere

cohesion [kəuˈhi:ʒən] – n. (botany) the process in some plants of parts growing together that are usually separate (such as petals)

cohesive [kəuˈhi:siv] – adj. cohering or tending to cohere; well integrated: a cohesive organization

coiffure  – n. the arrangement of the hair (especially a woman’s hair)

coincident [kəuˈinsidənt] – adj. occurring or operating at the same time: a series of coincident events

colander [ˈkʌləndə] – n. bowl-shaped strainer; used to wash or drain foods

collaborate [kəˈlæbə.reit] – v. work together on a common enterprise of project

collage [ˈkɔlɑ:ʒ] – n. a paste-up made by sticking together pieces of paper or photographs to form an artistic image: he used his computer to make a collage of pictures superimposed on a map

collate [kəˈleit] – v. compare critically; of texts

collateral [kəˈlætərəl] – adj. descended from a common ancestor but through different lines: cousins are collateral relatives

collation [kəˈleiʃən] – n. a light informal meal

collide [kəˈlaid] – v. be incompatible; be or come into conflict

collier [ˈkɔljə] – n. someone who works in a coal mine

colloquial [kəˈləukwiəl] – adj. characteristic of informal spoken language or conversation: wrote her letters in a colloquial style

colloquium [kəˈləukwiəm] – n. an academic meeting or seminar usually led by a different lecturer and on a different topic at each meeting

colloquy [ˈkɔləkwi] – n. a conversation especially a formal one

collude [kəˈlu:d] – v. act in unison or agreement and in secret towards a deceitful or illegal purpose

collusion [kəˈlu:ʒən] – n. secret agreement

colonnade  – n. structure consisting of a row of evenly spaced columns

colossal [kəˈlɔsəl] – adj. so great in size or force or extent as to elicit awe: colossal crumbling ruins of an ancient temple

colossus [kəˈlɔsəs] – n. someone or something that is abnormally large and powerful

colt [kəult] – n. a young male horse under the age of four

coltish [ˈkəultiʃ] – adj. given to merry frolicking

coma [ˈkəumə] – n. (botany) a usually terminal tuft of bracts (as in the pineapple) or tuft of hairs (especially on certain seeds)

comatose [ˈkəumətəus] – adj. in a state of deep and usually prolonged unconsciousness; unable to respond to external stimuli: a comatose patient

combustible [kəmˈbʌstəbəl] – n. a substance that can be burned to provide heat or power

combustion [kəmˈbʌstʃən] – n. a process in which a substance reacts with oxygen to give heat and light

comeback  – n. a quick reply to a question or remark (especially a witty or critical one)

comeliness  – n. the quality of being good looking and attractive

comely [ˈkʌmli] – adj. according with custom or propriety: comely behavior

comestible [kəˈmestibl] – n. any substance that can be used as food

comeuppance  – n. an outcome (good or bad) that is well deserved

comity [ˈkɔmiti] – n. a state or atmosphere of harmony or mutual civility and respect

commandeer [.kɔmənˈdiə] – v. take arbitrarily or by force: The Cubans commandeered the plane and flew it to Miami

commandment [kəˈmɑ:n(d)mənt] – n. a doctrine that is taught

commemorate [kəˈmeməreit] – v. mark by some ceremony or observation

commemorative  – n. an object (such as a coin or postage stamp) made to mark an event or honor a person

commencement [kəˈmensmənt] – n. the time at which something is supposed to begin

commend [kəˈmend] – v. express approval of

commendable [kəˈmendəbəl] – adj. worthy of high praise: a commendable sense of purpose

commensurate [kəˈmenʃərit] – adj. corresponding in size or degree or extent: pay should be commensurate with the time worked

commingle [kəˈmiŋgl] – v. mix or blend: His book commingles sarcasm and sadness

commiserate [kəˈmizəreit] – v. to feel or express sympathy or compassion

committed [kəˈmitid] – adj. bound or obligated, as under a pledge to a particular cause, action, or attitude: committed church members

commodious [kəˈməudiəs] – adj. large and roomy (`convenient’ is archaic in this sense): a commodious harbor

commonplace [ˈkɔmənpleis] – adj. completely ordinary and unremarkable: air travel has now become commonplace

commonsense [.kɔmənˈsens] – adj. exhibiting native good judgment: commonsense scholarship on the foibles of a genius

commotion [kəˈməuʃən] – n. a disorderly outburst or tumult

communal [ˈkɔmjunl] – adj. for or by a group rather than individuals: dipping each his bread into a communal dish of stew

commune [kəˈmju:n] – n. the smallest administrative district of several European countries

compassion [kəmˈpæʃən] – n. a deep awareness of and sympathy for another’s suffering

compassionate [kəmˈpæʃənit] – v. share the suffering of

compatibility [kəm.pætiˈbiliti] – n. a feeling of sympathetic understanding

compelling [kəmˈpeliŋ] – adj. driving or forcing: compelling ambition

compendious [kəmˈpendiəs] – adj. briefly giving the gist of something: a short and compendious book

compendium [kəmˈpendiəm] – n. a publication containing a variety of works

compere  – n. British term for someone who introduces television acts or cabarets etc

compilation [.kɔmpiˈleiʃən] – n. the act of compiling (as into a single book or file or list)

complacency [kəmˈpleisənsi] – n. the feeling you have when you are satisfied with yourself: his complacency was absolutely disgusting

complacent [kəmˈpleisənt] – adj. contented to a fault with oneself or one’s actions: he had become complacent after years of success

complaisance [kəmˈpleizəns] – n. a disposition or tendency to yield to the will of others

complaisant [kəmˈpleizənt] – adj. showing a cheerful willingness to do favors for others: to close one’s eyes like a complaisant husband whose wife has taken a lover

complexion [kəmˈplekʃən] – n. the coloring of a person’s face

compliant [kəmˈplaiənt] – adj. disposed or willing to comply: children compliant with the parental will

complicity [kəmˈplisiti] – n. guilt as an accomplice in a crime or offense

compliment [ˈkɔmplimənt] – v. say something to someone that expresses praise: He complimented her on her last physics paper

complimentary [.kɔmpliˈment(ə)ri] – adj. costing nothing: complimentary tickets

comport [kəmˈpɔ:t] – v. behave well or properly

comportment [kəmˈpɔ:tmənt] – n. dignified manner or conduct

composed [kəmˈpəuzd] – adj. serenely self-possessed and free from agitation especially in times of stress: the performer seemed completely composed as she stepped onto the stage

composite [ˈkɔmpəzit] – n. a conceptual whole made up of complicated and related parts

compost  – n. a mixture of decaying vegetation and manure; used as a fertilizer

composure [kəmˈpəuʒə] – n. steadiness of mind under stress: he accepted their problems with composure and she with equanimity

comprehend [.kɔmpriˈhend] – v. get the meaning of something: Do you comprehend the meaning of this letter?

compressor [kəmˈpresə] – n. a mechanical device that compresses gasses

compulsion [kəmˈpʌlʃ(ə)n] – n. an urge to do or say something that might be better left undone or unsaid: he felt a compulsion to babble on about the accident

compulsive [kəmˈpʌlsiv] – adj. strongly motivated to succeed

compunction [kəmˈpʌŋkʃən] – n. a feeling of deep regret (usually for some misdeed)

computation [.kɔmpju(:)ˈteiʃ(ə)n] – n. the procedure of calculating; determining something by mathematical or logical methods

con [kɔn] – n. an argument opposed to a proposal

concatenate [kɔnˈkætineit] – v. combine two strings to form a single one

concatenation [kɔn.kætiˈneiʃən] – n. the state of being linked together as in a chain; union in a linked series

concave [ˈkɔnˈkeiv] – adj. curving inward

conceit [kənˈsi:t] – n. feelings of excessive pride

conceivable [kənˈsi:vəbəl] – adj. capable of being imagined

concentric [kɔnˈsentrik] – adj. having a common center: concentric rings

concerto [kənˈtʃə:təu] – n. a composition for orchestra and a soloist

conch [kɔŋk, kɔntʃ] – n. any of various edible tropical marine gastropods of the genus Strombus having a brightly-colored spiral shell with large outer lip

conciliate [kənˈsilieit] – v. cause to be more favorably inclined; gain the good will of

conciliation [kən.siliˈeiʃən] – n. any of various forms of mediation whereby disputes may be settled short of arbitration

conciliatory [kənˈsiliətəri] – adj. making or willing to make concessions

concise [kənˈsais] – adj. expressing much in few words: a concise explanation

conciseness [kənˈsaisnis] – n. terseness and economy in writing and speaking achieved by expressing a great deal in just a few words

concision [kənˈsiʒən] – n. terseness and economy in writing and speaking achieved by expressing a great deal in just a few words

conclave [ˈkɔŋkleiv] – n. a confidential or secret meeting

conclusive [kənˈklu:siv] – adj. forming an end or termination; especially putting an end to doubt or question: conclusive proof

concoct [kənˈkɔkt] – v. prepare or cook by mixing ingredients: concoct a strange mixture

concoction [kənˈkɔkʃən] – n. any foodstuff made by combining different ingredients: he volunteered to taste her latest concoction

concomitant [kənˈkɔmitənt] – n. an event or situation that happens at the same time as or in connection with another

concord [ˈkɔŋkɔ:d] – n. capital of the state of New Hampshire; located in south central New Hampshire on the Merrimack river

concordant [kənˈkɔ:dənt] – adj. in keeping: expressed views concordant with his background

concordat [kɔnˈkɔ:dæt] – n. a signed written agreement between two or more parties (nations) to perform some action

concur [kənˈkə:] – v. be in accord; be in agreement

concurrent [kənˈkʌrənt] – adj. occurring or operating at the same time

concussion [kənˈkʌʃən] – n. injury to the brain caused by a blow; usually resulting in loss of consciousness

condemnation [.kɔndemˈneiʃən] – n. an expression of strong disapproval; pronouncing as wrong or morally culpable: his uncompromising condemnation of racism

condescend [.kɔndiˈsend] – v. do something that one considers to be below one’s dignity

condescension [.kɔndiˈsenʃən] – n. the trait of displaying arrogance by patronizing those considered inferior

condign [kənˈdain] – adj. fitting or appropriate and deserved; used especially of punishment: condign censure

condole [kənˈdəul] – v. express one’s sympathetic grief, on the occasion of someone’s death: You must condole the widow

condolence [kənˈdəuləns] – n. an expression of sympathy with another’s grief: they sent their condolences

condone [kənˈdəun] – v. excuse, overlook, or make allowances for; be lenient with: She condoned her husband’s occasional infidelities

conducive [kənˈdju:siv] – adj. tending to bring about; being partly responsible for: working conditions are not conducive to productivity

conduit [ˈkɔndit] – n. a passage (a pipe or tunnel) through which water or electric wires can pass: the computers were connected through a system of conduits

confection [kənˈfekʃən] – n. a food rich in sugar

confidant [kɔnfiˈdænt] – n. someone to whom private matters are confided

confide [kənˈfaid] – v. confer a trust upon

confirmed [kənˈfə:md] – adj. of persons; not subject to change: a confirmed bachelor

confiscate [ˈkɔnfiskeit] – v. take temporary possession of as a security, by legal authority: The police confiscated the stolen artwork

conflagration [.kɔnfləˈgreiʃən] – n. a very intense and uncontrolled fire

conflate [kənˈfleit] – v. mix together different elements

confluence [ˈkɔnfluəns] – n. a place where things merge or flow together (especially rivers): Pittsburgh is located at the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers

conformist  – adj. adhering to established customs or doctrines (especially in religion)

conformity [kənˈfɔ:miti] – n. correspondence in form or appearance

confound  – v. mistake one thing for another

congeal [kənˈdʒi:l] – v. become gelatinous

congenial [kənˈdʒi:njəl] – adj. suitable to your needs: a congenial atmosphere to work in

congenital [kɔnˈdʒenitl] – adj. present at birth but not necessarily hereditary; acquired during fetal development

congest [kənˈdʒest] – v. become or cause to become obstructed

congestion [kənˈdʒestʃən] – n. excessive accumulation of blood or other fluid in a body part

conglomerate [kənˈglɔmərit] – n. a composite rock made up of particles of varying size

conglomeration [kən.glɔməˈreiʃən] – n. a rounded spherical form

congregate [ˈkɔŋgrigeit] – v. come together, usually for a purpose: The crowds congregated in front of the Vatican on Christmas Eve

congruence [ˈkɔŋgrʊəns] – n. the quality of agreeing; being suitable and appropriate

congruent [ˈkɔŋgruənt] – adj. corresponding in character or kind

congruity [kənˈgruəti] – n. the quality of agreeing; being suitable and appropriate

conifer [ˈkəunifə] – n. any gymnospermous tree or shrub bearing cones

conjecture [kənˈdʒektʃə] – n. a message expressing an opinion based on incomplete evidence

conjoin [kənˈdʒɔin] – v. make contact or come together

conjugal [ˈkɔndʒugəl] – adj. of or relating to marriage or to the relationship between a wife and husband: conjugal visits

conjure [ˈkʌndʒə] – v. summon into action or bring into existence, often as if by magic: he conjured wild birds in the air

connivance [kəˈnaivəns] – n. agreement on a secret plot

connive [kəˈnaiv] – v. encourage or assent to illegally or criminally

conniving  – adj. acting together in secret toward a fraudulent or illegal end

connoisseur [.kɔniˈsə:] – n. an expert able to appreciate a field; especially in the fine arts

connotation [.kɔnəˈteiʃən] – n. what you must know in order to determine the reference of an expression

connotative [ˈkɔnəuteitiv, kəˈnəutətiv] – adj. having the power of implying or suggesting something in addition to what is explicit

connubial [kəˈnju:bjəl] – adj. of or relating to marriage or to the relationship between a wife and husband: connubial bliss

consanguineous [kɔnsæŋˈgwiniəs] – adj. related by blood

consanguinity [.kɔnsæŋˈgwiniti] – n. (anthropology) related by blood

conscientious [.kɔnʃiˈenʃəs] – adj. characterized by extreme care and great effort: conscientious application to the work at hand

conscript [ˈkɔnskript] – n. someone who is drafted into military service

consecrate [ˈkɔnsikreit] – v. appoint to a clerical posts

consequential [.kɔnsiˈkwenʃəl] – adj. having important issues or results: the year’s only really consequential legislation

conservatory [kənˈsə:vətəri] – n. the faculty and students of a school specializing in one of the fine arts

conserve [kənˈsə:v] – v. keep in safety and protect from harm, decay, loss, or destruction: children must be taught to conserve our national heritage

consign [kənˈsain] – v. commit forever; commit irrevocably

consignment [kənˈsainmənt] – n. goods carried by a large vehicle

consolation [.kɔnsəˈleiʃən] – n. the act of consoling; giving relief in affliction: his presence was a consolation to her

console [ˈkɔnsəul,kənˈsəul] – n. a small table fixed to a wall or designed to stand against a wall

consolidation [kən.sɔliˈdeiʃən] – n. combining into a solid mass

consonance [ˈkɔnsənəns] – n. the property of sounding harmonious

consonant [ˈkɔnsənənt] – n. a speech sound that is not a vowel

consort [ˈkɔnsɔ:t] – v. keep company with; hang out with

conspectus [kənˈspektəs] – n. an overall summary

conspicuous [kənˈspikjuəs] – adj. obvious to the eye or mind: a tower conspicuous at a great distance

conspirator [kənˈspirətə] – n. a member of a conspiracy

conspire [kənˈspaiə] – v. act in unison or agreement and in secret towards a deceitful or illegal purpose: The two companies conspired to cause the value of the stock to fall

constellation [kɔnstəˈleiʃən] – n. an arrangement of parts or elements

consternation [.kɔnstə(:)ˈneiʃən] – n. fear resulting from the awareness of danger

constrict [kənˈstrikt] – v. squeeze or press together

constringe  – v. become tight or as if tight

construe [kənˈstru:] – v. make sense of; assign a meaning to

consummate [kɔnˈsʌmit] – adj. having or revealing supreme mastery or skill: a consummate artist

consummation [.kɔnsʌˈmeiʃən] – n. the completion of marriage by sexual intercourse

contagion [kənˈteidʒən] – n. an incident in which an infectious disease is transmitted

contagious [kənˈteidʒəs] – adj. easily diffused or spread as from one person to another: a contagious grin

contaminate [kənˈtæmineit] – v. make impure

contemn [kənˈtem] – v. look down on with disdain

contemplation [.kɔntemˈpleiʃən] – n. a long and thoughtful observation

contemptible [kənˈtemptəbəl] – adj. deserving of contempt or scorn

contention [kənˈtenʃən] – n. a point asserted as part of an argument

contentious [kənˈtenʃəs] – adj. inclined or showing an inclination to dispute or disagree, even to engage in law suits: a style described as abrasive and contentious

contiguity [.kɔntiˈgju:iti] – n. the attribute of being so near as to be touching

contiguous [kənˈtigjuəs] – adj. very close or connected in space or time: contiguous events

continence [ˈkɔntinəns] – n. the exercise of self constraint in sexual matters

contingency [kənˈtindʒənsi] – n. a possible event or occurrence or result

contingent [kənˈtindʒənt] – adj. possible but not certain to occur: they had to plan for contingent expenses

contort [kənˈtɔ:t] – v. twist and press out of shape

contortion [kənˈtɔ:ʃən] – n. the act of twisting or deforming the shape of something (e.g., yourself)

contraband [ˈkɔntrəbænd] – n. goods whose importation or exportation or possession is prohibited by law

contradictory [.kɔntrəˈdiktəri] – adj. of words or propositions so related that both cannot be true and both cannot be false: `perfect’ and `imperfect’ are contradictory terms

contravene [.kɔntrəˈvi:n] – v. go against, as of rules and laws

contravention [.kɔntrəˈvenʃən] – n. coming into conflict with

contrite [ˈkɔntrait] – adj. feeling or expressing pain or sorrow for sins or offenses

contrition [kənˈtriʃən] – n. sorrow for sin arising from fear of damnation

contrivance [kənˈtraivəns] – n. a device or control that is very useful for a particular job

contrive [kənˈtraiv] – v. make or work out a plan for; devise: They contrived to murder their boss

contrived [kənˈtraivd] – adj. showing effects of planning or manipulation: a novel with a contrived ending

controvert [ˈkɔntrəvə:t] – v. be resistant to

contumacious [.kɔntjuˈmeiʃəs] – adj. wilfully obstinate; stubbornly disobedient

contumacy [ˈkɔntjuməsi] – n. willful refusal to appear before a court or comply with a court order; can result in a finding of contempt of court

contumelious [kɔntju:ˈmi:liəs] – adj. arrogantly insolent

contumely [ˈkɔntju:mli] – n. a rude expression intended to offend or hurt

contuse [kənˈtju:z] – v. injure the underlying soft tissue or bone of

contusion [kənˈtju:ʒən] – n. an injury that doesn’t break the skin but results in some discoloration

conundrum [kəˈnʌndrəm] – n. a difficult problem

convalesce [.kɔnvəˈles] – v. get over an illness or shock

convalescence [kənvəˈlesns] – n. gradual healing (through rest) after sickness or injury

convalescent [,kɔnvəˈlesnt] – n. a person who is recovering from illness

convene [kənˈvi:n] – v. meet formally: The council convened last week

conventionality [kən.venʃəˈnæliti] – n. unoriginality as a result of being too conventional

converge [kənˈvə:dʒ] – v. be adjacent or come together: The lines converge at this point

convergent [kənˈvə:dʒənt] – adj. tending to come together from different directions

conversant [kənˈvə:sənt] – adj. (usually followed by `with’) well informed about or knowing thoroughly: conversant with business trends

converse [kənˈvə:s] – adj. of words so related that one reverses the relation denoted by the other: `parental’ and `filial’ are converse terms

convertible [kənˈvə:təbl] – n. a car that has top that can be folded or removed

convex [ˈkɔnˈveks] – adj. curving or bulging outward

conveyance [kənˈveiəns] – n. document effecting a property transfer

convivial [kənˈviviəl] – adj. occupied with or fond of the pleasures of good company: a convivial atmosphere at the reunion

convocation [.kɔnvəˈkeiʃən] – n. a group gathered in response to a summons

convoke [kənˈvəuk] – v. call together

convoluted [ˈkɔnvəlju:tid] – adj. rolled longitudinally upon itself

convoy [ˈkɔnvɔi] – n. a procession of land vehicles traveling together

convulse [kənˈvʌls] – v. be overcome with laughter

convulsion [kənˈvʌlʃən] – n. a sudden uncontrollable attack: convulsions of laughter

coop [ku:p] – n. a farm building for housing poultry

copious [ˈkəupiəs] – adj. large in number or quantity (especially of discourse): she took copious notes

coquetry [ˈkɔkitri] – n. playful behavior intended to arouse sexual interest

coquette [kəuˈket, kɔˈket] – n. a seductive woman who uses her sex appeal to exploit men

cordon [ˈkɔ:dn] – n. a series of sentinels or of military posts enclosing or guarding some place or thing

cormorant [ˈkɔ:mərənt] – n. large voracious dark-colored long-necked seabird with a distensible pouch for holding fish; used in Asia to catch fish

cornet [ˈkɔ:nit] – n. a brass musical instrument with a brilliant tone; has a narrow tube and a flared bell and is played by means of valves

cornice [ˈkɔ:nis] – n. a decorative framework to conceal curtain fixtures at the top of a window casing

cornucopia [.kɔ:njuˈkəupiə] – n. a goat’s horn filled with grain and flowers and fruit symbolizing prosperity

corny [ˈkɔ:ni] – adj. dull and tiresome but with pretensions of significance or originality

corollary [ˈkɑ:ələri] – n. a practical consequence that follows naturally: blind jealousy is a frequent corollary of passionate love

corona [kəˈrəunə] – n. the outermost region of the sun’s atmosphere; visible as a white halo during a solar eclipse

coronation [.kɔrəˈneiʃən] – n. the ceremony of installing a new monarch

coroner  – n. a public official who investigates by inquest any death not due to natural causes

corporal [ˈkɔ:pərəl] – adj. affecting or characteristic of the body as opposed to the mind or spirit: a corporal defect

corporeal [kɔ:ˈpɔ:riəl] – adj. having material or physical form or substance: that which is created is of necessity corporeal and visible and tangible

corpulence [ˈkɔ:pjʊləns] – n. the property of excessive fatness

corpulent [ˈkɔ:pjulənt] – adj. excessively fat

corpus [ˈkɔ:pəs] – n. capital as contrasted with the income derived from it

corpuscle [ˈkɔ:pəsəl] – n. (nontechnical usage) a tiny piece of anything

corral [kɔˈrɑ:l] – v. collect or gather: corralling votes for an election

correlate [ˈkɔ:rə.leit] – v. to bear a reciprocal or mutual relation: Do these facts correlate?

corrigendum [.kɔriˈdʒendəm] – n. a printer’s error; to be corrected

corroborate [kəˈrɔbəreit] – v. establish or strengthen as with new evidence or facts

corroboration [kə.rɔbəˈreiʃən] – n. confirmation that some fact or statement is true through the use of documentary evidence

corrode [kəˈrəud] – v. cause to deteriorate due to the action of water, air, or an acid: The acid corroded the metal

corrosive [kəˈrəusiv] – adj. of a substance, especially a strong acid; capable of destroying or eating away by chemical action

corrugate [ˈkɔrəgeit] – v. fold into ridges: corrugate iron

corrugated  – adj. shaped into alternating parallel grooves and ridges: the surface of the ocean was rippled and corrugated

corrugation [.kɔruˈgeiʃən] – n. the act of shaping into parallel ridges and grooves

corsair [ˈkɔ:seə] – n. a pirate along the Barbary Coast

cortege [kɔ:ˈteiʒ] – n. a funeral procession

coruscate [ˈkɔrəskeit] – v. reflect brightly

cosmic [ˈkɔzmik] – adj. inconceivably extended in space or time

cosmopolitan [.kɔzməˈpɔlitən] – adj. growing or occurring in many parts of the world: a cosmopolitan herb

cosmos [ˈkɔzmɔs] – n. everything that exists anywhere

cosset [ˈkɔsit] – v. treat with excessive indulgence

cosy  – n. a padded cloth covering to keep a teapot warm

coterie [ˈkəutəri] – n. an exclusive circle of people with a common purpose

coterminous [kəuˈtə:minəs] – adj. being of equal extent or scope or duration

cougar [ˈku:gə] – n. large American feline resembling a lion

countenance [ˈkauntinəns] – n. the appearance conveyed by a person’s face: a pleasant countenance

counteract [.kauntəˈrækt] – v. act in opposition to

counterfeit [ˈkauntəfit] – n. a copy that is represented as the original

countermand [.kauntəˈmɑ:nd] – n. a contrary command cancelling or reversing a previous command

countervail [ˈkauntəveil] – v. oppose and mitigate the effects of by contrary actions

courier [ˈkuriə] – n. a person who carries a message

coven  – n. an assembly of witches; usually 13 witches

covert [kʌvət] – n. a flock of coots

covet [ˈkʌvit] – v. wish, long, or crave for (something, especially the property of another person): She covets her sister’s house

covetous [ˈkʌvitəs] – adj. showing extreme cupidity; painfully desirous of another’s advantages: he was never covetous before he met her

cowardice [ˈkauədis] – n. the trait of lacking courage

cower [ˈkauə] – v. crouch or curl up

coy [kɔi] – adj. affectedly modest or shy especially in a playful or provocative way

cozen [ˈkʌzn] – v. be false to; be dishonest with

cozy [ˈkəuzi] – adj. having or fostering a warm or friendly and informal atmosphere: had a cozy chat

crabbed [ˈkræbid] – adj. annoyed and irritable

crafty [ˈkrɑ:fti] – adj. marked by skill in deception

crag [kræg] – n. a steep rugged rock or cliff

craggy [ˈkrægi] – adj. having hills and crags

cram [kræm] – v. put something somewhere so that the space is completely filled: cram books into the suitcase

cramp [kræmp] – v. prevent the progress or free movement of

crank [kræŋk] – v. travel along a zigzag path

cranky [ˈkræŋki] – adj. (used of boats) inclined to heel over easily under sail

crass [kræs] – adj. (of persons) so unrefined as to be lacking in discrimination and sensibility

crate [kreit] – n. a rugged box (usually made of wood); used for shipping

crater [ˈkreitə] – n. a bowl-shaped geological formation at the top of a volcano

cravat [krəˈvæt] – n. neckwear worn in a slipknot with long ends overlapping vertically in front

crave [kreiv] – v. plead or ask for earnestly

craven [ˈkreivən] – n. an abject coward

craving [ˈkreiviŋ] – n. an intense desire for some particular thing

crayon [ˈkreiən] – n. writing implement consisting of a colored stick of composition wax used for writing and drawing

crease [kri:s] – v. scrape gently

credence [ˈkri:dəns] – n. the mental attitude that something is believable and should be accepted as true: he gave credence to the gossip

credential [kriˈdenʃəl] – n. a document attesting to the truth of certain stated facts

creditable [ˈkreditəbəl] – adj. worthy of often limited commendation: the student’s effort on the essay–though not outstanding–was creditable

credo [ˈkri:dəu] – n. any system of principles or beliefs

credulity [kriˈdju:liti] – n. tendency to believe readily

credulous [ˈkredjuləs] – adj. disposed to believe on little evidence: the gimmick would convince none but the most credulous

creek [kri:k] – n. a natural stream of water smaller than a river (and often a tributary of a river): the creek dried up every summer

cremate  – v. reduce to ashes

crepuscular [kriˈpʌskjulə] – adj. like twilight; dim: the evening’s crepuscular charm

crescendo [kriˈʃendəu] – n. (music) a gradual increase in loudness

crest [krest] – n. the top line of a hill, mountain, or wave

crestfallen [ˈkrest.fɔ:lən] – adj. brought low in spirit

crevice [ˈkrevis] – n. a long narrow depression in a surface

cringe [krindʒ] – v. draw back, as with fear or pain

cringing  – adj. totally submissive

crinkle [ˈkriŋkəl] – v. make wrinkles or creases on a smooth surface; make a pressed, folded or wrinkled line in

croak [krəuk] – v. pass from physical life and lose all bodily attributes and functions necessary to sustain life

crochet [ˈkrəuʃei] – v. make a piece of needlework by interlocking and looping thread with a hooked needle: She sat there crocheting all day

crockery [ˈkrɔkəri] – n. tableware (eating and serving dishes) collectively

crone [krəun] – n. an ugly evil-looking old woman

cronyism [ˈkrəʊniizɚm] – n. favoritism shown to friends and associates (as by appointing them to positions without regard for their qualifications)

crook [kruk] – n. someone who has committed a crime or has been legally convicted of a crime

croon  – v. sing softly

crossbreed  – v. breed animals or plants using parents of different races and varieties: Mendel tried crossbreeding

crossfire [ˈkrɔsfaiə] – n. a lively or heated interchange of ideas and opinions

crotchety [ˈkrɔtʃiti] – adj. having a difficult and contrary disposition

crudity [ˈkru:diti] – n. a wild or unrefined state

crumb [krʌm] – n. a very small quantity of something: he gave only a crumb of information about his plans

crumble [ˈkrʌmbl] – v. fall apart: the building crumbled after the explosion

crumple [ˈkrʌmpəl] – v. fall apart

crunch [krʌntʃ] – v. press or grind with a crushing noise

crusade [kru:ˈseid] – n. a series of actions advancing a principle or tending toward a particular end

crustacean [krʌsˈteiʃjən] – n. any mainly aquatic arthropod usually having a segmented body and chitinous exoskeleton

crutch [krʌtʃ] – n. a wooden or metal staff that fits under the armpit and reaches to the ground; used by disabled person while walking

crux [krʌks] – n. a small conspicuous constellation in the southern hemisphere in the Milky Way near Centaurus

crypt  – n. a cellar or vault or underground burial chamber (especially beneath a church)

cryptic [ˈkriptik] – adj. of an obscure nature: the new insurance policy is written without cryptic or mysterious terms

cryptogram [ˈkriptəgræm] – n. a piece of writing in code or cipher

cub [kʌb] – n. an awkward and inexperienced youth

cubicle [ˈkju:bikəl] – n. small room in which a monk or nun lives

cuddle [ˈkʌdl] – v. move or arrange oneself in a comfortable and cozy position: We cuddled against each other to keep warm

cuff [kʌf] – n. the lap consisting of a turned-back hem encircling the end of the sleeve or leg

cuirass [kwiˈræs] – n. medieval body armor that covers the chest and back

cuisine [kwiˈzi:n] – n. the practice or manner of preparing food or the food so prepared

culinary [ˈkʌlinəri] – adj. of or relating to or used in cooking

cull [kʌl] – v. remove something that has been rejected: cull the sick members of the herd

culmination [.kʌlmiˈneiʃən] – n. a final climactic stage: their achievements stand as a culmination of centuries of development

culpability  – n. a state of guilt

culpable [ˈkʌlpəbəl] – adj. deserving blame or censure as being wrong or evil or injurious: culpable negligence

culprit [ˈkʌlprit] – n. someone who perpetrates wrongdoing

cultivated  – adj. (of land or fields) prepared for raising crops by plowing or fertilizing: cultivated land

culvert [ˈkʌlvət] – n. a transverse and totally enclosed drain under a road or railway

cumber [ˈkʌmbə] – v. hold back

cumbersome [ˈkʌmbəsəm] – adj. difficult to handle or use especially because of size or weight: a cumbersome piece of machinery

cumulative [ˈkju:mjulətiv] – adj. increasing by successive addition: the benefits are cumulative

cupidity [kjuˈpiditi] – n. extreme greed for material wealth

cur [kə:] – n. an inferior dog or one of mixed breed

curator [kjuəˈreitə] – n. the custodian of a collection (as a museum or library)

curb [kə:b] – n. a horse’s bit with an attached chain or strap to check the horse

curd [kə:d] – n. coagulated milk; used to make cheese: Little Miss Muffet sat on a tuffet eating some curds and whey

curdle [ˈkə:dl] – v. go bad or sour: The milk curdled

curfew  – n. an order that after a specific time certain activities (as being outside on the streets) are prohibited

curmudgeon [kə:ˈmʌdʒən] – n. a crusty irascible cantankerous old person full of stubborn ideas

currish [ˈkə:riʃ] – adj. base and cowardly

curry [ˈkʌri] – v. season with a mixture of spices; typical of Indian cooking

cursive [ˈkə:siv] – adj. having successive letter joined together: cursive script

cursory [ˈkə:səri] – adj. hasty and without attention to detail; not thorough: a casual (or cursory) inspection failed to reveal the house’s structural flaws

curt [kə:t] – adj. marked by rude or peremptory shortness: a curt reply

curtail [kə:ˈteil] – v. place restrictions on: curtail drinking in school

curvaceous [kə:ˈveiʃəs] – adj. (of a woman’s body) having a large bosom and pleasing curves: Hollywood seems full of curvaceous blondes

cussed [ˈkʌsid] – adj. stubbornly persistent in wrongdoing

custodian [kʌˈstəudiən] – n. one having charge of buildings or grounds or animals

cute [kju:t] – adj. attractive especially by means of smallness or prettiness or quaintness: a cute kid with pigtails

cuticle [ˈkju:tikl] – n. the dead skin at the base of a fingernail or toenail

cuttlefish [ˈkʌtl.fiʃ] – n. ten-armed oval-bodied cephalopod with narrow fins as long as the body and a large calcareous internal shell

cyclone [ˈsaikləun] – n. a violent rotating windstorm

cygnet [ˈsignit] – n. a young swan

cynic [ˈsinik] – n. someone who is critical of the motives of others

cynical [ˈsinikəl] – adj. believing the worst of human nature and motives; having a sneering disbelief in e.g. selflessness of others

cynicism [ˈsinisizəm] – n. a cynical feeling of distrust

cynosure [ˈsinəzjuə] – n. something that provides guidance (as Polaris guides mariners): let faith be your cynosure to walk by

cypress [ˈsaipris] – n. any of numerous evergreen conifers of the genus Cupressus of north temperate regions having dark scalelike leaves and rounded cones

cytology [saiˈtɔlədʒi] – n. the branch of biology that studies the structure and function of cells

dabble  – v. dip a foot or hand briefly into a liquid

daft  – adj. informal or slang terms for mentally irregular

daguerreotype [dəˈgerəutaip] – n. a photograph made by an early photographic process; the image was produced on a silver plate sensitized to iodine and developed in mercury vapor

dainty [ˈdeinti] – adj. delicately beautiful: a dainty teacup

dais [ˈdeiis] – n. a platform raised above the surrounding level to give prominence to the person on it

dalliance [ˈdæliəns] – n. the deliberate act of delaying and playing instead of working

dally [ˈdæli] – v. behave carelessly or indifferently

dampen [ˈdæmpən] – v. smother or suppress

damper  – n. a movable iron plate that regulates the draft in a stove or chimney or furnace

dandified [ˈdændifaid] – adj. affecting extreme elegance in dress and manner

dandy [ˈdændi] – n. a man who is much concerned with his dress and appearance

dangle [ˈdæŋgəl] – v. hang freely: the ornaments dangled from the tree

dank [dæŋk] – adj. unpleasantly cool and humid: a dank cellar

dapper [ˈdæpə] – adj. marked by up-to-dateness in dress and manners: a dapper young man

dappled [ˈdæpld] – adj. having spots or patches of color

daredevil [ˈdeədevəl] – n. a reckless impetuous irresponsible person

darn [dɑ:n] – n. something of little value

dart [dɑ:t] – n. a small narrow pointed missile that is thrown or shot

dastard [ˈdæstəd] – n. a despicable coward

daub [dɔ:b] – n. a blemish made by dirt

daunt [dɔ:nt] – v. cause to lose courage

dauntless [ˈdɔ:ntlis] – adj. invulnerable to fear or intimidation

dawdle [ˈdɔ:dl] – v. take one’s time; proceed slowly

dawdler  – n. someone who takes more time than necessary; someone who lags behind

daze [deiz] – n. the feeling of distress and disbelief that you have when something bad happens accidentally: his mother’s death left him in a daze

deactivate  – v. remove from active military status or reassign: The men were deactivated after five years of service

deaden  – v. make vague or obscure or make (an image) less visible

deadlock [ˈdedlɔk] – n. a situation in which no progress can be made or no advancement is possible

deadpan  – adj. deliberately impassive in manner: deadpan humor

dearth [də:θ] – n. an acute insufficiency

debacle [deiˈbɑ:kəl] – n. a sudden and violent collapse

debar  – v. bar temporarily; from school, office, etc.

debark  – v. go ashore

debase [diˈbeis] – v. corrupt morally or by intemperance or sensuality

debauch [diˈbɔ:tʃ] – n. a wild gathering involving excessive drinking and promiscuity

debauchery [diˈbɔ:tʃəri] – n. a wild gathering involving excessive drinking and promiscuity

debenture [diˈbentʃə] – n. a certificate or voucher acknowledging a debt

debilitate [diˈbiliteit] – v. make weak

debilitating  – adj. impairing the strength and vitality

debility [diˈbiliti] – n. the state of being weak in health or body (especially from old age)

debonair [.debəˈneə] – adj. having a sophisticated charm: a debonair gentleman

debouch [diˈbautʃ] – v. march out (as from a defile) into open ground: The regiments debouched from the valley

debrief [.di:ˈbri:f] – v. put someone through a debriefing and make him report: The released hostages were debriefed

debris [ˈdebri:] – n. the remains of something that has been destroyed or broken up

debunk [.di:ˈbʌŋk] – v. expose while ridiculing; especially of pretentious or false claims and ideas: The physicist debunked the psychic’s claims

debutante [ˈdebjutɑ:nt] – n. a young woman making her debut into society

decadence [ˈdekədəns] – n. the state of being degenerate in mental or moral qualities

decadent [ˈdekədənt] – adj. marked by excessive self-indulgence and moral decay: a decadent life of excessive money and no sense of responsibility

decamp [diˈkæmp] – v. leave a camp: The hikers decamped before dawn

decant [diˈkænt] – v. pour out: the sommelier decanted the wines

decapitate [diˈkæpiteit] – v. cut the head of

decelerate [.di:ˈseləreit] – v. lose velocity; move more slowly: The car decelerated

decibel [ˈdesibel] – n. a logarithmic unit of sound intensity; 10 times the logarithm of the ratio of the sound intensity to some reference intensity

deciduous [diˈsidjuəs] – adj. (of plants and shrubs) shedding foliage at the end of the growing season

decimate [ˈdesimeit] – v. kill one in every ten, as of mutineers in Roman armies

decipher [diˈsaifə] – v. convert code into ordinary language

declaim [diˈkleim] – v. recite in elocution

declamation [.dekləˈmeiʃən] – n. vehement oratory

declassify [.di:ˈklæsifai] – v. lift the restriction on and make available again

declination [.dekliˈneiʃən] – n. a condition inferior to an earlier condition; a gradual falling off from a better state

declivity [diˈkliviti] – n. a downward slope or bend

decode [.di:ˈkəud] – v. convert code into ordinary language

decollete [deiˈkɔltei] – adj. (of a garment) having a low-cut neckline

decompose [.di:kəmˈpəuz] – v. separate (substances) into constituent elements or parts

decomposition [.di:kɔmpəˈziʃən] – n. the analysis of a vector field

decorous [ˈdekərəs] – adj. characterized by propriety and dignity and good taste in manners and conduct: the tete-a-tete was decorous in the extreme

decorum [diˈkɔ:rəm] – n. propriety in manners and conduct

decoy [ˈdi:kɔi] – n. a beguiler who leads someone into danger (usually as part of a plot)

decrepit [diˈkrepit] – adj. worn and broken down by hard use: a decrepit bus…its seats held together with friction tape

decrepitude [diˈkrepitju:d] – n. a state of deterioration due to old age or long use

decry [diˈkrai] – v. express strong disapproval of

dedication [dediˈkeiʃən] – n. complete and wholehearted fidelity

deducible [diˈdju:səbl] – adj. capable of being deduced

deface [diˈfeis] – v. mar or spoil the appearance of: scars defaced her cheeks

defalcate [diˈfælkeit] – v. appropriate (as property entrusted to one’s care) fraudulently to one’s own use

defamation [difəˈmeiʃən] – n. a false accusation of an offense or a malicious misrepresentation of someone’s words or actions

defamatory [diˈfæmətəri] – adj. (used of statements) harmful and often untrue; tending to discredit or malign

defame [diˈfeim] – v. charge falsely or with malicious intent; attack the good name and reputation of someone: The journalists have defamed me!

defeatist [diˈfi:tist] – n. someone who is resigned to defeat without offering positive suggestions

defection [diˈfekʃən] – n. withdrawing support or help despite allegiance or responsibility

defer [diˈfə:] – v. hold back to a later time

deference [ˈdefərəns] – n. a courteous expression (by word or deed) of esteem or regard: his deference to her wishes was very flattering

deferential [.difəˈrenʃəl] – adj. showing deference

defiance [diˈfaiəns] – n. intentionally contemptuous behavior or attitude

defile [diˈfail] – v. place under suspicion or cast doubt upon

definitive [diˈfinitiv] – adj. of recognized authority or excellence: the definitive work on Greece

deflated  – adj. brought low in spirit: left us fatigued and deflated spiritually

deflect [diˈflekt] – v. prevent the occurrence of; prevent from happening

deflection [diˈflekʃən] – n. a twist or aberration; especially a perverse or abnormal way of judging or acting

defoliate  – v. strip the leaves or branches from: defoliate the trees with pesticides

deforest [diˈfɔrist] – v. remove the trees from: The landscape was deforested by the enemy attacks

defraud [diˈfrɔ:d] – v. deprive of by deceit: She defrauded the customers who trusted her

defray [diˈfrei] – v. bear the expenses of

defrock  – v. divest of the frock; of church officials

deft [deft] – adj. skillful in physical movements; especially of the hands: a deft waiter

defunct [diˈfʌŋkt] – adj. no longer in force or use; inactive: a defunct law

defuse  – v. remove the triggering device from

degenerate [diˈdʒenəreit] – n. a person whose behavior deviates from what is acceptable especially in sexual behavior

degradation [.degrəˈdeiʃən] – n. changing to a lower state (a less respected state)

degrade [diˈgreid] – v. reduce the level of land, as by erosion

degraded [diˈgreidid] – adj. unrestrained by convention or morality: deplorably dissipated and degraded

dehumanize [.di:ˈhju:mənaiz] – v. deprive of human qualities: Life in poverty has dehumanized them

dehydrate [di:ˈhaidreit] – v. preserve by removing all water and liquids from: carry dehydrated food on your camping trip

deice [.di:ˈais] – v. make or become free of frost or ice

deification [.di:ifiˈkeiʃən] – n. the condition of being treated like a god

deify [ˈdi:ifai] – v. consider as a god or godlike: These young men deify financial success

deign [dein] – v. do something that one considers to be below one’s dignity

deity [ˈdi:iti] – n. any supernatural being worshipped as controlling some part of the world or some aspect of life or who is the personification of a force

deject [diˈdʒekt] – v. lower someone’s spirits; make downhearted

dejection [diˈdʒekʃən] – n. a state of melancholy depression

delectable [diˈlektəbəl] – adj. extremely pleasing to the sense of taste

delectation [.di:lekˈteiʃən] – n. a feeling of extreme pleasure or satisfaction

deleterious [.deliˈtiəriəs] – adj. harmful to living things: deleterious chemical additives

delicacy [ˈdelikəsi] – n. something considered choice to eat

delimit [diˈlimit] – v. determine the essential quality of

delineate [diˈlinieit] – v. show the form or outline of

delineation [diˈliniˈeʃən] – n. a graphic or vivid verbal description

delinquency [diˈliŋkwənsi] – n. nonpayment of a debt when due

delinquent [diˈliŋkwənt] – adj. guilty of a misdeed: delinquent minors

deliquesce [deliˈkwes] – v. melt away in the process of decay: The fungi eventually deliquesced

deliquescent [.deliˈkwesənt] – adj. (especially of certain salts) becoming liquid by absorbing moisture from the air

delirious [diˈliriəs] – adj. marked by uncontrolled excitement or emotion: a crowd of delirious baseball fans

delirium [diˈliriəm] – n. state of violent mental agitation

delta [ˈdeltə] – n. a low triangular area of alluvial deposits where a river divides before entering a larger body of water: the Mississippi River delta

delude [diˈlu:d] – v. be false to; be dishonest with

deluge [ˈdelju:dʒ] – n. an overwhelming number or amount

delusion [diˈlu:ʒən] – n. (psychology) an erroneous belief that is held in the face of evidence to the contrary

delusive [diˈlju:siv] – adj. inappropriate to reality or facts: delusive faith in a wonder drug

delve [delv] – v. turn up, loosen, or remove earth

demagogue [ˈdeməgɔg] – n. a political leader who seeks support by appealing to popular passions and prejudices

demarcate [ˈdi:mɑ:keit] – v. separate clearly, as if by boundaries

demean [diˈmi:n] – v. reduce in worth or character, usually verbally

demeanor [diˈmi:nə] – n. (behavioral attributes) the way a person behaves toward other people

demented [diˈmentid] – adj. affected with madness or insanity

demerit [di:ˈmerit] – n. a mark against a person for misconduct or failure; usually given in school or armed forces: ten demerits and he loses his privileges

demesne [diˈmein] – n. extensive landed property (especially in the country) retained by the owner for his own use

demise [diˈmaiz] – n. the time when something ends

demobilize [di:ˈməʊbilaiz] – v. release from military service or remove from the active list of military service

demographic  – n. a statistic characterizing human populations (or segments of human populations broken down by age or sex or income etc.)

demography [diˈmɔgrəfi] – n. the branch of sociology that studies the characteristics of human populations

demolition [.deməˈliʃən] – n. an event (or the result of an event) that completely destroys something

demoniac [diˈmɔniæk] – n. someone who acts as if possessed by a demon

demoralize  – v. corrupt morally or by intemperance or sensuality

demote [diˈməut] – v. assign to a lower position; reduce in rank: She was demoted because she always speaks up

demotic [diˈmɔtik] – n. a simplified cursive form of the ancient hieratic script

demur [diˈmə:] – v. take exception to: he demurred at my suggestion to work on Saturday

demure [diˈmjuə] – adj. affectedly modest or shy especially in a playful or provocative way

denigrate [ˈdenigreit] – v. cause to seem less serious; play down

denizen [ˈdenizən] – n. a person who inhabits a particular place

denominate [diˈnɔmineit] – v. assign a name or title to

denomination [di.nɔmiˈneiʃən] – n. a group of religious congregations having its own organization and a distinctive faith

denotation [.di:nəuˈteiʃən] – n. the act of indicating or pointing out by name

denouement [deiˈnu:mɑŋ] – n. the outcome of a complex sequence of events

dent [dent] – n. an appreciable consequence (especially a lessening): it made a dent in my bank account

denture [ˈdentʃə] – n. a dental appliance that artificially replaces missing teeth

denude [diˈnju:d] – v. lay bare: denude a forest

depilate [ˈdepileit] – v. remove body hair

deplete [diˈpli:t] – v. use up (resources or materials)

depletion [diˈpli:ʃən] – n. the act of decreasing something markedly

deplore [diˈplɔ:] – v. express strong disapproval of: We deplore the government’s treatment of political prisoners

deport [diˈpɔ:t] – v. behave in a certain manner

deportment [diˈpɔ:tmənt] – n. (behavioral attributes) the way a person behaves toward other people

depose [diˈpəuz] – v. force to leave (an office)

deposition [.depəˈziʃən, di:-] – n. (law) a pretrial interrogation of a witness; usually conducted in a lawyer’s office

deprave [diˈpreiv] – v. corrupt morally or by intemperance or sensuality

depravity [diˈpræviti] – n. moral perversion; impairment of virtue and moral principles: its brothels, its opium parlors, its depravity

deprecate [ˈdeprikeit] – v. express strong disapproval of; deplore

deprecatory [ˈdeprikeitəri] – adj. tending to diminish or disparage: deprecatory remarks about the book

depreciate [diˈpri:ʃieit] – v. belittle

depredation [depriˈdeiʃ(ə)n] – n. an act of plundering and pillaging and marauding

depute [diˈpju:t] – v. transfer power to someone

deputize  – v. act as a substitute

deracinate  – v. move (people) forcibly from their homeland into a new and foreign environment

derange [diˈreindʒ] – v. throw into great confusion or disorder

deranged [diˈreindʒd] – adj. driven insane

derangement  – n. a state of mental disturbance and disorientation

derelict [ˈderilikt] – adj. worn and broken down by hard use

dereliction  – n. a tendency to be negligent and uncaring: his derelictions were not really intended as crimes

deride [diˈraid] – v. treat or speak of with contempt: He derided his student’s attempt to solve the biggest problem in mathematics

derision [diˈriʒən] – n. contemptuous laughter

derisive [diˈraisiv] – adj. abusing vocally; expressing contempt or ridicule: derisive laughter

derivation [deriˈveiʃən] – n. (historical linguistics) an explanation of the historical origins of a word or phrase

derivative [diˈrivətiv] – n. the result of mathematical differentiation; the instantaneous change of one quantity relative to another; df(x)/dx

dermatologist [.də:məˈtɔlədʒist] – n. a doctor who specializes in the physiology and pathology of the skin

dermatology [.də:məˈtɔlədʒi] – n. the branch of medicine dealing with the skin and its diseases

derogate [ˈderəgeit] – v. cause to seem less serious; play down

derogatory [diˈrɔgətəri] – adj. expressive of low opinion: derogatory comments

desalinize [di:ˈsælinaiz] – v. remove salt from

descant [ˈdeskænt] – v. sing by changing register; sing by yodeling

descry [diˈskrai] – v. catch sight of

desecrate [ˈdesikreit] – v. violate the sacred character of a place or language: desecrate a cemetery

deserts  – n. an outcome (good or bad) that is well deserved

desiccant [ˈdesikənt] – n. a substance that promotes drying (e.g., calcium oxide absorbs water and is used to remove moisture)

desiccate [ˈdesikeit] – v. preserve by removing all water and liquids from

desideratum [di.zidəˈreitəm] – n. something desired as a necessity

designation [.dezigˈneiʃən] – n. identifying word or words by which someone or something is called and classified or distinguished from others

desirous [diˈzaiərəs] – adj. having or expressing desire for something: desirous of high office

desist [diˈsist, diˈzist] – v. choose not to consume

desolate [ˈdesəleit,ˈdesəlit] – v. leave someone who needs or counts on you; leave in the lurch

desperado [despəˈrɑ:dəu] – n. a bold outlaw (especially on the American frontier)

despicable [diˈspikəbəl] – adj. morally reprehensible: would do something as despicable as murder

despoil [disˈpɔil] – v. steal goods; take as spoils

despondent [diˈspɔndənt] – adj. without or almost without hope: despondent about his failure

despot [ˈdespɔt] – n. a cruel and oppressive dictator

despotic [diˈspɔtik] – adj. ruled by or characteristic of a despot: moved from a feudal to a despotic order

despotism [ˈdespətizəm] – n. dominance through threat of punishment and violence

destitute [ˈdestitju:t] – adj. poor enough to need help from others

desuetude [ˈdiˈsju:itju:d] – n. a state of inactivity or disuse

desultory [ˈdesəltəri] – adj. marked by lack of definite plan or regularity or purpose; jumping from one thing to another: desultory thoughts

detach [diˈtætʃ] – v. separate (a small unit) from a larger, especially for a special assignment: detach a regiment

detachment [diˈtætʃmənt] – n. avoiding emotional involvement

detente [deiˈtɑ:nt] – n. the easing of tensions or strained relations (especially between nations)

detergent [diˈtə:dʒənt] – n. a surface-active chemical widely used in industry and laundering

determinate [diˈtə:minit] – adj. not continuing to grow indefinitely at the apex: determinate growth

deterrent [diˈterənt] – n. something immaterial that interferes with or delays action or progress

detest [diˈtest] – v. dislike intensely; feel antipathy or aversion towards: She detests politicians

detestable  – adj. offensive to the mind

detonate [ˈdetəneit] – v. cause to burst with a violent release of energy

detonation [.detəuˈneiʃən] – n. a violent release of energy caused by a chemical or nuclear reaction

detour [diˈtʊər] – n. a roundabout road (especially one that is used temporarily while a main route is blocked)

detoxicate [di:ˈtɔksikeit] – v. remove poison from

detract [diˈtrækt] – v. take away a part from; diminish: His bad manners detract from his good character

detraction [diˈtrækʃən] – n. a petty disparagement

detractor [diˈtræktə] – n. one who disparages or belittles the worth of something

detriment [ˈdetrimənt] – n. a damage or loss

detrimental [.detriˈmentl] – adj. (sometimes followed by `to’) causing harm or injury

detritus [diˈtraitəs] – n. the remains of something that has been destroyed or broken up

devastate [ˈdevəsteit] – v. cause extensive destruction or ruin utterly

devastating [ˈdevəsteitiŋ] – adj. making light of: a devastating portrait of human folly

deviant [ˈdi:viənt] – n. a person whose behavior deviates from what is acceptable especially in sexual behavior

deviate [ˈdi:vieit] – v. turn aside; turn away from

devious [ˈdi:viəs] – adj. indirect in departing from the accepted or proper way; misleading: used devious means to achieve success

devoid [diˈvɔid] – adj. completely wanting or lacking: the sentence was devoid of meaning

devolution [.di:vəlu:ʃən] – n. the process of declining from a higher to a lower level of effective power or vitality or essential quality

devolve [diˈvɔlv] – v. pass on or delegate to another: The representative devolved his duties to his aides while he was in the hospital

devotee  – n. an ardent follower and admirer

devour [diˈvauə] – v. destroy completely: Fire had devoured our home

devout [diˈvaut] – adj. deeply religious

dexterity [dekˈsteriti] – n. adroitness in using the hands

dexterous [ˈdekstərəs] – adj. skillful in physical movements; especially of the hands: dexterous of hand and inventive of mind

diabetes [.daiəˈbi:ti:z] – n. a polygenic disease characterized by abnormally high glucose levels in the blood; any of several metabolic disorders marked by excessive urination and persistent thirst

diabolic [ˈdaiəˈbɔlik] – adj. showing the cunning or ingenuity or wickedness typical of a devil: the cold calculation and diabolic art of some statesmen

diabolical [.daiəˈbɔlikəl] – adj. showing the cunning or ingenuity or wickedness typical of a devil: the diabolical expression on his face

diabolize  – v. turn into a devil or make devilish

diadem [ˈdaiədem] – n. an ornamental jeweled headdress signifying sovereignty

dialectic [.daiəˈlektik] – n. any formal system of reasoning that arrives at the truth by the exchange of logical arguments

dialectical  – adj. of or relating to or employing dialectic: the dialectical method

diaphanous [daiˈæfənəs] – adj. so thin as to transmit light: a hat with a diaphanous veil

diarrhoea  – n. frequent and watery bowel movements; can be a symptom of infection or food poisoning or colitis or a gastrointestinal tumor

diatribe [ˈdaiətraib] – n. thunderous verbal attack

dichotomy [daiˈkɔtəmi] – n. being twofold; a classification into two opposed parts or subclasses: the dichotomy between eastern and western culture

dictator [dikˈteitə] – n. a ruler who is unconstrained by law

dictum [ˈdiktəm] – n. an authoritative declaration

didactic [diˈdæktik] – adj. instructive (especially excessively)

didactics [diˈdæktiks, daiˈd-] – n. the activities of educating or instructing; activities that impart knowledge or skill

diehard  – n. one who adheres to traditional views

dietetics [.daiəˈtetiks] – n. the scientific study of food preparation and intake

dietician [.daiiˈtiʃən] – n. a specialist in the study of nutrition

diffidence [ˈdifədəns] – n. lack of self-confidence

diffident [ˈdifidənt] – adj. showing modest reserve: she was diffident when offering a comment on the professor’s lecture

diffuse [diˈfju:s,diˈfju:z] – v. move outward

diffusion [diˈfju:ʒən] – n. the spread of social institutions (and myths and skills) from one society to another

digit [ˈdidʒit] – n. one of the elements that collectively form a system of numeration: 0 and 1 are digits

dignitary [ˈdignitəri] – n. an important or influential (and often overbearing) person

digress [daiˈgres] – v. wander from a direct or straight course

digression [daiˈgreʃən] – n. a message that departs from the main subject

digressive [daiˈgresiv] – adj. of superficial relevance if any: a digressive allusion to the day of the week

dilapidate  – v. bring into a condition of decay or partial ruin by neglect or misuse

dilapidated [diˈlæpideitid] – adj. in deplorable condition

dilapidation [di.læpiˈdeiʃən] – n. a state of deterioration due to old age or long use

dilate [daiˈleit] – v. become wider: His pupils were dilated

dilatory [ˈdilətəri] – adj. wasting time

dilettante [.diliˈtænti] – n. an amateur who engages in an activity without serious intentions and who pretends to have knowledge

diligence [ˈdilidʒəns] – n. conscientiousness in paying proper attention to a task; giving the degree of care required in a given situation

dilute [daiˈlju:t] – v. lessen the strength or flavor of a solution or mixture

dilution [daiˈlju:ʃən. diˈl] – n. weakening (reducing the concentration) by the addition of water or a thinner

diminuendo [di.minjuˈendəu] – n. (music) a gradual decrease in loudness

diminution [dimiˈnju:ʃən] – n. change toward something smaller or lower

diminutive [diˈminjutiv] – n. a word that is formed with a suffix (such as -let or -kin) to indicate smallness

dimple [ˈdimpəl] – n. any slight depression in a surface: there are approximately 336 dimples on a golf ball

din [din] – n. a loud harsh or strident noise

dinghy [ˈdiŋgi] – n. a small boat of shallow draft with cross thwarts for seats and rowlocks for oars with which it is propelled

dingy [ˈdindʒi] – adj. thickly covered with ingrained dirt or soot: dingy linen

dint [dint] – n. interchangeable with `means’ in the expression `by means of’

diocesan  – n. a bishop having jurisdiction over a diocese

diorama  – n. a picture (or series of pictures) representing a continuous scene

dipsomania [.dipsəˈmeiniə] – n. an intense persistent desire to drink alcoholic beverages to excess

dipsomaniac [#ŋæMə?] – n. a person who drinks alcohol to excess habitually

dire [ˈdaiə] – adj. fraught with extreme danger; nearly hopeless: a dire emergency

direful [ˈdaiəful] – adj. causing fear or dread or terror: a career or vengeance so direful that London was shocked

dirge [də:dʒ] – n. a song or hymn of mourning composed or performed as a memorial to a dead person

dirk [də:k] – n. a relatively long dagger with a straight blade

disabuse [.disəˈbju:z] – v. free somebody (from an erroneous belief)

disaffected [.disəˈfektid] – adj. discontented as toward authority

disaffection [.disəˈfekʃən] – n. the feeling of being alienated from other people

disagreeable [.disəˈgri:əbl] – adj. not to your liking: a disagreeable situation

disallow [ˈdisəˈlau, dis-] – v. command against

disapprobation  – n. an expression of strong disapproval; pronouncing as wrong or morally culpable

disarm [disˈɑ:m] – v. remove offensive capability from

disarray [.disəˈrei] – n. a mental state characterized by a lack of clear and orderly thought and behavior

disavow [disəˈvau] – v. refuse to acknowledge; disclaim knowledge of; responsibility for, or association with: Her husband disavowed her after 30 years of marriage and six children

disavowal [disəˈvauəl] – n. denial of any connection with or knowledge of

disband [disˈbænd] – v. cause to break up or cease to function: the principal disbanded the political student organization

disbar [disˈbɑ:] – v. remove from the bar; expel from the practice of law by official action: The corrupt lawyer was disbarred

disbarment  – n. the act of expelling a lawyer from the practice of law

disburse [disˈbə:s] – v. expend, as from a fund

disbursement [disˈbɜ:smənt] – n. amounts paid for goods and services that may be currently tax deductible (as opposed to capital expenditures)

discernible [diˈsɜ:nəbl, -ˈzɜ:-] – adj. perceptible by the senses or intellect: things happen in the earth and sky with no discernible cause

discerning [diˈsɜ:niŋ] – adj. having or revealing keen insight and good judgment: a discerning critic

discernment [diˈsə:nmənt] – n. the cognitive condition of someone who understands

disciple [diˈsaipl] – n. someone who believes and helps to spread the doctrine of another

disciplinarian [.disipliˈneəriən] – n. someone who demands exact conformity to rules and forms

disclaim [disˈkleim] – v. renounce a legal claim or title to

discography [disˈkɔgrəfi] – n. a descriptive catalog of musical recordings

discombobulate  – v. cause to be confused emotionally

discombobulated  – adj. having self-possession upset; thrown into confusion: the hecklers pelted the discombobulated speaker with anything that came to hand

discomfit [disˈkʌmfit] – v. cause to lose one’s composure

discomfiture [-fitʃə] – n. anxious embarrassment

discommode [.diskəˈməud] – v. to cause inconvenience or discomfort to

discompose [.diskəmˈpəuz] – v. cause to lose one’s composure

discomposure  – n. anxious embarrassment

disconcert [.diskənˈsə:t] – v. cause to feel embarrassment

disconsolate [disˈkɔnsəlit] – adj. sad beyond comforting; incapable of being consoled

discord [ˈdiskɔ:d] – n. lack of agreement or harmony

discordant [disˈkɔ:dənt] – adj. not in agreement or harmony: views discordant with present-day ideas

discountenance [disˈkauntinəns] – v. look with disfavor on: The republic soon discountenanced its few friends

discourteous [disˈkə:tiəs] – adj. showing no courtesy; rude: a distant and at times discourteous young

discredit [disˈkredit] – v. cause to be distrusted or disbelieved: The paper discredited the politician with its nasty commentary

discreet [diˈskri:t] – adj. marked by prudence or modesty and wise self-restraint: his trusted discreet aide

discrepancy [disˈkrepənsi] – n. a difference between conflicting facts or claims or opinions

discrete [diˈskri:t] – adj. constituting a separate entity or part: a government with three discrete divisions

discretionary  – adj. (especially of funds) not earmarked; available for use as needed: discretionary funds

discriminate [diˈskrimineit] – v. recognize or perceive the difference

discriminating [diˈskrimineitiŋ] – adj. showing or indicating careful judgment and discernment especially in matters of taste: the discriminating eye of the connoisseur

discriminatory [diˈskriminətəri] – adj. being biased or having a belief or attitude formed beforehand

discursive [diˈskə:siv] – adj. proceeding to a conclusion by reason or argument rather than intuition

disdain [disˈdein] – n. lack of respect accompanied by a feeling of intense dislike

disdainful [disˈdeinfəl] – adj. expressing extreme contempt

disembark  – v. go ashore: The passengers disembarked at Southampton

disembodied [.disimˈbɔdid] – adj. not having a material body

disembody  – v. free from a body or physical form or reality

disencumber [.disinˈkʌmbə] – v. release from entanglement of difficulty

disenfranchise [ˈdisinˈfræntʃaiz] – v. deprive of voting rights

disengage [ˈdisinˈgeidʒ] – v. release from something that holds fast, connects, or entangles: I want to disengage myself from his influence

disentangle  – v. release from entanglement of difficulty

disfigure [disˈfigə] – v. mar or spoil the appearance of: The vandals disfigured the statue

disfranchise [disˈfræntʃaiz] – v. deprive of voting rights

disgorge [disˈgɔ:dʒ] – v. cause or allow (a solid substance) to flow or run out or over

disgruntle [disˈgrʌntl] – v. put into a bad mood or into bad humour: The employees were disgruntled by their bad working conditions

disgruntled [disˈgrʌntld] – adj. in a state of sulky dissatisfaction

dishabille [disæˈbi:l] – n. the state of being carelessly or partially dressed

dishearten  – v. take away the enthusiasm of

dishevel  – v. disarrange or rumple; dishevel

dishonor [disˈɔnə] – v. force (someone) to have sex against their will

disinclination  – n. that toward which you are inclined to feel dislike: his disinclination for modesty is well known

disinclined [disinˈklaind] – adj. unwilling because of mild dislike or disapproval: disinclined to say anything to anybody

disinfect [disinˈfekt] – v. destroy microorganisms or pathogens by cleansing: disinfect a wound

disinfectant [disinˈfekt(ə)nt] – n. an agent (as heat or radiation or a chemical) that destroys microorganisms that might carry disease

disingenuous [.disinˈdʒenjuəs] – adj. not straightforward or candid; giving a false appearance of frankness: an ambitious, disingenuous, philistine, and hypocritical operator, who…exemplified…the most disagreeable traits of his time

disintegrate [disˈintigreit] – v. break into parts or components or lose cohesion or unity: The material disintegrated

disinter [.disinˈtə:] – v. dig up for reburial or for medical investigation; of dead bodies

disjointed [disˈdʒɔintid] – adj. lacking orderly continuity

disjunction  – n. state of being disconnected

disjunctive [disˈdʒʌŋktiv] – adj. serving or tending to divide or separate

dislocate [ˈdisləkeit] – v. move out of position: dislocate joints

dislocation [.disləˈkeiʃən] – n. an event that results in a displacement or discontinuity

dislodge [disˈlɔdʒ] – v. remove or force out from a position: The dentist dislodged the piece of food that had been stuck under my gums

dismantle [disˈmæntl] – v. tear down so as to make flat with the ground

dismember [disˈmembə] – v. separate the limbs from the body: the tiger dismembered the tourist

disparage [diˈspæridʒ] – v. express a negative opinion of: She disparaged her student’s efforts

disparate [ˈdispərit] – adj. fundamentally different or distinct in quality or kind: such disparate attractions as grand opera and game fishing

disparity [disˈpæriti] – n. inequality or difference in some respect

dispassionate [disˈpæʃənit] – adj. unaffected by strong emotion or prejudice: a journalist should be a dispassionate reporter of fact

dispatch [diˈspætʃ] – v. send away towards a designated goal

dispel [disˈpel] – v. force to go away; used both with concrete and metaphoric meanings: dispel doubts

dispensable [diˈspensəbəl] – adj. capable of being dispensed with or done without: dispensable items of personal property

dispense [disˈpens] – v. administer or bestow, as in small portions: the machine dispenses soft drinks

dispersion [diˈspə:ʃən] – n. spreading widely or driving off

dispirited [disˈpiritid] – adj. marked by low spirits; showing no enthusiasm: a dispirited and divided Party

disport [diˈspɔ:t] – v. occupy in an agreeable, entertaining or pleasant fashion

disposed [diˈspəʊzd] – adj. having made preparations

disproportion  – n. lack of proportion; imbalance among the parts of something

disputant [ˈdispjutənt] – n. a person who disputes; who is good at or enjoys controversy

disputatious [.dispjuˈteiʃəs] – adj. inclined or showing an inclination to dispute or disagree, even to engage in law suits: a disputatious lawyer

disquiet [disˈkwaiət] – n. a feeling of mild anxiety about possible developments

disquietude  – n. feelings of anxiety that make you tense and irritable

disquisition [.diskwiˈziʃən] – n. an elaborate analytical or explanatory essay or discussion

disregard [.disriˈgɑ:d] – v. refuse to acknowledge

disreputable [disˈrepjutəbəl] – adj. lacking respectability in character or behavior or appearance

dissect [diˈsekt] – v. cut open or cut apart: dissect the bodies for analysis

dissection [diˈsekʃən] – n. cutting so as to separate into pieces

dissemble [diˈsembəl] – v. make believe with the intent to deceive

disseminate [diˈsemineit] – v. cause to become widely known

dissension [diˈsenʃən] – n. disagreement among those expected to cooperate

dissent [diˈsent] – n. (law) the difference of one judge’s opinion from that of the majority: he expressed his dissent in a contrary opinion

dissenter [diˈsentə(r)] – n. a person who dissents from some established policy

dissertation [.disəˈteiʃən] – n. a treatise advancing a new point of view resulting from research; usually a requirement for an advanced academic degree

dissident [ˈdisidənt] – adj. characterized by departure from accepted beliefs or standards

dissimulate [diˈsimjuleit] – v. hide (feelings) from other people

dissipate [ˈdisipeit] – v. to cause to separate and go in different directions

dissipated [ˈdisipeitid] – adj. unrestrained by convention or morality: deplorably dissipated and degraded

dissociate  – v. part; cease or break association with

dissolute [ˈdisəlu:t] – adj. unrestrained by convention or morality

dissolution [.disəˈlu:ʃən] – n. separation into component parts

dissonance [ˈdisənəns] – n. a conflict of people’s opinions or actions or characters

dissonant [ˈdisənənt] – adj. lacking in harmony

dissuade [diˈsweid] – v. turn away from by persuasion: Negative campaigning will only dissuade people

dissuasion [diˈsweiʒən] – n. persuading not to do or believe something; talking someone out of a belief or an intended course of action

distaff [ˈdistɑ:f] – n. the sphere of work by women

distend [diˈstend] – v. become wider

distension [disˈtenʃən] – n. the act of expanding by pressure from within

distention [dis`tenʃən] – n. the state of being stretched beyond normal dimensions

distill [disˈtil] – v. undergo condensation; change from a gaseous to a liquid state and fall in drops: The acid distills at a specific temperature

distillation [.distiˈleiʃən] – n. the process of purifying a liquid by boiling it and condensing its vapors

distrait [disˈtrei] – adj. having the attention diverted especially because of anxiety

distraught [diˈstrɔ:t] – adj. deeply agitated especially from emotion: distraught with grief

dither [ˈdiðə] – v. act nervously; be undecided; be uncertain

ditty  – n. a short simple song (or the words of a poem intended to be sung)

diurnal [daiˈə:nəl] – adj. of or belonging to or active during the day: diurnal animals are active during the day

diva [ˈdi:və] – n. a distinguished female operatic singer; a female operatic star

divagate [ˈdaivəgeit] – v. lose clarity or turn aside especially from the main subject of attention or course of argument in writing, thinking, or speaking

diver [ˈdaivə] – n. someone who works underwater

diverge [daiˈvə:dʒ] – v. move or draw apart: The two paths diverge here

divergence [daiˈvɜ:dʒəns,di-] – n. the act of moving away in different direction from a common point: an angle is formed by the divergence of two straight lines

divergent [daiˈvə:dʒənt] – adj. tending to move apart in different directions

divers [ˈdaivə(:)z] – adj. many and different: tourist offices of divers nationalities

diversion [daiˈvə:ʒən] – n. a turning aside (of your course or attention or concern): a diversion from the main highway

divest [daiˈvest] – v. take away possessions from someone

divestiture [daiˈvestitʃə] – n. the sale by a company of a product line or a subsidiary or a division

divination [diviˈneiʃən] – n. successful conjecture by unusual insight or good luck

divulge [daiˈvʌldʒ,di-] – v. make known to the public information that was previously known only to a few people or that was meant to be kept a secret

docile [ˈdəusail] – adj. willing to be taught or led or supervised or directed: the docile masses of an enslaved nation

docket [ˈdɔkit] – n. (law) the calendar of a court; the list of cases to be tried or a summary of the court’s activities

doctrinaire [.dɔktriˈneə] – n. a stubborn person of arbitrary or arrogant opinions

dodder  – v. walk unsteadily

doddle [ˈdɔdl] – n. an easy task

dodge [dɔdʒ] – n. an elaborate or deceitful scheme contrived to deceive or evade

doff [dɔf] – v. remove: He doffed his hat

dogged [ˈdɔgid] – adj. stubbornly unyielding: dogged persistence

doggerel [ˈdɔgərəl] – n. a comic verse of irregular measure: he had heard some silly doggerel that kept running through his mind

doggo  – adv. quietly in concealment: he lay doggo

dogma [ˈdɔgmə] – n. a religious doctrine that is proclaimed as true without proof

dogmatic [dɔgˈmætik] – adj. characterized by assertion of unproved or unprovable principles

doldrums [ˈdɔldrəmz] – n. a state of inactivity (in business or art etc)

doleful [ˈdəulful] – adj. filled with or evoking sadness: the child’s doleful expression

dolorous [ˈdɔlərəs] – adj. showing sorrow

dolt [dəult] – n. a person who is not very bright

doltish [ˈdəultiʃ] – adj. heavy and dull and stupid

domesticate [dəˈmestikeit] – v. adapt (a wild plant or unclaimed land) to the environment: domesticate oats

domesticity [.dəumesˈtisiti] – n. domestic activities or life: making a hobby of domesticity

domicile [ˈdɔmisail] – n. housing that someone is living in

domineer [dɔmiˈniə] – v. rule or exercise power over (somebody) in a cruel and autocratic manner

don [dɔn] – n. a Spanish gentleman or nobleman

doodle  – n. an aimless drawing

doom [du:m] – v. decree or designate beforehand

dormancy  – n. a state of quiet (but possibly temporary) inaction: the volcano erupted after centuries of dormancy

dormant [ˈdɔ:mənt] – adj. in a condition of biological rest or suspended animation: dormant buds

dormer  – n. a gabled extension built out from a sloping roof to accommodate a vertical window

dorsal [ˈdɔ:s(ə)l] – adj. belonging to or on or near the back or upper surface of an animal or organ or part: the dorsal fin is the vertical fin on the back of a fish and certain marine mammals

dossier [ˈdɔsiei] – n. a collection of papers containing detailed information about a particular person or subject (usually a person’s record)

dotage [ˈdəutidʒ] – n. mental infirmity as a consequence of old age; sometimes shown by foolish infatuations

dote [dəut] – v. be foolish or senile due to old age

doting [ˈdəutiŋ] – adj. extravagantly or foolishly loving and indulgent: deceiving her preoccupied and doting husband with a young captain

dour [duə] – adj. stubbornly unyielding: dour determination

douse [daus] – v. put out, as of a candle or a light

dowdy [ˈdaudi] – n. deep-dish apple dessert covered with a rich crust

downcast [ˈdaunkɑ:st] – adj. filled with melancholy and despondency: downcast after his defeat

downplay [ˈdaʊnplei] – v. represent as less significant or important

downpour [ˈdaunpɔ:] – n. a heavy rain

downtrodden [ˈdaun.trɔdn] – adj. abused or oppressed by people in power

dowry [ˈdauri] – n. money or property brought by a woman to her husband at marriage

dowse  – v. wet thoroughly

doyen  – n. a man who is the senior member of a group

doze [dəuz] – n. a light fitful sleep

drab [dræb] – adj. lacking in liveliness or charm or surprise: her drab personality

drabness  – n. having a drab or dowdy quality; lacking stylishness or elegance

draconian [drəˈkəuniən] – adj. of or relating to Draco or his harsh code of laws

drastic [ˈdræstik] – adj. forceful and extreme and rigorous: drastic measures

draught  – n. a serving of drink (usually alcoholic) drawn from a keg

drawbridge [ˈdrɔ:.bridʒ] – n. a bridge that can be raised to block passage or to allow boats or ships to pass beneath it

drawl [drɔ:l] – n. a slow speech pattern with prolonged vowels

dreary [ˈdriəri] – adj. lacking in liveliness or charm or surprise: a series of dreary dinner parties

dredge [dredʒ] – v. cover before cooking: dredge the chicken in flour before frying it

dredger [ˈdredʒə] – n. a barge (or a vessel resembling a barge) that is used for dredging

dregs [dregz] – n. sediment that has settled at the bottom of a liquid

drench [drentʃ] – v. force to drink

dribble [ˈdribəl] – v. run or flow slowly, as in drops or in an unsteady stream: reports began to dribble in

drivel  – n. a worthless message

drizzle [ˈdrizl] – v. rain lightly: When it drizzles in summer, hiking can be pleasant

drizzly [ˈdrizli] – adj. wet with light rain: a sad drizzly day

droll [drəul] – adj. comical in an odd or whimsical manner: a droll little man with a quiet tongue-in-cheek kind of humor

drollery [ˈdrəuləri] – n. a comic incident or series of incidents

drone [drəun] – n. stingless male bee in a colony of social bees (especially honeybees) whose sole function is to mate with the queen

drool [dru:l] – n. pretentious or silly talk or writing

droop [dru:p] – v. hang loosely or laxly

droplet  – n. a tiny drop

dross [drɔs] – n. worthless or dangerous material that should be removed

drove [drəuv] – n. a group of animals (a herd or flock) moving together

drudge [drʌdʒ] – n. one who works hard at boring tasks

drudgery [ˈdrʌdʒəri] – n. hard monotonous routine work

dubious [ˈdju:biəs] – adj. fraught with uncertainty or doubt: dubious about agreeing to go

ductile [ˈdʌktail] – adj. easily influenced

duel [ˈdju:əl] – n. any struggle between two skillful opponents (individuals or groups)

duenna [dju(:)ˈenə] – n. a woman chaperon

duet [dju:ˈet] – n. two items of the same kind

dulcet [ˈdʌlsit] – adj. extremely pleasant in a gentle way: the most dulcet swimming on the most beautiful and remote beaches

dullard  – n. a person who is not very bright

dumbfound  – v. be a mystery or bewildering to

dummy [ˈdʌmi] – n. a person who does not talk

dunce [dʌns] – n. a stupid person; these words are used to express a low opinion of someone’s intelligence

dune [dju:n] – n. a ridge of sand created by the wind; found in deserts or near lakes and oceans

dupe [dju:p] – n. a person who is tricked or swindled

duplicity [dju:ˈplisiti] – n. a fraudulent or duplicitous representation

durance [ˈdjurəns] – n. imprisonment (especially for a long time)

duress [djuəˈres] – n. compulsory force or threat: confessed under duress

dutiful [ˈdju:tiful] – adj. willingly obedient out of a sense of duty and respect: a dutiful child

dwindle [ˈdwindl] – v. become smaller or lose substance: Her savings dwindled down

dynamite [ˈdainəmait] – n. an explosive containing nitrate sensitized with nitroglycerin absorbed on wood pulp

dynamo [ˈdainəməu] – n. generator consisting of a coil (the armature) that rotates between the poles of an electromagnet (the field magnet) causing a current to flow in the armature

dysentery  – n. an infection of the intestines marked by severe diarrhea

dyslexia [disˈleksiə] – n. impaired ability to learn to read

dyspepsia [disˈpepsiə, -ˈpepʃə] – n. a disorder of digestive function characterized by discomfort or heartburn or nausea

dyspeptic  – adj. irritable as if suffering from indigestion

dystrophy  – n. any of several hereditary diseases of the muscular system characterized by weakness and wasting of skeletal muscles

eaglet  – n. a young eagle

earmark [ˈiəmɑ:k] – n. identification mark on the ear of a domestic animal

earplug  – n. an earphone that is inserted into the ear canal

earshot  – n. the range within which a voice can be heard: the children were told to stay within earshot

earsplitting  – adj. loud enough to cause (temporary) hearing loss

earthenware [ˈə:θənwɛə] – n. ceramic ware made of porous clay fired at low heat

earthly [ˈə:θli] – adj. of or belonging to or characteristic of this earth as distinguished from heaven: earthly beings

earthy  – adj. conspicuously and tastelessly indecent: an earthy sense of humor

easel  – n. an upright tripod for displaying something (usually an artist’s canvas)

eaves [i:vz] – n. the overhang at the lower edge of a roof

eavesdrop [ˈi:vzdrɔp] – v. listen without the speaker’s knowledge: the jealous man was eavesdropping on his wife’s conversations

ebb [eb] – v. flow back or recede: the tides ebbed at noon

ebullience [iˈbʌliəns] – n. overflowing with eager enjoyment or approval

ebullient [iˈbʌliənt] – adj. joyously unrestrained

eccentric [ikˈsentrik] – n. a person with an unusual or odd personality

eccentricity [eksenˈtrisiti] – n. strange and unconventional behavior

ecclesiastic [i.kli:ziˈæstik] – n. a clergyman or other person in religious orders

ecdysis  – n. periodic shedding of the cuticle in arthropods or the outer skin in reptiles

echelon [ˈeʃəlɔn] – n. a body of troops arranged in a line

eclat [eˈkla] – n. enthusiastic approval: they gave him more eclat than he really deserved

eclectic [iˈklektik] – adj. selecting what seems best of various styles or ideas

eclecticism [eˈklektisizəm] – n. making decisions on the basis of what seems best instead of following some single doctrine or style

eclipse [iˈklips] – v. be greater in significance than

ecliptic  – n. the great circle representing the apparent annual path of the sun; the plane of the Earth’s orbit around the sun; makes an angle of about 23 degrees with the equator: all of the planets rotate the sun in approximately the same ecliptic

eclogue [ˈeklɔg] – n. a short poem descriptive of rural or pastoral life

ecologist [iˈkɔlədʒist] – n. a biologist who studies the relation between organisms and their environment

economize [i(:)ˈkɔnəmaiz] – v. use cautiously and frugally: I try to economize my spare time

ecosystem [i:kəˈsistəm] – n. a system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their physical environment

ecstasy [ˈekstəsi] – n. a state of being carried away by overwhelming emotion

ecstatic [ikˈstætik,ek-] – adj. feeling great rapture or delight

ecumenical  – adj. concerned with promoting unity among churches or religions: ecumenical thinking

edacious  – adj. devouring or craving food in great quantities: edacious vultures

eddy [ˈedi] – n. founder of Christian Science in 1866 (1821-1910)

edible [ˈedibl] – n. any substance that can be used as food

edict [ˈi:dikt] – n. a formal or authoritative proclamation

edification [.edifiˈkeiʃən] – n. uplifting enlightenment

edifice [ˈedifis] – n. a structure that has a roof and walls and stands more or less permanently in one place: it was an imposing edifice

edify [ˈedifai] – v. make understand

educe [iˈdju:s] – v. develop or evolve from a latent or potential state

eerie [ˈiəri] – adj. suggestive of the supernatural; mysterious: an eerie feeling of deja vu

efface [iˈfeis] – v. remove completely from recognition or memory: efface the memory of the time in the camps

effectual [iˈfektʃuəl] – adj. having legal efficacy or force

effectuate [iˈfektjueit] – v. produce

effeminate [iˈfeminit] – adj. having unsuitable feminine qualities

effervesce [.efəˈves] – v. become bubbly or frothy or foaming

effervescence  – n. the process of bubbling as gas escapes

effete [iˈfi:t] – adj. marked by excessive self-indulgence and moral decay: a group of effete self-professed intellectuals

efficacy [ˈefikəsi] – n. capacity or power to produce a desired effect: concern about the safety and efficacy of the vaccine

effigy [ˈefidʒi] – n. a representation of a person (especially in the form of sculpture): the coin bears an effigy of Lincoln

efflorescent [eflɔ:ˈresnt] – adj. bursting into flower

effluence  – n. the process of flowing out

effluvium [eˈflu:viəm] – n. a foul-smelling outflow or vapor (especially a gaseous waste)

effortless [ˈefətləs] – adj. not showing effort or strain

effrontery [eˈfrʌntəri] – n. audacious (even arrogant) behavior that you have no right to

effulgence [iˈfʌldʒəns] – n. the quality of being bright and sending out rays of light

effulgent [iˈfʌldʒənt] – adj. radiating or as if radiating light: the effulgent daffodils

effusion [iˈfju:ʒən] – n. an unrestrained expression of emotion

effusive [iˈfju:siv] – adj. uttered with unrestrained enthusiasm

egalitarian [i.gæliˈteəriən] – n. a person who believes in the equality of all people

egocentric [.i:gəuˈsentrik] – n. a self-centered person with little regard for others

egoism [ˈi:gəuizəm] – n. (ethics) the theory that the pursuit of your own welfare in the basis of morality

egoist [ˈegəuist] – n. a conceited and self-centered person

egotism [ˈegəutizm] – n. an exaggerated opinion of your own importance

egotistical  – adj. characteristic of those having an inflated idea of their own importance

egregious [iˈgri:dʒəs] – adj. conspicuously and outrageously bad or reprehensible: an egregious lie

egress [ˈi:gres] – n. (astronomy) the reappearance of a celestial body after an eclipse

ejaculate [iˈdʒækjuleit] – v. utter impulsively

ejaculation [i.dʒækjʊˈleiʃən] – n. an abrupt emphatic exclamation expressing emotion

eject [iˈdʒekt] – v. put out or expel from a place

elaboration [i.læbəˈreiʃən] – n. addition of extra material or illustration or clarifying detail: an elaboration of the sketch followed

elapse [iˈlæps] – v. pass by: three years elapsed

elasticity [ilæsˈtisiti] – n. the tendency of a body to return to its original shape after it has been stretched or compressed

elated [iˈleitid] – adj. exultantly proud and joyful; in high spirits: the elated winner

elation [iˈleiʃən] – n. an exhilarating psychological state of pride and optimism; an absence of depression

eleemosynary  – adj. generous in assistance to the poor: eleemosynary relief

elegiac [.eliˈdʒaiək] – adj. expressing sorrow often for something past: an elegiac lament for youthful ideals

elegy [ˈelidʒi] – n. a mournful poem; a lament for the dead

elephantine [.eliˈfæntain] – adj. of great mass; huge and bulky

elevation [.eliˈveiʃən] – n. the event of something being raised upward: an elevation of the temperature in the afternoon

elf  – n. (folklore) fairies that are somewhat mischievous

elicit [iˈlisit] – v. deduce (a principle) or construe (a meaning)

elide [iˈlaid] – v. leave or strike out: This vowel is usually elided before a single consonant

elitism [eiˈli:tizəm] – n. the attitude that society should be governed by an elite group of individuals

elixir [iˈliksə] – n. hypothetical substance that the alchemists believed to be capable of changing base metals into gold

ellipse [iˈlips] – n. a closed plane curve resulting from the intersection of a circular cone and a plane cutting completely through it: the sums of the distances from the foci to any point on an ellipse is constant

ellipsis [iˈlipsis] – n. omission or suppression of parts of words or sentences

elliptical [iˈliptikəl] – adj. rounded like an egg

elm [elm] – n. any of various trees of the genus Ulmus: important timber or shade trees

elocution [.eləˈkju:ʃən] – n. an expert manner of speaking involving control of voice and gesture

elongate [ˈi:lɔŋgeit] – adj. (of a leaf shape) long and narrow

elongation [.i:lɔŋˈgeiʃən] – n. an addition to the length of something

elope [iˈləup] – v. run away secretly with one’s beloved: The young couple eloped and got married in Las Vegas

eloquence [ˈeləkwəns] – n. powerful and effective language: his eloquence attracted a large congregation

eloquent [ˈeləkwənt] – adj. expressing yourself readily, clearly, effectively

elucidate [iˈlu:sideit] – v. make clear and (more) comprehensible

elude [iˈlu:d] – v. escape, either physically or mentally: The thief eluded the police

elusive [iˈlju:siv] – adj. difficult to describe: a haunting elusive odor

elysian  – adj. relating to the Elysian Fields

Elysium  – n. a place or condition of ideal happiness

emaciate [iˈmeiʃieit] – v. cause to grow thin or weak: The treatment emaciated him

emaciated [iˈmeiʃieitid] – adj. very thin especially from disease or hunger or cold: emaciated bony hands

emanate [ˈeməneit] – v. proceed or issue forth, as from a source: Water emanates from this hole in the ground

emancipate [iˈmænsipeit] – v. give equal rights to; of women and minorities

emancipation [i.mænsiˈpeiʃən] – n. freeing someone from the control of another; especially a parent’s relinquishing authority and control over a minor child

emasculate  – v. deprive of strength or vigor: The Senate emasculated the law

embankment [imˈbæŋkmənt] – n. a long artificial mound of stone or earth; built to hold back water or to support a road or as protection

embargo [emˈbɑ:gəu] – v. ban the publication of (documents), as for security or copyright reasons: embargoed publications

embed [imˈbed] – v. fix or set securely or deeply

embellish [imˈbeliʃ] – v. add details to

embezzle [imˈbezl] – v. appropriate (as property entrusted to one’s care) fraudulently to one’s own use: The accountant embezzled thousands of dollars while working for the wealthy family

embezzlement [imˈbezlmənt] – n. the fraudulent appropriation of funds or property entrusted to your care but actually owned by someone else

embitter [imˈbitə] – v. cause to be bitter or resentful: These injustices embittered her even more

emblazon [imˈbleizn] – v. decorate with colors

emblem [ˈembləm] – n. special design or visual object representing a quality, type, group, etc.

emblematic [.embləˈmætik] – adj. serving as a visible symbol for something abstract: a crown is emblematic of royalty

embodiment [imˈbɔdimənt] – n. a new personification of a familiar idea: the embodiment of hope

embolden [imˈbəuldən] – v. give encouragement to

emboss [imˈbɔs] – v. raise in a relief: embossed stationery

embroider [imˈbrɔidə] – v. decorate with needlework

embroidery [imˈbrɔidəri] – n. elaboration of an interpretation by the use of decorative (sometimes fictitious) detail

embroil [imˈbrɔil] – v. force into some kind of situation, condition, or course of action

embryonic [.embriˈɔnik] – adj. of an organism prior to birth or hatching: in the embryonic stage

emend [iˈmend] – v. make improvements or corrections to: the text was emended in the second edition

emendation [.i:menˈdeiʃən] – n. a correction by emending; a correction resulting from critical editing

emerald [ˈemərəld] – n. a green transparent form of beryl; highly valued as a gemstone

emeritus [iˈmeritəs] – n. a professor or minister who is retired from assigned duties

emetic [iˈmetik] – n. a medicine that induces nausea and vomiting

eminence [ˈeminəns] – n. high status importance owing to marked superiority: a scholar of great eminence

eminent [ˈeminənt] – adj. standing above others in quality or position: eminent members of the community

emissary [ˈemisəri] – n. someone sent on a mission to represent the interests of someone else

emollient [iˈmɔliənt] – adj. having a softening or soothing effect especially to the skin

emolument [iˈmɔljumənt] – n. compensation received by virtue of holding an office or having employment (usually in the form of wages or fees): a clause in the U.S. constitution prevents sitting legislators from receiving emoluments from their own votes

emote [iˈməut] – v. give expression or emotion to, in a stage or movie role

empathy [ˈempəθi] – n. understanding and entering into another’s feelings

empiricism [emˈpirisizəm] – n. (philosophy) the doctrine that knowledge derives from experience

empyreal [.empaiˈri:əl, emˈpiriəl] – adj. of or relating to the sky or heavens

empyrean [.empiˈri:ən] – adj. of or relating to the sky or heavens: the empyrean sphere

emulate [ˈemjuleit] – v. strive to equal or match, especially by imitating

emulation [.emjʊˈleiʃɚn] – n. ambition to equal or excel

emulsify [iˈmʌlsifai] – v. form into or become an emulsion

enact [iˈnækt] – v. order by virtue of superior authority; decree: the legislature enacted this law in 1985

enactment [iˈnæktm(ə)nt] – n. the passing of a law by a legislative body

enamel [iˈnæm(ə)l] – n. hard white substance covering the crown of a tooth

enamored [iˈnæməd] – adj. marked by foolish or unreasoning fondness

encapsulate [inˈkæpsjuleit] – v. enclose in a capsule or other small container

encephalitis [in.sefəˈlaitis] – n. inflammation of the brain usually caused by a virus; symptoms include headache and neck pain and drowsiness and nausea and fever (`phrenitis’ is no longer in scientific use)

enchant [inˈtʃɑ:nt] – v. hold spellbound

enchantment [inˈtʃɑ:ntmənt] – n. a feeling of great liking for something wonderful and unusual

encipher [inˈsaifə] – v. convert ordinary language into code

encircle [inˈsə:kl] – v. form a circle around: encircle the errors

enclave [ˈenkleiv] – n. an enclosed territory that is culturally distinct from the foreign territory that surrounds it

enclosure [inˈkləuʒə] – n. the act of enclosing something inside something else

encomiastic [en.kəʊmiˈæstik] – adj. formally expressing praise

encomium [inˈkəumiəm] – n. a formal expression of praise

encroach [inˈkrəutʃ] – v. advance beyond the usual limit

encroachment [inˈkrəutʃmənt] – n. any entry into an area not previously occupied

encumber [inˈkʌmbə] – v. hold back

encumbrance [inˈkʌmbrəns] – n. an onerous or difficult concern

encyclopedia [en.saikləuˈpi:diə] – n. a reference work (often in several volumes) containing articles on various topics (often arranged in alphabetical order) dealing with the entire range of human knowledge or with some particular specialty

encyclopedic [in.saikləˈpi:dik] – adj. broad in scope or content: encyclopedic knowledge

endear [inˈdiə] – v. make attractive or lovable: This behavior endeared her to me

endearment [inˈdiəmənt] – n. the act of showing affection

endemic [enˈdemik,in-] – adj. native to or confined to a certain region: the islands have a number of interesting endemic species

endive [ˈendiv] – n. widely cultivated herb with leaves valued as salad green; either curly serrated leaves or broad flat ones that are usually blanched

endorsement [inˈdɔ:smənt] – n. a promotional statement (as found on the dust jackets of books)

endow [inˈdau] – v. give qualities or abilities to

endue [inˈdju:] – v. give qualities or abilities to

enduring [inˈdjuəriŋ] – adj. unceasing

energize [ˈenədʒaiz] – v. raise to a higher energy level

enervate [ˈenəveit] – v. weaken mentally or morally

enfeeble [inˈfi:bl] – v. make weak

enfranchise [inˈfræntʃaiz] – v. grant freedom to; as from slavery or servitude: Slaves were enfranchised in the mid-19th century

engaged [inˈgeidʒd] – adj. involved in military hostilities: the desperately engaged ships continued the fight

engaging [inˈgeidʒiŋ] – adj. attracting or delighting: an engaging frankness

engender [inˈdʒendə] – v. call forth

engrave [inˈgreiv] – v. carve, cut, or etch into a material or surface: engrave a pen

engross [inˈgrəus] – v. devote (oneself) fully to

engulf [inˈgʌlf] – v. devote (oneself) fully to

enhancement [inˈhɑ:nsmənt] – n. an improvement that makes something more agreeable

enigma [iˈnigmə] – n. something that baffles understanding and cannot be explained

enigmatic [.enigˈmætik] – adj. not clear to the understanding: I didn’t grasp the meaning of that enigmatic comment until much later

enjoin [inˈdʒɔin] – v. issue an injunction

enkindle [inˈkindl] – v. cause to start burning

enlighten [inˈlaitn] – v. make understand: Can you enlighten me–I don’t understand this proposal

enlightenment [inˈlaitnmənt] – n. education that results in understanding and the spread of knowledge

enlist [inˈlist] – v. join the military

enlistment [inˈlistmənt] – n. a period of time spent in military service

enliven  – v. heighten or intensify

enmesh [inˈmeʃ] – v. entangle or catch in (or as if in) a mesh

enmity [ˈenmiti] – n. a state of deep-seated ill-will

ennoble [iˈnəubl] – v. confer dignity or honor upon

ennui [ɔnˈwi:] – n. the feeling of being bored by something tedious

enormity [iˈnɔ:məti] – n. the quality of being outrageous

enrapture [inˈræptʃə] – v. hold spellbound

ensconce [inˈskɔns] – v. fix firmly: He ensconced himself in the chair

ensemble [ɑ:nˈsɑ:mbəl] – n. a group of musicians playing or singing together: a string ensemble

enshrine [inˈʃrain] – v. enclose in a shrine: the saint’s bones were enshrined in the cathedral

ensign [ˈensain] – n. an emblem flown as a symbol of nationality

enslave  – v. make a slave of; bring into servitude

ensnare [inˈsneə] – v. take or catch as if in a snare or trap

ensue [inˈsju:] – v. issue or terminate (in a specified way, state, etc.); end

entangle [inˈtæŋgəl] – v. entrap

entanglement [inˈtæŋglmənt] – n. an intricate trap that entangles or ensnares its victim

enterprising [ˈentəpraiziŋ] – adj. marked by imagination, initiative, and readiness to undertake new projects: an enterprising foreign policy

enthrall [inˈθrɔ:l] – v. hold spellbound

entice [inˈtais] – v. provoke someone to do something through (often false or exaggerated) promises or persuasion

enticement [inˈtaismənt] – n. something that seduces or has the quality to seduce

entomology [.entəˈmɔlədʒi] – n. the branch of zoology that studies insects

entourage  – n. the group following and attending to some important person

entrap [inˈtræp] – v. take or catch as if in a snare or trap

entreat [inˈtri:t] – v. ask for or request earnestly

entreaty [inˈtri:ti] – n. earnest or urgent request: an entreaty to stop the fighting

entree [ˈɔntrei] – n. the principal dish of a meal

entrench [inˈtrentʃ] – v. fix firmly or securely

entrepreneur [.ɔntrəprəˈnə:] – n. someone who organizes a business venture and assumes the risk for it

entrust [inˈtrʌst] – v. confer a trust upon: The messenger was entrusted with the general’s secret

entwine [inˈtwain] – v. tie or link together

enumerate [iˈnju:məreit] – v. specify individually: She enumerated the many obstacles she had encountered

enunciate [iˈnʌnsieit] – v. speak, pronounce, or utter in a certain way

enunciation [i.nʌnsiˈeiʃən,-ʃi-] – n. the articulation of speech regarded from the point of view of its intelligibility to the audience

environ [inˈvaiərən] – v. extend on all sides of simultaneously; encircle

environs [ˈenvirənz] – n. the area in which something exists or lives

envision [inˈviʒən] – v. imagine; conceive of; see in one’s mind

eon [ˈi:ən] – n. an immeasurably long period of time: oh, that happened eons ago

epaulet [.epəˈlet] – n. adornment consisting of an ornamental cloth pad worn on the shoulder

ephemeral [iˈfemərəl] – n. anything short-lived, as an insect that lives only for a day in its winged form

epic [ˈepik] – adj. very imposing or impressive; surpassing the ordinary (especially in size or scale): an epic voyage

epicure [ˈepikjuə] – n. a person devoted to refined sensuous enjoyment (especially good food and drink)

Epicurean  – adj. of Epicurus or epicureanism: Epicurean philosophy

epidemic [.epiˈdemik] – n. a widespread outbreak of an infectious disease; many people are infected at the same time

epidermis [.epiˈdə:mis] – n. the outer layer of the skin covering the exterior body surface of vertebrates

epigram [ˈepigræm] – n. a witty saying

epigrammatic [.epigrəˈmætik] – adj. terse and witty and like a maxim

epilogue [ˈepilɔg] – n. a short speech (often in verse) addressed directly to the audience by an actor at the end of a play

episodic  – adj. occurring or appearing at usually irregular intervals: episodic in his affections

epistemologist  – n. a specialist in epistemology

epistemology [ipistiˈmɔlədʒi] – n. the philosophical theory of knowledge

epistle [iˈpisl] – n. a specially long, formal letter

epitaph [ˈepitɑ:f] – n. an inscription on a tombstone or monument in memory of the person buried there

epithet [ˈepiθet] – n. a defamatory or abusive word or phrase

epitome [iˈpitəmi] – n. a standard or typical example

epitomize  – v. embody the essential characteristics of or be a typical example of

epoch [ˈi:pɔk] – n. a period marked by distinctive character or reckoned from a fixed point or event

equable [ˈekwəbəl] – adj. not varying: an equable climate

equanimity [.i:kwəˈnimiti] – n. steadiness of mind under stress: he accepted their problems with composure and she with equanimity

equestrian [iˈkwestriən] – adj. of or relating to or composed of knights

equine [ˈekwain,ˈi:-] – adj. resembling a horse

equinox [ˈi:kwinɔks] – n. (astronomy) either of the two celestial points at which the celestial equator intersects the ecliptic

equipage [ˈekwipidʒ] – n. a vehicle with wheels drawn by one or more horses

equipoise  – n. equality of distribution

equitable [ˈekwitəbəl] – adj. fair to all parties as dictated by reason and conscience: equitable treatment of all citizens

equitation [.ekwiˈteiʃən] – n. the sport of siting on the back of a horse while controlling its movements

equivalence [iˈkwivələns] – n. essential equality and interchangeability

equivocal [iˈkwivəkəl] – adj. open to two or more interpretations; or of uncertain nature or significance; or (often) intended to mislead: an equivocal statement

equivocate [iˈkwivəkeit] – v. be deliberately ambiguous or unclear in order to mislead or withhold information

equivocation  – n. a statement that is not literally false but that cleverly avoids an unpleasant truth

eradicate [iˈrædikeit] – v. kill in large numbers

erase [iˈreiz] – v. remove from memory or existence: The Turks erased the Armenians in 1915

erasure [iˈreiʒə] – n. a surface area where something has been erased: another word had been written over the erasure

erode [iˈrəud] – v. become ground down or deteriorate: Her confidence eroded

erotic [iˈrɔtik] – adj. giving sexual pleasure; sexually arousing

errand [ˈerənd] – n. a short trip that is taken in the performance of a necessary task or mission

errant [ˈerənt] – adj. straying from the right course or from accepted standards: errant youngsters

erratic [iˈrætik] – adj. liable to sudden unpredictable change: erratic behavior

erroneous [iˈrəuniəs] – adj. containing or characterized by error: erroneous conclusions

ersatz [ˈeəzæts] – n. an artificial or inferior substitute or imitation

erudite [ˈerudait] – adj. having or showing profound knowledge: an erudite professor

erudition [.eru:ˈdiʃən] – n. profound scholarly knowledge

erupt [iˈrʌpt] – v. start abruptly

eruption [iˈrʌpʃən] – n. the sudden occurrence of a violent discharge of steam and volcanic material

escalate [ˈeskəleit] – v. increase in extent or intensity: The Allies escalated the bombing

escapade [ˈeskəpeid] – n. a wild and exciting undertaking (not necessarily lawful)

eschew [isˈtʃu:] – v. avoid and stay away from deliberately; stay clear of

escort [ˈeskɔ:t] – n. the act of accompanying someone or something in order to protect them

escutcheon [iˈskʌtʃən] – n. a flat protective covering (on a door or wall etc) to prevent soiling by dirty fingers

esoteric [.esəˈterik] – adj. confined to and understandable by only an enlightened inner circle: a compilation of esoteric philosophical theories

esoterica  – n. secrets known only to an initiated minority

espionage [ˈespiənɑ:ʒ] – n. the systematic use of spies to get military or political secrets

espousal [iˈspauzəl] – n. archaic terms for a wedding or wedding feast

espouse [iˈspauz] – v. choose and follow; as of theories, ideas, policies, strategies or plans: The candidate espouses Republican ideals

espy [iˈspai] – v. catch sight of

esteem [isˈti:m] – n. a feeling of delighted approval and liking

estimable [ˈestiməbəl] – adj. deserving of respect or high regard

estrange [iˈstreindʒ] – v. remove from customary environment or associations: years of boarding school estranged the child from her home

estranged [iˈstreindʒd] – adj. caused to be unloved

estrangement  – n. separation resulting from hostility

estuary [ˈestʃuəri] – n. the wide part of a river where it nears the sea; fresh and salt water mix

etch [etʃ] – v. cause to stand out or be clearly defined or visible: a face etched with pain

ethereal [iˈθiəriəl] – adj. characterized by lightness and insubstantiality; as impalpable or intangible as air: physical rather than ethereal forms

ethnography [eθˈnɔgrəfi] – n. the branch of anthropology that provides scientific description of individual human societies

ethnology [eθˈnɔlədʒi] – n. the branch of anthropology that deals with the division of humankind into races and with their origins and distribution and distinctive characteristics

ethos [ˈi:θɔs] – n. (anthropology) the distinctive spirit of a culture or an era: the Greek ethos

etiquette [ˈetiket] – n. rules governing socially acceptable behavior

etymology [.etiˈmɔlədʒi] – n. a history of a word

eucalyptus [.ju:kəˈliptəs] – n. a tree of the genus Eucalyptus

eugenic [ju:ˈdʒenik] – adj. pertaining to or causing improvement in the offspring produced

eugenics  – n. the study of methods of improving genetic qualities by selective breeding (especially as applied to human mating)

eulogistic [.ju:ləˈdʒistik] – adj. formally expressing praise

eulogize [ˈjulədʒaiz] – v. praise formally and eloquently: The dead woman was eulogized at the funeral

eulogy [ˈju:lədʒi] – n. a formal expression of praise for someone who has died recently

euphemism [ˈju:fimizəm] – n. an inoffensive or indirect expression that is substituted for one that is considered offensive or too harsh

euphonious [ju:ˈfəuniəs] – adj. having a pleasant sound: a euphonious trill of silver laughter

euphony [ˈju:fəni] – n. any agreeable (pleasing and harmonious) sounds

euphoria [ju:ˈfɔ:riə] – n. a feeling of great (usually exaggerated) elation

euthanasia  – n. the act of killing someone painlessly (especially someone suffering from an incurable illness)

evacuate [iˈvækjueit] – v. move out of an unsafe location into safety: After the earthquake, residents were evacuated

evade [iˈveid] – v. avoid or try to avoid fulfilling, answering, or performing (duties, questions, or issues): They tend to evade their responsibilities

evanescent [.evəˈnesənt] – adj. tending to vanish like vapor: evanescent beauty

evasive [iˈveisiv] – adj. deliberately vague or ambiguous: his answers were brief, constrained and evasive

evenhanded  – adj. without partiality: evenhanded justice

even-tempered  – adj. not easily irritated

everlasting [.evəˈlɑ:stiŋ] – adj. continuing forever or indefinitely: life everlasting

evict [iˈvikt] – v. expel or eject without recourse to legal process: The landlord wanted to evict the tenants so he banged on the pipes every morning at 3 a.m.

evince [iˈvins] – v. give expression to

eviscerate [iˈvisəreit] – v. surgically remove a part of a structure or an organ

evocative [iˈvɔkətiv] – adj. serving to bring to mind

ewe  – n. a member of a people living in southern Benin and Togo and southeastern Ghana

ewer [ˈju:ə] – n. an open vessel with a handle and a spout for pouring

exacerbate [igˈzæsəbeit] – v. make worse

exaction [igˈzækʃən] – n. act of demanding or levying by force or authority: exaction of tribute

exaggeration [ig.zædʒəˈreiʃən] – n. the act of making something more noticeable than usual: the dance involved a deliberate exaggeration of his awkwardness

exalt [igˈzɔ:lt, eg-] – v. praise, glorify, or honor

exaltation [.egzɔ:lˈteiʃən] – n. a state of being carried away by overwhelming emotion

exasperate [igˈzɑ:spəreit] – v. make furious

exasperation [ig.zɑ:spəˈreiʃən] – n. actions that cause great irritation (or even anger)

excavate [ˈekskəveit] – v. recover through digging: Schliemann excavated Troy

exceptionable [ikˈsepʃənəbəl] – adj. liable to objection or debate; used of something one might take exception to: a thoroughly unpleasant highly exceptionable piece of writing

excerpt [ˈeksə:pt,ekˈsə:pt] – n. a passage selected from a larger work: he presented excerpts from William James’ philosophical writings

exchequer [iksˈtʃekə] – n. the funds of a government or institution or individual

excise [ekˈsaiz] – v. remove by erasing or crossing out or as if by drawing a line

excision [ekˈsiʒən] – n. the omission that is made when an editorial change shortens a written passage: both parties agreed on the excision of the proposed clause

exclamation [.ekskləˈmeiʃən] – n. an abrupt excited utterance: she gave an exclamation of delight

excogitate [eksˈkɔdʒiteit] – v. come up with (an idea, plan, explanation, theory, or principle) after a mental effort: excogitate a way to measure the speed of light

excoriate [iksˈkɔ:rieit] – v. express strong disapproval of

excrete  – v. eliminate from the body

excruciate [iksˈkru:ʃieit] – v. torment emotionally or mentally

excruciating [ikˈskru:ʃieitiŋ] – adj. extremely painful

exculpate [ˈekskʌlpeit] – v. pronounce not guilty of criminal charges

exculpatory  – adj. clearing of guilt or blame

excursive  – adj. (of e.g. speech and writing) tending to depart from the main point or cover a wide range of subjects: his excursive remarks

execrable [ˈeksikrəbəl] – adj. of very poor quality or condition

execrate [ˈeksikreit] – v. find repugnant

executioner [.eksiˈkju:ʃənə] – n. an official who inflicts capital punishment in pursuit of a warrant

executor [igˈzekjutə] – n. a person appointed by a testator to carry out the terms of the will

exegesis [.eksiˈdʒi:sis] – n. an explanation or critical interpretation (especially of the Bible)

exemplar [igˈzemplə] – n. something to be imitated: an exemplar of success

exemplary [igˈzempləri] – adj. worthy of imitation: exemplary behavior

exemplify [igˈzemplifai] – v. be characteristic of

exempt [igˈzempt] – adj. (of goods or funds) not subject to taxation: income exempt from taxation

exertion [igˈzə:ʃən] – n. use of physical or mental energy; hard work: they managed only with great exertion

exhale [eksˈheil, egˈzeil] – v. expel air

exhaustive [igˈzɔ:stiv] – adj. performed comprehensively and completely: an exhaustive study

exhibitionism [.eksiˈbiʃənizəm] – n. extravagant and conspicuous behavior intended to attract attention to yourself

exhibitionist [.eksiˈbiʃənist] – n. someone with a compulsive desire to expose the genitals

exhilarate [igˈziləreit] – v. fill with sublime emotion

exhilarating [igˈziləreitiŋ] – adj. making lively and cheerful: the exhilarating effect of mountain air

exhort [igˈzɔ:t] – v. spur on or encourage especially by cheers and shouts

exhortation [.egzɔ:ˈteiʃən] – n. a communication intended to urge or persuade the recipients to take some action

exhume [igˈzju:m,eksˈhju:m] – v. dig up for reburial or for medical investigation; of dead bodies

exigency [ˈeksidʒənsi] – n. a pressing or urgent situation: the health-care exigency

exigent [ˈeksidʒənt] – adj. demanding attention: regarded literary questions as exigent and momentous

exiguous [igˈziguəs] – adj. extremely scanty: an exiguous budget

existential  – adj. derived from experience or the experience of existence: formal logicians are not concerned with existential matters

exodus [ˈeksədəs] – n. a journey by a large group to escape from a hostile environment

exogamy [ekˈsɔgəmi] – n. marriage to a person belonging to a tribe or group other than your own as required by custom or law

exonerate [igˈzɔnəreit] – v. pronounce not guilty of criminal charges

exorbitant [igˈzɔ:bitənt] – adj. greatly exceeding bounds of reason or moderation: exorbitant rent

exorcise [ˈeksɔ:saiz] – v. expel through adjuration or prayers: exorcise evil spirits

exorcism [ˈeksɔ:sizəm] – n. freeing from evil spirits

exorcize [ˈeksɔ:saiz] – v. expel through adjuration or prayers

expansive  – adj. of behavior that is impressive and ambitious in scale or scope: an expansive lifestyle

expatiate [ikˈspeiʃieit] – v. add details, as to an account or idea; clarify the meaning of and discourse in a learned way, usually in writing

expatriate [ekˈspætrieit] – v. expel from a country

expediency [ikˈspi:diənsi] – n. the quality of being suited to the end in view

expedient [iksˈpi:diənt] – adj. serving to promote your interest: was merciful only when mercy was expedient

expedite [ˈekspidait] – v. speed up the progress of; facilitate: This should expedite the process

expeditious [.ekspiˈdiʃəs] – adj. marked by speed and efficiency

expeditiously [.ekspiˈdiʃəsli] – adv. with efficiency; in an efficient manner

expendable [ikˈspendəbəl] – adj. (used of funds) remaining after taxes

expiate [ˈekspieit] – v. make amends for: expiate one’s sins

expiation  – n. compensation for a wrong

expiration [.ekspaiəˈreiʃən] – n. a coming to an end of a contract period

expire [iksˈpaiə] – v. lose validity: My passports expired last month

expletive [ikˈspli:tiv] – n. profane or obscene expression usually of surprise or anger: expletives were deleted

explicable [ˈeksplikəbəl] – adj. capable of being explicated or accounted for: explicable behavior

explicate [ˈeksplikeit] – v. make plain and comprehensible

exponent [ikˈspəunənt] – n. a person who pleads for a cause or propounds an idea

exposition [.ekspəˈziʃən] – n. a systematic interpretation or explanation (usually written) of a specific topic

expository [iksˈpɔzi,təri] – adj. serving to expound or set forth: clean expository writing

expostulate [ikˈspɔstʃuleit] – v. reason with (somebody) for the purpose of dissuasion

expostulation [ik.spɔstjʊˈleiʃən] – n. the act of expressing earnest opposition or protest

expound [ikˈspaund] – v. add details, as to an account or idea; clarify the meaning of and discourse in a learned way, usually in writing

expressly [iksˈpresli] – adv. with specific intentions; for the express purpose: she needs the money expressly for her patients

expropriate [ikˈsprəuprieit] – v. deprive of possessions: The Communist government expropriated the landowners

expulsion [ikˈspʌlʃən] – n. the act of forcing out someone or something: the child’s expulsion from school

expunge [ikˈspʌndʒ] – v. remove by erasing or crossing out or as if by drawing a line

expurgate [ˈekspəgeit] – v. edit by omitting or modifying parts considered indelicate

exquisite [ˈekskwizit] – adj. intense or sharp: suffered exquisite pain

extant [ikˈstænt] – adj. still in existence; not extinct or destroyed or lost: extant manuscripts

extemporaneous [ik.stempəˈreiniəs] – adj. with little or no preparation or forethought: an extemporaneous piano recital

extempore [eksˈtempəri] – adj. with little or no preparation or forethought: an extempore skit

extemporize [ikˈstempəraiz] – v. manage in a makeshift way; do with whatever is at hand

extenuate [ikˈstenjueit] – v. lessen or to try to lessen the seriousness or extent of: The circumstances extenuate the crime

exterminate [ikˈstə:mineit] – v. kill en masse; kill on a large scale; kill many: Hitler wanted to exterminate the Jews, Gypsies, Communists, and homosexuals of Europe

extinction [iksˈtiŋkʃən] – n. no longer in existence: the extinction of a species

extinguish [iksˈtiŋgwiʃ] – v. put an end to; kill

extirpate [ˈekstə:peit] – v. destroy completely, as if down to the roots

extirpation  – n. surgical removal of a body part or tissue

extol [iksˈtɔl] – v. praise, glorify, or honor: extol the virtues of one’s children

extort [ikˈstɔ:t] – v. obtain through intimidation

extortion [ikˈstɔ:ʃən] – n. an exorbitant charge

extradite [ˈekstrədait] – v. hand over to the authorities of another country: They extradited the fugitive to his native country so he could be tried there

extradition [ekstrəˈdiʃən] – n. the surrender of an accused or convicted person by one state or country to another (usually under the provisions of a statute or treaty)

extraneous [ikˈstreiniəs] – adj. not pertinent to the matter under consideration: an issue extraneous to the debate

extrapolate [ikˈstræpəleit] – v. draw from specific cases for more general cases

extrapolation  – n. (mathematics) calculation of the value of a function outside the range of known values

extravagant [iksˈtrævəgənt] – adj. unrestrained, especially with regard to feelings: extravagant praise

extremity [iksˈtremiti] – n. an external body part that projects from the body

extricate [ˈekstrikeit] – v. release from entanglement of difficulty: I cannot extricate myself from this task

extrinsic [ekˈstrinsik] – adj. not forming an essential part of a thing or arising or originating from the outside: extrinsic evidence

extrovert [ˈekstrəvə:t] – n. (psychology) a person concerned more with practical realities than with inner thoughts and feelings

extrude [ikˈstru:d] – v. form or shape by forcing through an opening: extrude steel

exuberance [igˈzju:bərəns] – n. joyful enthusiasm

exuberant [igˈzju:bərənt] – adj. joyously unrestrained

exude [igˈzju:d] – v. release (a liquid) in drops or small quantities: exude sweat through the pores

exult [igˈzʌlt] – v. feel extreme happiness or elation

exultant [igˈzʌltənt] – adj. joyful and proud especially because of triumph or success

fa  – n. the syllable naming the fourth (subdominant) note of the diatonic scale in solmization

fabricate [ˈfæbrikeit] – v. put together out of artificial or natural components or parts: the company fabricates plastic chairs

fabricated  – adj. formed or conceived by the imagination: a fabricated excuse for his absence

fabulous [ˈfæbjuləs] – adj. extremely pleasing: a fabulous vacation

facetious [fəˈsi:ʃəs] – adj. cleverly amusing in tone: facetious remarks

facile [ˈfæsail] – adj. arrived at without due care or effort; lacking depth: too facile a solution for so complex a problem

facsimile [fækˈsimili] – n. an exact copy or reproduction

factious [ˈfækʃəs] – adj. dissenting (especially dissenting with the majority opinion)

factitious [fækˈtiʃəs] – adj. not produced by natural forces: brokers created a factitious demand for stocks

factotum [fækˈtəutəm] – n. a servant employed to do a variety of jobs

fad [fæd] – n. an interest followed with exaggerated zeal: he always follows the latest fads

faddish [ˈfædiʃ] – adj. intensely fashionable for a short time

fag [fæg] – v. act as a servant for older boys, in British public schools

fail-safe  – adj. guaranteed not to fail: a fail-safe recipe for cheese souffle

fain [fein] – adj. having made preparations

fainthearted  – adj. lacking conviction or boldness or courage

fairyland [ˈfɛərilænd] – n. something existing solely in the imagination (but often mistaken for reality)

fake [feik] – n. something that is a counterfeit; not what it seems to be

falcon [ˈfælkən] – n. diurnal birds of prey having long pointed powerful wings adapted for swift flight

fallacious [fəˈleiʃəs] – adj. intended to deceive: fallacious testimony

fallacy [ˈfæləsi] – n. a misconception resulting from incorrect reasoning

fallible [ˈfæləbəl] – adj. likely to fail or make errors: everyone is fallible to some degree

fallow [ˈfæləu] – adj. left unplowed and unseeded during a growing season: fallow farmland

falsehood  – n. the act of rendering something false as by fraudulent changes (of documents or measures etc.) or counterfeiting

falsification [.fɔ:lsifiˈkeiʃən] – n. any evidence that helps to establish the falsity of something

falsify [ˈfɔ:lsifai] – v. tamper, with the purpose of deception: falsify the data

falter [ˈfɔ:ltə] – v. be unsure or weak: Their enthusiasm is faltering

familiarity [fə.miliˈæriti] – n. personal knowledge or information about someone or something

famish [ˈfæmiʃ] – v. be hungry; go without food

fanatic [fəˈnætik] – n. a person motivated by irrational enthusiasm (as for a cause): A fanatic is one who can’t change his mind and won’t change the subject

fanaticism [fəˈnætisizəm] – n. excessive intolerance of opposing views

fancied [ˈfænsid] – adj. formed or conceived by the imagination: a fancied wrong

fancier [ˈfænsiə] – n. a person having a strong liking for something

fanciful [ˈfænsiful] – adj. not based on fact; unreal: the falsehood about some fanciful secret treaties

fanfare [ˈfænfeə] – n. a gaudy outward display

fang [fæŋ] – n. a Bantu language spoken in Cameroon

fantasia [fænˈteiziə] – n. a musical composition of a free form usually incorporating several familiar themes

farce [fɑ:s] – n. a comedy characterized by broad satire and improbable situations

farrow  – n. the production of a litter of pigs

fascia [ˈfeiʃə] – n. a sheet or band of fibrous connective tissue separating or binding together muscles and organs etc

fascination [fæsiˈneiʃ(ə)n] – n. the state of being intensely interested (as by awe or terror)

fastidious [fæˈstidiəs] – adj. giving careful attention to detail; hard to please; excessively concerned with cleanliness: a fastidious and incisive intellect

fastness [ˈfɑ:stnis] – n. a rate (usually rapid) at which something happens

fatalism [ˈfeitəlizəm] – n. a submissive mental attitude resulting from acceptance of the doctrine that everything that happens is predetermined and inevitable

fatality [fəˈtæliti] – n. a death resulting from an accident or a disaster

fathom [ˈfæðəm] – n. a linear unit of measurement (equal to 6 feet) for water depth

fatuity [fəˈtju(:)iti] – n. a ludicrous folly

fatuous [ˈfætʃuəs] – adj. devoid of intelligence

faucet [ˈfɔ:sit] – n. a regulator for controlling the flow of a liquid from a reservoir

fauna [ˈfɔ:nə] – n. all the animal life in a particular region or period: the fauna of China

favoritism  – n. unfair treatment of a person or group on the basis of prejudice

fawn [fɔ:n] – v. show submission or fear

faze  – v. disturb the composure of

fealty [ˈfi:əlti] – n. the loyalty that citizens owe to their country (or subjects to their sovereign)

feat [fi:t] – n. a notable achievement: he performed a great feat

febrile [ˈfi:brail] – adj. of or relating to or characterized by fever: a febrile reaction caused by an allergen

feckless [ˈfekləs] – adj. not fit to assume responsibility

fecund [ˈfekənd, ˈfi:kənd] – adj. capable of producing offspring or vegetation

fecundity [fiˈkʌndəti] – n. the intellectual productivity of a creative imagination

feebleminded  – adj. retarded in intellectual development

feign [fein] – v. make believe with the intent to deceive: He feigned that he was ill

feint [feint] – n. any distracting or deceptive maneuver (as a mock attack)

felicitate [fiˈlisiteit] – v. express congratulations

felicitous [fiˈlisitəs] – adj. exhibiting an agreeably appropriate manner or style: a felicitous speaker

felicity [fiˈlisiti] – n. pleasing and appropriate manner or style (especially manner or style of expression)

feline [ˈfi:lain] – n. any of various lithe-bodied roundheaded fissiped mammals, many with retractile claws

fell [fel] – n. the dressed skin of an animal (especially a large animal)

felon [ˈfelən] – n. someone who has committed a crime or has been legally convicted of a crime

felony [ˈfeləni] – n. a serious crime (such as murder or arson)

fencer [ˈfensə] – n. someone skilled at fencing

fencing [ˈfensiŋ] – n. a barrier that serves to enclose an area

fender [ˈfendə] – n. a barrier that surrounds the wheels of a vehicle to block splashing water or mud: in Britain they call a fender a wing

feral  – adj. wild and menacing: a pack of feral dogs

ferment [fəˈment] – v. be in an agitated or excited state: The Middle East is fermenting

fermentation [.fə:menˈteiʃən] – n. a state of agitation or turbulent change or development

fern [fə:n] – n. any of numerous flowerless and seedless vascular plants having true roots from a rhizome and fronds that uncurl upward; reproduce by spores

ferocious [fəˈrəuʃəs] – adj. marked by extreme and violent energy: a ferocious beating

ferocity [fəˈrɔsiti] – n. the property of being wild or turbulent

ferret [ˈferit] – v. hound or harry relentlessly

ferrous [ˈferəs] – adj. of or relating to or containing iron

fertilize [ˈfɜ:tilaiz] – v. make fertile or productive: The course fertilized her imagination

fervent [ˈfə:vənt] – adj. characterized by intense emotion: a fervent desire to change society

fervid [ˈfə:vid] – adj. characterized by intense emotion

fervor [ˈfə:və] – n. feelings of great warmth and intensity

festal [ˈfestl] – adj. offering fun and gaiety: a festive (or festal) occasion

fester [ˈfestə] – n. a sore that has become inflamed and formed pus

festive [ˈfestiv] – adj. offering fun and gaiety: a festive (or festal) occasion

fete [feit] – n. an elaborate party (often outdoors)

fetid [ˈfi:tid] – adj. offensively malodorous

fetish [ˈfetiʃ] – n. a charm superstitiously believed to embody magical powers

fetter [ˈfetə] – n. a shackle for the ankles or feet

fetus [ˈfi:təs] – n. an unborn or unhatched vertebrate in the later stages of development showing the main recognizable features of the mature animal

feud [fju:d] – n. a bitter quarrel between two parties

fiasco [fiˈæskəu] – n. a sudden and violent collapse

fiat [ˈfaiæt] – n. a legally binding command or decision entered on the court record (as if issued by a court or judge)

fickle [ˈfikəl] – adj. marked by erratic changeableness in affections or attachments: fickle friends

fictitious [fikˈtiʃəs] – adj. formed or conceived by the imagination

fidelity [fiˈdeliti] – n. accuracy with which an electronic system reproduces the sound or image of its input signal

fidget [ˈfidʒit] – n. a feeling of agitation expressed in continual motion: he’s got the fidgets

fidgety [ˈfidʒiti] – adj. nervous and unable to relax

fiduciary [fiˈdju:ʃəri] – n. a person who holds assets in trust for a beneficiary: it is illegal for a fiduciary to misappropriate money for personal gain

fief [fi:f] – n. a piece of land held under the feudal system

fiend [fi:nd] – n. a cruel wicked and inhuman person

fiendish [ˈfi:ndiʃ] – adj. extremely evil or cruel; expressive of cruelty or befitting hell: a fiendish despot

figment [ˈfigmənt] – n. a contrived or fantastic idea: a figment of the imagination

figurative [ˈfigjurətiv] – adj. consisting of or forming human or animal figures: the figurative art of the humanistic tradition

figurehead [ˈfigəhed] – n. a person used as a cover for some questionable activity

figurine [.figjuˈri:n] – n. a small carved or molded figure

filament [ˈfiləmənt] – n. a very slender natural or synthetic fiber

filch [ˈfiltʃ] – v. make off with belongings of others

filet [fiˈlei, ˈfi:lei] – n. a boneless steak cut from the tenderloin of beef

filial [ˈfiliəl] – adj. designating the generation or the sequence of generations following the parental generation

filibuster [ˈfilibʌstə] – n. a legislator who gives long speeches in an effort to delay or obstruct legislation that he (or she) opposes

filigree [ˈfiligri:] – n. delicate and intricate ornamentation (usually in gold or silver or other fine twisted wire)

filing [ˈfailiŋ] – n. the entering of a legal document into the public record

fillet [ˈfilit] – n. a boneless steak cut from the tenderloin of beef

filly  – n. a young female horse under the age of four

filth [filθ] – n. any substance considered disgustingly foul or unpleasant

filthy [ˈfilθi] – adj. vile; despicable: a filthy traitor

finable [ˈfainəbl] – adj. liable to a fine

finale [fiˈnɑ:li] – n. the closing section of a musical composition

finch [fintʃ] – n. any of numerous small songbirds with short stout bills adapted for crushing seeds

finery [ˈfainəri] – n. elaborate or showy attire and accessories

finesse [fiˈnes] – n. subtly skillful handling of a situation

finicky [ˈfiniki] – adj. exacting especially about details: a finicky eater

finite [ˈfainait] – adj. bounded or limited in magnitude or spatial or temporal extent

firebrand  – n. a piece of wood that has been burned or is burning

firefly [ˈfaiəflai] – n. tropical American click beetle having bright luminous spots

firmament [ˈfə:məmənt] – n. the apparent surface of the imaginary sphere on which celestial bodies appear to be projected

fishery [ˈfiʃəri] – n. a workplace where fish are caught and processed and sold

fissile [ˈfisail] – adj. capable of being split or cleft or divided in the direction of the grain: fissile crystals

fissure [ˈfiʃə] – n. a long narrow depression in a surface

fitful [ˈfitfəl] – adj. occurring in spells and often abruptly: fitful bursts of energy

flabbergast [ˈflæbəgɑ:st] – v. overcome with amazement

flabby [ˈflæbi] – adj. out of condition; not strong or robust; incapable of exertion or endurance: flabby around the middle

flaccid [ˈflæksid] – adj. drooping without elasticity; wanting in stiffness: a flaccid penis

flagellate [ˈflædʒileit] – v. whip: The religious fanatics flagellated themselves

flagging [ˈflægiŋ] – n. a walk of flagstones: the flagging in the garden was quite imaginative

flagrant [ˈfleigrənt] – adj. conspicuously and outrageously bad or reprehensible: flagrant violation of human rights

flail [fleil] – v. give a thrashing to; beat hard

flair [flɛə] – n. a natural talent: he has a flair for mathematics

flak [flæk] – n. a slick spokesperson who can turn any criticism to the advantage of their employer

flamboyance [flæmˈbɔiəns] – n. extravagant elaborateness: he wrote with great flamboyance

flamboyant [flæmˈbɔiənt] – adj. marked by ostentation but often tasteless

flammable [ˈflæməbəl] – adj. easily ignited

flange [flændʒ] – n. a projection used for strength or for attaching to another object

flannel [ˈflænl] – n. a soft light woolen fabric; used for clothing

flaring [ˈflɛəriŋ] – adj. streaming or flapping or spreading wide as if in a current of air: ran quickly, her flaring coat behind her

flashy [ˈflæʃi] – adj. tastelessly showy: a flashy ring

flask [flɑ:sk] – n. bottle that has a narrow neck

flatcar [ˈflætkɑ:(r)] – n. freight car without permanent sides or roof

flatter [ˈflætə] – v. praise somewhat dishonestly

flatulence [ˈflætjuləns] – n. a state of excessive gas in the alimentary canal

flaunt [flɔ:nt] – n. the act of displaying something ostentatiously: his behavior was an outrageous flaunt

flaw [flɔ:] – n. an imperfection in an object or machine: a flaw caused the crystal to shatter

flawless [ˈflɔ:lis] – adj. without a flaw: a flawless gemstone

flax [flæks] – n. plant of the genus Linum that is cultivated for its seeds and for the fibers of its stem

flay [flei] – v. strip the skin off

fleck [flek] – n. a small fragment of something broken off from the whole

fledge  – v. feed, care for, and rear young birds for flight

fledged [fledʒd] – adj. (of birds) having developed feathers or plumage; often used in combination

fledgling [ˈfledʒliŋ] – n. any new participant in some activity

fleece [fli:s] – n. the wool of a sheep or similar animal

flex [fleks] – v. contract: flex a muscle

flicker [ˈflikə] – n. a momentary flash of light

flighty [ˈflaiti] – adj. guided by whim and fancy: flighty young girls

flimsy [ˈflimzi] – adj. lacking solidity or strength: a flimsy table

flinch [flintʃ] – n. a reflex response to sudden pain

flint [flint] – n. a hard kind of stone; a form of silica more opaque than chalcedony

flinty [ˈflinti] – adj. showing unfeeling resistance to tender feelings: his flinty gaze

flip [flip] – v. lightly throw to see which side comes up: I don’t know what to do–I may as well flip a coin!

flippancy [ˈflipənsi] – n. inappropriate levity

flippant [ˈflipənt] – adj. showing inappropriate levity

flirt [flə:t] – n. a seductive woman who uses her sex appeal to exploit men

flirtatious [flə:ˈteiʃəs] – adj. like a coquette

flit [flit] – n. a sudden quick movement

floe [fləu] – n. a flat mass of ice (smaller than an ice field) floating at sea

floppy [ˈflɔpi] – adj. hanging limply: a spaniel with floppy ears

flora [ˈflɔ:rə] – n. all the plant life in a particular region or period: the flora of southern California

florescence  – n. the time and process of budding and unfolding of blossoms

florid [ˈflɔrid] – adj. elaborately or excessively ornamented: the senator’s florid speech

flotilla [fləˈtilə] – n. a United States Navy fleet consisting of two or more squadrons of small warships

flotsam [ˈflɔtsəm] – n. the floating wreckage of a ship

flounder [ˈflaundə] – n. flesh of any of various American and European flatfish

flout [flaut] – v. treat with contemptuous disregard: flout the rules

flowery  – adj. marked by elaborate rhetoric and elaborated with decorative details: a flowery speech

fluctuate [ˈflʌktjueit] – v. move or sway in a rising and falling or wavelike pattern

fluency [ˈfluənsi] – n. powerful and effective language: fluency in spoken and written English is essential

fluffy [ˈflʌfi] – adj. like down or as soft as down

fluke [flu:k] – n. a stroke of luck

flummery [ˈflʌməri] – n. a bland custard or pudding especially of oatmeal

flummox [ˈflʌməks] – v. be a mystery or bewildering to

flunk [flʌŋk] – n. failure to reach a minimum required performance: he got two flunks on his report

fluorescent [fluəˈresənt] – adj. emitting light during exposure to radiation from an external source

fluster [ˈflʌstə] – v. cause to be nervous or upset

flutter [ˈflʌtə] – v. move along rapidly and lightly; skim or dart

fluvial  – adj. of or relating to or happening in a river: fluvial deposits

flux [flʌks] – n. a flow or discharge

fodder [ˈfɔdə] – n. soldiers who are regarded as expendable in the face of artillery fire

foetus  – n. an unborn or unhatched vertebrate in the later stages of development showing the main recognizable features of the mature animal

foible [ˈfɔibəl] – n. a behavioral attribute that is distinctive and peculiar to an individual

foil [fɔil] – n. a piece of thin and flexible sheet metal: the photographic film was wrapped in foil

foist [fɔist] – v. to force onto another: He foisted his work on me

foliage [ˈfəuliidʒ] – n. the main organ of photosynthesis and transpiration in higher plants

folklore [ˈfəʊklɔ:(r)] – n. the unwritten lore (stories and proverbs and riddles and songs) of a culture

folly [ˈfɔli] – n. the trait of acting stupidly or rashly

foment [fəuˈment] – v. try to stir up public opinion

fomentation [.fəʊmenˈteiʃən] – n. a substance used as a warm moist medicinal compress or poultice

fondle [ˈfɔndl] – v. touch or stroke lightly in a loving or endearing manner: They fondled in the back seat of the taxi

fondness  – n. a predisposition to like something: he had a fondness for whiskey

foolhardy [ˈfu:lhɑ:di] – adj. marked by defiant disregard for danger or consequences: foolhardy enough to try to seize the gun from the hijacker

foolproof [ˈfu:lpru:f] – v. proof against human misuse or error: foolproof this appliance

foothold [ˈfuthəuld] – n. an area in hostile territory that has been captured and is held awaiting further troops and supplies: the only foothold left for British troops in Europe was Gibraltar

footle  – v. be about

footloose [ˈfutlu:s] – adj. free to go or do as one pleases: Americans have always been a footloose people always moving on

fop [fɔp] – n. a man who is much concerned with his dress and appearance

foppish [ˈfɔpiʃ] – adj. affecting extreme elegance in dress and manner

forage [ˈfɔridʒ] – n. the act of searching for food and provisions

forager [ˈfɔridʒə(r)] – n. someone who hunts for food and provisions: in Japan a fungus forager can earn a good living

foray [ˈfɔrei] – n. a sudden short attack

forbearance [fɔ:ˈbeərəns] – n. good-natured tolerance of delay or incompetence

forbearing [fɔ:ˈbeəriŋ] – adj. showing patient and unruffled self-control and restraint under adversity; slow to retaliate or express resentment: seemly and forbearing…yet strong enough to resist aggression

forbidding [fəˈbidiŋ] – adj. harshly uninviting or formidable in manner or appearance: a forbidding scowl

forceps [ˈfɔ:seps] – n. an extractor consisting of a pair of pincers used in medical treatment (especially for the delivery of babies)

ford [fɔ:d] – n. United States film maker (1896-1973)

forebear [ˈfɔ:bɛə] – n. a person from whom you are descended

forebode [fɔ:ˈbəud] – v. make a prediction about; tell in advance

foreboding [fɔ:ˈbəudiŋ] – n. a feeling of evil to come: a steadily escalating sense of foreboding

foreclose [fɔ:ˈkləuz] – v. keep from happening or arising; make impossible

forensic [fəˈrensik] – adj. of, relating to, or used in public debate or argument

foreordain [.fɔ:rɔ:ˈdein] – v. foreordain by divine will or decree

forerunner [ˈfɔ:.rʌnə] – n. a person who goes before or announces the coming of another

foreshadow [fɔ:ˈʃædəu] – v. indicate by signs

foresight [ˈfɔ:sait] – n. providence by virtue of planning prudently for the future

forestall [fɔ:ˈstɔ:l] – v. keep from happening or arising; make impossible

foreword  – n. a short introductory essay preceding the text of a book

forfeit [ˈfɔ:fit] – n. something that is lost or surrendered as a penalty

forfeiture [ˈfɔ:fitʃə] – n. something that is lost or surrendered as a penalty

forger [ˈfɔ:dʒə] – n. someone who makes copies illegally

forgery [ˈfɔ:dʒəri] – n. a copy that is represented as the original

forgo [fɔ:ˈgəu] – v. do without or cease to hold or adhere to

forlorn [fəˈlɔ:n] – adj. marked by or showing hopelessness: the last forlorn attempt

formality [fɔ:ˈmæliti] – n. a requirement of etiquette or custom: a mere formality

formative [ˈfɔ:mətiv] – adj. capable of forming new cells and tissues: a formative zone in developing bone

fornicate [ˈfɔ:nikeit] – v. have sex without being married

forsake [fəˈseik] – v. leave someone who needs or counts on you; leave in the lurch

forswear [fɔ:ˈsweə] – v. formally reject or disavow a formerly held belief, usually under pressure

fort [fɔ:t] – n. a fortified military post where troops are stationed

forte [ˈfɔ:ti, ˈfɔ:tei] – n. an asset of special worth or utility: cooking is his forte

forthright [ˈfɔ:θrait] – adj. characterized by directness in manner or speech; without subtlety or evasion: forthright criticism

fortify [ˈfɔ:tifai] – v. make strong or stronger

fortitude [ˈfɔ:titju:d] – n. strength of mind that enables one to endure adversity with courage

fortress [ˈfɔ:tris] – n. a fortified defensive structure

fortuitous [fɔ:ˈtju(:)itəs] – adj. having no cause or apparent cause: fortuitous encounters–strange accidents of fortune

forwardness [ˈfɔ:wədnis] – n. offensive boldness and assertiveness

fosse [fɔs] – n. ditch dug as a fortification and usually filled with water

foul [faul] – adj. highly offensive; arousing aversion or disgust

four-poster  – n. a bed with posts at the four corners that can be used to support a canopy or curtains

foyer [ˈfɔiei] – n. a large entrance or reception room or area

fracas [ˈfreikəs] – n. noisy quarrel

fractional [ˈfrækʃənl] – adj. constituting or comprising a part or fraction of a possible whole or entirety: a fractional share of the vote

fractious [ˈfrækʃəs] – adj. stubbornly resistant to authority or control: a fractious animal that would not submit to the harness

fracture [ˈfræktʃə] – v. violate or abuse: This writer really fractures the language

fragmentary [ˈfrægməntəri] – adj. consisting of small disconnected parts: fragmentary remains

frail [freil] – adj. physically weak: an invalid’s frail body

frailty [ˈfreilti] – n. the state of being weak in health or body (especially from old age)

frame-up  – n. an act that incriminates someone on a false charge

frantic [ˈfræntik] – adj. excessively agitated; distraught with fear or other violent emotion: frantic with anger and frustration

fraternal [frəˈtə:nəl] – adj. (of twins) derived from two separate fertilized ova: fraternal twins are biovular

fraternity [frəˈtə:niti] – n. a social club for male undergraduates

fraudulent [ˈfrɔ:djulənt] – adj. intended to deceive: a fraudulent scheme to escape paying taxes

fraught [frɔ:t] – adj. marked by distress: a fraught mother-daughter relationship

fray [frei] – v. wear away by rubbing: The friction frayed the sleeve

freak [fri:k] – n. a person or animal that is markedly unusual or deformed

freckle [ˈfrekəl] – n. a small brownish spot (of the pigment melanin) on the skin

freebooter [ˈfri:bu:tə] – n. someone who takes spoils or plunder (as in war)

freelancer  – n. a writer or artist who sells services to different employers without a long-term contract with any of them

freeway [ˈfri:wei] – n. a broad highway designed for high-speed traffic

freewheel  – v. live unhurriedly, irresponsibly, or freely

frenetic [friˈnetik] – adj. excessively agitated; distraught with fear or other violent emotion: frenetic screams followed the accident

frenzied [ˈfrenzid] – adj. excessively agitated; distraught with fear or other violent emotion: a frenzied look in his eye

frenzy [ˈfrenzi] – n. state of violent mental agitation

fresco [ˈfreskəu] – n. a mural done with watercolors on wet plaster

freshet [ˈfreʃit] – n. the occurrence of a water flow resulting from sudden rain or melting snow

fret [fret] – v. worry unnecessarily or excessively

fretful [ˈfretfəl] – adj. nervous and unable to relax: a constant fretful stamping of hooves

fretwork [ˈfretwə:k] – n. framework consisting of an ornamental design made of strips of wood or metal

friable [ˈfraiəbəl] – adj. easily broken into small fragments or reduced to powder: friable sandstone

frieze [fri:z] – n. an architectural ornament consisting of a horizontal sculptured band between the architrave and the cornice

frigate [ˈfrigit] – n. a medium size square-rigged warship of the 18th and 19th centuries

frigid [ˈfridʒid] – adj. sexually unresponsive: a frigid woman

frigidity [friˈdʒiditi] – n. sexual unresponsiveness (especially of women) and inability to achieve orgasm during intercourse

frisk [frisk] – v. play boisterously

frisky [ˈfriski] – adj. playful like a lively kitten

fritter [ˈfritə] – n. small quantity of fried batter containing fruit or meat or vegetables

frivolity [friˈvɔliti] – n. something of little value or significance

frivolous [ˈfrivələs] – adj. not serious in content or attitude or behavior: a frivolous novel

frizz [friz] – n. the condition of being formed into small tight curls: her hair was in a frizz

frock [frɔk] – n. a habit worn by clerics

frolic [ˈfrɔlik] – n. gay or light-hearted recreational activity for diversion or amusement: their frolic in the surf threatened to become ugly

frolicsome [ˈfrɔliksəm] – adj. given to merry frolicking: frolicsome students celebrated their graduation with parties and practical jokes

frond [frɔnd] – n. compound leaf of a fern or palm or cycad

frothy  – adj. marked by high spirits or excitement

froward  – adj. habitually disposed to disobedience and opposition

frowsy  – adj. negligent of neatness especially in dress and person; habitually dirty and unkempt

frowzy [ˈfrauzi] – adj. negligent of neatness especially in dress and person; habitually dirty and unkempt: filled the door with her frowzy bulk

fructify [ˈfrʌktifai] – v. become productive or fruitful

frugal [ˈfru:gəl] – adj. avoiding waste: a frugal farmer

frugality [fru(:)ˈgæliti] – n. prudence in avoiding waste

fruition [fru:ˈiʃən] – n. enjoyment derived from use or possession

frump [frʌmp] – n. a dull unattractive unpleasant girl or woman: she got a reputation as a frump

fuddle  – v. make stupid with alcohol

fugacious [fju:ˈgeiʃəs] – adj. lasting a very short time: fugacious blossoms

fugitive [ˈfju:dʒitiv] – n. someone who flees from an uncongenial situation: fugitives from the sweatshops

fulcrum [ˈfulkrəm] – n. the pivot about which a lever turns

fulgent [ˈfʌldʒənt] – adj. shining intensely: fulgent patterns of sunlight

full-bodied  – adj. marked by richness and fullness of flavor: full-bodied wines

full-fledged [ˈfʊlˈfledʒd] – adj. (of a bird) having reached full development with fully grown adult plumage; ready to fly

fulminate [ˈfulmineit] – v. criticize severely: He fulminated against the Republicans’ plan to cut Medicare

fulmination  – n. thunderous verbal attack

fulsome [ˈfulsəm] – adj. unpleasantly and excessively suave or ingratiating in manner or speech: gave him a fulsome introduction

fulsomeness  – n. excessive but superficial compliments given with affected charm

fumble [ˈfʌmbl] – v. feel about uncertainly or blindly

fume [fju:m] – v. emit a cloud of fine particles

fumes  – n. gases ejected from an engine as waste products

fumigate [ˈfju:migeit] – v. treat with fumes, expose to fumes, especially with the aim of disinfecting or eradicating pests

functionary [ˈfʌŋkʃənəri] – n. a worker who holds or is invested with an office

funereal [fjuˈniəriəl] – adj. suited to or suggestive of a grave or burial: funereal gloom

fungi [ˈfʌndʒai, ˈfʌŋgai] – n. the taxonomic kingdom including yeast, molds, smuts, mushrooms, and toadstools; distinct from the green plants

funk [fʌŋk] – n. a state of nervous depression: he was in a funk

furbish [ˈfə:biʃ] – v. polish and make shiny

furlough [ˈfə:ləu] – v. dismiss, usually for economic reasons

furor [ˈfjuərɔ:] – n. an interest followed with exaggerated zeal

furrow [ˈfʌrəu] – v. make wrinkled or creased: furrow one’s brow

furtive [ˈfə:tiv] – adj. marked by quiet and caution and secrecy; taking pains to avoid being observed: a furtive manner

fusillade [.fju:ziˈleid] – n. rapid simultaneous discharge of firearms: our fusillade from the left flank caught them by surprise

fussy [ˈfʌsi] – adj. annoyed and irritable

fustian [ˈfʌstiən] – n. pompous or pretentious talk or writing

fusty  – adj. stale and unclean smelling

futile [ˈfju:tail] – adj. producing no result or effect: a futile effort

futility [fju:ˈtiləti] – n. uselessness as a consequence of having no practical result

gab  – n. light informal conversation for social occasions

gadfly [ˈgædflai] – n. a persistently annoying person

gadget [ˈgædʒit, ˈgædʒət] – n. a device or control that is very useful for a particular job

gaff [gæf] – n. a spar rising aft from a mast to support the head of a quadrilateral fore-and-aft sail

gaffe [gæf] – n. a socially awkward or tactless act

gaggle [ˈgægəl] – n. a flock of geese

gaiety [ˈgeəti] – n. a gay feeling

gainsay [.geinˈsei] – v. take exception to

gait [geit] – n. the rate of moving (especially walking or running)

galactic [gəˈlæktik] – adj. inconceivably large

gale [geil] – n. a strong wind moving 45-90 knots; force 7 to 10 on Beaufort scale

gallant [ˈgælənt] – adj. unflinching in battle or action: a gallant warrior

gallantry [ˈgæləntri] – n. the qualities of a hero or heroine; exceptional or heroic courage when facing danger (especially in battle)

galleon [ˈgæliən] – n. a large square-rigged sailing ship with three or more masts; used by the Spanish for commerce and war from the 15th to 18th centuries

galley [ˈgæli] – n. (classical antiquity) a crescent-shaped seagoing vessel propelled by oars

gallows [ˈgæləuz] – n. an instrument of execution consisting of a wooden frame from which a condemned person is executed by hanging

galvanic [gælˈvænik] – adj. pertaining to or producing electric current by chemical action: a galvanic cell

galvanize [ˈgælvənaiz] – v. to stimulate to action: galvanized into action

gambit [ˈgæmbit] – n. an opening remark intended to secure an advantage for the speaker

gamble [ˈgæmbl] – n. money that is risked for possible monetary gain

gambol [ˈgæmbəl] – n. gay or light-hearted recreational activity for diversion or amusement

gamely  – adv. in a plucky manner: he was seen by a shepherd, gamely negotiating a particularly tricky section of the mountain road to San Doloroso

gamut [ˈgæmət] – n. a complete extent or range:: a face that expressed a gamut of emotions

gander [ˈgændə] – n. mature male goose

gangling [ˈgæŋgliŋ] – adj. tall and thin and having long slender limbs: a gangling teenager

gangrene  – n. the localized death of living cells (as from infection or the interruption of blood supply)

gangway [ˈgæŋwei] – n. a temporary passageway of planks (as over mud on a building site)

gape [geip] – n. an expression of openmouthed astonishment

garble [ˈgɑ:bəl] – v. make false by mutilation or addition; as of a message or story

garbled [ˈgɑ:bld] – adj. lacking orderly continuity

gardenia [gɑ:ˈdi:niə] – n. any of various shrubs and small trees of the genus Gardenia having large fragrant white or yellow flowers

gargantuan [gɑ:ˈgæntʃuən] – adj. of great mass; huge and bulky

gargoyle [ˈgɑ:gɔil] – n. a spout that terminates in a grotesquely carved figure of a person or animal

garish [ˈgeəriʃ] – adj. tastelessly showy: garish colors

garland [ˈgɑ:lənd] – n. United States singer and film actress (1922-1969)

garner [ˈgɑ:nə] – v. acquire or deserve by one’s efforts or actions

garnish [ˈgɑ:niʃ] – n. something (such as parsley) added to a dish for flavor or decoration

garret [ˈgærit] – n. floor consisting of open space at the top of a house just below roof; often used for storage

garrulity [gəˈruləti] – n. the quality of being wordy and talkative

garrulous [ˈgærələs] – adj. full of trivial conversation

gasconade [.gæskəˈneid] – n. an instance of boastful talk: whenever he won we were exposed to his gasconade

gash [gæʃ] – n. a wound made by cutting

gasification  – n. the process of changing into gas: coal gas is produced by the gasification of coal

gastritis [gæˈstraitis] – n. inflammation of the lining of the stomach; nausea and loss of appetite and discomfort after eating

gastronomy [gæˈstrɔnəmi] – n. a particular style of cookery (as of a region): New England gastronomy

gauche [gəuʃ] – adj. lacking social polish: too gauche to leave the room when the conversation became intimate

gaucherie [ˈgəuʃəri] – n. a socially awkward or tactless act

gaudy [ˈgɔ:di] – adj. tastelessly showy: a gaudy costume

gaunt [gɔ:nt] – adj. very thin especially from disease or hunger or cold: a nightmare population of gaunt men and skeletal boys

gauntlet [ˈgɔ:ntlit] – n. to offer or accept a challenge: threw down the gauntlet

gauze [gɔ:z] – n. (medicine) bleached cotton cloth of plain weave used for bandages and dressings

gavel [ˈgævəl] – n. a small mallet used by a presiding officer or a judge

gawk  – n. an awkward stupid person

gazette [gəˈzet] – n. a newspaper or official journal

gazetteer [.gæziˈtiə] – n. a geographical dictionary (as at the back of an atlas)

gem [dʒem] – n. art highly prized for its beauty or perfection

genealogy [dʒi:niˈælədʒi] – n. successive generations of kin

generality [dʒenəˈræliti] – n. the quality of being general or widespread or having general applicability

generic [dʒiˈnerik] – adj. relating to or common to or descriptive of all members of a genus: the generic name

generosity [.dʒenəˈrɔsiti] – n. the trait of being willing to give your money or time

genesis [ˈdʒenisis] – n. a coming into being

genetics [dʒiˈnetiks] – n. the branch of biology that studies heredity and variation in organisms

genial [ˈdʒi:niəl] – adj. diffusing warmth and friendliness: a genial host

geniality [.dʒi:niˈæliti] – n. a disposition to be friendly and approachable (easy to talk to)

genre [ʒɑ:ŋr] – n. a kind of literary or artistic work

genteel [dʒenˈti:l] – adj. marked by refinement in taste and manners: a genteel old lady

gentility [dʒenˈtiliti] – n. elegance by virtue of fineness of manner and expression

gentry [ˈdʒentri] – n. the most powerful members of a society

genuflect [ˈdʒenjuflekt] – v. bend the knees and bow in church or before a religious superior or image

genus [ˈdʒi:nəs] – n. (biology) taxonomic group containing one or more species

geriatrics  – n. the branch of medical science that deals with diseases and problems specific to old people

germane [dʒə:ˈməin] – adj. relevant and appropriate: he asks questions that are germane and central to the issue

germinal  – n. seventh month of the Revolutionary calendar (March and April); the month of buds

germinate [ˈdʒə:mineit] – v. work out

gerontocracy  – n. a political system governed by old men

gerontology [.dʒerɔnˈtɔlədʒi] – n. the branch of medical science that deals with diseases and problems specific to old people

gerrymander [ˈdʒerimændə] – v. divide unfairly and to one’s advantage; of voting districts

gestate [ˈdʒesteit] – v. have the idea for

gestation [dʒeˈsteiʃən] – n. the period during which an embryo develops (about 266 days in humans)

gesticulate [dʒeˈstikjuleit] – v. show, express or direct through movement

gesticulation [dʒe.stikjʊˈleiʃən] – n. a deliberate and vigorous gesture or motion

geyser [ˈgi:zə] – n. a spring that discharges hot water and steam

ghastly [ˈgɑ:stli] – adj. shockingly repellent; inspiring horror: ghastly wounds

gibber [ˈdʒibə] – v. speak (about unimportant matters) rapidly and incessantly

gibberish  – n. unintelligible talking

gibbet [ˈdʒibit] – v. hang on an execution instrument

gibe [dʒaib] – v. be compatible, similar or consistent; coincide in their characteristics

giddy [ˈgidi] – adj. having or causing a whirling sensation; liable to falling: had a headache and felt giddy

gild  – n. a formal association of people with similar interests

gimmick [ˈgimik] – n. a drawback or difficulty that is not readily evident

ginger [ˈdʒindʒə] – n. perennial plants having thick branching aromatic rhizomes and leafy reedlike stems

gingerly  – adj. with extreme care or delicacy: they proceeded with gingerly footwork over the jagged stones

girder [ˈgə:də] – n. a beam made usually of steel; a main support in a structure

girdle [ˈgə:dl] – n. an encircling or ringlike structure

girth  – n. the distance around a person’s body

gist [dʒist] – n. the central meaning or theme of a speech or literary work

glacial [ˈgleisjəl, ˈglæs-] – adj. devoid of warmth and cordiality; expressive of unfriendliness or disdain: a glacial handshake

glacier [ˈglæsiə] – n. a slowly moving mass of ice

glade [gleid] – n. a tract of land with few or no trees in the middle of a wooded area

gladiator [ˈglædieitə] – n. (ancient Rome) a professional combatant or a captive who entertained the public by engaging in mortal combat

glamor  – n. alluring beauty or charm (often with sex-appeal)

glamorous [ˈglæmərəs] – adj. having an air of allure, romance and excitement: glamorous movie stars

glamour [ˈglæmə] – n. alluring beauty or charm (often with sex-appeal)

glaring [ˈgleəriŋ] – adj. shining intensely: the glaring sun

glaze [gleiz] – v. become glassy or take on a glass-like appearance: Her eyes glaze over when she is bored

gleam [gli:m] – v. be shiny, as if wet

glean [gli:n] – v. gather, as of natural products

gleaner [ˈgli:nə] – n. someone who picks up grain left in the field by the harvesters

glee [gli:] – n. great merriment

gleeful [ˈgli:fəl] – adj. full of high-spirited delight

glib [glib] – adj. marked by lack of intellectual depth: glib generalizations

glider [ˈglaidə] – n. aircraft supported only by the dynamic action of air against its surfaces

glimmer [ˈglimə] – n. a flash of light (especially reflected light)

glisten [glisn] – n. the quality of shining with a bright reflected light

glitch  – n. a fault or defect in a computer program, system, or machine

gloaming [ˈgləumiŋ] – n. the time of day immediately following sunset

gloat [gləut] – v. dwell on with satisfaction

glorify [ˈglɔ:rifai] – v. bestow glory upon

gloss [glɔs] – n. an explanation or definition of an obscure word in a text

glossary [ˈglɔsəri] – n. an alphabetical list of technical terms in some specialized field of knowledge; usually published as an appendix to a text on that field

glossy [ˈglɔsi] – adj. reflecting light: the horse’s glossy coat

glower [ˈglauə] – v. look at with a fixed gaze

glucose [ˈglu:kəus] – n. a monosaccharide sugar that has several forms; an important source of physiological energy

glum [glʌm] – adj. moody and melancholic

glut [glʌt] – v. overeat or eat immodestly; make a pig of oneself

glutinous [ˈglu:tinəs] – adj. having the sticky properties of an adhesive

glutton [ˈglʌtn] – n. a person who is devoted to eating and drinking to excess

gluttonous [ˈglʌtnəs] – adj. given to excess in consumption of especially food or drink: over-fed women and their gluttonous husbands

gluttony [ˈglʌtəni] – n. habitual eating to excess

gnarl  – v. twist into a state of deformity: The wind has gnarled this old tree

gnat [næt] – n. any of various small biting flies: midges; biting midges; black flies; sand flies

gnaw [nɔ:] – v. bite or chew on with the teeth: gnaw an old cracker

gneiss [nais] – n. a laminated metamorphic rock similar to granite

gnome [nəum] – n. a legendary creature resembling a tiny old man; lives in the depths of the earth and guards buried treasure

gnomic [ˈnəumik] – adj. relating to or containing gnomes: gnomic verse

goad [gəud] – v. give heart or courage to

gobble [ˈgɔbəl] – v. eat hastily without proper chewing

goblet [ˈgɔblit] – n. a drinking glass with a base and stem

goggle  – v. look with amazement; look stupidly

goldbrick  – n. a soldier who performs his duties without proper care or effort

gore [gɔ:] – n. Vice President of the United States under Bill Clinton (born in 1948)

gorge [gɔ:dʒ] – n. a deep ravine (usually with a river running through it)

gorgeous [ˈgɔ:dʒəs] – adj. dazzlingly beautiful: a gorgeous Victorian gown

gorgon [ˈgɔ:gən] – n. (Greek mythology) any of three winged sister monsters and the mortal Medusa who had live snakes for hair; a glance at Medusa turned the beholder to stone

gormandize [ˈgɔ:məndaiz] – v. overeat or eat immodestly; make a pig of oneself

gory [ˈgɔ:ri] – adj. covered with blood: a gory dagger

gosling [ˈgɔ:zliŋ] – n. young goose

gossamer [ˈgɔsəmə] – n. a gauze fabric with an extremely fine texture

gouge [gaudʒ] – n. an impression in a surface (as made by a blow)

gourd [gurd guəd] – n. any of numerous inedible fruits with hard rinds

gourmand [ˈguəmənd] – n. a person who is devoted to eating and drinking to excess

gourmet [ˈguəmei] – n. a person devoted to refined sensuous enjoyment (especially good food and drink)

governance [ˈgʌvənəns] – n. the persons (or committees or departments etc.) who make up a body for the purpose of administering something: the governance of an association is responsible to its members

gradation [greiˈdeiʃən] – n. relative position in a graded series: subtle gradations in color

gradient [ˈgreidiənt] – n. the property possessed by a line or surface that departs from the horizontal: a five-degree gradient

graduated  – adj. marked with or divided into degrees

graft [grɑ:ft] – n. the practice of offering something (usually money) in order to gain an illicit advantage

granary [ˈgrænəri] – n. a storehouse for threshed grain or animal feed

grandeur [ˈgrændʒə] – n. the quality of elevation of mind and exaltation of character or ideals or conduct

grandiloquent [grænˈdiləkwənt] – adj. lofty in style

grandiose [ˈgrændiəus] – adj. affectedly genteel

grandstand [ˈgrændstænd] – n. the audience at a stadium or racetrack

granite [ˈgrænit] – n. plutonic igneous rock having visibly crystalline texture; generally composed of feldspar and mica and quartz

granular [ˈgrænjulə] – adj. composed of or covered with particles resembling meal in texture or consistency: granular sugar

granulate [ˈgrænjuleit] – v. form into grains

granule [ˈgrænju:l] – n. a tiny grain

graphic [ˈgræfik] – adj. written or drawn or engraved: graphic symbols

graphite [ˈgræfait] – n. used as a lubricant and as a moderator in nuclear reactors

grapple [ˈgræpl] – n. a tool consisting of several hooks for grasping and holding; often thrown with a rope

grate [greit] – v. gnaw into; make resentful or angry

gratification [.grætifiˈkeiʃən] – n. the act or an instance of satisfying

gratify [ˈgrætifai] – v. make happy or satisfied

grating [ˈgreitiŋ] – n. a barrier that has parallel or crossed bars blocking a passage but admitting air

gratis [grætis] – adj. costing nothing

gratuitous [grəˈtju:itəs] – adj. without cause: a gratuitous insult

gratuity [grəˈtju:iti] – n. a relatively small amount of money given for services rendered (as by a waiter)

graze [greiz] – v. feed as in a meadow or pasture

greenhorn [ˈgri:nhɔ:n] – n. an awkward and inexperienced youth

gregarious [griˈgeəriəs] – adj. (of animals) tending to form a group with others of the same species: gregarious bird species

gregariousness  – n. the quality of being gregarious–having a dislike of being alone

gridiron [ˈgridaiən, ˈgridaiərn] – n. a cooking utensil of parallel metal bars; used to grill fish or meat

grievance [ˈgri:vəns] – n. a resentment strong enough to justify retaliation

grievous [ˈgri:vəs] – adj. causing fear or anxiety by threatening great harm: grievous bodily harm

grill [gril] – n. a framework of metal bars used as a partition or a grate: he cooked hamburgers on the grill

grille [gril] – n. small opening (like a window in a door) through which business can be transacted

grimace [griˈmeis] – n. a contorted facial expression: she made a grimace at the prospect

grindstone [ˈgraindstəun] – n. a revolving stone shaped like a disk; used to grind or sharpen or polish edge tools

gripe [graip] – n. informal terms for objecting: I have a gripe about the service here

gripping [ˈgripiŋ] – adj. capable of arousing and holding the attention

grisly [ˈgrizli] – adj. shockingly repellent; inspiring horror: a grisly murder

gristle [ˈgrsəl] – n. tough elastic tissue; mostly converted to bone in adults

grit [grit] – n. fortitude and determination

groggy [ˈgrɔgi] – adj. stunned or confused and slow to react (as from blows or drunkenness or exhaustion)

groom [gru:m] – n. a man participant in his own marriage ceremony

groove [gru:v] – n. a settled and monotonous routine that is hard to escape

grope [grəup] – v. feel about uncertainly or blindly: She groped for her glasses in the darkness of the bedroom

gropingly  – adv. in an uncertain groping manner

grotesque [grəuˈtesk] – adj. distorted and unnatural in shape or size; abnormal and hideous: tales of grotesque serpents eight fathoms long that churned the seas

grotto [ˈgrɔtəu] – n. a small cave (usually with attractive features)

grouch [grautʃ] – n. a bad-tempered person

grouse [graus] – n. popular game bird having a plump body and feathered legs and feet

grove [grəuv] – n. garden consisting of a small cultivated wood without undergrowth

grovel [ˈgrɔvəl] – v. show submission or fear

groveler  – n. someone who humbles himself as a sign of respect; who behaves as if he had no self-respect

growl [graul] – v. to utter or emit low dull rumbling sounds

grudge [grʌdʒ] – v. accept or admit unwillingly

grudging [ˈgrʌdʒiŋ] – adj. of especially an attitude: gave grudging consent

gruel [ˈgru:əl] – n. a thin porridge (usually oatmeal or cornmeal)

gruelling  – adj. characterized by effort to the point of exhaustion; especially physical effort

gruesome [ˈgru:səm] – adj. shockingly repellent; inspiring horror: gruesome evidence of human sacrifice

gruff [grʌf] – adj. brusque and surly and forbidding: gruff manner

grumble [ˈgrʌmbl] – v. show one’s unhappiness or critical attitude: We grumbled about the increased work load

grumpy [ˈgrʌmpi] – adj. annoyed and irritable

grunt [grʌnt] – n. an unskilled or low-ranking soldier or other worker: infantrymen in Vietnam were called grunts

guffaw [gəˈfɔ:] – n. a burst of deep loud hearty laughter

guile [gail] – n. shrewdness as demonstrated by being skilled in deception

guileless [gailis] – adj. free of deceit

guillotine [ˈgiləti:n] – n. closure imposed on the debate of specific sections of a bill

guise [gaiz] – n. an artful or simulated semblance: under the guise of friendship he betrayed them

gulch [gʌltʃ] – n. a narrow gorge with a stream running through it

gull [gʌl] – n. mostly white aquatic bird having long pointed wings and short legs

gullible [ˈgʌləbəl] – adj. naive and easily deceived or tricked: at that early age she had been gullible and in love

gully  – n. deep ditch cut by running water (especially after a prolonged downpour)

gulp [gʌlp] – n. a large and hurried swallow: he finished it at a single gulp

gumption [ˈgʌmpʃən] – n. sound practical judgment

gush [gʌʃ] – v. praise enthusiastically

gusher [ˈgʌʃə] – n. an oil well with a strong natural flow so that pumping is not necessary

gust [gʌst] – n. a strong current of air: the tree was bent almost double by the gust

gustation  – n. the faculty of distinguishing sweet, sour, bitter, and salty properties in the mouth

gustatory [ˈgʌstətəri] – adj. of or relating to gustation

gusto [ˈgʌstəu] – n. vigorous and enthusiastic enjoyment

gusty [ˈgʌsti] – adj. blowing in puffs or short intermittent blasts: gusty winds

gutless [ˈgʌtləs] – adj. lacking courage or vitality: he was a yellow gutless worm

gutter [ˈgʌtə] – n. a channel along the eaves or on the roof; collects and carries away rainwater

guttle [ˈgʌtl] – v. eat greedily

guttural [ˈgʌtərəl] – adj. like the sounds of frogs and crows: a guttural voice

guzzle [ˈgʌzəl] – v. drink greedily or as if with great thirst: The boys guzzled the cheap vodka

gyrate [dʒaiˈreit] – v. to wind or move in a spiral course: the young people gyrated on the dance floor

gyroscope [ˈdʒaiərəskəup] – n. rotating mechanism in the form of a universally mounted spinning wheel that offers resistance to turns in any direction

habitable [ˈhæbitəbl] – adj. fit for habitation: the habitable world

habituate [həˈbitʃueit] – v. make psychologically or physically used (to something): She became habituated to the background music

hack [hæk] – n. a politician who belongs to a small clique that controls a political party for private rather than public ends

hackles  – n. a feeling of anger and animosity: having one’s hackles or dander up

haemophilia  – n. congenital tendency to uncontrolled bleeding; usually affects males and is transmitted from mother to son

haemorrhage  – n. the flow of blood from a ruptured blood vessel

haemostat  – n. a surgical instrument that stops bleeding by clamping the blood vessel

haft [hɑ:ft] – n. the handle of a weapon or tool

haggard [ˈhægəd] – adj. showing the wearing effects of overwork or care or suffering: her face was drawn and haggard from sleeplessness

haggle [ˈhægl] – n. an instance of intense argument (as in bargaining)

hairy [ˈhɛəri] – adj. hazardous and frightening: hairy moments in the mountains

halcyon [ˈhælsiən] – n. (Greek mythology) a woman who was turned into a kingfisher

hale [heil] – n. United States astronomer who discovered that sunspots are associated with strong magnetic fields (1868-1938)

half-baked  – adj. foolish; totally unsound: half-baked ideas

halfhearted  – adj. feeling or showing little interest or enthusiasm: a halfhearted effort

hallow [ˈhæləu] – v. render holy by means of religious rites

hallucination [hə.lu:siˈneiʃən] – n. illusory perception; a common symptom of severe mental disorder

halo [ˈheiləu] – n. an indication of radiant light drawn around the head of a saint

ham-handed  – adj. lacking physical movement skills, especially with the hands: ham-handed governmental interference

hamper [ˈhæmpə] – n. a restraint that confines or restricts freedom (especially something used to tie down or restrain a prisoner)

hamstring  – v. make ineffective or powerless

hangar [ˈhæŋə] – n. a large structure at an airport where aircraft can be stored and maintained

hangdog  – adj. showing a sense of guilt: the hangdog and shamefaced air of the retreating enemy

hanger [ˈhæŋə] – n. anything from which something can be hung

hangover [ˈhæŋəuvə] – n. disagreeable aftereffects from the use of drugs (especially alcohol)

hap [hæp] – v. come to pass: What is happening?

haphazard [ˈhæpˈhæzəd] – adj. dependent upon or characterized by chance: a haphazard plan of action

hapless [ˈhæpləs] – adj. deserving or inciting pity: a hapless victim

harangue [həˈræŋ] – n. a loud bombastic declamation expressed with strong emotion

harass [ˈhærəs] – v. annoy continually or chronically: This man harasses his female co-workers

harassment [ˈhærəsmənt] – n. a feeling of intense annoyance caused by being tormented: so great was his harassment that he wanted to destroy his tormentors

harbinger [ˈhɑ:bindʒə] – n. something that precedes and indicates the approach of something or someone

hard-bitten  – adj. tough and callous by virtue of experience

hardheaded [.hɑ:dˈhedid] – adj. unreasonably rigid in the face of argument or entreaty or attack

hardihood [ˈhɑ:dihud] – n. the trait of being willing to undertake things that involve risk or danger

hard-nosed  – adj. guided by practical experience and observation rather than theory: a hard-nosed labor leader

hardy [ˈhɑ:di] – adj. able to survive under unfavorable weather conditions: strawberries are hardy and easy to grow

harebrained  – adj. very foolish: harebrained ideas

harmonious [hɑ:ˈməunjəs] – adj. musically pleasing

harmonize [ˈhɑ:mənaiz] – v. go together: The colors don’t harmonize

harp [hɑ:p] – n. a pair of curved vertical supports for a lampshade

harpoon [hɑ:ˈpu:n] – n. a spear with a shaft and barbed point for throwing; used for catching large fish or whales; a strong line is attached to it

harpsichord [ˈhɑ:psikɔ:d] – n. a clavier with strings that are plucked by plectra mounted on pivots

harridan [ˈhæridən] – n. a scolding (even vicious) old woman

harrow [ˈhærəu] – n. a cultivator that pulverizes or smooths the soil

harry [ˈhæri] – v. annoy continually or chronically: He is known to harry his staff when he is overworked

hassle [ˈhæsəl] – n. an angry disturbance

hatchet [ˈhætʃit] – n. weapon consisting of a fighting ax; used by North American Indians

haughtiness [ˈhɔ:tinis] – n. overbearing pride evidenced by a superior manner toward inferiors

haughty [ˈhɔ:ti] – adj. having or showing arrogant superiority to and disdain of those one views as unworthy: haughty aristocrats

hauteur [əuˈtə:] – n. overbearing pride evidenced by a superior manner toward inferiors

haven [ˈheivən] – n. a shelter serving as a place of safety or sanctuary

haversack [ˈhævəsæk] – n. a bag carried by a strap on your back or shoulder

havoc [ˈhævək] – n. violent and needless disturbance

hawker [ˈhɔ:kə] – n. someone who travels about selling his wares (as on the streets or at carnivals)

hawser [ˈhɔ:zə] – n. large heavy rope for nautical use

hazardous [ˈhæzədəs] – adj. involving risk or danger: skydiving is a hazardous sport

hazy [ˈheizi] – adj. filled or abounding with fog or mist

headfirst  – adj. with the head foremost: a headfirst plunge down the stairs

headlong [ˈhedlɔŋ] – adj. excessively quick: a headlong rush to sell

headstrong [ˈhedstrɔŋ] – adj. habitually disposed to disobedience and opposition

healthful [ˈhelθful] – adj. free from filth and pathogens

hearken  – v. listen; used mostly in the imperative

hearsay [ˈhiəsei] – n. gossip (usually a mixture of truth and untruth) passed around by word of mouth

hearten  – v. give encouragement to

heartrending [ˈhɑ:trendiŋ] – adj. causing or marked by grief or anguish: the heartrending words of Rabin’s granddaughter

heath [hi:θ] – n. a low evergreen shrub of the family Ericaceae; has small bell-shaped pink or purple flowers

heathen [ˈhi:ðən] – n. a person who does not acknowledge your god

heave [hi:v] – v. utter a sound, as with obvious effort: She heaved a deep sigh when she saw the list of things to do

heavy-handed [heviˈhændid] – adj. lacking physical movement skills, especially with the hands

hecatomb [ˈhekətu:m] – n. a great sacrifice; an ancient Greek or Roman sacrifice of 100 oxen

heckle [ˈhekəl] – v. challenge aggressively

heckler [ˈheklə(r)] – n. someone who tries to embarrass you with gibes and questions and objections

hectic [ˈhektik] – adj. marked by intense agitation or emotion

hector [ˈhektə] – n. (Greek mythology) a mythical Trojan who was killed by Achilles during the Trojan War

hedgehog [ˈhedʒhɔ:g] – n. relatively large rodents with sharp erectile bristles mingled with the fur

hedonic  – adj. devoted to pleasure: a hedonic thrill

hedonism [ˈhi:dənizəm] – n. the pursuit of pleasure as a matter of ethical principle

hedonist  – n. someone motivated by desires for sensual pleasures

hedonistic  – adj. devoted to pleasure: lives of unending hedonistic delight

heed [hi:d] – n. paying particular notice (as to children or helpless people): he spends without heed to the consequences

heedless [ˈhi:dlis] – adj. characterized by careless unconcern: the heedless generosity and the spasmodic extravagance of persons used to large fortunes

hefty [ˈhefti] – adj. (of a person) possessing physical strength and weight; rugged and powerful: a hefty athlete

hegemony [hiˈgeməni] – n. the dominance or leadership of one social group or nation over others: the hegemony of a single member state is not incompatible with a genuine confederation

hegira [ˈhedʒirə] – n. a journey by a large group to escape from a hostile environment

heinous [ˈheinəs] – adj. extremely wicked, deeply criminal: heinous accusations

heiress [ˈeəris] – n. a female heir

heirloom  – n. something that has been in a family for generations

heliotrope [ˈheliətrəup] – n. green chalcedony with red spots that resemble blood

helm [helm] – n. steering mechanism for a vessel; a mechanical device by which a vessel is steered

helmsman [ˈhelmzmən] – n. the person who steers a ship

helot [ˈhelət] – n. (Middle Ages) a person who is bound to the land and owned by the feudal lord

helping [ˈhelpiŋ] – n. an individual quantity of food or drink taken as part of a meal: the helpings were all small

helve [helv] – n. the handle of a weapon or tool

hem [hem, hm, mm] – n. the edge of a piece of cloth; especially the finished edge that has been doubled under and stitched down: the hem of her dress was stained

hepatic [hiˈpætik] – adj. pertaining to or affecting the liver: hepatic ducts

hepatitis [.hepəˈtaitis] – n. inflammation of the liver caused by a virus or a toxin

herald [ˈherəld] – v. foreshadow or presage

herbaceous [həˈbeiʃəs] – adj. characteristic of a nonwoody herb or plant part

herbicide  – n. a chemical agent that destroys plants or inhibits their growth

herbivorous [hə:ˈbivərəs] – adj. feeding only on plants

herdsman [ˈhə:dzmən] – n. someone who drives a herd

hereafter [hiərˈɑ:ftə] – adv. in a future life or state: hope to win salvation hereafter

hereditary [hiˈreditəri] – adj. inherited or inheritable by established rules (usually legal rules) of descent: hereditary monarchy

heresy [ˈherisi] – n. any opinions or doctrines at variance with the official or orthodox position

heretic [ˈheritik] – n. a person who holds religious beliefs in conflict with the dogma of the Roman Catholic Church

heretical [hiˈretikəl] – adj. characterized by departure from accepted beliefs or standards

hermetic [hə:ˈmetik] – adj. completely sealed; completely airtight

hermetically [hɜ:ˈmetikəli] – adv. in an airtight manner: this bag is hermetically sealed

hermit [ˈhə:mit] – n. one retired from society for religious reasons

hermitage [ˈhə:mitidʒ] – n. the abode of a hermit

heroics [hiˈrəuiks] – n. ostentatious or vainglorious or extravagant or melodramatic conduct: heroics are for those epic films they make in Hollywood

herpetologist  – n. a zoologist who studies reptiles and amphibians

hesitance  – n. a feeling of diffidence and indecision about doing something

heterodox [ˈhetərədɔks] – adj. characterized by departure from accepted beliefs or standards

heterodoxy [ˈhetərədɔksi] – n. any opinions or doctrines at variance with the official or orthodox position

heterogeneous [.hetərəuˈdʒi:niəs] – adj. consisting of elements that are not of the same kind or nature: the population of the United States is vast and heterogeneous

hew [hju:] – v. make or shape as with an axe: hew out a path in the rock

hexagon [ˈheksəgən] – n. a six-sided polygon

heyday [ˈheidei] – n. the period of greatest prosperity or productivity

hiatus [haiˈeitəs] – n. an interruption in the intensity or amount of something

hibernal [haiˈbə:nl] – adj. characteristic of or relating to winter

hibernate [ˈhaibə.neit] – v. sleep during winter: Bears must eat a lot of food before they hibernate in their caves

hibernation [.haibəˈneiʃən] – n. the torpid or resting state in which some animals pass the winter

hibiscus [hiˈbiskəs] – n. any plant of the genus Hibiscus

hidebound [ˈhaidbaund] – adj. stubbornly conservative and narrow-minded

hideous [ˈhidiəs] – adj. grossly offensive to decency or morality; causing horror: a hideous pattern of injustice

hie  – v. move fast

hieroglyph [ˈhaiərəglif] – n. a writing system using picture symbols; used in ancient Egypt

hieroglyphic [haiərəglifik] – n. a writing system using picture symbols; used in ancient Egypt

highbrow [ˈhaibrau] – n. a person of intellectual or erudite tastes

high-flown  – adj. pretentious (especially with regard to language or ideals): high-flown talk of preserving the moral tone of the school

hike [haik] – n. a long walk usually for exercise or pleasure: she enjoys a hike in her spare time

hilarious [həˈleəriəs] – adj. marked by or causing boisterous merriment or convulsive laughter: hilarious broad comedy

hilarity [hiˈlæriti] – n. great merriment

hillbilly [ˈhilbili] – n. a disparaging term for an unsophisticated person

hilt [hilt] – n. the handle of a sword or dagger

hindmost [ˈhaindməust] – adj. located farthest to the rear

hindrance [ˈhindrəns] – n. something immaterial that interferes with or delays action or progress

hindsight  – n. understanding the nature of an event after it has happened: hindsight is always better than foresight

hinge [hindʒ] – n. a joint that holds two parts together so that one can swing relative to the other

hinterland [ˈhintəlænd] – n. a remote and undeveloped area

hippopotamus [.hipəˈpɔtəməs] – n. massive thick-skinned herbivorous animal living in or around rivers of tropical Africa

hipster [ˈhipstə] – n. someone who rejects the established culture; advocates extreme liberalism in politics and lifestyle

hireling [ˈhaiəliŋ] – n. a person who works only for money

hirsute [ˈhə:sju:t] – adj. having or covered with hair

hiss [his] – v. move with a whooshing sound

histology [hisˈtɔlədʒi] – n. the branch of biology that studies the microscopic structure of animal or plant tissues

histrionic [.histriˈɔnik] – adj. characteristic of acting or a stage performance; often affected: histrionic gestures

histrionics [.histriˈɔniks] – n. a performance of a play

hitch [hitʃ] – n. a period of time spent in military service

hive [haiv] – n. a teeming multitude

hoard [hɔ:d] – v. save up as for future use

hoarse [hɔ:s] – adj. deep and harsh sounding as if from shouting or illness or emotion: hoarse cries

hoary [ˈhɔ:ri] – adj. showing characteristics of age, especially having grey or white hair: nodded his hoary head

hoax [həuks] – n. something intended to deceive; deliberate trickery intended to gain an advantage

hobble [ˈhɔbəl] – v. walk impeded by some physical limitation or injury: The old woman hobbles down to the store every day

hobgoblin [hɔbˈgɔblin, ˈhɔbgɔblin] – n. (folklore) a small grotesque supernatural creature that makes trouble for human beings

hodgepodge  – n. a motley assortment of things

hogshead [ˈhɔgzhed] – n. a British unit of capacity for alcoholic beverages

hoist [hɔist] – v. raise or haul up with or as if with mechanical help: hoist the bicycle onto the roof of the car

holocaust [ˈhɔləkɔ:st] – n. an act of mass destruction and loss of life (especially in war or by fire): a nuclear holocaust

holograph [ˈhɔləgrɑ:f] – n. handwritten book or document

holster [ˈhəulstə] – n. a sheath (usually leather) for carrying a handgun

homage [ˈhɔmidʒ] – n. respectful deference

homely [ˈhəumli] – adj. lacking in physical beauty or proportion: a homely child

homeopathy [həumiˈɔpəθi] – n. a method of treating disease with small amounts of remedies that, in large amounts in healthy people, produce symptoms similar to those being treated

homeostasis  – n. (physiology) metabolic equilibrium actively maintained by several complex biological mechanisms that operate via the autonomic nervous system to offset disrupting changes

homespun [ˈhəʊmspʌn] – adj. of textiles; having a rough surface: a sweater knitted of nubbly homespun yarns

homiletics [.hɔmiˈletiks] – n. the art of preaching

homily [ˈhɔmili] – n. a sermon on a moral or religious topic

homogeneity [həumədʒəˈni:iti] – n. the quality of being similar or comparable in kind or nature: there is a remarkable homogeneity between the two companies

homogeneous [.hɔməˈdʒi:niəs] – adj. all of the same or similar kind or nature: a close-knit homogeneous group

homogenize [həˈmɔdʒənaiz] – v. break up the fat globules of: homogenized milk

homograph [ˈhɔməgrɑ:f] – n. two words are homographs if they are spelled the same way but differ in meaning (e.g. fair)

homonym [ˈhɔmənim] – n. two words are homonyms if they are pronounced or spelled the same way but have different meanings

hone [həun] – v. make perfect or complete

honk [hɔŋk] – v. make a loud noise

honorarium [.ɔnəˈreəriəm] – n. a fee paid for a nominally free service

honours  – n. a university degree with honors

hood [hud] – n. an aggressive and violent young criminal

hoodwink [ˈhud.wiŋk] – v. influence by slyness

hoof [hu:f] – n. the foot of an ungulate mammal

hooked [hukt] – adj. curved down like an eagle’s beak

hooligan [ˈhu:ligən] – n. a cruel and brutal fellow

hoop [hu:p] – n. a light curved skeleton to spread out a skirt

horde [hɔ:d] – n. a vast multitude

hormone [ˈhɔ:məun] – n. the secretion of an endocrine gland that is transmitted by the blood to the tissue on which it has a specific effect

horology [hɔˈrɔlədʒi] – n. the art of designing and making clocks

horoscope  – n. a prediction of someone’s future based on the relative positions of the planets

horrendous [hɔˈrendəs] – adj. causing fear or dread or terror: horrendous explosions shook the city

hortative [ˈhɔ:tətiv] – adj. giving strong encouragement

hortatory [ˈhɔ:tətəri] – adj. giving strong encouragement

horticultural [.hɔ:tiˈkʌltʃərəl] – adj. of or relating to the cultivation of plants

horticulture [ˈhɔ:ti.kʌltʃə] – n. the cultivation of plants

hosepipe [ˈhəʊzpaip] – n. a flexible pipe for conveying a liquid or gas

hospitable [ˈhɔspitəbl] – adj. favorable to life and growth: soil sufficiently hospitable for forest growth

hostelry [ˈhɔstəlri] – n. a hotel providing overnight lodging for travelers

hotbed [ˈhɔtbed] – n. a situation that is ideal for rapid development (especially of something bad): it was a hotbed of vice

hothead  – n. a belligerent grouch

hound [haund] – n. any of several breeds of dog used for hunting typically having large drooping ears

hovel [ˈhɔvl] – n. small crude shelter used as a dwelling

howler [ˈhaulə] – n. a joke that seems extremely funny

hoyden [ˈhɔidn] – n. a girl who behaves in a boyish manner

hub [hʌb] – n. the central part of a car wheel (or fan or propeller etc) through which the shaft or axle passes

hubbub [ˈhʌbʌb] – n. loud confused noise from many sources

hubris [ˈhju:bris] – n. overbearing pride or presumption

huckster [ˈhʌkstə] – n. a seller of shoddy goods

huddle [ˈhʌdl] – n. (informal) a quick private conference

hue [hju:] – v. take on color or become colored: In highlights it hued to a dull silver-grey

huffy [hʌfi] – adj. quick to take offense

hulk [hʌlk] – n. a very large person; impressive in size or qualities

hull [hʌl] – n. dry outer covering of a fruit or seed or nut

hullabaloo [ˈhʌləbəˈlu] – n. disturbance usually in protest

humane [hju:ˈmein] – adj. marked or motivated by concern with the alleviation of suffering

humanitarian [hju(:).mæniˈtɛəriən] – n. someone devoted to the promotion of human welfare and to social reforms

humdinger [hʌmˈdiŋə] – n. someone of remarkable excellence: a humdinger of a secretary

humdrum [ˈhʌmdrʌm] – adj. not challenging; dull and lacking excitement

humidity [hju:ˈmiditi] – n. wetness in the atmosphere

humiliate [hju:ˈmilieit] – v. cause to feel shame; hurt the pride of: He humiliated his colleague by criticising him in front of the boss

humility [hju(:)ˈmiliti] – n. a disposition to be humble; a lack of false pride: not everyone regards humility as a virtue

hummingbird [ˈhʌmiŋbɜ:d] – n. tiny American bird having brilliant iridescent plumage and long slender bills; wings are specialized for vibrating flight

hummock [ˈhʌmək] – n. a small natural hill

hump [hʌmp] – v. round one’s back by bending forward and drawing the shoulders forward

humus [ˈhju:məs] – n. partially decomposed organic matter; the organic component of soil

hunch [hʌntʃ] – n. an impression that something might be the case

hunk [hʌŋk] – n. a well-built sexually attractive man

hurdle [ˈhə:dl] – n. a light movable barrier that competitors must leap over in certain races

hurl [hə:l] – v. throw forcefully

hurricane [ˈhʌrikən] – n. a severe tropical cyclone usually with heavy rains and winds moving a 73-136 knots (12 on the Beaufort scale)

hurtle  – v. move with or as if with a rushing sound: The cars hurtled by

husbandry [ˈhʌzbəndri] – n. the practice of cultivating the land or raising stock

hush [hʌʃ] – v. become quiet or still; fall silent: hush my baby!

husk [hʌsk] – n. material consisting of seed coverings and small pieces of stem or leaves that have been separated from the seeds

husky [ˈhʌski] – adj. muscular and heavily built: clothing sizes for husky boys

hustings  – n. the activities involved in political campaigning (especially speech making)

hustler [ˈhʌslə(r)] – n. a prostitute who attracts customers by walking the streets

hybrid [ˈhaibrid] – n. a word that is composed of parts from different languages (e.g., `monolingual’ has a Greek prefix and a Latin root)

hydrant [ˈhaidrənt] – n. a faucet for drawing water from a pipe or cask

hydrate [ˈhaidreit] – v. supply water or liquid to in order to maintain a healthy balance: the bicyclists must be hydrated frequently

hydrophobia  – n. a symptom of rabies in humans consisting of an aversion to swallowing liquids

hyena [haiˈi:nə] – n. doglike nocturnal mammal of Africa and southern Asia that feeds chiefly on carrion

hygiene [ˈhaidʒi:n] – n. a condition promoting sanitary practices: personal hygiene

hygroscopic [haigrəˈskɔpik] – adj. absorbing moisture (as from the air)

hymn [him] – n. a song of praise (to God or to a saint or to a nation)

hyperbole [haiˈpə:bəli] – n. extravagant exaggeration

hyperbolic [.haipəˈbɔlik] – adj. enlarged beyond truth or reasonableness: a hyperbolic style

hyperborean [.haipə:bɔ:ˈri:ən] – n. (Greek mythology) one of a people that the ancient Greeks believed lived in a warm and sunny land north of the source of the north wind

hypercritical [.haipəˈkritikəl] – adj. inclined to judge too severely: hypercritical of colloquial speech

hypersensitive [.haipə(:)ˈsensitiv] – adj. having an allergy or peculiar or excessive susceptibility (especially to a specific factor): hypersensitive to pollen

hyphen [ˈhaifən] – n. a punctuation mark (-) used between parts of a compound word or between the syllables of a word when the word is divided at the end of a line of text

hypnosis [hipˈnəusis] – n. a state that resembles sleep but that is induced by suggestion

hypnotic [hipˈnɔtik] – adj. attracting and holding interest as if by a spell: read the bedtime story in a hypnotic voice

hypochondria [.haipəˈkɔndriə] – n. chronic and abnormal anxiety about imaginary symptoms and ailments

hypochondriac [.haipəˈkɔndriæk] – n. a patient with imaginary symptoms and ailments

hypocrisy [hiˈpɔkrəsi] – n. an expression of agreement that is not supported by real conviction

hypocritical [hipəˈkritik] – adj. professing feelings or virtues one does not have: hypocritical praise

hypodermic [haipəˈdə:mik] – adj. relating to or located below the epidermis: hypodermic needle

hypotenuse [haiˈpɔtənju:z] – n. the side of a right triangle opposite the right angle

hypothecate [haiˈpɔθikeit] – v. pledge without delivery or title of possession

hypothetical [.haipəˈθetikəl] – adj. based primarily on surmise rather than adequate evidence: hypothetical situation

hysteria [hisˈtiəriə] – n. state of violent mental agitation

hysterical [hisˈterikəl] – adj. marked by excessive or uncontrollable emotion: hysterical laughter

ichthyologist  – n. a zoologist who studies fishes

ichthyology [,ikθiˈɔlədʒi] – n. the branch of zoology that studies fishes

icing [ˈaisiŋ] – n. the formation of frost or ice on a surface

icon [ˈaikɔn] – n. a visual representation (of an object or scene or person or abstraction) produced on a surface

iconoclast [aiˈkɔnəklæst] – n. a destroyer of images used in religious worship

iconoclastic  – adj. characterized by attack on established beliefs or institutions

idiocy [ˈidiəsi] – n. extreme mental retardation

idiosyncrasy [.idiəˈsiŋkrəsi] – n. a behavioral attribute that is distinctive and peculiar to an individual

idiosyncratic [.idiəsiŋˈkrætik] – adj. peculiar to the individual: we all have our own idiosyncratic gestures

idiot [ˈidiət] – n. a person of subnormal intelligence

idol [ˈaidl] – n. a material effigy that is worshipped

idolater [aiˈdɔlətə] – n. a person who worships idols

idolatrous [aiˈdɔlətrəs] – adj. blindly or excessively devoted or adoring

idolatry [aiˈdɔlətri] – n. religious zeal; the willingness to serve God

idyll [ˈaidl] – n. a musical composition that evokes rural life

idyllic [aiˈdilik, iˈdilik] – adj. excellent and delightful in all respects: an idyllic spot for a picnic

igloo [ˈiglu:] – n. an Eskimo hut; usually built of blocks (of sod or snow) in the shape of a dome

igneous [ˈigniəs] – adj. produced under conditions involving intense heat: igneous rock is rock formed by solidification from a molten state; especially from molten magma

ignite [igˈnait] – v. cause to start burning; subject to fire or great heat: Great heat can ignite almost any dry matter

ignoble [igˈnəubəl] – adj. completely lacking nobility in character or quality or purpose: something cowardly and ignoble in his attitude

ignominious [.ignəˈminiəs] – adj. (used of conduct or character) deserving or bringing disgrace or shame: an ignominious retreat

ignominy [ˈignəmini] – n. a state of dishonor: suffered the ignominy of being sent to prison

ignoramus [.ignəˈreiməs] – n. an ignorant person

iguana [iˈgwɑ:nə] – n. large herbivorous tropical American arboreal lizards with a spiny crest along the back; used as human food in Central America and South America

illegality [.ili:ˈgæliti] – n. unlawfulness by virtue of violating some legal statute

illegible [iˈledʒəbl] – adj. (of handwriting, print, etc.) not legible: illegible handwriting

illegitimate [.iliˈdʒitimit] – adj. contrary to or forbidden by law: an illegitimate seizure of power

illiberal [iˈlibərəl] – adj. narrow-minded about cherished opinions

illicit [iˈlisit] – adj. contrary to accepted morality (especially sexual morality) or convention: an illicit association with his secretary

illimitable [iˈlimitəbl] – adj. without limits in extent or size or quantity

illiteracy [iˈlitərəsi] – n. ignorance resulting from not reading

illiterate [iˈlitərit] – adj. not able to read or write

illuminating [iˈlu:mineitiŋ] – adj. tending to increase knowledge or dissipate ignorance: an illuminating lecture

illumination [i.lju:miˈneiʃən] – n. the degree of visibility of your environment

illusive [iˈlu:siv] – adj. based on or having the nature of an illusion: illusive hopes of finding a better job

illusory [iˈlu:səri] – adj. based on or having the nature of an illusion: Secret activities offer presidents the alluring but often illusory promise that they can achieve foreign policy goals without the bothersome debate and open decision that are staples of democracy

illustrious [iˈlʌstriəs] – adj. widely known and esteemed: an illustrious judge

imbalance [imˈbæləns] – n. a lack of balance or state of disequilibrium: a hormonal imbalance

imbecile [ˈimbisi:l] – n. a person of subnormal intelligence

imbecility [.imbiˈsiləti] – n. retardation more severe than a moron but not as severe as an idiot

imbibe [imˈbaib] – v. take in, also metaphorically

imbroglio [imˈbrəuliəu] – n. an intricate and confusing interpersonal or political situation

imbrue [imˈbru:] – v. permeate or impregnate

imbue [imˈbju:] – v. spread or diffuse through

imitation [.imiˈteiʃən] – n. something copied or derived from an original

immaculate [iˈmækjulit] – adj. completely neat and clean: the apartment was immaculate

immanent [ˈimənənt] – adj. of a mental act performed entirely within the mind: a cognition is an immanent act of mind

immaterial [.iməˈtiəriəl] – adj. of no importance or relevance especially to a law case: an objection that is immaterial after the fact

immediacy [iˈmi:diəsi] – n. lack of an intervening or mediating agency: the immediacy of television coverage

immemorial [.imiˈmɔ:riəl] – adj. long past; beyond the limits of memory or tradition or recorded history: time immemorial

immensity [iˈmensiti] – n. unusual largeness in size or extent or number

immerse [iˈmə:s] – v. thrust or throw into

immersion [iˈmə:ʃən] – n. sinking until covered completely with water

imminence [ˈiminəns] – n. the state of being imminent and liable to happen soon

immobility [.imoˈbiləti] – n. remaining in place

immoderate [iˈmɔdərət] – adj. beyond reasonable limits: immoderate laughter

immolate [ˈiməleit] – v. offer as a sacrifice by killing or by giving up to destruction: The Aztecs immolated human victims

immolation [iməuˈleiʃən] – n. killing or offering as a sacrifice

immoral [iˈmɔrəl] – adj. deliberately violating accepted principles of right and wrong

immortal [iˈmɔ:tl] – n. a person (such as an author) of enduring fame: Shakespeare is one of the immortals

immunity [iˈmju:niti] – n. the state of not being susceptible

immunize [iˈmju:naiz] – v. perform vaccinations or produce immunity in by inoculation

immure [iˈmjuə] – v. lock up or confine, in or as in a jail

immutable [iˈmju:təbəl] – adj. not subject or susceptible to change or variation in form or quality or nature: the view of that time was that all species were immutable, created by God

imp [imp] – n. (folklore) fairies that are somewhat mischievous

impair [imˈpɛə] – v. make worse or less effective: His vision was impaired

impale [imˈpel] – v. pierce with a sharp stake or point: impale a shrimp on a skewer

impalpable [imˈpælpəbəl] – adj. incapable of being perceived by the senses especially the sense of touch

impart [imˈpɑ:t] – v. transmit (knowledge or skills): impart a new skill to the students

impartial [imˈpɑ:ʃəl] – adj. showing lack of favoritism: the cold neutrality of an impartial judge

impassable [imˈpæsəbl] – adj. incapable of being passed

impasse [imˈpæs] – n. a situation in which no progress can be made or no advancement is possible: reached an impasse on the negotiations

impassioned [imˈpæʃənd] – adj. characterized by intense emotion: an impassioned appeal

impassive [imˈpæsiv] – adj. having or revealing little emotion or sensibility; not easily aroused or excited: her impassive remoteness

impeach [imˈpi:tʃ] – v. challenge the honesty or veracity of: the lawyers tried to impeach the credibility of the witnesses

impeccable [imˈpekəbəl] – adj. without fault or error: speaks impeccable French

impecunious [.impiˈkju:niəs] – adj. not having enough money to pay for necessities

impede [imˈpi:d] – v. be a hindrance or obstacle to

impediment [imˈpedimənt] – n. something immaterial that interferes with or delays action or progress

impedimenta [im.pediˈmentə] – n. any structure that makes progress difficult

impeding  – adj. preventing movement

impel [imˈpel] – v. urge or force (a person) to an action; constrain or motivate

impend [imˈpend] – v. be imminent or about to happen: Changes are impending

impenetrable [imˈpenitrəbəl] – adj. not admitting of penetration or passage into or through: an impenetrable fortress

impenitent [imˈpenitənt] – adj. not penitent or remorseful

imperative [imˈperətiv] – n. a mood that expresses an intention to influence the listener’s behavior

imperceptible [.impəˈseptəbəl] – adj. impossible or difficult to perceive by the mind or senses: an imperceptible drop in temperature

imperil [imˈperil] – v. pose a threat to; present a danger to

imperious [imˈpiəriəs] – adj. having or showing arrogant superiority to and disdain of those one views as unworthy

impermeable [imˈpə:miəbəl] – adj. preventing especially liquids to pass or diffuse through: impermeable stone

impersonal [imˈpə:sənl] – adj. not relating to or responsive to individual persons: an impersonal corporation

impersonate [imˈpə:səneit] – v. assume or act the character of: She impersonates Madonna

impertinent [imˈpə:tnənt] – adj. characterized by a lightly pert and exuberant quality

imperturbability  – n. calm and unruffled self-assurance

imperturbable [.impəˈtə:bəbəl] – adj. not easily perturbed or excited or upset; marked by extreme calm and composure: hitherto imperturbable, he now showed signs of alarm

impervious [imˈpə:viəs] – adj. not admitting of passage or capable of being affected: a material impervious to water

impetuosity [impetʃuˈɔsiti] – n. rash impulsiveness

impetuous [imˈpetjuəs] – adj. characterized by undue haste and lack of thought or deliberation: an impetuous display of spending and gambling

impetus [ˈimpitəs] – n. a force that moves something along

impiety [imˈpaiəti] – n. unrighteousness by virtue of lacking respect for a god

impinge  – v. advance beyond the usual limit

impious [ˈimpiəs] – adj. lacking piety or reverence for a god

implacable [imˈplækəbəl] – adj. incapable of being placated: an implacable enemy

implant [imˈplɑ:nt] – v. fix or set securely or deeply: The dentist implanted a tooth in the gum

implausible [imˈplɔ:zəbl] – adj. having a quality that provokes disbelief: gave the teacher an implausible excuse

implicate [ˈimplikeit] – v. bring into intimate and incriminating connection: He is implicated in the scheme to defraud the government

implode [imˈpləud] – v. burst inward: The bottle imploded

implore [imˈplɔ:] – v. call upon in supplication; entreat

implosion [imˈpləuʒən] – n. a sudden inward collapse: the implosion of a light bulb

impolitic [imˈpɔlitik] – adj. not politic: an impolitic approach to a sensitive issue

imponderable [imˈpɔndərəbəl] – n. a factor whose effects cannot be accurately assessed: human behavior depends on many imponderables

importunate [imˈpɔ:tʃənit] – adj. expressing earnest entreaty: an importunate job applicant

importune [.imˈpɔ:tju:n] – v. beg persistently and urgently: I importune you to help them

imposing [imˈpəuziŋ] – adj. impressive in appearance: an imposing residence

impostor [imˈpɔstə] – n. a person who makes deceitful pretenses

imposture [imˈpɔstʃə] – n. pretending to be another person

impotent [ˈimpətənt] – adj. lacking power or ability: Technology without morality is barbarous; morality without technology is impotent

impound [imˈpaund] – v. take temporary possession of as a security, by legal authority: The customs agents impounded the illegal shipment

impoverish [imˈpɔvəriʃ] – v. make poor

imprecate [impriˈkeit] – v. wish harm upon; invoke evil upon

imprecation [impriˈkeiʃən] – n. the act of calling down a curse that invokes evil (and usually serves as an insult): he suffered the imprecations of the mob

impregnable [imˈgregnəbəl] – adj. immune to attack; incapable of being tampered with: an impregnable fortress

impregnate [ˈimpregneit] – v. fill, as with a certain quality

impresario [.impriˈsɑ:riəu] – n. a sponsor who books and stages public entertainments

impressionable [imˈpreʃənəbəl] – adj. easily impressed or influenced: an impressionable youngster

imprimatur [.impriˈmeitə] – n. formal and explicit approval

imprint [imˈprint] – n. a distinctive influence: English stills bears the imprint of the Norman invasion

impromptu [imˈprɔmptju:] – n. an extemporaneous speech or remark: a witty impromptu must not sound premeditated

impropriety [.imprəˈpraiəti] – n. the condition of being improper

improvident [imˈprɔvidənt] – adj. not provident; not providing for the future

improvisation [.imprəvaiˈzeiʃən] – n. a creation spoken or written or composed extemporaneously (without prior preparation)

improvise [ˈimprəvaiz] – v. perform without preparation

improvised  – adj. done or made using whatever is available: crossed the river on improvised bridges

imprudent [imˈpru:dənt] – adj. not prudent or wise: very imprudent of her mother to encourage her in such silly romantic ideas

impudence [ˈimpjudns] – n. the trait of being rude and impertinent; inclined to take liberties

impudent [ˈimpjudənt] – adj. marked by casual disrespect: the student was kept in for impudent behavior

impugn [imˈpju:n] – v. attack as false or wrong

impuissance  – n. powerlessness revealed by an inability to act

impulsive [imˈpʌlsiv] – adj. without forethought: letting him borrow her car was an impulsive act that she immediately regretted

impunity [imˈpju:niti] – n. exemption from punishment or loss

imputation [.impjuˈteiʃən] – n. a statement attributing something dishonest (especially a criminal offense): he denied the imputation

impute [imˈpju:t] – v. attribute or credit to: People impute great cleverness to cats

inadvertence [.inədˈvɜ:təns] – n. an unintentional omission resulting from failure to notice something

inadvertent [.inədˈvə:tənt] – adj. happening by chance or unexpectedly or unintentionally: with an inadvertent gesture she swept the vase off the table

inadvertently  – adv. without knowledge or intention

inalienable [inˈeiliənəb(ə)l] – adj. incapable of being repudiated or transferred to another

inamorata  – n. a woman with whom you are in love or have an intimate relationship

inane [iˈnein] – adj. devoid of intelligence

inanimate [inˈænimit] – adj. belonging to the class of nouns denoting nonliving things: the word `car’ is inanimate

inanition [.inəˈniʃən] – n. weakness characterized by a lack of vitality or energy

inanity [iˈnæniti] – n. total lack of meaning or ideas

inarticulate [inɑ:ˈtikjulit] – adj. without or deprived of the use of speech or words: inarticulate beasts

inborn [.inˈbɔ:n] – adj. present at birth but not necessarily hereditary; acquired during fetal development

inbound [ˈinbaund] – adj. directed or moving inward or toward a center: the inbound train

incandescent [.inkænˈdesnt] – adj. emitting light as a result of being heated: an incandescent bulb

incantation [.inkænˈteiʃən] – n. a ritual recitation of words or sounds believed to have a magical effect

incapacitate [.inkəˈpæsiteit] – v. make unable to perform a certain action

incapacity [.inkəˈpæsiti] – n. lack of intellectual power

incarcerate [inˈkɑ:səreit] – v. lock up or confine, in or as in a jail: the murderer was incarcerated for the rest of his life

incarnadine [inˈkɑ:nədain, -din] – v. make flesh-colored

incarnate [inˈkɑ:nit] – v. make concrete and real

incarnation [.inkɑ:ˈneiʃən] – n. a new personification of a familiar idea: the incarnation of evil

incendiary [inˈsendiəri] – adj. involving deliberate burning of property: an incendiary fire

incense [inˈsens] – n. a substance that produces a fragrant odor when burned

inception [inˈsepʃən] – n. an event that is a beginning; a first part or stage of subsequent events

incertitude [inˈsə:titju:d] – n. the state of being unsure of something

incessant [inˈsesnt] – adj. uninterrupted in time and indefinitely long continuing: night and day we live with the incessant noise of the city

inchoate [inˈkəuit] – adj. only partly in existence; imperfectly formed: a vague inchoate idea

incidental  – adj. not of prime or central importance

incinerate [inˈsinəreit] – v. become reduced to ashes: The paper incinerated quickly

incipience [inˈsipiəns] – n. beginning to exist or to be apparent: he placed the incipience of democratic faith at around 1850

incipient [inˈsipiənt] – adj. only partly in existence; imperfectly formed: incipient civil disorder

incise [inˈsaiz] – v. make an incision into by carving or cutting

incision [inˈsiʒən] – n. a depression scratched or carved into a surface

incisive [inˈsaisiv] – adj. having or demonstrating ability to recognize or draw fine distinctions: incisive comments

incisor [inˈsaizə] – n. a tooth for cutting or gnawing; located in the front of the mouth in both jaws

incite [inˈsait] – v. provoke or stir up: incite a riot

incivility [.insiˈviliti] – n. deliberate discourtesy

inclement [inˈklemənt] – adj. (of weather or climate) severe

inclination [.inkliˈneiʃən] – n. an attitude of mind especially one that favors one alternative over others: he had an inclination to give up too easily

inclusive [inˈklu:siv] – adj. including much or everything; and especially including stated limits: an inclusive art form

incognito [.inkɔgˈni:təu] – adj. with your identity concealed

incoherent [.inkəuˈhiərənt] – adj. without logical or meaningful connection: a turgid incoherent presentation

incommensurate [.inkəˈmenʃərit] – adj. not corresponding in size or degree or extent: a reward incommensurate with his effort

incommodious [.inkəˈməudiəs] – adj. uncomfortably or inconveniently small: incommodious hotel accommodations

incommunicado [.inkəmju:niˈkɑ:dəu] – adj. without the means or right to communicate: a prisoner held incommunicado

incommunicative [.inkəˈmju:nikətiv] – adj. not inclined to talk or give information or express opinions

incompatible [.inkəmˈpætəbl] – adj. not compatible: incompatible personalities

incompetent [inˈkɔmpitənt] – adj. legally not qualified or sufficient: incompetent witnesses

inconceivable [.inkənˈsi:vəbəl] – adj. totally unlikely

incongruent  – adj. not congruent

incongruity [.inkɔŋˈgru(:)iti] – n. the quality of disagreeing; being unsuitable and inappropriate

incongruous [inˈkɔŋgruəs] – adj. lacking in harmony or compatibility or appropriateness: a plan incongruous with reason

inconsequential [in.kɔnsiˈkwenʃəl] – adj. lacking worth or importance: his work seems trivial and inconsequential

inconsiderate [.inkənˈsidərit] – adj. lacking regard for the rights or feelings of others: shockingly inconsiderate behavior

inconsistency [.inkənˈsistənsi] – n. the relation between propositions that cannot both be true at the same time

inconsolable [.inkənˈsəuləbəl] – adj. sad beyond comforting; incapable of being consoled: inconsolable when her son died

inconstant [inˈkɔnstənt] – adj. likely to change frequently often without apparent or cogent reason; variable: inconstant affections

incontestable [.inkənˈtestəbəl] – adj. incapable of being contested or disputed

incontinent [inˈkɔntinənt] – adj. not having control over urination and defecation

incontrovertible [inkɔntrəˈvə:təbl] – adj. impossible to deny or disprove: incontrovertible proof of the defendant’s innocence

incorporeal [.inkɔ:ˈpɔ:riəl] – adj. without material form or substance: an incorporeal spirit

incorrigible [inˈkɔridʒəbəl] – adj. impervious to correction by punishment

incredulity [.inkriˈdju:liti] – n. doubt about the truth of something

incredulous [inˈkredjuləs] – adj. not disposed or willing to believe; unbelieving

increment [ˈinkrimənt] – n. a process of becoming larger or longer or more numerous or more important

incriminate [inˈkrimineit] – v. suggest that someone is guilty

incrustation [.inkrʌˈsteiʃən] – n. the formation of a crust

incubate [ˈiŋkjubeit] – v. grow under conditions that promote development

incubation [.iŋkjuˈbeiʃən] – n. maintaining something at the most favorable temperature for its development

incubator [ˈiŋkjubeitə] – n. apparatus consisting of a box designed to maintain a constant temperature by the use of a thermostat; used for chicks or premature infants

incubus [ˈiŋkjubəs] – n. a male demon believed to lie on sleeping persons and to have sexual intercourse with sleeping women

inculcate [inˈkʌlkeit] – v. teach and impress by frequent repetitions or admonitions: inculcate values into the young generation

inculpate  – v. suggest that someone is guilty

incumbency [inˈkʌmbənsi] – n. the term during which some position is held

incumbent [inˈkʌmbənt] – adj. lying or leaning on something else: an incumbent geological formation

incurable [inˈkjuərəbəl] – adj. incapable of being cured: an incurable disease

incursion [inˈkə:ʃən] – n. the act of entering some territory or domain (often in large numbers): the incursion of television into the American living room

indebted [inˈdetid] – adj. owing gratitude or recognition to another for help or favors etc

indecent [inˈdi:sənt] – adj. not in keeping with accepted standards of what is right or proper in polite society: was buried with indecent haste

indecision  – n. doubt concerning two or more possible alternatives or courses of action: his indecision was only momentary but the opportunity was lost

indecisive  – adj. characterized by lack of decision and firmness: an indecisive manager brought the enterprise to a standstill

indecorous  – adj. lacking propriety and good taste in manners and conduct: indecorous behavior

indefatigable [.indiˈfætigəbəl] – adj. showing sustained enthusiastic action with unflagging vitality: an indefatigable advocate of equal rights

indelible [inˈdeləbəl] – adj. cannot be removed or erased: an indelible stain

indemnification [in.demnifiˈkeiʃən] – n. a sum of money paid in compensation for loss or injury

indemnify [inˈdemnifai] – v. secure against future loss, damage, or liability; give security for

indemnity [inˈdemniti] – n. protection against future loss

indent [ˈindent,inˈdent] – v. set in from the margin

indentation [.indenˈteiʃən] – n. a concave cut into a surface or edge (as in a coastline)

indenture [inˈdentʃə] – n. a concave cut into a surface or edge (as in a coastline)

indescribable [.indisˈkraibəbəl] – adj. defying expression or description: indescribable beauty

indeterminate  – adj. not precisely determined or established; not fixed or known in advance: of indeterminate age

indicative [inˈdikətiv] – adj. relating to the mood of verbs that is used simple in declarative statements: indicative mood

indict [inˈdait] – v. accuse formally of a crime

indigence [ˈindidʒəns] – n. a state of extreme poverty or destitution: their indigence appalled him

indigent [ˈindidʒənt] – adj. poor enough to need help from others

indignation [.indigˈneiʃən] – n. a feeling of righteous anger

indignity [inˈdigniti] – n. an affront to one’s dignity or self-esteem

indiscernible [.indiˈsə:nəbəl] – adj. difficult or impossible to perceive or discern: an indiscernible increase in temperature

indiscreet [.indisˈkri:t] – adj. lacking discretion; injudicious: her behavior was indiscreet at the very best

indiscretion [.indiˈskreʃən] – n. the trait of being injudicious

indiscriminate [.indisˈkriminit] – adj. failing to make or recognize distinctions

indispensability  – n. the quality possessed by something that you cannot possibly do without

indisposed [.indiˈspəuzd] – adj. somewhat ill or prone to illness: feeling a bit indisposed today

indisputable [.indiˈspju:təbəl] – adj. not open to question; obviously true: indisputable evidence of a witness

indissoluble  – adj. (of a substance) incapable of being dissolved

indistinct [indisˈtiŋkt] – adj. not clearly defined or easy to perceive or understand: indistinct shapes in the gloom

indite  – v. produce a literary work

indivisible [.indiˈvizəbəl] – adj. impossible of undergoing division: an indivisible union of states

indocile [inˈdəusail] – adj. of persons

indoctrinate [inˈdɔktrineit] – v. teach doctrines to; teach uncritically: The Moonies indoctrinate their disciples

indolence [ˈindələns] – n. inactivity resulting from a dislike of work

indolent [ˈindələnt] – adj. disinclined to work or exertion: an indolent hanger-on

indomitable [inˈdɔmitəbəl] – adj. impossible to subdue

indubitable [inˈdju:bitəbəl] – adj. too obvious to be doubted

indubitably  – adv. in a manner or to a degree that could not be doubted: it was immediately and indubitably apparent that I had interrupted a scene of lovers

inducement [inˈdju:smənt] – n. a positive motivational influence

induct [inˈdʌkt] – v. place ceremoniously or formally in an office or position: there was a ceremony to induct the president of the Academy

induction [inˈdʌkʃən] – n. a formal entry into an organization or position or office: he was ordered to report for induction into the army

inductive [inˈdʌktiv] – adj. of reasoning; proceeding from particular facts to a general conclusion: inductive reasoning

indulgent [inˈdʌldʒənt] – adj. characterized by or given to yielding to the wishes of someone: indulgent grandparents

indurate  – v. become fixed or established: indurated customs

industrious [inˈdʌstriəs] – adj. characterized by hard work and perseverance

inebriate [iˈni:brieit] – v. fill with sublime emotion: He was inebriated by his phenomenal success

inebriated  – adj. stupefied or excited by a chemical substance (especially alcohol): helplessly inebriated

inebriety [.ini:ˈbraiəti] – n. a temporary state resulting from excessive consumption of alcohol

ineffable [inˈefəbəl] – adj. defying expression or description: ineffable ecstasy

ineffectual  – adj. not producing an intended effect

inefficacious  – adj. lacking the power to produce a desired effect: laws that are inefficacious in stopping crime

ineligible [inˈelidʒəbl] – adj. not eligible: ineligible to vote

ineluctable [.iniˈlʌktəbəl] – adj. impossible to avoid or evade:: an ineluctable destiny

inept [iˈnept] – adj. not elegant or graceful in expression: if the rumor is true, can anything be more inept than to repeat it now?

ineptitude [iˈneptitju:d] – n. unskillfulness resulting from a lack of training

inequity  – n. injustice by virtue of not conforming with rules or standards

inerrancy  – n. (Christianity) exemption from error: biblical inerrancy

inert [iˈnə:t] – adj. unable to move or resist motion

inertia [iˈnə:ʃjə] – n. (physics) the tendency of a body to maintain its state of rest or uniform motion unless acted upon by an external force

inestimable [inˈestiməbl] – adj. beyond calculation or measure: jewels of inestimable value

inexhaustible [.inigˈzɔ:stəbəl] – adj. that cannot be entirely consumed or used up: an inexhaustible supply of coal

inexorable [inˈeksərəbəl] – adj. not to be placated or appeased or moved by entreaty: Russia’s final hour, it seemed, approached with inexorable certainty

inexpedient [.inikˈspi:diənt] – adj. not suitable or advisable: an inexpedient tactic

inexpiable [inˈekspiəbəl] – adj. incapable of being atoned for

inexplicable [.inikˈsplikəbəl] – adj. incapable of being explained or accounted for: inexplicable errors

inextricable [inˈekstrikəbəl] – adj. not permitting extrication; incapable of being disentangled or untied: an inextricable knot

infallibility [infæləˈbiliti] – n. the quality of never making an error

infallible [inˈfæləbəl] – adj. incapable of failure or error: an infallible antidote

infamous [ˈinfəməs] – adj. known widely and usually unfavorably: the infamous Benedict Arnold

infamy [ˈinfəmi] – n. a state of extreme dishonor: a date which will live in infamy

infantile [ˈinfəntail] – adj. indicating a lack of maturity: infantile behavior

infantry [ˈinfəntri] – n. an army unit consisting of soldiers who fight on foot

infatuate  – v. arouse unreasoning love or passion in and cause to behave in an irrational way: His new car has infatuated him

infatuated [inˈfætjʊeitid] – adj. marked by foolish or unreasoning fondness: he was infatuated with her

infatuation [in.fætjʊˈeiʃən] – n. a foolish and usually extravagant passion or love or admiration

infelicitous [.infiˈlisitəs] – adj. not appropriate in application; defective: an infelicitous remark

infernal [inˈfə:nəl] – adj. characteristic of or resembling Hell: infernal noise

inferno [inˈfə:nəu] – n. any place of pain and turmoil: the inferno of the engine room

infest [inˈfest] – v. invade in great numbers: the roaches infested our kitchen

infidel [ˈinfidl] – n. a person who does not acknowledge your god

infidelity [.infiˈdeliti] – n. the quality of being unfaithful

infiltrate [inˈfiltreit] – v. cause (a liquid) to enter by penetrating the interstices

infinitesimal [.infiniˈtesiməl] – n. (mathematics) a variable that has zero as its limit

infinity [inˈfiniti] – n. time without end

infirm [inˈfə:m] – adj. lacking bodily or muscular strength or vitality

infirmity [inˈfə:miti] – n. the state of being weak in health or body (especially from old age)

inflame [inˈfleim] – v. catch fire

inflamed [inˈfleimd] – adj. lighted with red light as if with flames: the inflamed clouds at sunset

inflammable [inˈflæməbl] – adj. easily ignited

inflated [inˈfleitid] – adj. enlarged beyond truth or reasonableness

infliction [inˈflikʃən] – n. the act of imposing something (as a tax or an embargo)

influx [ˈinflʌks] – n. the process of flowing in

informer [inˈfɔ:mə] – n. one who reveals confidential information in return for money

infraction [inˈfrækʃən] – n. a crime less serious than a felony

infringe [inˈfrindʒ] – v. go against, as of rules and laws

infringement [inˈfrindʒmənt] – n. an act that disregards an agreement or a right

infuriate [inˈfjuərieit] – v. make furious

infuse [inˈfju:z] – v. teach and impress by frequent repetitions or admonitions

infusion [inˈfju:ʒən] – n. a solution obtained by steeping or soaking a substance (usually in water)

ingenious [inˈdʒi:njəs] – adj. showing inventiveness and skill: an ingenious solution to the problem

ingenue [ˈænʒeinju:] – n. an actress who specializes in playing the role of an artless innocent young girl

ingenuity [.indʒiˈnju:iti] – n. the power of creative imagination

ingenuous [inˈdʒenjuəs] – adj. characterized by an inability to mask your feelings; not devious: an ingenuous admission of responsibility

ingest [inˈdʒest] – v. serve oneself to, or consume regularly

ingrained [inˈgreind] – adj. (used especially of ideas or principles) deeply rooted; firmly fixed or held: ingrained habits of a lifetime

ingrate [inˈgreit] – n. a person who shows no gratitude

ingratiate [inˈgreiʃieit] – v. gain favor with somebody by deliberate efforts

ingratiating [inˈgreiʃieitiŋ] – adj. capable of winning favor: with open arms and an ingratiating smile

ingratitude [inˈgrætitju:d] – n. a lack of gratitude

ingress [ˈingres] – n. (astronomy) the disappearance of a celestial body prior to an eclipse

inhale [inˈheil] – v. draw deep into the lungs in by breathing: Clinton smoked marijuana but never inhaled

inhuman [inˈhju:mən] – adj. without compunction or human feeling

inhumane [.inhju:ˈmein] – adj. lacking and reflecting lack of pity or compassion: humans are innately inhumane; this explains much of the misery and suffering in the world

inimical [iˈnimikəl] – adj. not friendly: an inimical critic

inimitable [iˈnimitəbəl] – adj. defying imitation; matchless: an inimitable style

iniquitous [iˈnikwitəs] – adj. characterized by iniquity; wicked because it is believed to be a sin: iniquitous deeds

iniquity [iˈnikwiti] – n. absence of moral or spiritual values

injurious  – adj. harmful to living things

inkling [ˈiŋkliŋ] – n. a slight suggestion or vague understanding: he had no inkling what was about to happen

innate [.iˈneit] – adj. not established by conditioning or learning

innocuous [iˈnɔkjuəs] – adj. not injurious to physical or mental health

innuendo [.injuˈendəu] – n. an indirect (and usually malicious) implication

inoculate [iˈnɔkjuleit] – v. introduce an idea or attitude into the mind of: My teachers inoculated me with their beliefs

inoculation [i.nɔkjuˈleiʃən] – n. taking a vaccine as a precaution against contracting a disease

inopportune [inˈɔpətju:n] – adj. not opportune: arrived at a most inopportune hour

inordinate [inˈɔrdinit, iˈnɔ:dinət] – adj. beyond normal limits: a book of inordinate length

inquietude [inˈkwaiitju:d] – n. feelings of anxiety that make you tense and irritable

inquisitive [inˈkwizitiv] – adj. showing curiosity: if someone saw a man climbing a light post they might get inquisitive

inquisitor [inˈkwizitə] – n. a questioner who is excessively harsh

inroad [ˈinrəud] – n. an encroachment or intrusion: they made inroads in the United States market

insalubrious  – adj. detrimental to health

insane [inˈsein] – adj. afflicted with or characteristic of mental derangement: was declared insane

insanity [inˈsæniti] – n. relatively permanent disorder of the mind

insatiable [inˈseiʃiəbl] – adj. impossible to satisfy: an insatiable demand for old buildings to restore

inscription [inˈskripʃən] – n. a short message (as in a book or musical work or on a photograph) dedicating it to someone or something

inscrutability  – n. the quality of being impossible to investigate: the inscrutability of the future

inscrutable [inˈskru:təbəl] – adj. of an obscure nature: the inscrutable workings of Providence

insensate [inˈsenseit] – adj. devoid of feeling and consciousness and animation: insentient (or insensate) stone

insensible [inˈsensəbl] – adj. incapable of physical sensation: insensible to pain

insertion [inˈsə:ʃən] – n. the act of putting one thing into another

insidious [inˈsidiəs] – adj. beguiling but harmful: insidious pleasures

insightful  – adj. exhibiting insight or clear and deep perception: an insightful parent

insignia [inˈsigniə] – n. a badge worn to show official position

insinuate [inˈsinjueit] – v. introduce or insert (oneself) in a subtle manner: He insinuated himself into the conversation of the people at the nearby table

insipid [inˈsipid] – adj. lacking taste or flavor or tang: insipid hospital food

insolate [ˈinsouleit] – v. expose to the rays of the sun or affect by exposure to the sun: insolated paper may turn yellow and crumble

insolence [ˈinsələns] – n. the trait of being rude and impertinent; inclined to take liberties

insolent [ˈinsələnt] – adj. marked by casual disrespect

insolvency [inˈsɔlvənsi] – n. the lack of financial resources

insolvent [inˈsɔlvənt] – n. someone who has insufficient assets to cover their debts

insomnia [inˈsɔmniə] – n. an inability to sleep; chronic sleeplessness

insouciance [inˈsu:siəns] – n. the cheerful feeling you have when nothing is troubling you

insouciant [inˈsu:siənt] – adj. marked by blithe unconcern: an utterly insouciant financial policy

inspired [inˈspaiəd] – adj. being of such surpassing excellence as to suggest inspiration by the gods: an inspired performance

installment [inˈstɔ:lmənt] – n. a payment of part of a debt; usually paid at regular intervals

instantaneous [.instənˈteiniəs] – adj. occurring with no delay: relief was instantaneous

instigate [ˈinstigeit] – v. provoke or stir up

instigation [.instiˈgeiʃən] – n. the verbal act of urging on

instill [inˈstil] – v. impart gradually: Her presence instilled faith into the children

institutionalize [.instiˈtju:ʃənəlaiz] – v. cause to be admitted; of persons to an institution

insubordinate [.insəˈbɔ:dənit] – adj. not submissive to authority: a history of insubordinate behavior

insubordination  – n. defiance of authority

insubstantial  – adj. lacking material form or substance; unreal: as insubstantial as a dream

insufferable [inˈsʌfərəbəl] – adj. used of persons or their behavior: insufferable insolence

insufficiency [.insəˈfiʃənsi] – n. a lack of competence

insular [ˈinsjulə] – adj. relating to or characteristic of or situated on an island: insular territories

insularity [.insjuˈlæriti] – n. the state of being isolated or detached

insulate [ˈinsjuleit] – v. place or set apart

insulin [ˈinsjulin] – n. hormone secreted by the isles of Langerhans in the pancreas; regulates storage of glycogen in the liver and accelerates oxidation of sugar in cells

insuperable [inˈsju:pərəbəl] – adj. impossible to surmount

insurgent [inˈsə:dʒənt] – n. a member of an irregular armed force that fights a stronger force by sabotage and harassment

insurmountable [.insəˈmauntəbl] – adj. not capable of being surmounted or overcome: insurmountable disadvantages

insurrection [.insəˈrekʃən] – n. organized opposition to authority; a conflict in which one faction tries to wrest control from another

intaglio [inˈtɑ:liəu] – n. glyptic art consisting of a sunken or depressed engraving or carving on a stone or gem (as opposed to cameo)

intangible [inˈtændʒəbəl] – adj. (of especially business assets) not having physical substance or intrinsic productive value: intangible assets such as good will

integument [inˈtegjumənt] – n. an outer protective covering such as the skin of an animal or a cuticle or seed coat or rind or shell

intellect [ˈintilekt] – n. the capacity for rational thought or inference or discrimination

intelligentsia [in.teliˈdʒentsiə] – n. an educated and intellectual elite

intelligible [inˈtelidʒəbl] – adj. capable of being apprehended or understood

intemperate [inˈtempərit] – adj. (of weather or climate) not mild; subject to extremes: an intemperate climate

inter [inˈtə:] – v. place in a grave or tomb

intercede [.intəˈsi:d] – v. act between parties with a view to reconciling differences: He interceded in the family dispute

intercept [.intəˈsept] – v. seize on its way: The fighter plane was ordered to intercept an aircraft that had entered the country’s airspace

interchangeable [.intəˈtʃeindʒəbəl] – adj. (mathematics, logic) such that the arguments or roles can be interchanged: the arguments of the symmetric relation, `is a sister of,’ are interchangeable

interdict [ˈintədikt] – n. a court order prohibiting a party from doing a certain activity

interjection [.intəˈdʒekʃən] – n. an abrupt emphatic exclamation expressing emotion

interlace [.intəˈleis] – v. spin,wind, or twist together

interlock [.intəˈlɔk] – v. coordinate in such a way that all parts work together effectively

interlocutor [.intəˈlɔkjutə] – n. the performer in the middle of a minstrel line who engages the others in talk

interlocutory [intəˈlɔkjutəri] – adj. consisting of dialogue

interlope  – v. encroach on the rights of others, as in trading without a proper license

interloper  – n. someone who intrudes on the privacy or property of another without permission

interlude [ˈintəlu:d] – n. a brief show (music or dance etc) inserted between the sections of a longer performance

intermediary [.intəˈmi:diəri] – n. a negotiator who acts as a link between parties

interment [inˈtə:mənt] – n. the ritual placing of a corpse in a grave

interminable [inˈtə:minəbəl] – adj. tiresomely long; seemingly without end: an interminable sermon

intermingle [.intəˈmiŋgəl] – v. combine into one: We don’t intermingle much

intermission [.intəˈmiʃən] – n. the act of suspending activity temporarily

intermittent [.intəˈmitənt] – adj. stopping and starting at irregular intervals: intermittent rain showers

intern [inˈtə:n] – v. deprive of freedom: During WW II, Japanese were interned in camps in the West

internecine [.intəˈni:sain] – adj. (of conflict) within a group or organization: an internecine feud among proxy holders

internment [inˈtə:nmənt] – n. confinement during wartime

interplay [ˈintəplei] – n. reciprocal action and reaction

interpolate [inˈtə:pəleit] – v. estimate the value of

interpolation [in.tə:pəuˈleiʃən] – n. a message (spoken or written) that is introduced or inserted: with the help of his friend’s interpolations his story was eventually told

interpose [.intəˈpəuz] – v. be or come between

interposition [in.tə:pəˈziʃən] – n. the act or fact of interposing one thing between or among others

interregnum [.intəˈregnəm] – n. the time between two reigns, governments, etc.

interrelate [.intəriˈleit] – v. be in a relationship with

interrogate [inˈterəgeit] – v. transmit (a signal) for setting off an appropriate response, as in telecommunication

interrogative [.intəˈrɔgətiv] – n. a sentence of inquiry that asks for a reply

intersect [.intəˈsekt] – v. meet at a point

intersection [.intəˈsekʃən] – n. a junction where one street or road crosses another

intersperse [.intəˈspə:s] – v. place at intervals in or among: intersperse exclamation marks in the text

interstice [inˈtə:stis] – n. a small structural space between tissues or parts of an organ: the interstices of a network

intertwine [.intəˈtwain] – v. spin,wind, or twist together: intertwine the ribbons

interweave [.intəˈwi:v] – v. interlace by or as if by weaving

intestate [inˈtesteit] – adj. having made no legally valid will before death or not disposed of by a legal will: he died intestate

intestinal [inˈtestinl] – adj. of or relating to or inside the intestines: intestinal disease

intestine [inˈtestin] – n. the part of the alimentary canal between the stomach and the anus

intimacy [ˈintiməsi] – n. close or warm friendship: the absence of fences created a mysterious intimacy in which no one knew privacy

intimidate [inˈtimideit] – v. make timid or fearful: Her boss intimidates her

intimidation [in.timəˈdeʃən] – n. the feeling of discouragement in the face of someone’s superior fame or wealth or status etc.

intolerant [inˈtɔlərənt] – adj. unwilling to tolerate difference of opinion

intoxicant [inˈtɔksikənt] – n. a liquor or brew containing alcohol as the active agent

intoxicate [inˈtɔksikeit] – v. fill with high spirits; fill with optimism

intractability  – n. the trait of being hard to influence or control

intractable [inˈtræktəbəl] – adj. not tractable; difficult to manage or mold: an intractable disposition

intransigence [inˈtrænsidʒəns] – n. the trait of being intransigent; stubbornly refusing to compromise

intransigent [inˈtrænsidʒənt] – adj. impervious to pleas, persuasion, requests, reason: an intransigent conservative opposed to every liberal tendency

intrepid [inˈtrepid] – adj. invulnerable to fear or intimidation: intrepid pioneers

intrepidity [.intriˈpiditi] – n. resolute courageousness

intricacy [ˈintrikəsi] – n. marked by elaborately complex detail

intricate [ˈintrikit] – adj. having many complexly arranged elements; elaborate: intricate lacework

intrigue [inˈtri:g] – n. a crafty and involved plot to achieve your (usually sinister) ends

intriguing [inˈtri:giŋ] – adj. disturbingly provocative: an intriguing smile

intrinsic [inˈtrinsik] – adj. belonging to a thing by its very nature: form was treated as something intrinsic, as the very essence of the thing

introspection [.intrəˈspekʃən] – n. the contemplation of your own thoughts and desires and conduct

introspective [.intrəuˈspektiv] – adj. given to examining own sensory and perceptual experiences

introvert [ˈintrəvə:t] – v. fold inwards

intrude [inˈtru:d] – v. enter uninvited: They intruded on our dinner party

intrusion [inˈtru:ʒən] – n. any entry into an area not previously occupied

intuition [.intju:ˈiʃən] – n. instinctive knowing (without the use of rational processes)

intuitive [inˈtju:itiv] – adj. spontaneously derived from or prompted by a natural tendency: an intuitive revulsion

intumescence [.intju(:)ˈmesns] – n. swelling up with blood or other fluids (as with congestion)

inundate [ˈinəndeit] – v. fill quickly beyond capacity; as with a liquid: the basement was inundated after the storm

inundation [.inənˈdeiʃən] – n. the rising of a body of water and its overflowing onto normally dry land: plains fertilized by annual inundations

inure [iˈnjuə] – v. cause to accept or become hardened to; habituate: He was inured to the cold

inured  – adj. made tough by habitual exposure: a peasant, dark, lean-faced, wind-inured

invalid [ˈinvəli:d] – v. force to retire, remove from active duty, as of firemen

invalidate [inˈvælideit] – v. make invalid for use

invective [inˈvektiv] – n. abusive or venomous language used to express blame or censure or bitter deep-seated ill will

inveigh [inˈvei] – v. complain bitterly

inveigle [inˈveigəl] – v. influence or urge by gentle urging, caressing, or flattering

inventory [ˈinvəntri] – n. a detailed list of all the items in stock

inverse [ˈinˈvə:s] – adj. reversed (turned backward) in order or nature or effect

invert [inˈvə:t] – v. reverse the position, order, relation, or condition of: when forming a question, invert the subject and the verb

invertebrate [inˈvə:tibrit] – n. any animal lacking a backbone or notochord; the term is not used as a scientific classification

investiture [inˈvestitʃə] – n. the ceremony of installing a new monarch

inveterate [inˈvetərit] – adj. habitual

invidious [inˈvidiəs] – adj. containing or implying a slight or showing prejudice: invidious comparisons

invigilate [inˈvidʒileit] – v. watch over (students taking an exam, to prevent cheating)

invigorate [inˈvigəreit] – v. heighten or intensify

invincible [inˈvinsəbəl] – adj. incapable of being overcome or subdued: an invincible army

inviolable [inˈvaiələbəl] – adj. incapable of being transgressed or dishonored: the person of the king is inviolable

inviolate [inˈvaiəlit] – adj. (of a woman) having the hymen unbroken

inviting [inˈvaitiŋ] – adj. attractive and tempting: an inviting offer

invocation [.invəˈkeiʃən] – n. a prayer asking God’s help as part of a religious service

invoice [ˈinvɔis] – n. an itemized statement of money owed for goods shipped or services rendered

invulnerable [inˈvʌlnərəbəl] – adj. immune to attack; impregnable: gunners raked the beach from invulnerable positions on the cliffs

iodine [ˈaiədi:n] – n. a nonmetallic element belonging to the halogens; used especially in medicine and photography and in dyes; occurs naturally only in combination in small quantities (as in sea water or rocks)

iota [aiˈəutə] – n. a tiny or scarcely detectable amount

irascible [iˈræsəbəl] – adj. quickly aroused to anger

irate [aiˈreit] – adj. feeling or showing extreme anger: irate protesters

ire [aiə] – n. a strong emotion; a feeling that is oriented toward some real or supposed grievance

iridescence [iriˈdesns] – n. the visual property of something having a milky brightness and a play of colors from the surface

iridescent [.iriˈdesənt] – adj. varying in color when seen in different lights or from different angles: a dragonfly hovered, vibrating and iridescent

iris [ˈaiəris] – n. plants with sword-shaped leaves and erect stalks bearing bright-colored flowers composed of three petals and three drooping sepals

irk [ə:k] – v. irritate or vex

irksome [ˈə:ksəm] – adj. so lacking in interest as to cause mental weariness: what an irksome task the writing of long letters is

ironclad [ˈaiənklæd, ˈaiənˈklæd] – adj. inflexibly entrenched and unchangeable: an ironclad rule

ironic [aiəˈrɔnik] – adj. humorously sarcastic or mocking: an ironic remark often conveys an intended meaning obliquely

ironical [aiəˈrɔnikəl] – adj. characterized by often poignant difference or incongruity between what is expected and what actually is: it was ironical that the well-planned scheme failed so completely

irradiate [iˈreidieit] – v. give spiritual insight to; in religion

irreconcilable [i.rekənˈsailəbəl] – adj. impossible to reconcile: irreconcilable differences

irreducible [iriˈdju:səbl] – adj. incapable of being made smaller or simpler: an irreducible minimum

irrefutable  – adj. impossible to deny or disprove: an irrefutable argument

irremediable [.iriˈmi:diəbəl] – adj. impossible to remedy or correct or redress: an irremediable error

irreparable [iˈrepərəbl] – adj. impossible to repair, rectify, or amend: irreparable harm

irrepressible [iriˈpresəbl] – adj. impossible to repress or control: an irrepressible chatterbox

irreproachable [iriˈprəutʃəb(ə)l] – adj. free of guilt; not subject to blame: of irreproachable character

irresistible [.iriˈzistəbl] – adj. impossible to resist; overpowering: irresistible (or resistless) impulses

irresolute  – adj. uncertain how to act or proceed: the committee was timid and mediocre and irresolute

irretrievable  – adj. impossible to recover or recoup or overcome: an irretrievable loss

irreverence [iˈrevərəns] – n. a disrespectful act

irreverent [iˈrevərənt] – adj. showing lack of due respect or veneration: irreverent scholars mocking sacred things

irrevocable [iˈrevəkəbəl] – adj. incapable of being retracted or revoked: firm and irrevocable is my doom

irrigate [ˈirigeit] – v. supply with water, as with channels or ditches or streams

irritable [ˈiritəbl] – adj. abnormally sensitive to a stimulus

irritate [ˈiriteit] – v. excite to an abnormal condition, or chafe or inflame: Aspirin irritates my stomach

isotope [ˈaisətəup] – n. one of two or more atoms with the same atomic number but with different numbers of neutrons

isthmus [ˈisməs] – n. a relatively narrow strip of land (with water on both sides) connecting two larger land areas

iterate [ˈitəreit] – v. to say, state, or perform again

itinerant [iˈtinərənt] – n. a laborer who moves from place to place as demanded by employment: itinerant traders

itinerary [aiˈtinərəri] – n. an established line of travel or access

itinerate [iˈtinəreit] – v. travel from place to place, as for work

jab  – n. a sharp hand gesture (resembling a blow): he warned me with a jab with his finger

jabber  – n. rapid and indistinct speech

jade [dʒeid] – n. a woman adulterer

jaded [ˈdʒeidid] – adj. exhausted: my father’s words had left me jaded and depressed

jagged [ˈdʒægid] – adj. having a sharply uneven surface or outline: the jagged outline of the crags

jaguar [ˈdʒægjuə] – n. a large spotted feline of tropical America similar to the leopard; in some classifications considered a member of the genus Felis

jamb [dʒæm] – n. upright consisting of a vertical side member of a door or window frame

jamboree [.dʒæmbəˈri:] – n. a gay festivity

janitor [ˈdʒænitə] – n. someone employed to clean and maintain a building

jape  – n. a humorous anecdote or remark intended to provoke laughter: even a schoolboy’s jape is supposed to have some ascertainable point

jargon [ˈdʒɑ:gən] – n. a characteristic language of a particular group (as among thieves)

jaundice [ˈdʒɔ:ndis] – n. a rough and bitter manner

jaundiced [ˈdʒɔ:ndist] – adj. showing or affected by prejudice or envy or distaste: looked with a jaundiced eye on the growth of regimentation

jaunt [dʒɔ:nt] – n. a journey taken for pleasure

jaunty [ˈdʒɔ:nti] – adj. marked by up-to-dateness in dress and manners: a jaunty red hat

jazzy [ˈdʒæzi] – adj. (used especially of clothes) marked by conspicuous display

jealousy [ˈdʒeləsi] – n. zealous vigilance: cherish their official political freedom with fierce jealousy

jeer [dʒiə] – n. showing your contempt by derision

jejune [dʒiˈdʒu:n] – adj. lacking in nutritive value: the jejune diets of the very poor

jeopardize [ˈdʒepədaiz] – v. pose a threat to; present a danger to

jeopardy [ˈdʒepədi] – n. a source of danger; a possibility of incurring loss or misfortune

jeremiad [.dʒeriˈmaiəd] – n. a long and mournful complaint: a jeremiad against any form of government

jest [dʒest] – n. a humorous anecdote or remark intended to provoke laughter: he laughed unpleasantly at his own jest

jesting [ˈdʒestiŋ] – adj. characterized by jokes and good humor

jesuitical  – adj. having qualities characteristic of Jesuits or Jesuitism

jetsam  – n. the part of a ship’s equipment or cargo that is thrown overboard to lighten the load in a storm

jettison [ˈdʒetisn, -tizn] – v. throw away, of something encumbering

jibe [dʒaib] – v. be compatible, similar or consistent; coincide in their characteristics

jilt [dʒilt] – v. cast aside capriciously or unfeelingly: jilt a lover or a bride

jingoism [ˈdʒiŋgəuizəm] – n. an appeal intended to arouse patriotic emotions

jingoist  – n. an extreme bellicose nationalist

jinx [dʒiŋks] – n. a person believed to bring bad luck to those around him

jitter  – n. a small irregular movement

jocose [dʒəˈkəus] – adj. characterized by jokes and good humor

jocular [ˈdʒɔkjulə] – adj. characterized by jokes and good humor

jocund [ˈdʒɔkənd] – adj. full of or showing high-spirited merriment: a poet could not but be gay, in such a jocund company

jog [dʒɔg] – v. continue talking or writing in a desultory manner: This novel rambles on and jogs

jollity [ˈdʒɔliti] – n. feeling jolly and jovial and full of good humor

jolt [dʒəult] – n. a sudden jarring impact: the door closed with a jolt

jostle  – v. come into rough contact with while moving: The passengers jostled each other in the overcrowded train

jot [dʒɔt] – n. a brief (and hurriedly handwritten) note

joust [dʒaust] – n. a combat between two mounted knights tilting against each other with blunted lances

jovial [ˈdʒəviəl] – adj. full of or showing high-spirited merriment: a jovial old gentleman

jubilant [ˈdʒu:bilənt] – adj. joyful and proud especially because of triumph or success

jubilation [.dʒu:biˈleiʃən] – n. a feeling of extreme joy

judiciary [dʒu:ˈdiʃiəri] – n. persons who administer justice

judicious [dʒu(:)ˈdiʃəs] – adj. marked by the exercise of good judgment or common sense in practical matters: judicious use of one’s money

jug [dʒʌg] – n. a large bottle with a narrow mouth

juggernaut [ˈdʒʌgənɔ:t] – n. a massive inexorable force that seems to crush everything in its way

jumble [ˈdʒʌmbl] – n. a confused multitude of things

jumbo [ˈdʒʌmbəu] – adj. of great mass; huge and bulky: a jumbo jet

juncture [ˈdʒʌŋktʃə] – n. an event that occurs at a critical time: at such junctures he always had an impulse to leave

junk [dʒʌŋk] – n. the remains of something that has been destroyed or broken up

junket [ˈdʒʌŋkit] – n. dessert made of sweetened milk coagulated with rennet

junta [ˈdʒʌntə] – n. a group of military officers who rule a country after seizing power

junto  – n. a clique (often secret) that seeks power usually through intrigue

juridical [dʒuəˈridikəl] – adj. of or relating to the law or jurisprudence: juridical days

jurisprudence [.dʒuərisˈpru:dəns] – n. the branch of philosophy concerned with the law and the principles that lead courts to make the decisions they do

justifiable [ˈdʒʌstifaiəbl] – adj. capable of being justified

juvenile [ˈdʒu:vinail] – adj. of or relating to or characteristic of or appropriate for children or young people: juvenile diabetes

juxtapose [.dʒʌkstəˈpəuz] – v. place side by side: The fauvists juxtaposed strong colors

juxtaposition [.dʒʌkstəpəˈziʃən] – n. the act of positioning close together (or side by side): it is the result of the juxtaposition of contrasting colors

kaleidoscope  – n. a complex pattern of constantly changing colors and shapes

kangaroo [.kæŋgəˈru:] – n. any of several herbivorous leaping marsupials of Australia and New Guinea having large powerful hind legs and a long thick tail

karate [kəˈrɑ:ti] – n. a traditional Japanese system of unarmed combat; sharp blows and kicks are given to pressure-sensitive points on the body of the opponent

kayak [ˈkaiæk] – n. a small canoe consisting of a light frame made watertight with animal skins; used by Eskimos

ken [ken] – n. range of what one can know or understand: beyond my ken

kennel [ˈkenl] – n. outbuilding that serves as a shelter for a dog

kerfuffle [kəˈfʌfəl] – n. a disorderly outburst or tumult

kernel [ˈkə:nl] – n. the inner and usually edible part of a seed or grain or nut or fruit stone: black walnut kernels are difficult to get out of the shell

killjoy  – n. someone who spoils the pleasure of others

kindred  – adj. similar in quality or character: kindred souls

kinetic [kiˈnetik] – adj. relating to the motion of material bodies and the forces associated therewith: kinetic energy

kink  – n. a painful muscle spasm especially in the neck or back (`rick’ and `wrick’ are British)

kiosk [ˈki:ɔsk] – n. small area set off by walls for special use

kismet [kizmet] – n. (Islam) the will of Allah

kith [kiθ] – n. your friends and acquaintances: all his kith and kin

kitsch [kitʃ] – n. excessively garish or sentimental art; usually considered in bad taste

kitten [ˈkitn] – n. young domestic cat

kleptomania [.kleptəˈmeiniə] – n. an irresistible impulse to steal in the absence of any economic motive

kleptomaniac [-ˈmeiniæk] – n. someone with an irrational urge to steal in the absence of an economic motive

knack [næk] – n. a special way of doing something: he had a special knack for getting into trouble

knackered [ˈnækəd] – adj. very tired

knave [neiv] – n. a deceitful and unreliable scoundrel

knavery [ˈneivəri] – n. lack of honesty; acts of lying or cheating or stealing

knead [ni:d] – v. make uniform: knead dough

knell [nel] – v. ring as in announcing death

knocker [ˈnɑ:kə(r)] – n. (Yiddish) a big shot who knows it and acts that way; a boastful immoderate person

knoll [nəul] – n. a small natural hill

knotty [ˈnɔti] – adj. making great mental demands; hard to comprehend or solve or believe: I faced the knotty problem of what to have for breakfast

knowledgeable [ˈnɔlidʒəbl] – adj. highly educated; having extensive information or understanding: a knowledgeable critic

kudos [ˈkju:dɔs] – n. an expression of approval and commendation

labile  – adj. (chemistry, physics, biology) readily undergoing change or breakdown

labored [ˈleibəd] – adj. lacking natural ease: a labored style of debating

laborious [ləˈbɔ:riəs] – adj. characterized by effort to the point of exhaustion; especially physical effort: spent many laborious hours on the project

labyrinth [ˈlæbərinθ] – n. complex system of paths or tunnels in which it is easy to get lost

lacerate [ˈlæsəreit] – v. cut or tear irregularly

laceration [.læsəˈreiʃən] – n. a torn ragged wound

lacework [ˈleiswɜ:k] – n. work consisting of (or resembling) lace fabric

lachrymose [ˈlækriməus] – adj. showing sorrow

lackadaisical [lækəˈdeizik(ə)l] – adj. lacking spirit or liveliness: a lackadaisical attempt

lackey [ˈlæki] – n. a male servant (especially a footman)

lackluster [ˈlæk.lʌstə] – adj. lacking brilliance or vitality: a dull lackluster life

lacklustre  – adj. lacking brilliance or vitality

laconic [ləˈkɔnik] – adj. brief and to the point; effectively cut short: the laconic reply; `yes’

lactic [ˈlæktik] – adj. of or relating to or obtained from milk (especially sour milk or whey): lactic acid

lacuna [ləˈkju:nə] – n. a blank gap or missing part

laggard [ˈlægəd] – n. someone who takes more time than necessary; someone who lags behind

lagniappe [ˈlænˈjæp] – n. a small gift (especially one given by a merchant to a customer who makes a purchase)

lagoon [ləˈgu:n] – n. a body of water cut off from a larger body by a reef of sand or coral

lair [leə] – n. the habitation of wild animals

laity [ˈleiiti] – n. in Christianity, members of a religious community that do not have the priestly responsibilities of ordained clergy

lambaste [læmˈbeist] – v. beat with a cane

lambent [ˈlæmbənt] – adj. softly bright or radiant: lambent tongues of flame

lament [ləˈment] – n. a cry of sorrow and grief: their pitiful laments could be heard throughout the ward

lamentable [ˈlæməntəbl, ləˈmentəbl] – adj. bad; unfortunate: a lamentable decision

laminate [ˈlæmineit] – v. press or beat (metals) into thin sheets

lampoon [læmˈpu:n] – n. a composition that imitates or misrepresents somebody’s style, usually in a humorous way

lampooner [læmˈpu:nə(r)] – n. mimics literary or musical style for comic effect

lance [lɑ:ns] – n. a long pointed rod used as a tool or weapon

lancet  – n. a surgical knife with a pointed double-edged blade; used for punctures and small incisions

lancinate [ˈlænsineit] – adj. painful as if caused by a sharp instrument

landfill  – n. a low area that has been filled in

landlocked [ˈlændlɔkt] – adj. surrounded entirely or almost entirely by land: a landlocked country

landslide [ˈlændslaid] – n. an overwhelming electoral victory: Roosevelt defeated Hoover in a landslide

languid [ˈlæŋgwid] – adj. lacking spirit or liveliness: a languid mood

languish [ˈlæŋgwiʃ] – v. lose vigor, health, or flesh, as through grief

languor [ˈlæŋgə] – n. a relaxed comfortable feeling

lank [læŋk] – adj. long and thin and often limp: grown lank with fasting

lapidary [ˈlæpidəri] – n. an expert on precious stones and the art of cutting and engraving them

lapse [læps] – v. pass into a specified state or condition

larceny [ˈlɑ:səni] – n. the act of taking something from someone unlawfully

larch [lɑ:tʃ] – n. any of numerous conifers of the genus Larix all having deciduous needlelike leaves

lard [lɑ:d] – v. add details to

larder  – n. a supply of food especially for a household

largess [ˈlɑ:dʒes, ˈlɑ:dʒis] – n. a gift or money given (as for service or out of benevolence); usually given ostentatiously

largesse [lɑrˈdʒes] – n. a gift or money given (as for service or out of benevolence); usually given ostentatiously

lariat [ˈlæriət] – n. a long noosed rope used to catch animals

larva [ˈlɑ:və] – n. the immature free-living form of most invertebrates and amphibians and fish which at hatching from the egg is fundamentally unlike its parent and must metamorphose

laryngitis [.lærinˈdʒaitis] – n. inflammation of the mucous membrane of the larynx; characterized by hoarseness or loss of voice and coughing

larynx [ˈlæriŋks] – n. a cartilaginous structure at the top of the trachea; contains elastic vocal cords that are the source of the vocal tone in speech

lascivious [ləˈsiviəs] – adj. driven by lust; preoccupied with or exhibiting lustful desires

lash [læʃ] – v. beat severely with a whip or rod

lassitude [ˈlæsitju:d] – n. a state of comatose torpor (as found in sleeping sickness)

lasso [læˈsu:] – n. Belgian composer (1532-1594)

latch  – n. spring-loaded doorlock that can only be opened from the outside with a key

latency [ˈleitənsi] – n. the time that elapses between a stimulus and the response to it

latent [ˈleitnt] – adj. potentially existing but not presently evident or realized: a latent fingerprint

lateral [ˈlætərəl] – adj. situated at or extending to the side: the lateral branches of a tree

lathe [leið] – n. machine tool for shaping metal or wood; the workpiece turns about a horizontal axis against a fixed tool

latitude [ˈlætitju:d] – n. the angular distance between an imaginary line around a heavenly body parallel to its equator and the equator itself

lattice [ˈlætis] – n. an arrangement of points or particles or objects in a regular periodic pattern in 2 or 3 dimensions

laud [lɔ:d] – v. praise, glorify, or honor

laudable [ˈlɔ:dəbəl] – adj. worthy of high praise: applaudable efforts to save the environment

laudatory [ˈlɔ:dətəri] – adj. full of or giving praise: a laudatory remark

laurel [ˈlɔrəl] – n. United States slapstick comedian (born in England) who played the scatterbrained and often tearful member of the Laurel and Hardy duo who made many films (1890-1965)

laurels  – n. a tangible symbol signifying approval or distinction

lava [ˈlɑ:və] – n. rock that in its molten form (as magma) issues from volcanos; lava is what magma is called when it reaches the surface

lave [leiv] – v. wash or flow against: the waves laved the shore

lax [læks] – adj. lacking in rigor or strictness: such lax and slipshod ways are no longer acceptable

laxative [ˈlæksətiv] – n. a mild cathartic

laxity [ˈlæksiti] – n. the quality of being lax and neglectful

layabout  – n. person who does no work

layman [ˈleimən] – n. someone who is not a clergyman or a professional person

leach [li:tʃ] – v. permeate or penetrate gradually: the fertilizer leached into the ground

leakage [ˈli:kidʒ] – n. the discharge of a fluid from some container

leash  – n. restraint consisting of a rope (or light chain) used to restrain an animal

leaven [ˈlevən] – n. a substance used to produce fermentation in dough or a liquid

leave-taking  – n. the act of departing politely

lecherous [ˈletʃərəs] – adj. given to excessive indulgence in sexual activity: a lecherous gleam in his eye

lechery [ˈletʃəri] – n. unrestrained indulgence in sexual activity

lectern [ˈlektən] – n. desk or stand with a slanted top used to hold a text at the proper height for a lecturer

ledger [ˈledʒə] – n. a record in which commercial accounts are recorded

leer [liə] – n. a facial expression of contempt or scorn; the upper lip curls

leery  – adj. openly distrustful and unwilling to confide

leeward [ˈli:wəd] – n. the direction in which the wind is blowing

leeway [ˈli:wei] – n. (of a ship or plane) sideways drift

legato  – adj. (music) without breaks between notes; smooth and connected: a legato passage

legerdemain [.ledʒədəˈmein] – n. an illusory feat; considered magical by naive observers

legible [ˈledʒəbəl] – adj. (of handwriting, print, etc.) capable of being read or deciphered: legible handwriting

legion [ˈli:dʒən] – n. archaic terms for army

legislate [ˈledʒisleit] – v. make laws, bills, etc. or bring into effect by legislation: We cannot legislate how people spend their free time

lenience [ˈli:njəns] – n. a disposition to yield to the wishes of someone

leniency [ˈli:njənsi] – n. a disposition to yield to the wishes of someone

lenient [ˈli:niənt] – adj. not strict: lenient rules

leonine [ˈli:ənain] – adj. of or characteristic of or resembling a lion

leprosy [ˈleprəsi] – n. chronic granulomatous communicable disease occurring in tropical and subtropical regions; characterized by inflamed nodules beneath the skin and wasting of body parts; caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium leprae

lesion [ˈli:ʒən] – n. any localized abnormal structural change in a bodily part

lessee [leˈsi:] – n. a tenant who holds a lease

lethal [ˈli:θəl] – adj. of an instrument of certain death: lethal weapon

lethargic [leˈθɑ:dʒik] – adj. deficient in alertness or activity: bullfrogs became lethargic with the first cold nights

lethargy [ˈleθədʒi] – n. a state of comatose torpor (as found in sleeping sickness)

leucocyte  – n. blood cells that engulf and digest bacteria and fungi; an important part of the body’s defense system

levee [ˈlevi] – n. a formal reception of visitors or guests (as at a royal court)

levelheaded  – adj. exercising or showing good judgment

leverage [ˈli:vəridʒ] – n. strategic advantage; power to act effectively: relatively small groups can sometimes exert immense political leverage

leviathan [liˈvaiəθən] – n. the largest or most massive thing of its kind: it was a leviathan among redwoods

levitate [ˈleviteit] – v. cause to rise in the air and float, as if in defiance of gravity: The magician levitated the woman

levity [ˈleviti] – n. feeling an inappropriate lack of seriousness

levy [ˈlevi] – n. the act of drafting into military service

lewd [lu:d] – adj. suggestive of or tending to moral looseness: lewd whisperings of a dirty old man

lexicographer [.leksiˈkɔgrəfə] – n. a compiler or writer of a dictionary; a student of the lexical component of language

lexicon [ˈleksikən] – n. a language user’s knowledge of words

libation [laiˈbeiʃən] – n. (facetious) a serving of an alcoholic beverage

libel [ˈlaibəl] – n. a false and malicious publication printed for the purpose of defaming a living person

libellous  – adj. (used of statements) harmful and often untrue; tending to discredit or malign

libelous [ˈlaibələs] – adj. (used of statements) harmful and often untrue; tending to discredit or malign

liberality [.libəˈræliti] – n. an inclination to favor progress and individual freedom

liberated [ˈlibəreitid] – adj. (of a gas e.g.) released from chemical combination

libertine [ˈlibəti:n] – n. a dissolute person; usually a man who is morally unrestrained

libidinous [liˈbidinəs] – adj. driven by lust; preoccupied with or exhibiting lustful desires: libidinous orgies

libido [liˈbi:dəu] – n. (psychoanalysis) a Freudian term for sexual urge or desire

libretto [liˈbretəu] – n. the words of an opera or musical play

licentious [laiˈsenʃəs] – adj. lacking moral discipline; especially sexually unrestrained: coarse and licentious men

licit [ˈlisit] – adj. sanctioned by custom or morality especially sexual morality: a wife’s licit love

lido [ˈli:dəu] – n. a recreational facility including a swimming pool for water sports

lien [li:ən] – n. the right to take another’s property if an obligation is not discharged

lieu [lu:] – n. the post or function properly or customarily occupied or served by another: in lieu of

ligature [ˈligətʃə] – n. (music) a group of notes connected by a slur

ligneous [ˈligniəs] – adj. consisting of or containing lignin or xylem: ligneous (or woody) tissue

liken [ˈlaikən] – v. consider or describe as similar, equal, or analogous

lilliputian  – adj. tiny; relating to or characteristic of the imaginary country of Lilliput

limber [ˈlimbə] – adj. (used of e.g. personality traits) readily adaptable: a limber imagination

limbo [ˈlimbəu] – n. the state of being disregarded or forgotten

limerick [ˈlimərik] – n. port city in southwestern Ireland

limn [lim] – v. trace the shape of

limousine [ˈlimu(:)zi:n] – n. large luxurious car; usually driven by a chauffeur

limp [limp] – v. proceed slowly or with difficulty: the boat limped into the harbor

limpid [ˈlimpid] – adj. clear and bright: limpid blue eyes

lineage  – n. the descendants of one individual: his entire lineage has been warriors

lineal [ˈliniəl] – adj. arranged in a line

lineament  – n. a characteristic property that defines the apparent individual nature of something

lingual [ˈliŋgwəl] – adj. consisting of or related to language: lingual diversity

linguistics [liŋˈgwistiks] – n. the scientific study of language

linoleum [liˈnəuliəm] – n. a floor covering

lint [lint] – n. cotton or linen fabric with the nap raised on one side; used to dress wounds

lionize [ˈlaiənaiz] – v. assign great social importance to: The tenor was lionized in Vienna

liquefy [ˈlikwifai] – v. make (a solid substance) liquid, as by heating: liquefy the silver

liquidate [ˈlikwideit] – v. get rid of (someone who may be a threat) by killing: The mafia liquidated the informer

liquidation [.likwiˈdeiʃən] – n. termination of a business operation by using its assets to discharge its liabilities

lissom  – adj. moving and bending with ease

lissome [ˈlisəm] – adj. moving and bending with ease

listless [ˈlistləs] – adj. lacking zest or vivacity: he was listless and bored

litany [ˈlitəni] – n. any long and tedious address or recital: the patient recited a litany of complaints

literal [ˈlitərəl] – adj. being or reflecting the essential or genuine character of something: a literal solitude like a desert

literati [.litəˈrɑ:ti] – n. the literary intelligentsia

lithe [laið] – adj. moving and bending with ease

litigant [ˈlitigənt] – n. (law) a party to a lawsuit; someone involved in litigation: plaintiffs and defendants are both litigants

litigate [ˈlitigeit] – v. engage in legal proceedings

litigious [liˈtidʒəs] – adj. inclined or showing an inclination to dispute or disagree, even to engage in law suits: a litigious and acrimonious spirit

litotes [ˈlaitəti:z] – n. understatement for rhetorical effect (especially when expressing an affirmative by negating its contrary): saying `I was not a little upset’ when you mean `I was very upset’ is an example of litotes

litter [ˈlitə] – n. the offspring at one birth of a multiparous mammal

littoral [ˈlitərəl] – n. the region of the shore of a lake or sea or ocean

liturgical [liˈtə:dʒikəl] – adj. of or relating to or in accord with liturgy

liturgy [ˈlitədʒi] – n. a Christian sacrament commemorating the Last Supper by consecrating bread and wine

livable [ˈlivəbəl] – adj. fit or suitable to live in or with: livable conditions

liverish [.livəriʃ] – adj. irritable as if suffering from indigestion

livid [ˈlivid] – adj. anemic looking from illness or emotion: a face livid with shock

loam [ləum] – n. a rich soil consisting of a mixture of sand and clay and decaying organic materials

loath [ləuθ] – adj. unwillingness to do something contrary to your custom: loath to admit a mistake

loathe [ləuð] – v. find repugnant: I loathe that man

loathsome [ˈləuðsəm] – adj. causing or able to cause nausea

lobe [ləub] – n. (anatomy) a somewhat rounded subdivision of a bodily organ or part: ear lobe

lobster [ˈlɔbstə] – n. any of several edible marine crustaceans of the families Homaridae and Nephropsidae and Palinuridae

locale [ləuˈkɑ:l] – n. the scene of any event or action (especially the place of a meeting)

locomotion [ləʊkəˈməʊʃ(ə)n] – n. the power or ability to move

locus [ˈləukəs] – n. the scene of any event or action (especially the place of a meeting)

locust [ˈləukəst] – n. migratory grasshoppers of warm regions having short antennae

locution [ləuˈkju:ʃən] – n. a word or phrase that particular people use in particular situations

lode [ləud] – n. a deposit of valuable ore occurring within definite boundaries separating it from surrounding rocks

lodger [ˈlɔdʒə] – n. a tenant in someone’s house

loft [lɔft] – n. floor consisting of open space at the top of a house just below roof; often used for storage

lofty [ˈlɔfti] – adj. of high moral or intellectual value; elevated in nature or style: a noble and lofty concept

logistics [ləˈdʒistiks] – n. handling an operation that involves providing labor and materials be supplied as needed

logjam [ˈlɔgdʒæm] – n. any stoppage attributable to unusual activity: the legislation ran into a logjam

loiter [ˈlɔitə] – v. be about: The high school students like to loiter in the Central Square

loll [lɔl] – v. be lazy or idle

longevity [lɔnˈdʒeviti] – n. duration of service: her longevity as a star

longitude [ˈlɔndʒitju:d] – n. the angular distance between a point on any meridian and the prime meridian at Greenwich

longueur  – n. a period of dullness or boredom (especially in a work of literature or performing art)

lookout  – n. a person employed to keep watch for some anticipated event

loom [lu:m] – v. come into view indistinctly, often threateningly: Another air plane loomed into the sky

loon [lu:n] – n. a worthless lazy fellow

loophole  – n. a small hole in a fortified wall; for observation or discharging weapons

loot [lu:t] – n. goods or money obtained illegally

lope [ləup] – n. a smooth three-beat gait; between a trot and a gallop

lopsided  – adj. having one side lower or smaller or lighter than the other

loquacious [ləuˈkweiʃəs] – adj. full of trivial conversation

lore [lɔ:, lɔə] – n. knowledge gained through tradition or anecdote: early peoples passed on plant and animal lore through legend

lottery [ˈlɔtəri] – n. something that is regarded as a chance event: the election was just a lottery to them

lounger [ˈlaʊndʒə(r)] – n. someone who wastes time

lout [laut] – n. an awkward stupid person

loutish [ˈlaʊtiʃ] – adj. ill-mannered and coarse and contemptible in behavior or appearance: the loutish manners of a bully

lowbred [ˈləʊˈbred] – adj. (of persons) lacking in refinement or grace

lubricant [ˈlu:brikənt] – n. a substance capable of reducing friction by making surfaces smooth or slippery

lubricate [ˈlu:brikeit] – v. apply a lubricant to: lubricate my car

lubricious [lu:ˈbriʃəs] – adj. having a smooth or slippery quality: the skin of cephalopods is thin and lubricious

lubricity [lu:ˈbrisiti] – n. feeling morbid sexual desire or a propensity to lewdness

lucent [ˈlju:snt] – adj. softly bright or radiant: the lucent moon

lucid [ˈlu:sid] – adj. (of language) transparently clear; easily understandable: lucid directions

lucrative [ˈlu:krətiv] – adj. producing a sizeable profit

lucre [ˈlu:kə] – n. informal terms for money

lucubrate [ˈlju:kju(:)breit] – v. add details, as to an account or idea; clarify the meaning of and discourse in a learned way, usually in writing

lucubration [.lju:kju(:)ˈbreiʃən] – n. a solemn literary work that is the product of laborious cogitation

ludicrous [ˈlu:dikrəs] – adj. broadly or extravagantly humorous; resembling farce: ludicrous green hair

lug [lʌg] – n. ancient Celtic god

lugubrious [lu:ˈgu:briəs] – adj. excessively mournful

lukewarm [.lu:kˈwɔ:m] – adj. moderately warm: he hates lukewarm coffee

lull [lʌl] – v. calm by deception: Don’t let yourself be lulled into a false state of security

lullaby [ˈlʌləbai] – n. the act of singing a quiet song to lull a child to sleep

lumen  – n. a cavity or passage in a tubular organ: the lumen of the intestine

luminary [ˈlu:minəri] – n. a celebrity who is an inspiration to others

luminous [ˈlju:minəs] – adj. softly bright or radiant: a sky luminous with stars

lumpish [ˈlʌmpiʃ] – adj. mentally sluggish

lunacy [ˈlu:nəsi] – n. obsolete terms for legal insanity

lunatic [ˈlu:nətik] – n. an insane person

lunge  – n. the act of moving forward suddenly

lurch [lə:tʃ] – v. walk as if unable to control one’s movements

lure [lu] – n. qualities that attract by seeming to promise some kind of reward

lurid [ˈljuərid] – adj. horrible in fierceness or savagery: lurid crimes

lurk [lə:k] – v. lie in wait, lie in ambush, behave in a sneaky and secretive manner

luscious [ˈlʌʃəs] – adj. having strong sexual appeal

lush  – adj. produced or growing in extreme abundance

lust [lʌst] – n. a strong sexual desire

luster [ˈlʌstə] – n. a quality that outshines the usual

lustre  – n. a surface coating for ceramics or porcelain

lustrous [ˈlʌstrəs] – adj. made smooth and bright by or as if by rubbing; reflecting a sheen or glow: she brushed her hair until it fell in lustrous auburn waves

lusty [ˈlʌsti] – adj. vigorously passionate

luxuriant [lʌgˈzjuəriənt] – adj. marked by complexity and richness of detail

luxuriate [lʌgˈzjuərieit] – v. enjoy to excess

luxurious [lʌgˈʒu:riəs] – adj. rich and superior in quality

lynch [lintʃ] – v. kill without legal sanction: The blood-thirsty mob lynched the alleged killer of the child

lyric [ˈlirik] – adj. expressing deep emotion: the dancer’s lyrical performance

macabre  – adj. shockingly repellent; inspiring horror: macabre tales of war and plague in the Middle ages

macadam [məˈkædəm] – n. a paved surface having compressed layers of broken rocks held together with tar

mace [meis] – n. spice made from the dried fleshy covering of the nutmeg seed

macerate [ˈmæsəreit] – v. separate into constituents by soaking

Machiavellian [.mækiəˈveliən] – n. a follower of Machiavelli’s principles

machination [.mækiˈneiʃən] – n. a crafty and involved plot to achieve your (usually sinister) ends

mackintosh [ˈmækintɔʃ] – n. a lightweight waterproof (usually rubberized) fabric

macrocosm [ˈmækrəukɔzəm] – n. everything that exists anywhere

madrigal [ˈmædrigəl] – n. an unaccompanied partsong for 2 or 3 voices; follows a strict poetic form

maelstrom [ˈmeilstrəm] – n. a powerful circular current of water (usually the result of conflicting tides)

maestro [ˈmaistrəu] – n. an artist of consummate skill

magenta [məˈdʒentə] – adj. of deep purplish red

magisterial [.mædʒiˈstiəriəl] – adj. offensively self-assured or given to exercising usually unwarranted power: managed the employees in an aloof magisterial way

magistracy [ˈmædʒistrəsi] – n. the position of magistrate

magnanimity  – n. liberality in bestowing gifts; extremely liberal and generous of spirit

magnanimous [mægˈnæniməs] – adj. noble and generous in spirit: a magnanimous conqueror

magnate [ˈmægneit] – n. a very wealthy or powerful businessman

magnetism [ˈmægnitizəm] – n. attraction for iron; associated with electric currents as well as magnets; characterized by fields of force

magnification [.mægnifiˈkeiʃən] – n. the act of expanding something in apparent size

magnify [ˈmægnifai] – v. increase in size, volume or significance

magniloquent [mægˈniləkwənt] – adj. lofty in style

magpie [ˈmægpai] – n. long-tailed black-and-white crow that utters a raucous chattering call

maim [meim] – v. injure or wound seriously and leave permanent disfiguration or mutilation: people were maimed by the explosion

maisonette  – n. a self-contained apartment (usually on two floors) in a larger house and with its own entrance from the outside

makeshift [ˈmeik.ʃift] – n. something contrived to meet an urgent need or emergency

maladroit [.mæləˈdrɔit] – adj. not adroit: a maladroit movement of his hand caused the car to swerve

malady [ˈmælədi] – n. any unwholesome or desperate condition

malaise [mæˈleiz] – n. physical discomfort (as mild sickness or depression)

malapropism [ˈmæləprɔpizəm] – n. the unintentional misuse of a word by confusion with one that sounds similar

malapropos  – adj. of an inappropriate or incorrectly applied nature

malcontent [ˈmælkəntent] – n. a person who is discontented or disgusted

malediction [.mæləˈdikʃən] – n. the act of calling down a curse that invokes evil (and usually serves as an insult)

malefactor [ˈmælifæktə] – n. someone who has committed a crime or has been legally convicted of a crime

malevolence [məˈlevələns] – n. wishing evil to others

malevolent [məˈlevələnt] – adj. wishing or appearing to wish evil to others; arising from intense ill will or hatred: a gossipy malevolent old woman

malfeasance  – n. wrongful conduct by a public official

malfunction [mælˈfʌŋkʃən] – n. a failure to function normally

malice [ˈmælis] – n. feeling a need to see others suffer

malicious [məˈliʃəs] – adj. having the nature of or resulting from malice: malicious gossip

malign [məˈlain] – adj. evil or harmful in nature or influence: prompted by malign motives

malignant [məˈlignənt] – adj. dangerous to health; characterized by progressive and uncontrolled growth (especially of a tumor)

malignity [məˈligniti] – n. wishing evil to others

malinger [məˈliŋgə] – v. avoid responsibilities and duties, e.g., by pretending to be ill

malingerer  – n. someone shirking their duty by feigning illness or incapacity

mall [mɔ:l, mæl] – n. a public area set aside as a pedestrian walk

malleable [ˈmæliəbəl] – adj. easily influenced

mallet [ˈmælit] – n. a sports implement with a long handle and a head like a hammer; used in sports (polo or croquet) to hit a ball

malnutrition [.mælnjuˈtriʃən] – n. a state of poor nutrition; can result from insufficient or excessive or unbalanced diet or from inability to absorb foods

malodor  – n. a distinctive odor that is offensively unpleasant

malodorous [.mælˈəudərəs] – adj. having an unpleasant smell

maltreat [mælˈtri:t] – v. treat badly

mammoth [ˈmæməθ] – n. any of numerous extinct elephants widely distributed in the Pleistocene; extremely large with hairy coats and long upcurved tusks

manacle [ˈmænəkəl] – n. shackle that consists of a metal loop that can be locked around the wrist; usually used in pairs

mandate [ˈmændeit] – n. a document giving an official instruction or command

maneuver [məˈnu:və] – n. a military training exercise

maneuverable [məˈnu:vərəbl] – adj. capable of maneuvering or changing position: a highly maneuverable ship

mange  – n. a persistent and contagious disease of the skin causing inflammation and itching and loss of hair; affects domestic animals (and sometimes people)

mangle [ˈmæŋgəl] – v. injure badly by beating

mangy  – adj. having many worn or threadbare spots in the nap: a mangy carpet

mania [ˈmeiniə] – n. an irrational but irresistible motive for a belief or action

maniacal [məˈnaiəkəl] – adj. wildly disordered: a maniacal frenzy

manifesto [.mæniˈfestəu] – n. a public declaration of intentions (as issued by a political party or government)

manifold [ˈmænifəuld] – n. a pipe that has several lateral outlets to or from other pipes

manikin [ˈmænikin] – n. a person who is very small but who is not otherwise deformed or abnormal

manipulative [məˈnipjulətiv] – adj. skillful in influencing or controlling others to your own advantage: the early manipulative techniques of a three-year-old child

mannequin [ˈmænikin] – n. a woman who wears clothes to display fashions: she was too fat to be a mannequin

mannerism [ˈmænərizəm] – n. a behavioral attribute that is distinctive and peculiar to an individual

mansion [ˈmænʃən] – n. (astrology) one of 12 equal areas into which the zodiac is divided

mantle [ˈmæntl] – n. the cloak as a symbol of authority: place the mantle of authority on younger shoulders

manumit [.mænjuˈmit] – v. free from slavery or servitude

maple [ˈmeipl] – n. any of numerous trees or shrubs of the genus Acer bearing winged seeds in pairs; north temperate zone

mar [mɑ:] – n. the month following February and preceding April

maraud [məˈrɔ:d] – n. a sudden short attack

marauder [məˈrɔ:də] – n. someone who attacks in search of booty

mare [meə] – n. a dark region of considerable extent on the surface of the moon

margarine [.mɑ:dʒəˈri:n] – n. a spread made chiefly from vegetable oils and used as a substitute for butter

mariner [ˈmærinə] – n. a man who serves as a sailor

marionette [.mæriəˈnet] – n. a small figure of a person operated from above with strings by a puppeteer

marital [ˈmæritl] – adj. of or relating to the state of marriage: marital status

maritime [ˈmæritaim] – adj. relating to or involving ships or shipping or navigation or seamen: maritime law

maroon [məˈru:n] – n. a person who is stranded (as on an island): when the tide came in I was a maroon out there

marquetry [ˈmɑ:kitri] – n. inlaid veneers are fitted together to form a design or picture that is then used to ornament furniture

marred  – adj. blemished by injury or rough wear: walls marred by graffiti

marrow [ˈmærəu] – n. the fatty network of connective tissue that fills the cavities of bones

marshal [ˈmɑ:ʃəl] – v. place in proper rank: marshal the troops

marsupial [mɑ:ˈsju:piəl] – n. mammals of which the females have a pouch (the marsupium) containing the teats where the young are fed and carried

martial [ˈmɑ:ʃəl] – adj. (of persons) befitting a warrior

martinet [.ma:tiˈnet] – n. someone who demands exact conformity to rules and forms

martyr [ˈmɑ:tə] – n. one who suffers for the sake of principle

marvel [ˈmɑ:vəl] – v. be amazed at: We marvelled at the child’s linguistic abilities

mash [mæʃ] – v. to compress with violence, out of natural shape or condition

masochist  – n. someone who obtains pleasure from receiving punishment

mason [ˈmeisn] – n. American Revolutionary leader from Virginia whose objections led to the drafting of the Bill of Rights (1725-1792)

masonry [ˈmeisnri] – n. Freemasons collectively

masquerade [.mæskəˈreid] – n. a party of guests wearing costumes and masks

massacre [ˈmæsəkə] – n. the savage and excessive killing of many people

mast [mɑ:st] – n. a vertical spar for supporting sails

masticate [ˈmæstəkeit] – v. grind and knead: masticate rubber

matador [ˈmætədɔ:] – n. the principal bullfighter who is appointed to make the final passes and kill the bull

materialize [məˈtiəriəlaiz] – v. come into being; become reality: Her dream really materialized

maternal [məˈtə:nl] – adj. characteristic of a mother: warm maternal affection for her guest

matey  – adj. (used colloquially) having the relationship of friends or pals

matinee [ˈmætinei] – n. a theatrical performance held during the daytime (especially in the afternoon)

matriarch  – n. a female head of a family or tribe

matriarchy [ˈmeitriɑ:ki] – n. a form of social organization in which a female is the family head and title is traced through the female line

matricide [ˈmeitrisaid] – n. a person who murders their mother

matriculate  – n. someone who has been admitted to a college or university

matrimony [ˈmætriməni] – n. the state of being a married couple voluntarily joined for life (or until divorce)

mattress [ˈmætris] – n. a large thick pad filled with resilient material and often incorporating coiled springs, used as a bed or part of a bed

maudlin [ˈmɔ:dlin] – adj. effusively or insincerely emotional: maudlin expressions of sympathy

maul [mɔ:l] – v. injure badly by beating

maunder [ˈmɔ:ndə] – v. wander aimlessly

mausoleum [mɔ:səˈliəm] – n. a large burial chamber, usually above ground

mauve [məuv] – n. a moderate purple

maven  – n. someone who is dazzlingly skilled in any field

maverick [ˈmævərik] – n. someone who exhibits great independence in thought and action

mawkish [ˈmɔ:kiʃ] – adj. effusively or insincerely emotional

maxim [ˈmæksim] – n. a saying that is widely accepted on its own merits

mayhem [ˈmeihem] – n. the willful and unlawful crippling or mutilation of another person

maze [meiz] – n. complex system of paths or tunnels in which it is easy to get lost

meager [ˈmi:gə] – adj. deficient in amount or quality or extent: meager resources

mealymouthed  – adj. hesitant to state facts or opinions simply and directly as from e.g. timidity or hypocrisy: a mealymouthed politician

meander [miˈændə] – n. a bend or curve, as in a stream or river

measles [ˈmi:zəlz] – n. an acute and highly contagious viral disease marked by distinct red spots followed by a rash; occurs primarily in children

measly  – adj. contemptibly small in amount: a measly tip

measured [ˈmeʒəd] – adj. having notes of fixed rhythmic value

mecca  – n. a place that attracts many visitors: New York is a mecca for young artists

meddle [ˈmedl] – v. intrude in other people’s affairs or business; interfere unwantedly: Don’t meddle in my affairs!

meddlesome [ˈmedlsəm] – adj. intrusive in a meddling or offensive manner

median [ˈmi:diən] – adj. dividing an animal into right and left halves

mediate [ˈmidieit] – v. act between parties with a view to reconciling differences: He mediated a settlement

mediocre [.mi:diˈəukə] – adj. moderate to inferior in quality: they improved the quality from mediocre to above average

mediocrity [.mi:diˈɔkriti] – n. ordinariness as a consequence of being average and not outstanding

meditate [ˈmediteit] – v. reflect deeply on a subject

meditation [.mediˈteiʃən] – n. continuous and profound contemplation or musing on a subject or series of subjects of a deep or abstruse nature: the habit of meditation is the basis for all real knowledge

meditative [ˈmeditətiv] – adj. deeply or seriously thoughtful

medley [ˈmedli] – n. a musical composition consisting of a series of songs or other musical pieces from various sources

meek [mi:k] – adj. humble in spirit or manner; suggesting retiring mildness or even cowed submissiveness: meek and self-effacing

megalith [ˈmegəliθ] – n. memorial consisting of a very large stone forming part of a prehistoric structure (especially in western Europe)

megalomania [.megələuˈmeiniə] – n. a psychological state characterized by delusions of grandeur

melancholy [ˈmelənkəli] – n. a feeling of thoughtful sadness

melange [meiˈlɑ:nʒ] – n. a motley assortment of things

meld [meld] – v. lose its distinct outline or shape; blend gradually

melee [ˈmelei, meiˈlei] – n. a noisy riotous fight

meliorism  – n. the belief that the world can be made better by human effort

mellifluous [miˈlifluəs] – adj. pleasing to the ear

melodious [miˈləudiəs] – adj. having a musical sound; especially a pleasing tune

melodrama [ˈmelədrɑ:mə] – n. an extravagant comedy in which action is more salient than characterization

melody [ˈmelədi] – n. a succession of notes forming a distinctive sequence

memento [miˈmentəu] – n. a reminder of past events

memoir [ˈmemwɑ:] – n. an account of the author’s personal experiences

memorialize [miˈmɔ:riəlaiz] – v. be or provide a memorial to a person or an event: We memorialized the Dead

menace [ˈmenis] – v. pose a threat to; present a danger to

menagerie [miˈnædʒəri] – n. a collection of live animals for study or display

mendacious [menˈdeiʃəs] – adj. given to lying: a mendacious child

mendacity [menˈdæsiti] – n. the tendency to be untruthful

mendicant [ˈmendikənt] – n. a male member of a religious order that originally relied solely on alms

menial [ˈmi:niəl] – n. a domestic servant

mentor [ˈmentə] – n. a wise and trusted guide and advisor

mercantile [ˈmə:kəntail] – adj. profit oriented: preached a mercantile and militant patriotism

mercenary [ˈmə:sinəri] – adj. marked by materialism

mercurial [mə:ˈkjuəriəl] – adj. liable to sudden unpredictable change: mercurial twists of temperament

meretricious [.meriˈtriʃəs] – adj. like or relating to a prostitute: meretricious relationships

meringue [məˈræŋ] – n. sweet topping especially for pies made of beaten egg whites and sugar

meritorious [.meriˈtɔ:riəs] – adj. deserving reward or praise: a lifetime of meritorious service

mermaid [ˈmə:meid] – n. half woman and half fish; lives in the sea

mesa [ˈmeisə] – n. flat tableland with steep edges: the tribe was relatively safe on the mesa but they had to descend into the valley for water

mesh [meʃ] – n. contact by fitting together: the meshing of gears

mesmerism  – n. the act of inducing hypnosis

mesmerize [ˈmezməraiz] – v. attract strongly, as if with a magnet

messy [ˈmesi] – adj. dirty and disorderly: a child’s messy eating habits

metabolism [məˈtæbəlizəm] – n. the marked and rapid transformation of a larva into an adult that occurs in some animals

metallurgical [.metəˈlə:dʒikəl] – adj. of or relating to metallurgy: metallurgical engineer

metamorphosis [.metəˈmɔ:fəsis] – n. the marked and rapid transformation of a larva into an adult that occurs in some animals

metaphorical [.metəˈfɔrikəl] – adj. expressing one thing in terms normally denoting another: a metaphorical expression

metaphysical [metəˈfizikl] – adj. without material form or substance: metaphysical forces

metaphysics [.metəˈfiziks] – n. the philosophical study of being and knowing

mete [mi:t] – n. a line that indicates a boundary

meteoric [.mi:tiˈɔrik] – adj. of or pertaining to atmospheric phenomena, especially weather and weather conditions: meteoric (or meteorological) phenomena

meteorology [mi:tiəˈrɔlədʒi] – n. predicting what the weather will be

methodical [miˈθɔdikəl] – adj. characterized by method and orderliness: a methodical scholar

meticulous [miˈtikjʊləs] – adj. marked by precise accordance with details: meticulous research

metrical [ˈmetrikəl] – adj. based on the meter as a standard of measurement: metrical equivalents

metropolis [miˈtrɔpəlis] – n. a large and densely populated urban area; may include several independent administrative districts

mettle [ˈmetl] – n. the courage to carry on

mettlesome [ˈmetlsəm] – adj. having a proud and unbroken spirit

mews [mju:z] – n. street lined with buildings that were originally private stables but have been remodeled as dwellings: she lives in a Chelsea mews

miasma [miˈæzmə] – n. an unwholesome atmosphere: the novel spun a miasma of death and decay

microbe [ˈmaikrəub] – n. a minute life form (especially a disease-causing bacterium); the term is not in technical use

microcosm [ˈmaikrəkɔzəm] – n. a miniature model of something

microscopic [maikrəˈskɔpik] – adj. visible under a microscope; using a microscope

midget [ˈmidʒit] – n. a person who is markedly small

mien [mi:n] – n. dignified manner or conduct

miff  – n. a state of irritation or annoyance

migrant [ˈmaigrənt] – n. traveler who moves from one region or country to another

migratory [ˈmaigrətəri, maiˈgreitəri] – adj. used of animals that move seasonally: migratory birds

mildew [ˈmildju:] – n. a fungus that produces a superficial (usually white) growth on organic matter

milieu [ˈmi:ljə:] – n. the environmental condition

militant [ˈmilitənt] – adj. disposed to warfare or hard-line policies: militant nations

militate [ˈmiliteit] – v. have force or influence; bring about an effect or change: Politeness militated against this opinion being expressed

millennium [miˈleniəm] – n. a span of 1000 years

miller [ˈmilə] – n. United States bandleader of a popular big band (1909-1944)

millinery [ˈmilinəri] – n. shop selling women’s hats

mime [maim] – n. an actor who communicates entirely by gesture and facial expression

mimic [ˈmimik] – v. imitate (a person or manner), especially for satirical effect: The actor mimicked the President very accurately

mimicry [ˈmimikri] – n. the act of mimicking; imitative behavior

minaret [.minəˈret, ˈminəret] – n. slender tower with balconies

minatory [ˈminətəri] – adj. threatening or foreshadowing evil or tragic developments

mince [mins] – v. make less severe or harsh

mincing [ˈminsiŋ] – adj. affectedly dainty or refined

mingle [ˈmiŋgl] – v. to bring or combine together or with something else: resourcefully he mingled music and dance

mingy [ˈmindʒi] – adj. (used of persons or behavior) characterized by or indicative of lack of generosity

miniature [ˈminiətʃə] – n. painting or drawing included in a book (especially in illuminated medieval manuscripts)

minion [ˈminiən] – n. a servile or fawning dependant

minnow [ˈminəu] – n. very small European freshwater fish common in gravelly streams

mint [mint] – n. (often followed by `of’) a large number or amount or extent: he made a mint on the stock market

minuet [.minjuˈet] – n. a stately court dance in the 17th century

minuscule [miˈnʌskju:l] – adj. of or relating to a small cursive script developed from uncial; 7th to 9th centuries

minutia [maiˈnju:ʃiə] – n. a small or minor detail: he had memorized the many minutiae of the legal code

mirage [ˈmirɑ:ʒ] – n. something illusory and unattainable

mire [ˈmaiə] – v. entrap: Our people should not be mired in the past

mirth [mə:θ] – n. great merriment

misadventure [ˈmisədˈventʃə] – n. an instance of misfortune

misanthrope [ˈmisənθrəup] – n. someone who dislikes people in general

misapprehension [.misæpriˈhenʃən] – n. an understanding of something that is not correct

misbehave [ˈmisbiˈheiv] – v. behave badly: The children misbehaved all morning

miscegenation [.misidʒiˈneiʃən] – n. reproduction by parents of different races (especially by white and non-white persons)

miscellaneous [.misəˈleiniəs] – adj. consisting of a haphazard assortment of different kinds: miscellaneous accessories

miscellany [miˈseləni] – n. a collection containing a variety of sorts of things

mischance [.misˈtʃɑ:ns] – n. an unpredictable outcome that is unfortunate

mischievous [ˈmistʃivəs] – adj. naughtily or annoyingly playful

misconduct  – n. bad or dishonest management by persons supposed to act on another’s behalf

misconstrue [.miskənˈstru:] – v. interpret in the wrong way: She misconstrued my remarks

miscreant [ˈmiskriənt] – n. a person without moral scruples

misdemeanor [ˈmisdiˈmi:nə] – n. a crime less serious than a felony

miser [ˈmaizə] – n. a stingy hoarder of money and possessions (often living miserably)

miserly  – adj. (used of persons or behavior) characterized by or indicative of lack of generosity: he left a miserly tip

misfortune [misˈfɔ:tʃən] – n. unnecessary and unforeseen trouble resulting from an unfortunate event

misgiving [misˈgiviŋ] – n. uneasiness about the fitness of an action

mishap [ˈmishæp, misˈhæp] – n. an unpredictable outcome that is unfortunate

misnomer [ˈmisˈnəumə] – n. an incorrect or unsuitable name

misogamy [miˈsɔgəmi] – n. hatred of marriage

misogynist [miˈsɔdʒinist] – n. a misanthrope who dislikes women in particular

misrepresent [.misrepriˈzent] – v. represent falsely: This statement misrepresents my intentions

missive [ˈmisiv] – n. a written message addressed to a person or organization

mistral [ˈmistrəl] – n. a strong north wind that blows in France during the winter

mite [mait] – n. a slight but appreciable amount

mitigate [ˈmitigeit] – v. lessen or to try to lessen the seriousness or extent of

mitigation  – n. to act in such a way as to cause an offense to seem less serious

mitten [ˈmitn] – n. glove that encases the thumb separately and the other four fingers together

mnemonic  – n. a device (such as a rhyme or acronym) used to aid recall

mnemonics [ni:ˈmɔniks] – n. a method or system for improving the memory

moat [məut] – n. ditch dug as a fortification and usually filled with water

mock [mɔk] – v. treat with contempt: The new constitution mocks all democratic principles

mockery [ˈmɔkəri] – n. showing your contempt by derision

moderation [mɔdəˈreiʃən] – n. a change for the better

moderator [ˈmɔdəreitə] – n. any substance used to slow down neutrons in nuclear reactors

modicum [ˈmɔdikəm] – n. a small or moderate or token amount: England still expects a modicum of eccentricity in its artists

modish [ˈməudiʃ] – adj. in the current fashion or style

modulate [ˈmɔdjuleit] – v. change the key of, in music: modulate the melody

modulation [.mɔdjuˈleiʃən] – n. a musical passage moving from one key to another

mogul [ˈməugəl] – n. a bump on a ski slope

moiety [ˈmɔiəti] – n. one of two (approximately) equal parts

molar [ˈməulə] – adj. of or pertaining to the grinding teeth in the back of a mammal’s mouth: molar teeth

molest [məˈlest] – v. harass or assault sexually; make indecent advances to

mollify [ˈmɔlifai] – v. cause to be more favorably inclined; gain the good will of: She managed to mollify the angry customer

mollusk [ˈmɔləsk] – n. invertebrate having a soft unsegmented body usually enclosed in a shell

mollycoddle [ˈmɔli.kɔdl] – n. a pampered darling; an effeminate man

molt [məult] – n. periodic shedding of the cuticle in arthropods or the outer skin in reptiles

molten [ˈməultən] – adj. reduced to liquid form by heating: a mass of molten rock

momentary [ˈməuməntəri] – adj. lasting for a markedly brief time: a momentary glimpse

momentous [məuˈmentəs] – adj. of very great significance: a momentous event

monastic  – n. a male religious living in a cloister and devoting himself to contemplation and prayer and work

monasticism [məˈnæstisizəm] – n. asceticism as a form of religious life; usually conducted in a community under a common rule and characterized by celibacy and poverty and obedience

mongrel [ˈmʌŋgrəl] – n. derogatory term for a variation that is not genuine; something irregular or inferior or of dubious origin

monochromatic [ˈmɔnəukrəuˈmætik] – adj. (of light or other electromagnetic radiation) having only one wavelength: monochromatic light

monochrome  – n. painting done in a range of tones of a single color

monocle  – n. lens for correcting defective vision in one eye; held in place by facial muscles

monogamy [məˈnɔgəmi] – n. having only one spouse at a time

monogram [ˈmɔnəgræm] – n. a graphic symbol consisting of 2 or more letters combined (usually your initials); printed on stationery or embroidered on clothing

monograph [ˈmɔnəgrɑ:f] – n. a detailed and documented treatise on a particular subject

monolithic [.mɔnəˈliθik] – adj. imposing in size or bulk or solidity: the monolithic proportions of Stalinist architecture

monologue [ˈmɔnəlɔg] – n. speech you make to yourself

monomania [mɔnəˈmeiniə] – n. a mania restricted to one thing or idea

monopolize [məˈnɔpəlaiz] – v. have and control fully and exclusively: He monopolizes the laser printer

monotheism  – n. belief in a single God

monotone [ˈməunətəun] – n. an unchanging intonation

monotonous [məˈnɔtənəs] – adj. tediously repetitious or lacking in variety: nothing is so monotonous as the sea

monotony [məˈnɔtəni] – n. the quality of wearisome constancy, routine, and lack of variety: he had never grown accustomed to the monotony of his work

monsoon [mɔnˈsu:n] – n. a seasonal wind in southern Asia; blows from the southwest (bringing rain) in summer and from the northeast in winter

monstrous [ˈmɔnstrəs] – adj. abnormally large

montage  – n. a paste-up made by sticking together pieces of paper or photographs to form an artistic image

monumental [.mɔnjuˈmentl] – adj. of outstanding significance: Einstein’s monumental contributions to physics

mooch [mu:tʃ] – v. ask for and get free; be a parasite

moodiness [ˈmu:dinis] – n. a sullen gloomy feeling

moot [[mu:t] – adj. of no legal significance (as having been previously decided)

mope [məup] – v. be apathetic, gloomy, or dazed

moppet [ˈmɔpit] – n. a little girl (usually one you are fond of)

moralist [ˈmɔrəlist] – n. someone who demands exact conformity to rules and forms

moralistic [.mɔrəˈlistik] – adj. narrowly and conventionally moral

morass [məˈræs] – n. a soft wet area of low-lying land that sinks underfoot

moratorium [.mɔrəˈtɔ:riəm] – n. a legally authorized postponement before some obligation must be discharged

morbid [ˈmɔ:bid] – adj. suggesting an unhealthy mental state: morbid interest in death

morbidity [mɔ:ˈbiditi] – n. the relative incidence of a particular disease

mordant [ˈmɔ:dənt] – adj. harshly ironic or sinister: fun ranging from slapstick clowning … to savage mordant wit

mores [ˈmɔ:reiz] – n. (sociology) the conventions that embody the fundamental values of a group

morganatic [.mɔ:gəˈnætik] – adj. (of marriages) of a marriage between one of royal or noble birth and one of lower rank; valid but with the understanding that the rank of the inferior remains unchanged and offspring do not succeed to titles or property of the superior

morgue  – n. a building (or room) where dead bodies are kept before burial or cremation

moribund [ˈmɔribʌnd] – adj. not growing or changing; without force or vitality

moron [ˈmɔ:rɔn] – n. a person of subnormal intelligence

morose [məˈrəus] – adj. showing a brooding ill humor: a morose and unsociable manner

morphemic [mɔ:ˈfi:mik] – adj. of or relating to morphemes

morsel [ˈmɔ:səl] – n. a small quantity of anything: a morsel of paper was all he needed

mortar [ˈmɔ:tə] – n. a muzzle-loading high-angle gun with a short barrel that fires shells at high elevations for a short range

mortician [mɔ:ˈtiʃən] – n. one whose business is the management of funerals

mortification [ˈmɔ:tifiˈkeiʃən] – n. strong feelings of embarrassment

mortify [ˈmɔ:tifai] – v. practice self-denial of one’s body and appetites

mortise [ˈmɔ:tis] – v. cut a hole for a tenon in

mortuary [ˈmɔ:tʃuəri] – adj. of or relating to or characteristic of death

mosque [mɔsk] – n. (Islam) a Muslim place of worship that usually has a minaret

mote [məut] – n. (nontechnical usage) a tiny piece of anything

motet [məuˈtet] – n. an unaccompanied choral composition with sacred lyrics; intended to be sung as part of a church service; originated in the 13th century

motile  – n. one whose prevailing mental imagery takes the form of inner feelings of action

motility  – n. ability to move spontaneously and independently

motley [ˈmɔtli] – n. a collection containing a variety of sorts of things

mottle  – v. mark with spots or blotches of different color or shades of color as if stained

mottled [ˈmɔtld] – adj. having spots or patches of color

motto [ˈmɔtəu] – n. a favorite saying of a sect or political group

moulder  – v. break down

moult  – n. periodic shedding of the cuticle in arthropods or the outer skin in reptiles

mountebank [ˈmauntibæŋk] – n. a flamboyant deceiver; one who attracts customers with tricks or jokes

mournful [ˈmɔ:nful] – adj. expressing sorrow

muck [mʌk] – v. spread manure, as for fertilization

muckrake [ˈmʌkreik] – v. explore and expose misconduct and scandals concerning public figures

muddle [ˈmʌdl] – n. a confused multitude of things

muffle [ˈmʌfl] – v. conceal or hide: muffle one’s anger

muffler [ˈmʌflə] – n. a tubular acoustic device inserted in the exhaust system that is designed to reduce noise

muggy [ˈmʌgi] – adj. hot or warm and humid: muggy weather

mugwump  – n. someone who bolted from the Republican Party during the U.S. presidential election of 1884

mulct [mʌlkt] – v. deprive of by deceit

mulish  – adj. unreasonably rigid in the face of argument or entreaty or attack

multifarious [.mʌltiˈfeəriəs] – adj. having many aspects: multifarious interests

multiform [ˈmʌltifɔ:m] – adj. occurring in or having many forms or shapes or appearances: the multiform universe of nature and man

multilingual [.mʌltiˈliŋgwəl] – adj. using or knowing more than one language: a multilingual translator

multiplicity [mʌltiˈplisiti] – n. a large number

multitude [ˈmʌltitju:d] – n. a large indefinite number: a multitude of TV antennas

mumble [ˈmʌmbl] – v. talk indistinctly; usually in a low voice

mundane [mʌnˈdein] – adj. found in the ordinary course of events

municipality [mju:nisiˈpæliti] – n. an urban district having corporate status and powers of self-government

munificent [mju:ˈnifisənt] – adj. very generous: a munificent gift

muniments  – n. deeds and other documentary evidence of title to land

mural [ˈmjuərəl] – n. a painting that is applied to a wall surface

murkiness  – n. an atmosphere in which visibility is reduced because of a cloud of some substance

murky [ˈmə:ki] – adj. (of liquids) clouded as with sediment: murky waters

murrain [ˈmʌrin] – n. any disease of domestic animals that resembles a plague

muse [mju:z] – n. in ancient Greek mythology any of 9 daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne; protector of an art or science

mushy [ˈmʌʃi] – adj. effusively or insincerely emotional: mushy effusiveness

musky [ˈmʌski] – adj. resembling the smell of musk

muster [ˈmʌstə] – n. a gathering of military personnel for duty: he was thrown in the brig for missing muster

musty [ˈmʌsti] – adj. covered with or smelling of mold: a moldy (or musty) odor

mutability  – n. the quality of being capable of mutation

mutable [ˈmju:təbəl] – adj. capable of or tending to change in form or quality or nature: a mutable substance

muted  – adj. in a softened tone: muted trumpets

mutilate [ˈmju:tileit] – v. destroy or injure severely: The madman mutilates art work

mutineer [.mju:tiˈniə] – n. someone who is openly rebellious and refuses to obey authorities (especially seamen or soldiers)

mutinous [ˈmju:tinəs] – adj. consisting of or characterized by or inciting to mutiny: mutinous acts

muzzy [ˈmʌzi] – adj. indistinct or hazy in outline

mycology [maiˈkɔlədʒi] – n. the branch of botany that studies fungi and fungus-caused diseases

myopia [maiˈəupiə] – n. (ophthalmology) eyesight abnormality resulting from the eye’s faulty refractive ability; distant objects appear blurred

myopic [maiˈɔpik] – adj. unable to see distant objects clearly

myriad [ˈmiriəd] – n. a large indefinite number: he faced a myriad of details

mystic [ˈmistik] – adj. having an import not apparent to the senses nor obvious to the intelligence; beyond ordinary understanding: the mystical style of Blake

mythology [miˈθɔlədʒi] – n. myths collectively; the body of stories associated with a culture or institution or person

nadir [ˈneidiə] – n. an extreme state of adversity; the lowest point of anything

nag [næg] – v. bother persistently with trivial complaints: She nags her husband all day long

naive [nɑˈi:v] – adj. marked by or showing unaffected simplicity and lack of guile or worldly experience: a teenager’s naive ignorance of life

naivete  – n. lack of sophistication or worldliness

naivety [nɑ:ˈi:vti] – n. lack of sophistication or worldliness

narcissism [ˈnɑ:sisizəm] – n. an exceptional interest in and admiration for yourself

narcissist  – n. someone in love with themselves

narcotic [nɑ:ˈkɔtik] – adj. inducing stupor or narcosis: narcotic drugs

nark  – n. an informer or spy working for the police

nasal [ˈneizəl] – n. a consonant produced through the nose with the mouth closed

nascent [ˈnæsənt] – adj. being born or beginning: the nascent chicks

natal [ˈneitl] – n. a region of eastern South Africa on the Indian Ocean

natation [neiˈteiʃən] – n. the act of someone who floats on the water

nativity [nəˈtiviti] – n. the event of being born

natty [ˈnæti] – adj. marked by up-to-dateness in dress and manners

nausea [ˈnɔ:sjə] – n. the state that precedes vomiting

nauseate [ˈnɔ:zieit] – v. cause aversion in; offend the moral sense of

nauseous [ˈnɔ:ʃiəs] – adj. feeling nausea; feeling about to vomit

nautical [ˈnɔ:tikəl] – adj. relating to or involving ships or shipping or navigation or seamen: nautical charts

nave [neiv] – n. the central area of a church

navigable [ˈnævigəbl] – adj. able to be sailed on or through safely: navigable waters

naysayer  – n. someone with an aggressively negative attitude

neap [ni:p] – n. a less than average tide occurring at the first and third quarters of the moon

nebula [ˈnebjulə] – n. a medicinal liquid preparation intended for use in an atomizer

nebulous [ˈnebjuləs] – adj. lacking definite form or limits: nebulous distinction between pride and conceit

necessitous [niˈsesitəs] – adj. poor enough to need help from others

necrology [neˈkrɔlədʒi] – n. a notice of someone’s death; usually includes a short biography

necromancy [ˈnekrəmænsi] – n. the belief in magical spells that harness occult forces or evil spirits to produce unnatural effects in the world

necropolis [niˈkrɔpəlis] – n. a tract of land used for burials

nectar [ˈnektə] – n. a sweet liquid secretion that is attractive to pollinators

needy [ˈni:di] – adj. demanding or needing attention, affection, or reassurance to an excessive degree

nefarious [niˈfeəriəs] – adj. extremely wicked: nefarious schemes

negate [niˈgeit] – v. be in contradiction with

negation [niˈgeiʃən] – n. the speech act of negating

negligent [ˈneglidʒənt] – adj. characterized by neglect and undue lack of concern: negligent parents

negligible [ˈneglidʒəbl] – adj. so small as to be meaningless; insignificant: the effect was negligible

negotiable [niˈgəuʃjəbl] – adj. able to be negotiated or arranged by compromise: negotiable demands

neigh [nei] – n. the characteristic sounds made by a horse

nemesis [ˈnemisis] – n. (Greek mythology) the goddess of divine retribution and vengeance

Neolithic  – n. latest part of the Stone Age beginning about 10,000 BC in the Middle East (but later elsewhere)

neologism [ni:ˈɔlədʒizəm] – n. a newly invented word or phrase

neonate [ˈni:əneit] – n. a baby from birth to four weeks

neophyte [ˈniəfait] – n. a plant that is found in an area where it had not been recorded previously

nephritis [niˈfraitis] – n. an inflammation of the kidney

nepotism [ˈnepətizəm] – n. favoritism shown to relatives or close friends by those in power (as by giving them jobs)

nerveless [ˈnə:vləs] – adj. marked by calm self-control (especially in trying circumstances); unemotional: the most nerveless winner in the history of the tournament

nestling [ˈnestliŋ] – n. young bird not yet fledged

nether [ˈneðə] – adj. lower: gnawed his nether lip

nethermost [ˈneðəməust] – adj. farthest down

nettle [ˈnetl] – v. cause annoyance in; disturb, especially by minor irritations

neurology [njuˈrɔlədʒi] – n. the branch of medical science that deals with the nervous system

neurosis [njuˈrəusis] – n. a mental or personality disturbance not attributable to any known neurological or organic dysfunction

neurotic [njuˈrɔtik] – adj. affected with emotional disorder

neutralize [ˈnju:trəlaiz] – v. make ineffective by counterbalancing the effect of: Her optimism neutralizes his gloom

nexus [ˈneksəs] – n. the means of connection between things linked in series

nib [nib] – n. the writing point of a pen

nibble [ˈnibəl] – v. bite off very small pieces: She nibbled on her cracker

nicety [ˈnaisiti] – n. conformity with some esthetic standard of correctness or propriety

niche [nitʃ] – n. a position particularly well suited to the person who occupies it: he found his niche in the academic world

nick [nik] – v. cut slightly, with a razor: The barber’s knife nicked his cheek

nicotine [ˈnikəti:n, -tin] – n. an alkaloid poison that occurs in tobacco; used in medicine and as an insecticide

niggard [ˈnigəd] – n. a selfish person who is unwilling to give or spend

niggardly [ˈnigədli] – adj. petty or reluctant in giving or spending: a niggardly tip

niggle [ˈnigəl] – v. worry unnecessarily or excessively

niggling [ˈnigliŋ] – adj. (informal) small and of little importance: a dispute over niggling details

nihilism [ˈnaiəlizəm] – n. a revolutionary doctrine that advocates destruction of the social system for its own sake

nihilist [ˈnaiilist] – n. someone who rejects all theories of morality or religious belief

nimble [ˈnimbəl] – adj. moving quickly and lightly: as nimble as a deer

nip  – n. a small drink of liquor

nipper  – n. a young person of either sex

nipping [ˈnipiŋ] – adj. capable of wounding

nippy [ˈnipi] – adj. a sharp biting taste: a nippy cheese

nirvana [niəˈvɑ:nə, nə:ˈv-] – n. any place of complete bliss and delight and peace

nitpick  – v. be overly critical; criticize minor details

nocturnal [nɔkˈtə:nl] – adj. belonging to or active during the night: nocturnal animals are active at night

noggin [ˈnɔgin] – n. informal terms for a human head

noisome [ˈnɔisəm] – adj. causing or able to cause nausea

nomad [ˈnəumæd] – n. a member of a people who have no permanent home but move about according to the seasons

nomadic [nəuˈmædik] – adj. migratory: the nomadic habits of the Bedouins

nomenclature [nəuˈmenklətʃə] – n. a system of words used to name things in a particular discipline: biological nomenclature

nonchalance [ˈnɔnʃələns] – n. the trait of remaining calm and seeming not to care; a casual lack of concern

nonchalant [ˈnɔnʃələnt] – adj. marked by blithe unconcern: drove his car with nonchalant abandon

noncommittal [.nɔnkəˈmitl] – adj. refusing to bind oneself to a particular course of action or view or the like: her boyfriend was noncommittal about their future together

nonconformist [.nɔnkənˈfɔ:mist] – n. a Protestant in England who is not a member of the Church of England

nonconformity [ˈnɔnkənˈfɔ:miti] – n. lack of harmony or correspondence

nondescript [ˈnɔndi.skript] – n. a person is not easily classified and not very interesting

nonentity [nɔˈnentiti] – n. the state of not existing

nonesuch [ˈnʌnsʌtʃ] – n. model of excellence or perfection of a kind; one having no equal

nonflammable [ˈnɔnˈflæməbl] – adj. impossible to ignite

nonobservance [ˈnɔnəbˈzə:vəns] – n. a lack of conformity with law or custom or practice etc.

nonpareil [nɔnpəˈrɛl, ˈnɔnpəreil] – n. model of excellence or perfection of a kind; one having no equal

nonplus [.nɔnˈplʌs] – v. be a mystery or bewildering to

nonplussed  – adj. filled with bewilderment

nonskid [ˈnɔnskid] – adj. designed to reduce or prevent skidding: nonskid tires

nonviolent [nɔnˈvaiələnt] – adj. abstaining (on principle) from the use of violence

noose [nu:s] – n. a loop formed in a cord or rope by means of a slipknot; it binds tighter as the cord or rope is pulled

normative [ˈnɔ:mətiv] – adj. relating to or dealing with norms: normative discipline

nosedive [ˈnəuzdaiv] – n. a sudden sharp drop or rapid decline: the stock took a nosedive

nosegay [ˈnəuzgei] – n. an arrangement of flowers that is usually given as a present

nostalgia [nɔˈstældʒə] – n. longing for something past

nostrum [ˈnɔstrəm] – n. hypothetical remedy for all ills or diseases; once sought by the alchemists

notability [.nəutəˈbiliti] – n. a celebrity who is an inspiration to others

notch [nɔtʃ] – n. a V-shaped indentation: mandibular notch

notoriety [.nətəˈraiəti] – n. the state of being known for some unfavorable act or quality

notwithstanding [ˈnɔtwiθˈstændiŋ] – adv. despite anything to the contrary (usually following a concession)

nourish [ˈnʌriʃ] – v. provide with nourishment: This kind of food is not nourishing for young children

nourishment [ˈnʌriʃmənt] – n. the act of nourishing: her nourishment of the orphans saved many lives

nova  – n. a star that ejects some of its material in the form of a cloud and become more luminous in the process

novelty [ˈnɔvəlti] – n. originality by virtue of being new and surprising

novice [ˈnɔvis] – n. someone who has entered a religious order but has not taken final vows

novocaine  – n. procaine administered as a hydrochloride (trade name Novocain)

noxious [ˈnɔkʃəs] – adj. injurious to physical or mental health: noxious chemical wastes

nuance [ˈnju:ɑ:ns, njuˈɑns] – n. a subtle difference in meaning or opinion or attitude: without understanding the finer nuances you can’t enjoy the humor

nubile [ˈnju:bail] – adj. of girls or women who are eligible to marry

nucleate  – v. form into a nucleus: Some cells had nucleated

nude [nju:d] – n. a painting of a naked human figure

nudge [nʌdʒ] – v. to push against gently: She nudged my elbow when she saw her friend enter the restaurant

nudity [ˈnju:diti] – n. the state of being without clothing or covering of any kind

nugatory [ˈnju:gətəri] – adj. of no real value: a nugatory law

nullify [ˈnʌlifai] – v. declare invalid

nullity [ˈnʌliti] – n. the state of nonexistence

numb [nʌm] – adj. lacking sensation: numb with cold

numerology [.nju:məˈrɔlədʒi] – n. the study of the supposed occult influence of numbers on human affairs

numinous [ˈnju:minəs] – adj. evincing the presence of a deity: a numinous wood

numismatist [nju:ˈmizmətist] – n. a collector and student of money (and coins in particular)

nunnery [ˈnʌnəri] – n. the convent of a community of nuns

nuptial [ˈnʌpʃəl] – adj. of or relating to a wedding: nuptial day

nuptials  – n. the social event at which the ceremony of marriage is performed

nurture [ˈnə:tʃə] – v. help develop, help grow: nurture his talents

nutrient [ˈnju:triənt] – n. any substance that can be metabolized by an animal to give energy and build tissue

nutrition [nju:ˈtriʃən] – n. a source of materials to nourish the body

nutritious [nju:ˈtriʃəs] – adj. of or providing nourishment

nuzzle [ˈnʌzəl] – v. move or arrange oneself in a comfortable and cozy position

nymph [nimf] – n. (classical mythology) a minor nature goddess usually depicted as a beautiful maiden: the ancient Greeks believed that nymphs inhabited forests and bodies of water

oaf  – n. an awkward stupid person

oafish  – adj. ill-mannered and coarse and contemptible in behavior or appearance: her stupid oafish husband

oasis [əuˈeisis] – n. a fertile tract in a desert (where the water table approaches the surface)

oath [əuθ] – n. profane or obscene expression usually of surprise or anger

oatmeal  – n. porridge made of rolled oats

obbligato [.ɔbliˈgɑ:təu] – n. a persistent but subordinate motif

obdurate [ˈɔbdjurit] – adj. stubbornly persistent in wrongdoing

obedient [əˈbi:djənt] – adj. dutifully complying with the commands or instructions of those in authority: an obedient soldier

obeisance [əuˈbeisəns] – n. bending the head or body or knee as a sign of reverence or submission or shame or greeting

obelisk [ˈɔblisk] – n. a stone pillar having a rectangular cross section tapering towards a pyramidal top

obese [əuˈbi:s] – adj. excessively fat

obesity [əuˈbisiti] – n. more than average fatness

obfuscate [ˈɔbfʌskeit] – v. make obscure or unclear

obituary [əˈbitʃuəri] – n. a notice of someone’s death; usually includes a short biography

objectionable [əbˈdʒɛkʃənəbl] – adj. causing disapproval or protest: a vulgar and objectionable person

objurgate [ˈɔbdʒə:geit] – v. express strong disapproval of

objurgation  – n. rebuking a person harshly

oblation [ouˈbleiʃən] – n. the act of contributing to the funds of a church or charity: oblations for aid to the poor

obligate [ˈɔbligeit] – v. force somebody to do something

obligatory [əˈbligə.təri] – adj. morally or legally constraining or binding: attendance is obligatory

obliging [əˈblaidʒiŋ] – adj. showing a cheerful willingness to do favors for others: the obliging waiter was in no hurry for us to leave

oblique [əˈbli:k] – n. any grammatical case other than the nominative

obliquity [əˈblikwiti] – n. the presentation during labor of the head of the fetus at an abnormal angle

obliterate [əˈblitəreit] – v. mark for deletion, rub off, or erase

oblivion [əˈbliviən] – n. the state of being disregarded or forgotten

oblivious [əˈbliviəs] – adj. (followed by `to’ or `of’) lacking conscious awareness of: oblivious of the mounting pressures for political reform

obloquy [ˈɔbləkwi] – n. state of disgrace resulting from public abuse

obnoxious [əbˈnɔkʃəs] – adj. causing disapproval or protest

obscene [əbˈsi:n] – adj. designed to incite to indecency or lust: the dance often becomes flagrantly obscene

obscurity [əbˈskjuəriti] – n. the quality of being unclear or abstruse and hard to understand

obsequious [əbˈsi:kwiəs] – adj. attempting to win favor from influential people by flattery

observance [əbˈzə:vəns] – n. a formal event performed on a special occasion

observatory [əbˈzə:vətəri] – n. a structure commanding a wide view of its surroundings

obsess [əbˈses] – v. haunt like a ghost; pursue

obsession [əbˈseʃən] – n. an irrational motive for performing trivial or repetitive actions, even against your will

obsessive  – n. a person who has obsessions

obsidian [əbˈsidiən] – n. acid or granitic glass formed by the rapid cooling of lava without crystallization; usually dark, but transparent in thin pieces

obsolescent [.ɔbsəˈlesənt] – adj. becoming obsolete

obsolete [ˈɔbsə.li:t] – adj. no longer in use: obsolete words

obstetrician [ɔbsteˈtriʃən] – n. a physician specializing in obstetrics

obstetrics [əbˈstetriks] – n. the branch of medicine dealing with childbirth and care of the mother

obstreperous [əbˈstrepərəs] – adj. noisily and stubbornly defiant: obstreperous boys

obstruct [əbˈstrʌkt] – v. hinder or prevent the progress or accomplishment of

obstruction [əbˈstrʌkʃən] – n. any structure that makes progress difficult

obtrude [əbˈtru:d] – v. push to thrust outward

obtrusive [əbˈtru:siv] – adj. undesirably noticeable: the obtrusive behavior of a spoiled child

obtuse [əbˈtju:s] – adj. of an angle; between 90 and 180 degrees

obverse [ˈɔbvə:s] – n. the more conspicuous of two alternatives or cases or sides: the obverse of this issue

obviate [ˈɔbvieit] – v. do away with

Occident  – n. the countries of (originally) Europe and (now including) North America and South America

occidental [ɔksiˈdəntəl] – n. a native inhabitant of the Occident

occlude [əˈklu:d] – v. block passage through

occluded  – adj. closed off: an occluded artery

occult [ɔˈkʌlt] – v. cause an eclipse of (a celestial body) by intervention: Planets and stars often are occulted by other celestial bodies

octogenarian [.ɔktədʒəˈneriən] – n. someone whose age is in the eighties

ocular [ˈɔkjulə] – adj. of or relating to or resembling the eye: ocular muscles

oculist [ˈɔkjulist] – n. a person skilled in testing for defects of vision in order to prescribe corrective glasses

oddments  – n. a motley assortment of things

odds [ɔdz] – n. the ratio by which one better’s wager is greater than that of another: he offered odds of two to one

ode [əud] – n. a lyric poem with complex stanza forms

odious [ˈəudiəs] – adj. unequivocally detestable: consequences odious to those you govern

odium [ˈəudiəm] – n. state of disgrace resulting from detestable behavior

odometer  – n. a meter that shows mileage traversed

odoriferous [.ɔdəˈrifərəs] – adj. morally offensive: odoriferous legislation

odorous [ˈəudərəs] – adj. emitting an odor: odorous salt pork and weevily hardtack

odyssey [ˈɔdisi] – n. a long wandering and eventful journey

oesophagus  – n. the passage between the pharynx and the stomach

offal [ˈɔfəl] – n. viscera and trimmings of a butchered animal often considered inedible by humans

offbeat  – n. an unaccented beat (especially the last beat of a measure)

offense [əˈfens] – n. a lack of politeness; a failure to show regard for others; wounding the feelings or others

offertory [ˈɔfətəri] – n. the part of the Eucharist when bread and wine are offered to God

offhand [ˈɔfˈhænd] – adj. with little or no preparation or forethought: offhand excuses

officious [əˈfiʃəs] – adj. intrusive in a meddling or offensive manner: bustling about self-importantly making an officious nuisance of himself

offish  – adj. lacking cordiality; unfriendly: a standoffish manner

ogle [ˈəugəl] – v. look at with amorous intentions

ogress  – n. (folklore) a female ogre

ointment [ˈɔintmənt] – n. semisolid preparation (usually containing a medicine) applied externally as a remedy or for soothing an irritation

oleaginous [.əuliˈædʒinəs] – adj. unpleasantly and excessively suave or ingratiating in manner or speech: oleaginous hypocrisy

olfactory [ɔlˈfæktəri] – adj. of or relating to olfaction

oligarchy [ˈɔligɑ:ki] – n. a political system governed by a few people: one of his cardinal convictions was that Britain was not run as a democracy but as an oligarchy

ominous [ˈɔminəs] – adj. threatening or foreshadowing evil or tragic developments: ominous rumblings of discontent

omnipotent [ɔmˈnipətənt] – adj. having unlimited power

omnipresent [.ɔmniˈprezənt] – adj. being present everywhere at once

omniscient [ɔmˈnisiənt] – adj. infinitely wise

omnivorous [ɔmˈnivərəs] – adj. feeding on both plants and animals

onerous [ˈɔnərəs] – adj. not easily borne; wearing: my duties weren’t onerous; I only had to greet the guests

onlooker [ˈɔn.lukə] – n. someone who looks on

onomatopoeia [.ɔnəmætəˈpi:ə] – n. using words that imitate the sound they denote

onslaught [ˈɔnslɔ:t] – n. a sudden and severe onset of trouble

ontology [ɔnˈtɔlədʒi] – n. the metaphysical study of the nature of being and existence

onus [ˈəunəs] – n. an onerous or difficult concern

oomph [umf] – n. attractiveness to the opposite sex

ooze [u:z] – n. any thick, viscous matter

opacity [əuˈpæsiti] – n. the phenomenon of not permitting the passage of electromagnetic radiation

opalescent [.əupəlˈesənt] – adj. having a play of lustrous rainbow colors: a milky opalescent (or opaline) luster

opaque [əuˈpeik] – adj. not transmitting or reflecting light or radiant energy; impenetrable to sight: opaque windows of the jail

operative [ˈɔpərətiv, ˈɔpəreitiv] – adj. being in force or having or exerting force: operative regulations

operetta [.ɔpəˈretə] – n. a short amusing opera

ophthalmology [.ɔfθælˈmɔlədʒi] – n. the branch of medicine concerned with the eye and its diseases

opiate [ˈəupiit] – n. a narcotic drug that contains opium or an opium derivative

opine  – v. expect, believe, or suppose

opinionated [əˈpinjəneitid] – adj. obstinate in your opinions

opportune [ˈɔpətju:n, .ɔpəˈt-] – adj. suitable or at a time that is suitable or advantageous especially for a particular purpose: an opportune place to make camp

opportunist [ɔpəˈtju:nist] – n. a person who places expediency above principle

oppression [əˈpreʃən] – n. the act of subjugating by cruelty: the tyrant’s oppression of the people

oppressive [əˈpresiv] – adj. weighing heavily on the senses or spirit: the atmosphere was oppressive

opprobrious [əˈprəubriəs] – adj. expressing offensive reproach

opprobrium [əˈprəubriəm] – n. state of disgrace resulting from public abuse

optician [ɔpˈtiʃən] – n. a worker who makes glasses for remedying defects of vision

optimist [ˈɔptimist] – n. a person disposed to take a favorable view of things

optimization  – n. the act of rendering optimal: the simultaneous optimization of growth and profitability

optimum [ˈɔptiməm] – n. most favorable conditions or greatest degree or amount possible under given circumstances

optometrist [ɔpˈtɔmitrist] – n. a person skilled in testing for defects of vision in order to prescribe corrective glasses

opulence [apjələns] – n. wealth as evidenced by sumptuous living

opulent [ˈɔpjulənt] – adj. rich and superior in quality

opus [ˈəupəs] – n. a musical work that has been created

oracle [ˈɔrəkl] – n. an authoritative person who divines the future

oracular [ɔˈrækjulə] – adj. obscurely prophetic: an oracular message

orate [ˈɔ:reit] – v. talk pompously

oration [əˈreiʃən] – n. an instance of oratory: he delivered an oration on the decline of family values

orator [ˈɔrətə] – n. a person who delivers a speech or oration

oratorio [.ɔrəˈtɔriəu] – n. a musical composition for voices and orchestra based on a religious text

oratory [ˈɔrətəri] – n. addressing an audience formally (usually a long and rhetorical address and often pompous): he loved the sound of his own oratory

orchid [ˈɔ:kid] – n. any of numerous plants of the orchid family usually having flowers of unusual shapes and beautiful colors

ordain [ɔ:ˈdein] – v. appoint to a clerical posts: he was ordained in the Church

ordeal [ɔ:ˈdi:l] – n. a severe or trying experience

ordinance [ˈɔ:dinəns] – n. an authoritative rule

ordination [.ɔ:diˈneiʃən] – n. the status of being ordained to a sacred office

ordnance [ˈɔ:dnəns] – n. military supplies

orgy  – n. any act of immoderate indulgence: an orgy of shopping

orifice [ˈɔrifis] – n. an aperture or hole that opens into a bodily cavity: the orifice into the aorta from the lower left chamber of the heart

orison [ˈɔrizən] – n. reverent petition to a deity

ornate [ɔ:ˈneit] – adj. marked by elaborate rhetoric and elaborated with decorative details: ornate rhetoric taught out of the rule of Plato

ornithologist [.ɔ:niˈθɔlədʒist] – n. a zoologist who studies birds

ornithology [.ɔ:niˈθɔlədʒi] – n. the branch of zoology that studies birds

orotund [ˈɔrəutʌnd] – adj. ostentatiously lofty in style

orthodontics [.ɔ:θəˈdɔntiks] – n. the branch of dentistry dealing with the prevention or correction of irregularities of the teeth

orthodoxy [ˈɔ:θədɔksi] – n. a belief or orientation agreeing with conventional standards

orthography [ɔ:ˈθɔgrəfi] – n. a method of representing the sounds of a language by written or printed symbols

orthopedics [.ɔ:θəˈpi:diks] – n. the branch of medical science concerned with disorders or deformities of the spine and joints

oscillate [ˈɔsileit] – v. be undecided about something; waver between conflicting positions or courses of action: He oscillates between accepting the new position and retirement

oscillation [.ɔsiˈleiʃən] – n. (physics) a regular periodic variation in value about a mean

osculation [.ɔskjuˈleiʃən] – n. (mathematics) a contact of two curves (or two surfaces) at which they have a common tangent

osmosis [ɔzˈməusis] – n. (biology, chemistry) diffusion of molecules through a semipermeable membrane from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration until the concentration on both sides is equal

osseous [ˈɔsiəs] – adj. composed of or containing bone: osseous tissue

ossified  – adj. set in a rigidly conventional pattern of behavior, habits, or beliefs: an ossified bureaucratic system

ossify [ˈɔsifai] – v. become bony

ostensible [ɔˈstensibəl] – adj. appearing as such but not necessarily so: the ostensible truth of their theories

ostentation [.ɔstenˈteiʃən] – n. a gaudy outward display

ostentatious [ɔstenˈteiʃəs] – adj. intended to attract notice and impress others: an ostentatious sable coat

ostracism [ˈɔstrəsizəm] – n. the act of excluding someone from society by general consent

ostracize [ˈɔstrəsaiz] – v. expel from a community or group

ostrich [ˈɔstritʃ] – n. fast-running African flightless bird with two-toed feet; largest living bird

otherworldly [ˈʌðə.wə:ldli] – adj. existing outside of or not in accordance with nature

otiose [ˈəuʃiəus, ˈəutiəus] – adj. serving no useful purpose; having no excuse for being: otiose lines in a play

oust [aust] – v. remove from a position or office: The chairman was ousted after he misappropriated funds

outbid [autˈbid] – v. bid over an opponent’s bid when one’s partner has not bid or doubled

outcast [ˈautkɑ:st] – n. a person who is rejected (from society or home)

outface [autˈfeis] – v. overcome or cause to waver or submit by (or as if by) staring

outfox [autˈfɔks] – v. beat through cleverness and wit: She outfoxed her competitors

outgoing [ˈautgəuiŋ] – adj. leaving a place or a position: an outgoing steamship

outlandish [autˈlændiʃ] – adj. conspicuously or grossly unconventional or unusual: the outlandish clothes of teenagers

outlaw [ˈautlɔ:] – adj. contrary to or forbidden by law: an outlaw strike

outmaneuver  – v. defeat by more skillful maneuvering: The English troops outmaneuvered the Germans

outmoded [aʊtˈməʊdid] – adj. out of fashion: demode (or outmoded) attire

outrage [ˈautreidʒ] – n. a feeling of righteous anger

outrageous [autˈreidʒəs] – adj. grossly offensive to decency or morality; causing horror: subjected to outrageous cruelty

outre  – adj. conspicuously or grossly unconventional or unusual: outre and affected stage antics

outspoken [autˈspəukən] – adj. given to expressing yourself freely or insistently: outspoken in their opposition to segregation

outstrip [autˈstrip] – v. be or do something to a greater degree

outwit [autˈwit] – v. beat through cleverness and wit

ovation [əuˈveiʃən] – n. enthusiastic recognition (especially one accompanied by loud applause)

overact [.əuvərˈækt] – v. exaggerate one’s acting

overbearing [.əuvəˈbeəriŋ] – adj. expecting unquestioning obedience: insufferably overbearing behavior toward the waiter

overblown  – adj. puffed up with vanity: overblown oratory

overdose [ˈəuvədəus] – v. dose too heavily: The rock star overdosed and was found dead in his hotel room

overexposure  – n. the act of exposing film to too much light or for too long a time

overhaul [ˈəuvə.hɔ:l] – n. periodic maintenance on a car or machine: it was time for an overhaul on the tractor

overlap [ˈəuvəˈlæp,ˈəuvəlæp] – n. a representation of common ground between theories or phenomena: there was no overlap between their proposals

overreach [.əuvəˈri:tʃ] – v. fail by aiming too high or trying too hard

override [.əuvəˈraid] – v. rule against

overriding [.əuvəˈraidiŋ] – adj. having superior power and influence

overrule [.əuvəˈru:l] – v. rule against: The Republicans were overruled when the House voted on the bill

oversee [.əuvəˈsi:] – v. watch and direct: Who is overseeing this project?

overshadow [.əuvəˈʃædəu] – v. be greater in significance than: the tragedy overshadowed the couple’s happiness

overt [əuˈvə:t] – adj. open and observable; not secret or hidden: an overt lie

overthrow [.əuvəˈθrəu] – n. the termination of a ruler or institution (especially by force)

overture [ˈəuvətʃuə, -tjuə] – n. orchestral music played at the beginning of an opera or oratorio

overturn [.əuvəˈtə:n] – v. turn from an upright or normal position: The big vase overturned

overweening [.əuvəˈwiniŋ] – adj. unrestrained, especially with regard to feelings: overweening ambition

overwrought [.əuvəˈrɔ:t] – adj. deeply agitated especially from emotion

ovoid  – n. an egg-shaped object

oxidize [ˈɔksidaiz] – v. add oxygen to or combine with oxygen

oxymoron  – n. conjoining contradictory terms (as in `deafening silence’)

oyster [ˈɔistə] – n. marine mollusks having a rough irregular shell; found on the sea bed mostly in coastal waters

pachyderm [ˈpækidə:m] – n. any of various nonruminant hoofed mammals having very thick skin: elephant; rhinoceros; hippopotamus

pacifier [ˈpæsifaiə] – n. someone who tries to bring peace

pacifist [ˈpæsifist] – n. someone opposed to violence as a means of settling disputes

pacify [ˈpæsifai] – v. cause to be more favorably inclined; gain the good will of

packed [pækt] – adj. pressed together or compressed: packed snow

pact [pækt] – n. a written agreement between two states or sovereigns

padding  – n. artifact consisting of soft or resilient material used to fill or give shape or protect or add comfort

paddock [ˈpædək] – n. pen where racehorses are saddled and paraded before a race

padre  – n. a chaplain in one of the military services

paean [ˈpi:ən] – n. a formal expression of praise

pagan [ˈpeigən] – n. a person who does not acknowledge your god

paganism [ˈpeigənizəm] – n. any of various religions other than Christianity or Judaism or Islamism

pageant [ˈpædʒənt] – n. an elaborate representation of scenes from history etc; usually involves a parade with rich costumes

painkiller [ˈpein.kilə] – n. a medicine used to relieve pain

painstaking [ˈpeinz.teikiŋ] – adj. characterized by extreme care and great effort: painstaking research

palatable [ˈpælətəbəl] – adj. acceptable to the taste or mind: palatable food

palate [ˈpælit] – n. the upper surface of the mouth that separates the oral and nasal cavities

palatial [pəˈleiʃəl] – adj. suitable for or like a palace: palatial furnishings

palaver [pəˈlɑ:və] – v. speak (about unimportant matters) rapidly and incessantly

paleography [.pæliˈɔgrəfi] – n. the study of ancient forms of writing (and the deciphering of them)

paleolithic  – adj. of or relating to the second period of the Stone Age (following the eolithic): paleolithic artifacts

paleontology [,pæliɔnˈtɔlədʒi] – n. the earth science that studies fossil organisms and related remains

palette [ˈpælit] – n. the range of colour characteristic of a particular artist or painting or school of art

palimpsest [ˈpælimpsest] – n. a manuscript (usually written on papyrus or parchment) on which more than one text has been written with the earlier writing incompletely erased and still visible

paling  – n. a fence made of upright pickets

palisade [.pæliˈseid] – n. fortification consisting of a strong fence made of stakes driven into the ground

pall [pɔ:l] – v. become less interesting or attractive

pallet [ˈpælit] – n. the range of colour characteristic of a particular artist or painting or school of art

palliate [ˈpælieit] – v. lessen or to try to lessen the seriousness or extent of

palliation [.pæliˈeiʃən] – n. easing the severity of a pain or a disease without removing the cause

pallid [ˈpælid] – adj. abnormally deficient in color as suggesting physical or emotional distress: the pallid face of the invalid

pallor  – n. unnatural lack of color in the skin (as from bruising or sickness or emotional distress)

palmy  – adj. very lively and profitable: a palmy time for stockbrokers

palpable [ˈpælpəbəl] – adj. capable of being perceived; especially capable of being handled or touched or felt: a barely palpable dust

palpate  – v. examine (a body part) by palpation: The nurse palpated the patient’s stomach

palpitate [ˈpælpiteit] – v. cause to throb or beat rapidly: Her violent feelings palpitated the young woman’s heart

palter  – v. be deliberately ambiguous or unclear in order to mislead or withhold information

paltry [ˈpɔ:ltri] – adj. not worth considering: he considered the prize too paltry for the lives it must cost

pamper [ˈpæmpə] – v. treat with excessive indulgence: grandparents often pamper the children

pamphlet [ˈpæmflit] – n. a small book usually having a paper cover

panacea [.pænəˈsiə] – n. (Greek mythology) the goddess of healing; daughter of Aesculapius and sister of Hygeia

panache [pəˈnæʃ] – n. distinctive and stylish elegance

pancreas [ˈpæŋkriəs] – n. a large elongated exocrine gland located behind the stomach; secretes pancreatic juice and insulin

pandemic [pænˈdemik] – adj. epidemic over a wide geographical area: a pandemic outbreak of malaria

pandemonium [.pændiˈməuniəm] – n. a state of extreme confusion and disorder

pander [pændə] – v. yield (to); give satisfaction to

panegyric [.pæniˈdʒirik] – n. a formal expression of praise

pang [pæŋ] – n. a sudden sharp feeling: pangs of regret

panoply [ˈpænəpli] – n. a complete and impressive array

panorama [.pænəˈrɑ:mə] – n. the visual percept of a region

panoramic [.pænəˈræmik] – adj. as from an altitude or distance: a panoramic view

pantechnicon  – n. a large moving van (especially one used for moving furniture)

pantomime [ˈpæntəmaim] – n. a performance using gestures and body movements without words

pantry [ˈpæntri] – n. a small storeroom for storing foods or wines

papoose [pəˈpu:s] – n. an American Indian infant

papyrus [pəˈpaiərəs] – n. tall sedge of the Nile valley yielding fiber that served many purposes in historic times

parable [ˈpærəbəl] – n. a short moral story (often with animal characters)

paradigm [ˈpærədaim] – n. systematic arrangement of all the inflected forms of a word

paradigmatic [.pærədigˈmætik] – adj. of or relating to a typical example: paradigmatic learning

paradox [ˈpærədɔks] – n. (logic) a statement that contradicts itself: `I always lie’ is a paradox because if it is true it must be false

paragon [ˈpærəgən] – n. an ideal instance; a perfect embodiment of a concept

parallelism [ˈpærəlelizm] – n. similarity by virtue of corresponding

paralysis [pəˈrælisis] – n. loss of the ability to move a body part

paralyze [ˈpærəlaiz] – v. make powerless and unable to function: The bureaucracy paralyzes the entire operation

paramount [ˈpærəmaunt] – adj. having superior power and influence

paramour [ˈpærəmuə] – n. a woman’s lover

paranoia [.pærəˈnɔiə] – n. a psychological disorder characterized by delusions of persecution or grandeur

paranoiac [.pærəˈnɔiæk] – n. a person afflicted with paranoia

paranoid [ˈpærənɔid] – n. a person afflicted with paranoia

parapet [ˈpærəpit, -pet] – n. a low wall along the edge of a roof or balcony

paraphernalia [.pærəfəˈneiliə] – n. equipment consisting of miscellaneous articles needed for a particular operation or sport etc.

paraphrase [ˈpærəfreiz] – n. rewording for the purpose of clarification

parasitic [.pærəˈsitik] – adj. of or pertaining to epenthesis

parch [pɑ:tʃ] – v. cause to wither or parch from exposure to heat: The sun parched the earth

parchment [ˈpɑ:tʃmənt] – n. a superior paper resembling sheepskin

pare [peə] – v. decrease gradually or bit by bit

paregoric [pærəˈgɔrik] – n. medicine used to treat diarrhea

parenthesis [pəˈrenθəsis] – n. either of two punctuation marks (or) used to enclose textual material

pariah [pəˈraiə, ˈpæriə] – n. a person who is rejected (from society or home)

parity [ˈpæriti] – n. (obstetrics) the number of liveborn children a woman has delivered: the parity of the mother must be considered

parky  – adj. appreciably or disagreeably cold

parlance [ˈpa:ləns] – n. a manner of speaking that is natural to native speakers of a language

parley [ˈpɑ:li] – n. a negotiation between enemies

parlous [ˈpɑ:ləs] – adj. fraught with danger: a parlous journey on stormy seas

parochial [pəˈrəukiəl] – adj. relating to or supported by or located in a parish: parochial schools

parody [ˈpærədi] – n. a composition that imitates or misrepresents somebody’s style, usually in a humorous way

paroxysm [ˈpærəksizəm] – n. a sudden uncontrollable attack: a paroxysm of giggling

parquet [ˈpɑ:kei, -ki] – n. a floor made of parquetry

parquetry [ˈpɑ:kitri] – n. a patterned wood inlay used to cover a floor

parricide [ˈpærisaid] – n. someone who kills his or her parent

parry [ˈpæri] – n. (fencing) blocking a lunge or deflecting it with a circular motion of the sword

parse [pɑ:z] – v. analyze syntactically by assigning a constituent structure to (a sentence)

parsimonious [.pɑ:siˈməuniəs] – adj. excessively unwilling to spend: parsimonious thrift relieved by few generous impulses

parsimony  – n. extreme care in spending money; reluctance to spend money unnecessarily

partiality [.pɑ:ʃiˈæliti] – n. a predisposition to like something

particularize  – v. be specific about

partisan [.pɑ:tiˈzæn] – n. a fervent and even militant proponent of something

partition [pɑ:ˈtiʃən] – n. a vertical structure that divides or separates (as a wall divides one room from another)

parturition [.pɑ:tjuˈriʃən] – n. the process of giving birth

parvenu [ˈpɑ:vənju:] – n. a person who has suddenly risen to a higher economic status but has not gained social acceptance of others in that class

passe [ˈpɑ:sei] – adj. out of fashion

pastel [pæsˈtel, ˈpæstel] – adj. lacking in body or vigor: faded pastel charms of the naive music

pasteurize [ˈpæstʃəraiz] – v. heat food in order to kill harmful microorganisms: pasteurize milk

pastiche [pæˈsti:ʃ] – n. a musical composition consisting of a series of songs or other musical pieces from various sources

pastor [ˈpɑ:stə] – n. a person authorized to conduct religious worship

pastoral [ˈpɑ:stərəl] – n. a musical composition that evokes rural life

pastry [ˈpeistri] – n. a dough of flour and water and shortening

pasty [ˈpæsti] – n. small meat pie or turnover

patchwork [ˈpætʃwə:k] – n. a theory or argument made up of miscellaneous or incongruous ideas

pathetic [pəˈθetik] – adj. deserving or inciting pity: the shabby room struck her as extraordinarily pathetic

pathogenic  – adj. able to cause disease: pathogenic bacteria

pathological [.pæθəˈlɔdʒikəl] – adj. caused by or evidencing a mentally disturbed condition: a pathological liar

pathology [pəˈθɔlədʒi] – n. the branch of medical science that studies the causes and nature and effects of diseases

pathos [ˈpeiθɔs] – n. a quality that arouses emotions (especially pity or sorrow): the film captured all the pathos of their situation

patina [ˈpætinə] – n. a fine coating of oxide on the surface of a metal

patio [ˈpætiəu] – n. usually paved outdoor area adjoining a residence

patois [ˈpætwa:] – n. a characteristic language of a particular group (as among thieves)

patriarch [ˈpeitrɑ:k] – n. title for the heads of the Eastern Orthodox Churches (in Istanbul and Alexandria and Moscow and Jerusalem)

patriarchy [ˈpeitriɑ:ki] – n. a form of social organization in which a male is the family head and title is traced through the male line

patrician [pəˈtriʃən] – n. a person of refined upbringing and manners

patricide [ˈpætrisaid] – n. a person who murders their father

patrimony [ˈpætriməni] – n. a church endowment

patriot [ˈpeitriət, ˈpæt-] – n. one who loves and defends his or her country

patriotism [ˈpætriətizəm, ˈpei-] – n. love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it: they rode the same wave of popular patriotism

patronage [ˈpætrənidʒ] – n. the act of providing approval and support

patronize [ˈpætrənaiz] – v. assume sponsorship of

paucity [ˈpɔ:siti] – n. an insufficient quantity or number

paunchy  – adj. having a large belly

pauper [ˈpɔ:pə] – n. a person who is very poor

pawky  – adj. cunning and sly: the pawky rich old lady who incessantly scores off her parasitical descendants

pawn [pɔ:n] – n. an article deposited as security

pawnbroker [ˈpɔ:n.brəukə] – n. a person who lends money at interest in exchange for personal property that is deposited as security

peaky [ˈpi:ki] – adj. having or as if having especially high-pitched spots: absence of peaky highs and beefed-up bass

pecan [piˈkæn] – n. tree of southern United States and Mexico cultivated for its nuts

peccadillo [.pekəˈdiləu] – n. a petty misdeed

peckish [ˈpekiʃ] – adj. somewhat hungry

pectoral [ˈpektərəl] – n. either of two large muscles of the chest

peculate [ˈpekjuleit] – v. appropriate (as property entrusted to one’s care) fraudulently to one’s own use

peculation  – n. the fraudulent appropriation of funds or property entrusted to your care but actually owned by someone else

pecuniary [piˈkju:niəri] – adj. relating to or involving money: he received thanks but no pecuniary compensation for his services

pedagogue [ˈpedəgɔg] – n. someone who educates young people

pedagogy [ˈpedəgɔgi] – n. the principles and methods of instruction

pedant [ˈpedənt] – n. a person who pays more attention to formal rules and book learning than they merit

pedantic [piˈdæntik] – adj. marked by a narrow focus on or display of learning especially its trivial aspects

pedantry [ˈpedntri] – n. an ostentatious and inappropriate display of learning

peddle [ˈpedl] – v. sell or offer for sale from place to place

pedestal [ˈpedistl] – n. a support or foundation

pediatrician [.pi:diəˈtriʃən] – n. a specialist in the care of babies

pediatrics [.pi:diˈætriks] – n. the branch of medicine concerned with the treatment of infants and children

pedigree [ˈpedigri:] – n. the descendants of one individual

pediment [ˈpedimənt] – n. a triangular gable between a horizontal entablature and a sloping roof

peek [pi:k] – n. a secret look

peerless [ˈpiəlis] – adj. eminent beyond or above comparison: a peerless scholar

peeve  – n. an annoyed or irritated mood

peevish [ˈpi:viʃ] – adj. easily irritated or annoyed

pejorative [piˈdʒɔrətiv] – adj. expressing disapproval

pelagic [piˈlædʒik] – adj. relating to or occurring or living in or frequenting the open ocean: pelagic organisms

pelf [pelf] – n. informal terms for money

pell-mell [.pelˈmel] – adj. with undue hurry and confusion: a pell-mell dash for the train

pellucid [piˈlu:sid] – adj. transmitting light; able to be seen through with clarity: a pellucid brook

pelt [pelt] – v. attack and bombard with or as if with missiles: pelt the speaker with questions

penalize [ˈpi:nəlaiz] – v. impose a penalty on; inflict punishment on: The students were penalized for showing up late for class

penance [ˈpenəns] – n. remorse for your past conduct

penchant [ˈpə:ŋʃə:ŋ] – n. a strong liking: the Irish have a penchant for blarney

pendant [ˈpendənt] – n. an adornment that hangs from a piece of jewelry (necklace or earring)

pendent [ˈpendənt] – n. an adornment that hangs from a piece of jewelry (necklace or earring)

pending [ˈpendiŋ] – adj. awaiting conclusion or confirmation: business still pending

pendulous [ˈpendjuləs] – adj. having branches or flower heads that bend downward: the pendulous branches of a weeping willow

pendulum [ˈpendjuləm] – n. an apparatus consisting of an object mounted so that it swings freely under the influence of gravity

penetrating [ˈpenitreitiŋ] – adj. having or demonstrating ability to recognize or draw fine distinctions: penetrating insight

penetration [peniˈtreiʃən] – n. clear or deep perception of a situation

penitent [ˈpenitənt] – adj. feeling or expressing remorse for misdeeds

penitentiary [.peniˈtenʃəri] – adj. used for punishment or reform of criminals or wrongdoers: penitentiary institutions

pennant [ˈpenənt] – n. the award given to the champion

pennate [ˈpeneit] – adj. having feathered wings

penology  – n. the branch of criminology concerned with prison management and prisoner rehabilitation

pensive [ˈpensiv] – adj. deeply or seriously thoughtful

penultimate [piˈnʌltimit] – n. the next to last syllable in a word

penumbra [piˈnʌmbrə] – n. a fringe region of partial shadow around an umbra

penurious [piˈnjuəriəs] – adj. not having enough money to pay for necessities

penury [ˈpenjuri] – n. a state of extreme poverty or destitution

peon  – n. a laborer who is obliged to do menial work

peppery [ˈpepəri] – adj. having the piquant burning taste of peppers: corn chips with peppery salsa

pepsin [ˈpepsin] – n. an enzyme produced in the stomach that splits proteins into peptones

peptic [ˈpeptik] – adj. relating to or promoting digestion: peptic juices

perambulate [pəˈræmbjuleit] – v. make an official inspection on foot of (the bounds of a property): Selectmen are required by law to perambulate the bounds every five years

perceptible [pəˈseptəbl] – adj. capable of being perceived by the mind or senses: a perceptible limp

perceptive [pəˈseptiv] – adj. having the ability to perceive or understand; keen in discernment: a perceptive eye

perch [pə:tʃ] – n. support consisting of a branch or rod that serves as a resting place (especially for a bird)

percipient [pəˈsipiənt] – n. a person who becomes aware (of things or events) through the senses

percolate [ˈpə:kəleit] – v. permeate or penetrate gradually

percussion [pəˈkʌʃən] – n. tapping a part of the body for diagnostic purposes

percussionist [pəˈkʌʃənist] – n. a musician who plays percussion instruments

perdition [pəˈdiʃən] – n. (Christianity) the abode of Satan and the forces of evil; where sinners suffer eternal punishment: Hurl’d headlong…To bottomless perdition, there to dwell

peregrination [.perigriˈneiʃən] – n. traveling or wandering around

peremptory [pəˈremptəri] – adj. offensively self-assured or given to exercising usually unwarranted power: a swaggering peremptory manner

perennial [pəˈreniəl] – adj. lasting three seasons or more: the common buttercup is a popular perennial plant

perfectionist [pəˈfekʃənist] – n. a person who is displeased by anything that does not meet very high standards

perfervid  – adj. characterized by intense emotion

perfidious [pəˈfidiəs] – adj. tending to betray; especially having a treacherous character as attributed to the Carthaginians by the Romans: the perfidious Judas

perfidy [ˈpə:fidi] – n. betrayal of a trust

perforate [ˈpə:fəreit] – v. make a hole into or between, as for ease of separation: perforate the sheets of paper

perforce [pəˈfɔ:s] – adv. by necessity; by force of circumstance

perfunctorily  – adv. in a set manner without serious attention: he kissed her cheek perfunctorily

perfunctory [pəˈfʌŋktəri] – adj. hasty and without attention to detail; not thorough: perfunctory courtesy

pergola [ˈpə:gələ] – n. a framework that supports climbing plants

perigee [ˈperidʒi:] – n. periapsis in Earth orbit; the point in its orbit where a satellite is nearest to the Earth

perilous [ˈperiləs] – adj. fraught with danger: a perilous voyage across the Atlantic in a small boat

perimeter [pəˈrimitə] – n. the boundary line or the area immediately inside the boundary

peripatetic [.peripəˈtetik] – n. a person who walks from place to place

peripheral [pəˈrifərəl] – adj. on or near an edge or constituting an outer boundary; the outer area: Russia’s peripheral provinces

periphery [pəˈrifəri] – n. the outside boundary or surface of something

periphrasis [pəˈrifrəsis] – n. a style that involves indirect ways of expressing things

periphrastic [.periˈfræstik] – adj. roundabout and unnecessarily wordy: A periphrastic study in a worn-out poetical fashion,/ Leaving one still with the intolerable wrestle/ With words and meanings.

perishable [ˈperiʃəbəl] – n. food that will decay rapidly if not refrigerated

peristyle [ˈperistail] – n. a colonnade surrounding a building or enclosing a court

perjure [ˈpə:dʒə] – v. knowingly tell an untruth in a legal court and render oneself guilty of perjury

perjury [ˈpə:dʒəri] – n. criminal offense of making false statements under oath

perky [ˈpə:ki] – adj. characterized by liveliness and lightheartedness: a perky little widow in her 70s

permanence [ˈpə:mənəns] – n. the property of being able to exist for an indefinite duration

permeable [ˈpə:miəbl] – adj. allowing fluids or gases to pass or diffuse through: permeable membranes

permeate [ˈpə:mieit] – v. spread or diffuse through: An atmosphere of distrust has permeated this administration

permissive [pə(:)ˈmisiv] – adj. not preventive

permutation [.pə:mjuˈteiʃən] – n. an event in which one thing is substituted for another

pernicious [pəˈniʃəs] – adj. exceedingly harmful

peroration [.perəˈreiʃən] – n. a flowery and highly rhetorical oration

perpendicular [.pə:pənˈdikjulə] – n. a straight line at right angles to another line

perpetrate [ˈpə:pitreit] – v. perform an act, usually with a negative connotation: perpetrate a crime

perpetual [pəˈpetjuəl] – adj. continuing forever or indefinitely: hell’s perpetual fires

perpetuate [pəˈpetjueit] – v. cause to continue or prevail: perpetuate a myth

perpetuity [.pə:piˈtju:iti] – n. the property of being perpetual (seemingly ceaseless)

perplexity [pəˈpleksiti] – n. trouble or confusion resulting from complexity

perquisite [ˈpə:kwizit] – n. an incidental benefit awarded for certain types of employment (especially if it is regarded as a right)

persecute [ˈpə:sikju:t] – v. cause to suffer: Jews were persecuted in the former Soviet Union

persecution [.pə:siˈkju:ʃən] – n. the act of persecuting (especially on the basis of race or religion)

persevere [.pə:siˈviə] – v. be persistent, refuse to stop

persevering [.pə:siˈviəriŋ] – adj. quietly and steadily persevering especially in detail or exactness: with persevering (or patient) industry she revived the failing business

persiflage [ˈpə:siflɑ:ʒ] – n. light teasing

persnickety [pə(:)ˈsnikiti] – adj. (used colloquially) overly conceited or arrogant: they’re snobs–stuck-up and uppity and persnickety

personable [ˈpə:sənəbl] – adj. (of persons) pleasant in appearance and personality

personage [ˈpə:sənidʒ] – n. a person whose actions and opinions strongly influence the course of events

personification  – n. a person who represents an abstract quality: she is the personification of optimism

personify  – v. invest with or as with a body; give body to

perspicacious [.pə:spiˈkeiʃəs] – adj. acutely insightful and wise: much too perspicacious to be taken in by such a spurious argument

perspicacity [pə:spiˈkæsiti] – n. intelligence manifested by being astute (as in business dealings)

perspicuity [.pə:spiˈkju(:)iti] – n. clarity as a consequence of being perspicuous

perspicuous [pəˈspikjuəs] – adj. (of language) transparently clear; easily understandable: a perspicuous argument

perspiration [.pə:spəˈreiʃən] – n. salty fluid secreted by sweat glands

persuasive [pəˈsweisiv] – adj. intended or having the power to induce action or belief: persuasive eloquence

pert [pə:t] – adj. characterized by a lightly pert and exuberant quality

pertain [pə(:)ˈtein] – v. be relevant to: My remark pertained to your earlier comments

pertinacious [.pə:tiˈneiʃəs] – adj. stubbornly unyielding: the most vocal and pertinacious of all the critics

pertinent [ˈpə:tinənt] – adj. having precise or logical relevance to the matter at hand: a list of articles pertinent to the discussion

perturb [pəˈtə:b] – v. disturb in mind or make uneasy or cause to be worried or alarmed: She was rather perturbed by the news that her father was seriously ill

perturbation [.pə:tə:ˈbeiʃən] – n. an unhappy and worried mental state

perusal [pəˈru:zəl] – n. reading carefully with intent to remember

peruse [pəˈru:z] – v. examine or consider with attention and in detail: Please peruse this report at your leisure

pervade [pəˈveid] – v. spread or diffuse through

pervasive [pəˈveisiv] – adj. spreading or spread throughout: the pervasive odor of garlic

perverse [pəˈvə:s] – adj. marked by a disposition to oppose and contradict: took perverse satisfaction in foiling her plans

perversion [pəˈvə:ʃən] – n. a curve that reverses the direction of something: the tendrils of the plant exhibited perversion

perversity [pə(:)ˈvə:siti] – n. deliberate and stubborn unruliness and resistance to guidance or discipline

pervert [pəˈvə:t, ˈpə:vət] – v. corrupt morally or by intemperance or sensuality

pervious [ˈpə:viəs] – adj. admitting of passage or entrance: pervious soil

pesky [ˈpeski] – adj. causing irritation or annoyance: a pesky mosquito

pessimism [ˈpesimizəm] – n. the feeling that things will turn out badly

pester [ˈpestə] – v. annoy persistently

pesticide [ˈpestisaid] – n. a chemical used to kill pests (as rodents or insects)

pestilent [ˈpestilənt] – adj. exceedingly harmful

pestilential [.pestiˈlenʃəl] – adj. likely to spread and cause an epidemic disease: a pestilential malignancy in the air

pestle [ˈpesəl] – n. machine consisting of a heavy bar that moves vertically for pounding or crushing ores

petitioner [piˈtiʃənə(r)] – n. one praying humbly for something

petrifaction [.petriˈfækʃən] – n. the process of turning some plant material into stone by infiltration with water carrying mineral particles without changing the original shape

petrify [ˈpetrifai] – v. cause to become stonelike or stiff or dazed and stunned

petrology [piˈtrɔlədʒi] – n. the branch of geology that studies rocks: their origin and formation and mineral composition and classification

pettish [ˈpetiʃ] – adj. easily irritated or annoyed

petulance [ˈpetjuləns] – n. an irritable petulant feeling

petulant [ˈpetʃulənt] – adj. easily irritated or annoyed

phalanx  – n. any of the bones of the fingers or toes

phantasmal [fænˈtæzməl] – adj. resembling or characteristic of a phantom: a phantasmal presence in the room

phantom [ˈfæntəm] – n. a ghostly appearing figure

pharisaic [.færiˈsei-ik] – adj. excessively or hypocritically pious

pharisaical  – adj. excessively or hypocritically pious

pharisee  – n. a self-righteous or sanctimonious person

pharmaceutical [.fɑ:məˈsju:tikəl] – adj. of or relating to drugs used in medical treatment

pharmacology [.fɑ:məˈkɔlədʒi] – n. the science or study of drugs: their preparation and properties and uses and effects

phenomenal [fiˈnɔminəl] – adj. exceedingly or unbelievably great

phenomenology  – n. a philosophical doctrine proposed by Edmund Husserl based on the study of human experience in which considerations of objective reality are not taken into account

phial [ˈfaiəl] – n. a small bottle that contains a drug (especially a sealed sterile container for injection by needle)

philander [fiˈlændə] – v. have amorous affairs; of men

philanderer  – n. a man who likes many women and has short sexual relationships with them

philanthropic [fiˈlænθrəpic] – adj. generous in assistance to the poor: philanthropic contributions

philanthropist [fiˈlænθrəpist] – n. someone who makes charitable donations intended to increase human well-being

philanthropy [fiˈlænθrəpi] – n. voluntary promotion of human welfare

philatelist [fiˈlætəlist] – n. a collector and student of postage stamps

philately [fiˈlætəli] – n. the collection and study of postage stamps

philistine [ˈfilistain] – n. a person who is uninterested in intellectual pursuits

philology [fiˈlɔlədʒi] – n. the humanistic study of language and literature

phlegmatic [flegˈmætik] – adj. showing little emotion: a phlegmatic…and certainly undemonstrative man

phobia [ˈfəubiə] – n. an anxiety disorder characterized by extreme and irrational fear of simple things or social situations: phobic disorder is a general term for all phobias

phoenix  – n. a large monocotyledonous genus of pinnate-leaved palms found in Asia and Africa

phony [ˈfəuni] – adj. fraudulent; having a misleading appearance

photosynthesis [.fəutəuˈsinθəsis] – n. synthesis of compounds with the aid of radiant energy (especially in plants)

phylum  – n. (linguistics) a large group of languages that are historically related

physiognomy [fiziˈɔgnəmi] – n. the human face (`kisser’ and `smiler’ and `mug’ are informal terms for `face’ and `phiz’ is British)

physiological [.fiziəˈlɔdʒikəl] – adj. of or consistent with an organism’s normal functioning: physiological processes

piazza [piˈætsə] – n. a public square with room for pedestrians

picaresque [.pikəˈresk] – adj. involving clever rogues or adventurers especially as in a type of fiction: picaresque novels

picayune [,pikəˈju:n] – adj. (informal) small and of little importance: giving a police officer a free meal may be against the law, but it seems to be a picayune infraction

piddling  – adj. (informal) small and of little importance

piebald [ˈpaibɔ:ld] – adj. having sections or patches colored differently and usually brightly: a piebald horse

piecemeal [ˈpi:smi:l] – adj. one thing at a time

pied [paid] – adj. having sections or patches colored differently and usually brightly: pied daisies

piercing [ˈpiəsiŋ] – adj. having or demonstrating ability to recognize or draw fine distinctions

piety [ˈpaiəti] – n. righteousness by virtue of being pious

pigment [ˈpigmənt] – n. dry coloring material (especially a powder to be mixed with a liquid to produce paint, etc.)

pigsty [ˈpigstai] – n. a pen for swine

pilfer [ˈpilfə] – v. make off with belongings of others

pilgrim [ˈpilgrim] – n. someone who journeys in foreign lands

pillage [ˈpilidʒ] – n. goods or money obtained illegally

pillory [ˈpiləri] – v. expose to ridicule or public scorn

pincer  – n. a grasping structure on the limb of a crustacean or other arthropods

pinion [ˈpiniən] – n. a gear with a small number of teeth designed to mesh with a larger wheel or rack

pinnace  – n. a boat for communication between ship and shore

pinnacle [ˈpinəkl] – n. (architecture) a slender upright spire at the top of a buttress of tower

pinpoint [ˈpinpɔint] – n. a very brief moment: they were strangers sharing a pinpoint of time together

pious [ˈpaiəs] – adj. having or showing or expressing reverence for a deity: pious readings

piquant [ˈpi:kənt] – adj. having an agreeably pungent taste

pique [pi:k] – n. tightly woven fabric with raised cords

piracy [ˈpaiərəsi] – n. the act of plagiarizing; taking someone’s words or ideas as if they were your own

pirate [ˈpaiərit] – n. someone who uses another person’s words or ideas as if they were his own

pirouette [.piruˈet] – n. (ballet) a rapid spin of the body (especially on the toes as in ballet)

piscatorial [piskəˈtɔ:riəl] – adj. relating to or characteristic of the activity of fishing

pitcher [ˈpitʃə] – n. an open vessel with a handle and a spout for pouring

pitfall [ˈpitfɔ:l] – n. an unforeseen or unexpected or surprising difficulty

pith [piθ] – n. soft spongelike central cylinder of the stems of most flowering plants

pithy [ˈpiθi] – adj. concise and full of meaning: welcomed her pithy comments

pitiless [ˈpitilis] – adj. without mercy or pity

pittance [ˈpitəns] – n. an inadequate payment: they work all day for a mere pittance

pivot [ˈpivət] – n. the person in a rank around whom the others wheel and maneuver

pivotal [ˈpivətəl] – adj. being of crucial importance: a pivotal event

pixel  – n. (computer science) the smallest discrete component of an image or picture on a CRT screen (usually a colored dot): the greater the number of pixels per inch the greater the resolution

placate [pləˈkeit] – v. cause to be more favorably inclined; gain the good will of

placebo [pləˈsi:bəu] – n. an innocuous or inert medication; given as a pacifier or to the control group in experiments on the efficacy of a drug

placid [ˈplæsid] – adj. (of a body of water) free from disturbance by heavy waves: a ribbon of sand between the angry sea and the placid bay

plagiarism [ˈpleidʒiərizəm] – n. a piece of writing that has been copied from someone else and is presented as being your own work

plagiarize [ˈpleidʒərɑiz] – v. take without referencing from someone else’s writing or speech; of intellectual property

plague [pleig] – n. any epidemic disease with a high death rate

plaintive [ˈpleintiv] – adj. expressing sorrow

plait [plæt] – n. a hairdo formed by braiding or twisting the hair

plangent [ˈplændʒənt] – adj. loud and resounding: plangent bells

plank [plæŋk] – v. set (something or oneself) down with or as if with a noise: He planked the money on the table

plankton [ˈplæŋktən] – n. the aggregate of small plant and animal organisms that float or drift in great numbers in fresh or salt water

plaque [plæk] – n. (pathology) a small abnormal patch on or inside the body

plasticity [plæsˈtisiti] – n. the property of being physically malleable; the property of something that can be worked or hammered or shaped without breaking

plateau [ˈplætəu] – n. a relatively flat highland

platitude [ˈplætitju:d] – n. a trite or obvious remark

platonic [pləˈtɔnik] – adj. of or relating to or characteristic of Plato or his philosophy

plaudit [ˈplɔ:dit] – n. enthusiastic approval: he acknowledged the plaudits of the crowd

plausibility  – n. apparent validity

playoff  – n. any final competition to determine a championship

playwright [ˈpleirait] – n. someone who writes plays

plaza [ˈplɑ:zə] – n. a public square with room for pedestrians

pleat [pli:t] – n. any of various types of fold formed by doubling fabric back upon itself and then pressing or stitching into shape

plebeian [pliˈbi:ən] – n. one of the common people

plebiscite [ˈplebisit] – n. a vote by the electorate determining public opinion on a question of national importance

plenary [ˈpli:nəri] – adj. full in all respects: a plenary session of the legislature

plenipotentiary [plenipəˈtenʃəri] – n. a diplomat who is fully authorized to represent his or her government

plenitude [ˈplenitju:d] – n. a full supply

pleonastic [.pli:əʊˈnæstik] – adj. repetition of same sense in different words: `a true fact’ and `a free gift’ are pleonastic expressions

plethora [ˈpleθərə] – n. extreme excess

pliable [ˈplaiəbəl] – adj. susceptible to being led or directed

pliant [ˈplaiənt] – adj. capable of being influenced or formed: a pliant nature

pliers [ˈplaiəz] – n. a gripping hand tool with two hinged arms and (usually) serrated jaws

plight [plait] – n. a situation from which extrication is difficult especially an unpleasant or trying one: the woeful plight of homeless people

plinth [plinθ] – n. an architectural support or base (as for a column or statue)

plod [plɔd] – n. the act of walking with a slow heavy gait: I could recognize his plod anywhere

plodding  – n. hard monotonous routine work

ploy [plɔi] – n. an opening remark intended to secure an advantage for the speaker

plumage [ˈplu:midʒ] – n. the light horny waterproof structure forming the external covering of birds

plumb [plʌm] – v. measure the depth of something

plumber [ˈplʌmə] – n. a craftsman who installs and repairs pipes and fixtures and appliances

plume [plu:m] – v. rip off; ask an unreasonable price

plummet [ˈplʌmit] – n. the metal bob of a plumb line

plump [plʌmp] – v. drop sharply

plumule [ˈplu:mju:l] – n. down feather of young birds; persists in some adult birds

plunder [ˈplʌndə] – v. take illegally; of intellectual property: This writer plundered from famous authors

plurality [pluəˈræliti] – n. a large indefinite number: a plurality of religions

plush [plʌʃ] – n. a fabric with a nap that is longer and softer than velvet

plutocracy [plu:ˈtɔkrəsi] – n. a political system governed by the wealthy people

ply [plai] – v. give what is desired or needed, especially support, food or sustenance

pneumonia [nju(:)ˈməunjə] – n. respiratory disease characterized by inflammation of the lung parenchyma (excluding the bronchi) with congestion caused by viruses or bacteria or irritants

pod [pɔd] – n. the vessel that contains the seeds of a plant (not the seeds themselves)

podiatrist [pəuˈdaiətrist] – n. a specialist in care for the feet

podiatry [pəuˈdaiətri] – n. the branch of medicine concerned with the feet

podium [ˈpəudiəm] – n. a platform raised above the surrounding level to give prominence to the person on it

poignancy [ˈpɔinənsi] – n. a state of deeply felt distress or sorrow: a moment of extraordinary poignancy

poignant [ˈpɔinjənt] – adj. arousing affect: poignant grief cannot endure forever

pointer [ˈpɔintə] – n. a mark to indicate a direction or relation

poise [pɔiz] – v. be motionless, in suspension: The bird poised for a few moments before it attacked

poke [pəuk] – n. someone who takes more time than necessary; someone who lags behind

poky [ˈpəuki] – adj. wasting time

polar [ˈpəulə] – adj. having a pair of equal and opposite charges

polarity [pəuˈlæriti] – n. a relation between two opposite attributes or tendencies: he viewed it as a balanced polarity between good and evil

polarization [.pəʊləraiˈzeiʃən; -riˈz-] – n. the phenomenon in which waves of light or other radiation are restricted in direction of vibration

polarize [ˈpəʊləraiz] – v. cause to vibrate in a definite pattern: polarize light waves

polemic [pəˈlemik] – n. a writer who argues in opposition to others (especially in theology)

polemical [pəˈlemikəl] – adj. of or involving dispute or controversy

politic [ˈpɔlitik] – adj. marked by artful prudence, expedience, and shrewdness: it is neither polite nor politic to get into other people’s quarrels

polity [ˈpɔliti] – n. the form of government of a social organization

pollen [ˈpɔlin] – n. the fine spores that contain male gametes and that are borne by an anther in a flowering plant

pollinate [ˈpɔlineit] – v. fertilize by transfering pollen

pollster [ˈpəulstə] – n. someone who conducts surveys of public opinion: a pollster conducts public opinion polls

poltroon [pɔlˈtru:n] – n. an abject coward

polyandry [.pɔliˈændri, ˈpɔliændri] – n. having more than one husband at a time

polygamist [pəˈligəmist] – n. someone who is married to two or more people at the same time

polygamy [pəˈligəmi] – n. having more than one spouse at a time

polyglot [ˈpɔliglɔt] – n. a person who speaks more than one language

polymath [ˈpɔlimæθ] – n. a person of great and varied learning

pommel [ˈpʌml] – n. handgrip formed by the raised front part of a saddle

pomp [pɔmp] – n. cheap or pretentious or vain display

pomposity [pɔmˈpɔsiti] – n. lack of elegance as a consequence of being pompous and puffed up with vanity

pompous [ˈpɔmpəs] – adj. puffed up with vanity: a pompous speech

poncho [ˈpɔntʃəu] – n. a blanket-like cloak with a hole in the center for the head

ponder [ˈpɔndə] – v. reflect deeply on a subject

ponderable  – adj. capable of being weighed or considered: something ponderable from the outer world–something of which we can say that its weight is so and so

ponderous [ˈpɔndərəs] – adj. slow and laborious because of weight: ponderous prehistoric beasts

poniard [ˈpɔnjəd] – n. a dagger with a slender blade

pontifical [pɔnˈtifikəl] – adj. proceeding from or ordered by or subject to a pope or the papacy regarded as the successor of the Apostles

pontificate  – v. talk in a dogmatic and pompous manner: The new professor always pontificates

populace [ˈpɔpjuləs] – n. people in general considered as a whole

populous [ˈpɔpjuləs] – adj. densely populated

porcelain [ˈpɔ:slin] – n. ceramic ware made of a more or less translucent ceramic

porcine [ˈpɔ:sain] – adj. relating to or suggesting swine: comparison between human and porcine pleasures

porcupine [ˈpɔ:kjupain] – n. relatively large rodents with sharp erectile bristles mingled with the fur

pore [pɔ:, pɔə] – n. any tiny hole admitting passage of a liquid (fluid or gas)

porous [ˈpɔ:rəs] – adj. able to absorb fluids: the partly porous walls of our digestive system

porphyry [ˈpɔ:fəri] – n. any igneous rock with crystals embedded in a finer groundmass of minerals

portend [pɔ:ˈtend] – v. indicate by signs

portent [ˈpɔ:tent] – n. a sign of something about to happen

portentous [pɔ:ˈtentəs] – adj. of momentous or ominous significance: such a portentous…monster raised all my curiosity

portico [ˈpɔ:tikəu] – n. a porch or entrance to a building consisting of a covered and often columned area

portly [ˈpɔ:tli] – adj. euphemisms for `fat’: men are portly and women are stout

poser [ˈpəuzə] – n. a person who habitually pretends to be something he is not

poseur [pəuˈzə:] – n. a person who habitually pretends to be something he is not

posit [ˈpɔzit] – v. put (something somewhere) firmly: She posited her hand on his shoulder

positiveness  – n. a quality or state characterized by certainty or acceptance or affirmation and dogmatic assertiveness

posterior [pɔˈstiəriə] – n. the fleshy part of the human body that you sit on

posterity [pɔsˈteriti] – n. all of the offspring of a given progenitor: we must secure the benefits of freedom for ourselves and our posterity

posthumous [ˈpɔstjuməs] – adj. occurring or coming into existence after a person’s death: a posthumous award

postmortem [.pəustˈmɔ:təm] – n. discussion of an event after it has occurred

postprandial [.pəustˈprændiəl] – adj. following a meal (especially dinner): his postprandial cigar

postscript [ˈpəust.skript] – n. a note appended to a letter after the signature

postulate [ˈpɔstjuleit] – v. maintain or assert

posture [ˈpɔstʃə] – n. the arrangement of the body and its limbs

posy [ˈpəuzi] – n. an arrangement of flowers that is usually given as a present

potable [ˈpəutəbəl] – n. any liquid suitable for drinking

potation [pəuˈteiʃən] – n. a serving of drink (usually alcoholic) drawn from a keg

potboiler  – n. a literary composition of poor quality that was written quickly to make money (to boil the pot)

potency [ˈpoutənsi] – n. the power or right to give orders or make decisions: a place of potency in the state

potent [ˈpəutənt] – adj. having great influence

potentate [ˈpəutənteit] – n. a ruler who is unconstrained by law

potentiate  – v. increase the effect of or act synergistically with (a drug or a physiological or biochemical phenomenon): potentiate the drug

pother [ˈpɔðə] – v. make upset or troubled

potion [ˈpəuʃən] – n. a medicinal or magical or poisonous beverage

potpourri [pəuˈpuəri] – n. a collection containing a variety of sorts of things

poultice [ˈpəultis] – v. dress by covering with a therapeutic substance

pout  – n. a disdainful grimace

pr  – n. a self-governing commonwealth associated with the United States occupying the island of Puerto Rico

practicable [ˈpræktikəbl] – adj. usable for a specific purpose: a practicable solution

pragmatic [prægˈmætik] – adj. concerned with practical matters: a matter-of-fact (or pragmatic) approach to the problem

pragmatism [ˈprægmətizəm] – n. (philosophy) the doctrine that practical consequences are the criteria of knowledge and meaning and value

pragmatist  – n. an adherent of philosophical pragmatism

prairie [ˈprɛəri] – n. a treeless grassy plain

prance [prɑ:ns] – v. to walk with a lofty proud gait, often in an attempt to impress others

prank [præŋk] – n. acting like a clown or buffoon

prate [preit] – n. idle or foolish and irrelevant talk

prattle [ˈprætl] – n. idle or foolish and irrelevant talk

preamble [ˈpri:æmbəl] – n. a preliminary introduction to a statute or constitution (usually explaining its purpose)

precarious [priˈkeəriəs] – adj. affording no ease or reassurance: a precarious truce

precept [ˈpri:sept] – n. rule of personal conduct

preceptor [priˈseptə] – n. teacher at a university or college (especially at Cambridge or Oxford)

precinct [ˈpri:siŋkt] – n. a district of a city or town marked out for administrative purposes

preciosity [.preʃi:ˈɔsiti] – n. the quality of being fastidious or excessively refined

precipice [ˈpresipis] – n. a very steep cliff

precipitant [priˈsipitənt] – n. an agent that causes a precipitate to form

precipitate [priˈsipiteit] – v. bring about abruptly: The crisis precipitated by Russia’s revolution

precipitation [pri.sipiˈteiʃən] – n. the quantity of water falling to earth at a specific place within a specified period of time: the storm brought several inches of precipitation

precipitous [priˈsipitəs] – adj. done with very great haste and without due deliberation

precis [ˈpreisi:] – n. a sketchy summary of the main points of an argument or theory

preclude [priˈklu:d] – v. keep from happening or arising; make impossible: Your role in the projects precludes your involvement in the competitive project

precocious [priˈkəuʃəs] – adj. characterized by or characteristic of exceptionally early development or maturity (especially in mental aptitude): a precocious child

precognition [.pri:kɔgˈniʃən] – n. knowledge of an event before it occurs

preconception [.pri:kənˈsepʃən] – n. an opinion formed beforehand without adequate evidence: he did not even try to confirm his preconceptions

precursor [pri(:)ˈkə:sə] – n. a substance from which another substance is formed (especially by a metabolic reaction)

predatory [ˈpredətəri] – adj. characterized by plundering or pillaging or marauding: predatory warfare

predestine [priˈdestin] – v. decree or determine beforehand

predetermine  – v. determine beforehand

predicament [priˈdikəmənt] – n. a situation from which extrication is difficult especially an unpleasant or trying one: finds himself in a most awkward predicament

predilection [pri:diˈlekʃən] – n. a predisposition in favor of something: a predilection for expensive cars

predispose  – v. make susceptible: This illness predisposes you to gain weight

predisposition [.pri:dispəˈziʃən] – n. susceptibility to a pathogen

predominant [priˈdɔminənt] – adj. most frequent or common

predominate [priˈdɔmineit] – v. be larger in number, quantity, power, status or importance: Hispanics predominate in this neighborhood

preeminent [pri(:)ˈeminənt] – adj. greatest in importance or degree or significance or achievement: a preeminent archeologist

preempt [pri:ˈempt] – v. acquire for oneself before others can do so

preemption [pri:ˈempʃən] – n. the judicial principle asserting the supremacy of federal over state legislation on the same subject

preen [pri:n] – v. clean with one’s bill: The birds preened

prefatory [ˈprefətəri] – adj. serving as an introduction or preface

prefigure [pri:ˈfigə] – v. imagine or consider beforehand: It wasn’t as bad as I had prefigured

prehensile [priˈhensl] – adj. adapted for grasping especially by wrapping around an object: a monkey’s prehensile tail

prejudicial [.predʒuˈdiʃəl] – adj. (sometimes followed by `to’) causing harm or injury: the reporter’s coverage resulted in prejudicial publicity for the defendant

prelate [ˈprelit] – n. a senior clergyman and dignitary

preliterate [.pri:ˈlitərit] – adj. not yet having acquired the ability to read and write

prelude [ˈprelju:d] – n. something that serves as a preceding event or introduces what follows

premeditate  – v. consider, ponder, or plan (an action) beforehand: premeditated murder

premeditated [pri(:)ˈmediteitid] – adj. characterized by deliberate purpose and some degree of planning: a premeditated crime

premiere [ˈpremieə] – v. be performed for the first time: We premiered the opera of the young composer and it was a critical success

premonition [pri:məˈniʃən] – n. a feeling of evil to come

premonitory [.priˈmɔnitəri] – adj. warning of future misfortune

preoccupied [priˈɔkjupaid] – adj. deeply absorbed in thought: a preoccupied frown

preponderance [priˈpɔndərɚns] – n. superiority in power or influence: the preponderance of good over evil

preponderant [priˈpɔndərənt] – adj. having superior power and influence

preponderate [priˈpɔndəreit] – v. weigh more heavily

prepossessing [.pri:pəˈzesiŋ] – adj. creating a favorable impression: strong and vigorous and of prepossessing appearance

preposterous [priˈpɔstərəs] – adj. incongruous;inviting ridicule: a preposterous attempt to turn back the pages of history

prerequisite [ˈpri:ˈrekwizit] – n. something that is required in advance: Latin was a prerequisite for admission

prerogative [priˈrɔgətiv] – n. a right reserved exclusively by a particular person or group (especially a hereditary or official right): suffrage was the prerogative of white adult males

presage [ˈpresidʒ] – n. a foreboding about what is about to happen

prescience [ˈpresiəns] – n. the power to foresee the future

prescient [ˈpreʃiənt] – adj. perceiving the significance of events before they occur: extraordinarily prescient memoranda on the probable course of postwar relations

prescribed [priˈskraibd] – adj. set down as a rule or guide

prescript [ˈpri:skript] – n. prescribed guide for conduct or action

presenter [priˈzentə] – n. an advocate who presents a person (as for an award or a degree or an introduction etc.)

presentiment [priˈzentimənt] – n. a feeling of evil to come: the lawyer had a presentiment that the judge would dismiss the case

preservative [priˈzə:vətiv] – n. a chemical compound that is added to protect against decay or decomposition

preside [priˈzaid] – v. act as president: preside over companies and corporations

prestidigitation [ˈpresti.didʒiˈteiʃən] – n. manual dexterity in the execution of tricks

prestigious [preˈstidʒəs] – adj. having an illustrious reputation; respected: a prestigious author

presto [ˈprestəu] – adv. suddenly

presumption [priˈzʌmpʃən] – n. an assumption that is taken for granted

presumptuous [priˈzʌmptjuəs] – adj. excessively forward: the duchess would not put up with presumptuous servants

presupposition [.pri:sʌpəˈziʃən] – n. the act of presupposing; a supposition made prior to having knowledge (as for the purpose of argument)

pretence [priˈtens] – n. a false or unsupportable quality

pretense [priˈtens] – n. the act of giving a false appearance

pretension [pri:ˈtenʃən] – n. a false or unsupportable quality

pretentious [priˈtenʃəs] – adj. making claim to or creating an appearance of (often undeserved) importance or distinction: a pretentious country house

pretentiousness [priˈtenʃəsnis] – n. lack of elegance as a consequence of being pompous and puffed up with vanity

preternatural [.pri:təˈnætʃərəl] – adj. surpassing the ordinary or normal: Beyond his preternatural affability there is some acid and some steel

pretext [ˈpri:tekst] – n. something serving to conceal plans; a fictitious reason that is concocted in order to conceal the real reason

prevalent [ˈprevələnt] – adj. most frequent or common

prevaricate [priˈværikeit] – v. be deliberately ambiguous or unclear in order to mislead or withhold information

prevision [pri:ˈviʒən] – n. a prophetic vision (as in a dream)

prick [prik] – v. make a small hole into, as with a needle or a thorn: The nurse pricked my finger to get a small blood sample

prickle [ˈprikəl] – v. cause a stinging or tingling sensation

prickly [ˈprikli] – adj. very irritable: he became prickly and spiteful

prig [prig] – n. a person regarded as arrogant and annoying

prim [prim] – v. contract one’s lips: She primmed her lips after every bite of food

primal [ˈpraiməl] – adj. serving as an essential component

primate [ˈpraimit] – n. a senior clergyman and dignitary

primer [ˈpraimə] – n. an introductory textbook

primeval [praiˈmi:vəl] – adj. having existed from the beginning; in an earliest or original stage or state: the forest primeval

primogeniture [praiməuˈdʒenitʃə] – n. right of inheritance belongs exclusively to the eldest son

primordial [praiˈmɔ:djəl] – adj. having existed from the beginning; in an earliest or original stage or state: primordial matter

primp [primp] – v. dress or groom with elaborate care

princely [ˈprinsli] – adj. rich and superior in quality: a princely sum

prissy  – adj. exaggeratedly proper

pristine [ˈpristain] – adj. completely free from dirt or contamination: pristine mountain snow

privation [praiˈveiʃən] – n. a state of extreme poverty

privy [ˈprivi] – n. a room or building equipped with one or more toilets

probation [prəˈbeiʃən] – n. a trial period during which an offender has time to redeem himself or herself

probing [ˈproubiŋ] – adj. diligent and thorough in inquiry or investigation: a probing inquiry

probity [ˈprəubəti] – n. complete and confirmed integrity; having strong moral principles: in a world where financial probity may not be widespread

problematic [prɔbləˈmætik] – adj. open to doubt or debate: If you ever get married, which seems to be extremely problematic

proboscis [prəˈbɔsis] – n. the human nose (especially when it is large)

proceeds [ˈprəʊsi:dz] – n. the income or profit arising from such transactions as the sale of land or other property

proclivity [prəˈkliviti] – n. a natural inclination: he has a proclivity for exaggeration

procrastinate [prəuˈkræstineit] – v. postpone doing what one should be doing: He did not want to write the letter and procrastinated for days

procrastination [prəuˈkræstiˈneiʃn] – n. slowness as a consequence of not getting around to it

procreate [ˈprəukrieit] – v. have offspring or produce more individuals of a given animal or plant: The Bible tells people to procreate

procrustean [prəuˈkrʌstiən] – adj. of or relating to the mythical giant Procrustes or the mode of torture practiced by him

proctor [ˈprɔktə] – n. someone who supervises (an examination)

procure [prəˈkjuə] – v. get by special effort: He procured extra cigarettes even though they were rationed

procurement [prəˈkjuəmənt] – n. the act of getting possession of something: he was responsible for the procurement of materials and supplies

prod [prɔd] – v. to push against gently

prodigal [ˈprɔdigəl] – n. a recklessly extravagant consumer

prodigious [prəˈdidʒəs] – adj. so great in size or force or extent as to elicit awe: a prodigious storm

prodigy [ˈprɔdidʒi] – n. an unusually gifted or intelligent (young) person; someone whose talents excite wonder and admiration: she is a chess prodigy

profane [prəˈfein] – adj. not concerned with or devoted to religion: sacred and profane music

profanity [prəˈfæniti] – n. vulgar or irreverent speech or action

proffer [ˈprɔfə] – n. a proposal offered for acceptance or rejection

proficient [prəˈfiʃənt] – adj. having or showing knowledge and skill and aptitude: a proficient engineer

profiteer [.prɔfiˈtiə] – n. someone who makes excessive profit (especially on goods in short supply)

profligacy [ˈprɔfləgəsi] – n. the trait of spending extravagantly

profligate [ˈprɔfligit] – n. a dissolute man in fashionable society

profundity [prəˈfʌnditi] – n. wisdom that is recondite and abstruse and profound

profuse [prəˈfju:s] – adj. produced or growing in extreme abundance

profusion [prəˈfju:ʒən] – n. the property of being extremely abundant: the profusion of detail

progenitor [prəuˈdʒenitə] – n. an ancestor in the direct line

progeny [ˈprɔdʒini] – n. the immediate descendants of a person

prognathous [prɔgˈneiθəs] – adj. having a projecting lower jaw

prognosis [prɔgˈnəusis] – n. a prediction about how something (as the weather) will develop

prognosticate [prɔgˈnɔstikeit] – v. make a prediction about; tell in advance

prohibitive [prəˈhibitiv, prəu-] – adj. tending to discourage (especially of prices): the price was prohibitive

projectile [prəˈdʒektail] – n. any vehicle self-propelled by a rocket engine

proletarian [.prəuleˈtɛəriən] – n. a member of the working class (not necessarily employed)

proliferate [prəˈlifəreit] – v. grow rapidly: Pizza parlors proliferate in this area

prolific [prəˈlifik] – adj. intellectually productive: a prolific writer

prolix [ˈprəuliks] – adj. tediously prolonged or tending to speak or write at great length: editing a prolix manuscript

prolixity  – n. boring verbosity

prologue [ˈprəulɔg] – n. an introduction to a play

prolong [prəˈlɔŋ] – v. lengthen in time; cause to be or last longer: We prolonged our stay

promenade [.prɔməˈnɑ:d] – n. a formal ball held for a school class toward the end of the academic year

promiscuity [.prɔmisˈkju:iti] – n. indulging in promiscuous (casual and indiscriminate) sexual relations

promiscuous [prəˈmiskjuəs] – adj. not selective of a single class or person: Clinton was criticized for his promiscuous solicitation of campaign money

promontory [ˈprɔməntəri] – n. a natural elevation (especially a rocky one that juts out into the sea)

promptness [prɔmptnis] – n. the characteristic of doing things without delay

promulgate [ˈprɔməlgeit] – v. state or announce

prong  – n. a pointed projection

pronounced [ˈnaunst] – adj. strongly marked; easily noticeable: a pronounced flavor of cinnamon

propagate [ˈprɔpəgeit] – v. transmit from one generation to the next: propagate these characteristics

propel [prəˈpel] – v. cause to move forward with force: Steam propels this ship

propellant [prəˈpelənt] – n. any substance that propels

propeller [prəˈpelə] – n. a mechanical device that rotates to push against air or water

propensity [prəˈpensiti] – n. an inclination to do something

prophetic  – adj. foretelling events as if by supernatural intervention: prophetic writings

prophylactic [.prɔfiˈlæktik] – adj. capable of preventing conception or impregnation

propinquity [prəˈpiŋkwiti] – n. the property of being close together

propitiate [prəˈpiʃieit] – v. make peace with

propitiatory [prəˈpiʃiətəri] – adj. intended to reconcile or appease: sent flowers as a propitiatory gesture

propitious [prəˈpiʃəs] – adj. presenting favorable circumstances; likely to result in or show signs of success: propitious omens

proponent [prəˈpəunənt] – n. a person who pleads for a cause or propounds an idea

propound [prəˈpaund] – v. put forward, as of an idea

proprietary [prəˈpraiətəri] – n. an unincorporated business owned by a single person who is responsible for its liabilities and entitled to its profits

propriety [prəˈpraiəti] – n. correct or appropriate behavior

propulsion [prəˈpʌlʃən] – n. a propelling force

propulsive [prəʊˈpʌlsiv] – adj. having the power to propel: propulsive coefficient

prorogation [.prəurəˈgeiʃən] – n. discontinuation of the meeting (of a legislative body) without dissolving it

prorogue [prəuˈrəug, prə-] – v. hold back to a later time

prosaic [prəuˈzeiik] – adj. not fanciful or imaginative: a prosaic and unimaginative essay

proscenium [prəuˈsi:njəm] – n. the part of a modern theater stage between the curtain and the orchestra (i.e., in front of the curtain)

proscribe [prəuˈskraib] – v. command against

prosecutor [ˈprɔsikju:tə] – n. a government official who conducts criminal prosecutions on behalf of the state

proselyte [ˈprɔsilait] – n. a new convert; especially a gentile converted to Judaism

proselytize [ˈprɔsələlaiz] – v. convert to another faith or religion

prosody [ˈprɔsədi] – n. the patterns of stress and intonation in a language

prospectus [prəˈspektəs] – n. a catalog listing the courses offered by a college or university

prosper [ˈprɔspə] – v. make steady progress; be at the high point in one’s career or reach a high point in historical significance or importance

prostrate [ˈprɔstreit, prɔˈstreit] – v. render helpless or defenseless: They prostrated the enemy

protagonist [prəuˈtægənist] – n. a person who backs a politician or a team etc.

protean [ˈprəutiən, prəuˈti:ən] – adj. taking on different forms: eyes…of that baffling protean grey which is never twice the same

protege [ˈprəuteʒei] – n. a person who receives support and protection from an influential patron who furthers the protege’s career

prototype [ˈprəutətaip] – n. a standard or typical example: he is the prototype of good breeding

protract [prəˈtrækt] – v. lengthen in time; cause to be or last longer

protrude [prəˈtru:d] – v. extend out or project in space

protrusive [prəˈtru:siv] – adj. thrusting outward

protuberance [prəˈtju:bərəns] – n. the condition of being protuberant; the condition of bulging out: the protuberance of his belly

protuberant [prəˈtju:bərənt] – adj. curving outward

provenance [ˈprɔvənəns] – n. where something originated or was nurtured in its early existence

provender [ˈprɔvində] – n. food for domestic livestock

proverb [ˈprɔvə:b] – n. a condensed but memorable saying embodying some important fact of experience that is taken as true by many people

proverbially  – adv. in the manner of something that has become a byword: this proverbially bitter plant, wormwood

providence [ˈprɔvidəns] – n. the guardianship and control exercised by a deity: divine providence

provident [ˈprɔvidənt] – adj. careful in regard to your own interests: wild squirrels are provident

providential [prɔviˈdenʃəl] – adj. peculiarly fortunate or appropriate; as if by divine intervention: a providential recovery

provisions  – n. a stock or supply of foods

proviso [prəˈvaizəu] – n. a stipulated condition

provisory  – adj. subject to a proviso: a provisory clause

provocation [prɔvəˈkeiʃən] – n. unfriendly behavior that causes anger or resentment

provocative [prəˈvɔkətiv] – adj. serving or tending to provoke, excite, or stimulate; stimulating discussion or exciting controversy: a provocative remark

provoking [prəˈvəukiŋ] – adj. causing or tending to cause anger or resentment: a provoking delay at the airport

prowess [ˈprauis] – n. a superior skill that you can learn by study and practice and observation

prowl  – v. move about in or as if in a predatory manner: The suspicious stranger prowls the streets of the town

proximate [ˈprɔksimit] – adj. closest in degree or order (space or time) especially in a chain of causes and effects: news of his proximate arrival

proximity [prɔkˈsimiti] – n. the property of being close together

proxy [ˈprɔksi] – n. a person authorized to act for another

prude [pru:d] – n. a person excessively concerned about propriety and decorum

prudence [ˈpru:dəns] – n. discretion in practical affairs

prudent [ˈpru:dənt] – adj. careful and sensible; marked by sound judgment: a prudent manager

prudery [ˈpru:dəri] – n. excessive or affected modesty

prudish [ˈpru:diʃ] – adj. exaggeratedly proper

prune [pru:n] – v. cultivate, tend, and cut back the growth of

prurience [ˈprʊəriəns] – n. feeling morbid sexual desire or a propensity to lewdness

prurient [ˈpruəriənt] – adj. characterized by lust: prurient literature

pry [prai] – v. to move or force, especially in an effort to get something open: Raccoons managed to pry the lid off the garbage pail

psalm [sɑ:m] – n. any sacred song used to praise the deity

psephology [seˈfɔlədʒi] – n. the branch of sociology that studies election trends (as by opinion polls)

pseudonym [ˈsju:dənim] – n. a fictitious name used when the person performs a particular social role

psyche [ˈsaiki] – n. that which is responsible for one’s thoughts and feelings; the seat of the faculty of reason

psychedelic [.saikiˈdelik] – adj. (of a mental state) characterized by intense and distorted perceptions and hallucinations and feelings of euphoria or sometimes despair: a psychedelic experience

psychiatrist [saiˈkaiətrist] – n. a physician who specializes in psychiatry

psychiatry [saiˈkaiətri] – n. the branch of medicine dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders

psychic [ˈsaikik] – adj. affecting or influenced by the human mind: psychic energy

psychoanalysis [.saikəuəˈnæləsis] – n. a set of techniques for exploring underlying motives and a method of treating various mental disorders; based on the theories of Sigmund Freud: his physician recommended psychoanalysis

psychopathic [saikəˈpæθik] – adj. suffering from an undiagnosed mental disorder

psychosis [saiˈkəusis] – n. any severe mental disorder in which contact with reality is lost or highly distorted

psychosomatic  – adj. used of illness or symptoms resulting from neurosis

psychotic [saiˈkɔtik] – n. a person afflicted with psychosis

pterodactyl [.terəˈdæktil] – n. extinct flying reptile

puberty [ˈpju:bəti] – n. the time of life when sex glands become functional

publicize [ˈpʌblisaiz] – v. call attention to

pucker [ˈpʌkə] – v. to gather something into small wrinkles or folds: She puckered her lips

puckish  – adj. naughtily or annoyingly playful

puddle [ˈpʌdl] – v. subject to puddling or form by puddling: puddle iron

puerile [ˈpjuərail] – adj. of or characteristic of a child: puerile breathing

puerility [pjʊəˈriləti] – n. the state of a child between infancy and adolescence

pugilism [ˈpju:dʒilizəm] – n. fighting with the fists

pugilist  – n. someone who fights with his fists for sport

pugnacious [pʌgˈneiʃəs] – adj. tough and callous by virtue of experience

pugnacity [pʌgˈnæsəti] – n. a natural disposition to be hostile

puissance [ˈpju:isəns] – n. power to influence or coerce: the puissance of the labor vote

puissant [ˈpju:isənt] – adj. powerful

pulchritude [ˈpʌlkritju:d] – n. physical beauty (especially of a woman)

pulchritudinous [.pʌlkriˈtju:dinəs] – adj. used of persons only; having great physical beauty: pulchritudinous movie stars

pullet  – n. flesh of a medium-sized young chicken suitable for frying

pulley [ˈpuli] – n. a simple machine consisting of a wheel with a groove in which a rope can run to change the direction or point of application of a force applied to the rope

pullulate [ˈpʌljuleit] – v. be teeming, be abuzz: her mind pullulated with worries

pulmonary [ˈpʌlmənəri] – adj. relating to or affecting the lungs: pulmonary disease

pulp [pʌlp] – n. any soft or soggy mass: he pounded it to a pulp

pulpit  – n. a platform raised above the surrounding level to give prominence to the person on it

pulsate [pʌlˈseit, ˈpʌlset] – v. expand and contract rhythmically; beat rhythmically

pulverize [ˈpʌlvəraiz] – v. make into a powder by breaking up or cause to become dust: pulverize the grains

pummel [ˈpʌməl] – v. strike, usually with the fist: The pedestrians pummeled the demonstrators

pun  – n. a humorous play on words: I do it for the pun of it

punctilious [pʌŋkˈtiliəs] – adj. marked by precise accordance with details: punctilious in his attention to rules of etiquette

puncture [ˈpʌŋktʃə] – v. pierce with a pointed object; make a hole into: puncture a tire

pundit [ˈpʌndit] – n. someone who has been admitted to membership in a scholarly field

pungency [ˈpʌndʒənsi] – n. wit having a sharp and caustic quality: he commented with typical pungency

pungent [ˈpʌndʒənt] – adj. strong and sharp: the pungent taste of radishes

punitive [ˈpju:nitiv] – adj. inflicting punishment: punitive justice

puny [ˈpju:ni] – adj. inferior in strength or significance: a puny physique

purblind [ˈpə:blaind] – adj. having greatly reduced vision

purebred [ˈpjʊəˈbred] – n. a pedigreed animal of unmixed lineage; used especially of horses

purgation [pə:ˈgeiʃən] – n. purging the body by the use of a cathartic to stimulate evacuation of the bowels

purgative [ˈpə:gətiv] – n. a purging medicine; stimulates evacuation of the bowels

purgatory [ˈpə:gətəri] – n. a temporary condition of torment or suffering: a purgatory of drug abuse

purge [pə:dʒ] – v. oust politically: Deng Xiao Ping was purged several times throughout his lifetime

purist  – n. someone who insists on great precision and correctness (especially in the use of words)

puritanical [.pjuəriˈtænikəl] – adj. of or relating to Puritans or Puritanism

purlieu  – n. an outer adjacent area of any place

purloin [pə:ˈlɔin] – v. make off with belongings of others

purport [ˈpə:pɔ:t, -pət] – n. the intended meaning of a communication

purvey [pə:ˈvei] – v. supply with provisions

purveyance [pəˈveiəns] – n. the act of supplying something

purveyor [pəˈveiə] – n. someone who supplies provisions (especially food)

purview [ˈpə:vju:] – n. the range of interest or activity that can be anticipated

pushy  – adj. marked by aggressive ambition and energy and initiative

pusillanimous [pju:siˈlæniməs] – adj. lacking in courage and manly strength and resolution; contemptibly fearful

putative [ˈpju:tətiv] – adj. purported; commonly put forth or accepted as true on inconclusive grounds: the foundling’s putative father

putrefaction [.pju:triˈfækʃən] – n. a state of decay usually accompanied by an offensive odor

putrefy [ˈpju:trifai] – v. become putrid; decay with an offensive smell

putrescent [pju:ˈtresnt] – adj. becoming putrid: a trail lined by putrescent carcasses

putrid [ˈpju:trid] – adj. in an advanced state of decomposition and having a foul odor: horrible like raw and putrid flesh

putsch [putʃ] – n. a sudden and decisive change of government illegally or by force

puttee [ˈpʌti, pʌˈti:] – n. a strip of cloth wound around the leg to form legging; used by soldiers in World War I

pygmy [ˈpigmi] – n. an unusually small individual

pylon [ˈpailən] – n. a tower for guiding pilots or marking the turning point in a race

pyre [paiə] – n. wood heaped for burning a dead body as a funeral rite

pyromania [.paiərəuˈmeiniə] – n. an uncontrollable desire to set fire to things

pyromaniac [.paiɚrəʊ ˈmeiniæk, .pi-] – n. a person with a mania for setting things on fire

python [ˈpaiθən] – n. large Old World boas

quack  – n. an untrained person who pretends to be a physician and who dispenses medical advice

quadrangle [ˈkwɔdrængəl] – n. a four-sided polygon

quadruped [ˈkwɑdrə.pɛd] – n. an animal especially a mammal having four limbs specialized for walking

quaff [kwɑ:f, kwæf] – n. a hearty draft

quagmire [ˈkwæg.maiə] – n. a soft wet area of low-lying land that sinks underfoot

quail [kweil] – n. small gallinaceous game birds

quaint [kweint] – adj. strange in an interesting or pleasing way: quaint dialect words

qualm [kwɑ:m] – n. uneasiness about the fitness of an action

quandary [ˈkwɔndəri] – n. a situation from which extrication is difficult especially an unpleasant or trying one

quarantine [ˈkwɔrən.ti:n] – n. enforced isolation of patients suffering from a contagious disease in order to prevent the spread of disease

quartet [kwɔ:ˈtet] – n. the cardinal number that is the sum of three and one

quash [kwɔʃ] – v. put down by force or intimidation: The government quashes any attempt of an uprising

quay [ki:] – n. wharf usually built parallel to the shoreline

queasy [ˈkwi:zi] – adj. causing or able to cause nausea

quell [kwel] – v. suppress or crush completely

quench [kwentʃ] – v. satisfy (thirst): The cold water quenched his thirst

querulous [ˈkwɛrələs] – adj. habitually complaining

quibble [ˈkwibəl] – v. evade the truth of a point or question by raising irrelevant objections

quickie [ˈkwiki] – n. hurried repair

quicksilver  – n. a heavy silvery toxic univalent and bivalent metallic element; the only metal that is liquid at ordinary temperatures

quiescence [kwaiˈesns] – n. a state of quiet (but possibly temporary) inaction

quiescent [kwaiˈesənt] – adj. not active or activated: the quiescent level of centimeter wave-length solar radiation

quietude [ˈkwaiə.tjud] – n. a state of peace and quiet

quill [kwil] – n. pen made from a bird’s feather

quintessence [kwinˈtesəns] – n. the purest and most concentrated essence of something

quintessential  – adj. representing the perfect example of a class or quality

quip [kwip] – n. a witty saying

quirk [kwə:k] – n. a strange attitude or habit

quisling [ˈkwizliŋ] – n. someone who collaborates with an enemy occupying force

quitter [ˈkwitə] – n. a person who gives up too easily

quiver [ˈkwivə] – n. an almost pleasurable sensation of fright

quizzical [ˈkwizikəl] – adj. playfully vexing (especially by ridicule): his face wore a somewhat quizzical almost impertinent air

quondam [ˈkwɑndəm, -dæm] – adj. belonging to some prior time: her quondam lover

quorum [ˈkwɔ:rəm] – n. a gathering of the minimal number of members of an organization to conduct business

quotidian [kwəuˈtidiən] – adj. found in the ordinary course of events: there’s nothing quite like a real…train conductor to add color to a quotidian commute

rabble  – n. a disorderly crowd of people

rabid [ˈræbid] – adj. marked by excessive enthusiasm for and intense devotion to a cause or idea: rabid isolationist

rabies  – n. an acute viral disease of the nervous system of warm-blooded animals (usually transmitted by the bite of a rabid animal); rabies is fatal if the virus reaches the brain

racketeer  – n. someone who commits crimes for profit (especially one who obtains money by fraud or extortion)

raconteur [.rækɑnˈtə] – n. a person skilled in telling anecdotes

racy [ˈreisi] – adj. full of zest or vigor: a racy literary style

radiance [ˈreidjəns] – n. the quality of being bright and sending out rays of light

raffish [ˈræfiʃ] – adj. marked by up-to-dateness in dress and manners

raffle [ˈræfəl] – n. a lottery in which the prizes are goods rather than money

rafter [ˈrɑ:ftə] – n. one of several parallel sloping beams that support a roof

ragamuffin [ˈrægə.mʌfin] – n. a dirty shabbily clothed urchin

ragged [ˈrægid] – adj. being or dressed in clothes that are worn or torn: clothes as ragged as a scarecrow’s

ragtime [ˈrægtaim] – n. music with a syncopated melody (usually for the piano)

raillery [ˈreiləri] – n. light teasing repartee

raiment [ˈreimənt] – n. especially fine or decorative clothing

raisin [ˈreizən] – n. dried grape

rakish  – adj. marked by up-to-dateness in dress and manners

ramble [ˈræmbl] – v. continue talking or writing in a desultory manner: This novel rambles on and jogs

rambunctious [ræmˈbʌŋkʃəs] – adj. noisy and lacking in restraint or discipline: a social gathering that became rambunctious and out of hand

ramification [.ræmifəˈkeʃən] – n. the act of branching out or dividing into branches

ramify [ˈræmifai] – v. have or develop complicating consequences: These actions will ramify

ramp [ræmp] – v. behave violently, as if in state of a great anger

rampage [ræmˈpeidʒ] – n. violently angry and destructive behavior

rampant [ˈræmpənt] – adj. unrestrained and violent: rampant aggression

rampart [ˈræmpɑ:t] – n. an embankment built around a space for defensive purposes: they stormed the ramparts of the city

ramshackle  – adj. in deplorable condition: a ramshackle old pier

rancid [ˈrænsid] – adj. smelling of fermentation or staleness

rancor [ˈræŋkə] – n. a feeling of deep and bitter anger and ill-will

rancorous [ˈræŋkərəs] – adj. showing deep-seated resentment

randy [ˈrændi] – adj. feeling great sexual desire

ranger [ˈreindʒə] – n. a member of the Texas state highway patrol; formerly a mounted lawman who maintained order on the frontier

rankle [ˈræŋkəl] – v. gnaw into; make resentful or angry: The injustice rankled her

ransack [ˈrænsæk] – v. steal goods; take as spoils

ransom [ˈrænsəm] – n. money demanded for the return of a captured person

rant [rænt] – n. a loud bombastic declamation expressed with strong emotion

rap [ræp] – n. a reproach for some lapse or misdeed: it was a bum rap

rapacious [rəˈpeiʃəs] – adj. living by preying on other animals especially by catching living prey: the rapacious wolf

rapacity [rəˈpæsəti] – n. extreme gluttony

rapine [ˈræpain] – n. the act of despoiling a country in warfare

rapport [ræˈpɔ:] – n. a relationship of mutual understanding or trust and agreement between people

rapprochement [ræˈprɔʃmə:ŋ] – n. the reestablishing of cordial relations

rapscallion  – n. a deceitful and unreliable scoundrel

rapt [ræpt] – adj. feeling great rapture or delight

rapture [ˈræptʃə] – n. a state of being carried away by overwhelming emotion: listening to sweet music in a perfect rapture

rapturous [ˈræptʃərəs] – adj. feeling great rapture or delight

rarefied [ˈreərifaid] – adj. having low density: lightheaded from the rarefied mountain air

rarefy [ˈrɛərifai] – v. lessen the density or solidity of

rash [ræʃ] – n. any red eruption of the skin

rashness [ˈræʃnis] – n. the trait of giving little thought to danger

rasp  – n. uttering in an irritated tone

raspy  – adj. unpleasantly harsh or grating in sound

ratify [ˈrætifai] – v. approve and express assent, responsibility, or obligation

ratiocination [.rætiɔsiˈneiʃən] – n. logical and methodical reasoning

ration [ˈræʃən] – n. the food allowance for one day (especially for service personnel): the rations should be nutritionally balanced

rationale [.ræʃəˈnɑ:l] – n. (law) an explanation of the fundamental reasons (especially an explanation of the working of some device in terms of laws of nature): the rationale for capital punishment

rationalization [.ræʃənəlaiˈzeiʃən] – n. the cognitive process of making something seem consistent with or based on reason

rationalize [ˈræʃənəlaiz] – v. defend, explain, clear away, or make excuses for by reasoning: rationalize the child’s seemingly crazy behavior

raucous [ˈrɔ:kəs] – adj. unpleasantly loud and harsh

ravage [ˈrævidʒ] – v. make a pillaging or destructive raid on (a place), as in wartimes

rave [reiv] – v. participate in an all-night techno dance party

ravel  – n. French composer and exponent of Impressionism (1875-1937)

ravenous [ˈrævənəs] – adj. extremely hungry: a ravenous boy

ravine [rəˈvi:n] – n. a deep narrow steep-sided valley (especially one formed by running water)

ravish [ˈræviʃ] – v. force (someone) to have sex against their will

ravishment [ˈræviʃmənt] – n. a feeling of delight at being filled with wonder and enchantment

rawhide [ˈrɔ:haid] – n. untanned hide especially of cattle; cut in strips it is used for whips and ropes

raze [reiz] – v. tear down so as to make flat with the ground

razzle [ˈræzəl] – n. any exciting and complex play intended to confuse (dazzle) the opponent

reactant  – n. a chemical substance that is present at the start of a chemical reaction

reactionary [ri(:)ˈækʃənəri] – n. an extreme conservative; an opponent of progress or liberalism

reactivate [riˈæktiveit] – v. activate (an old file) anew

reagent [ri:ˈeidʒənt] – n. a chemical agent for use in chemical reactions

ream [ri:m] – v. remove by making a hole or by boring: the dentist reamed out the debris in the course of the root canal treatment

reaper [ˈri:pə] – n. someone who helps to gather the harvest

reassurance [.ri:əˈʃʊərəns] – n. the act of reassuring; restoring someone’s confidence

rebarbative [riˈbɑrbətiv] – adj. serving or tending to repel: he became rebarbative and prickly and spiteful

rebate [ˈri:beit] – v. give a reduction in the price during a sale

rebellious [riˈbeljəs] – adj. resisting control or authority: temperamentally rebellious

rebuff [riˈbʌf] – n. a deliberate discourteous act (usually as an expression of anger or disapproval)

rebuke [riˈbju:k] – n. an act or expression of criticism and censure: he had to take the rebuke with a smile on his face

rebus [ˈri:bəs] – n. a puzzle where you decode a message consisting of pictures representing syllables and words

rebuttal [riˈbʌtl] – n. the speech act of refuting by offering a contrary contention or argument

recalcitrance [riˈkælsitrəns] – n. the trait of being unmanageable

recalcitrant [riˈkælsitrənt] – adj. stubbornly resistant to authority or control

recant [riˈkænt] – v. formally reject or disavow a formerly held belief, usually under pressure

recantation [.rikænˈteʃən] – n. a disavowal or taking back of a previous assertion

recapitulate [.ri:kəˈpitjuleit] – v. summarize briefly: Let’s recapitulate the main ideas

recast  – v. cast again, in a different role: He was recast as Iago

recede [riˈsi:d] – v. pull back or move away or backward

receptacle [riˈseptəkl] – n. a container that is used to put or keep things in

receptive [riˈseptiv] – adj. open to arguments, ideas, or change: receptive to reason and the logic of facts

recess [riˈses] – n. a state of abeyance or suspended business

recessive [riˈsesiv] – adj. (of genes) producing its characteristic phenotype only when its allele is identical

recherche  – adj. lavishly elegant and refined

recidivism [riˈsidivizəm] – n. habitual relapse into crime

reciprocal [riˈsiprəkəl] – n. hybridization involving a pair of crosses that reverse the sexes associated with each genotype

reciprocate [riˈsiprəkeit] – v. act, feel, or give mutually or in return: We always invite the neighbors and they never reciprocate!

reciprocity [.resiˈprɔsiti] – n. a relation of mutual dependence or action or influence

recital [riˈsaitl] – n. the act of giving an account describing incidents or a course of events

reclaim [riˈkleim] – v. claim back

recline [riˈklain] – v. move the upper body backwards and down

recluse [riˈklu:s] – n. one who lives in solitude

recoil [riˈkɔil] – v. draw back, as with fear or pain

recompense [ˈrekəmpəns] – n. payment or reward (as for service rendered)

reconciliation [.rekənsiliˈeiʃən] – n. the reestablishing of cordial relations

recondite [ˈrekəndait] – adj. difficult to penetrate; incomprehensible to one of ordinary understanding or knowledge: some recondite problem in historiography

reconnaissance [riˈkɔnisəns] – n. the act of reconnoitring (especially to gain information about an enemy or potential enemy): an exchange of fire occurred on a reconnaissance mission

reconnoiter [,rekəˈnɔitə] – v. explore, often with the goal of finding something or somebody

reconstitute  – v. construct or form anew or provide with a new structure: The governing board was reconstituted

recount [riˈkaunt] – v. narrate or give a detailed account of

recoup [riˈku:p] – v. reimburse or compensate (someone), as for a loss

recourse [riˈkɔ:s] – n. act of turning to for assistance: have recourse to the courts

recreant [ˈrekriənt] – n. an abject coward

recriminate [riˈkrimineit] – v. return an accusation against someone or engage in mutual accusations; charge in return

recrimination [ri.krimiˈneiʃən] – n. mutual accusations

recrudescence [ri:kru:ˈdesns] – n. a return of something after a period of abatement: a recrudescence of racism

recrudescent [ri:krU:`desənt] – adj. the revival of an unfortunate situation after a period of abatement: the patient presented with a case of recrudescent gastralgia

rectification [.rektifiˈkeiʃən] – n. (chemistry) the process of refinement or purification of a substance by distillation

rectify [ˈrektifai] – v. math: determine the length of: rectify a curve

rectitude [ˈrektitju:d] – n. righteousness as a consequence of being honorable and honest

recumbent [riˈkʌmbənt] – adj. lying down; in a position of comfort or rest

recuperate [riˈkju:pəreit] – v. regain or make up for: recuperate one’s losses

recuperative [riˈkju:pərətiv] – adj. promoting recuperation: recuperative powers

recurrence [riˈkʌrəns] – n. happening again (especially at regular intervals)

recurrent [riˈkʌrənt] – adj. recurring again and again

recusant [ˈrekjuzənt] – adj. (of Catholics) refusing to attend services of the Church of England

redeem [riˈdi:m] – v. save from sins

redemption [riˈdempʃən] – n. (theology) the act of delivering from sin or saving from evil

redolent [ˈredələnt] – adj. serving to bring to mind: cannot forbear to close on this redolent literary note

redoubtable [riˈdautəbəl] – adj. inspiring fear: a tougher and more redoubtable adversary than the heel-clicking, jackbooted fanatic

redound [riˈdaund] – v. return or recoil: Fame redounds to the heroes

redress [riˈdres] – n. a sum of money paid in compensation for loss or injury

reedy  – adj. resembling a reed in being upright and slender

reek [ri:k] – v. have an element suggestive (of something)

refection [riˈfekʃən] – n. a light meal or repast

refectory [riˈfektəri] – n. a communal dining-hall (usually in a monastery)

refinement [riˈfainmənt] – n. a highly developed state of perfection; having a flawless or impeccable quality: I admired the exquisite refinement of his prose

refinery [riˈfainəri] – n. an industrial plant for purifying a crude substance

reflective [riˈflektiv] – adj. deeply or seriously thoughtful

refraction [riˈfrækʃən] – n. the change in direction of a propagating wave (light or sound) when passing from one medium to another

refractory [riˈfræktəri] – adj. not responding to treatment: a refractory case of acne

refrain [riˈfrein] – v. resist doing something: He refrained from hitting him back

refulgence [riˈfʌldʒəns] – n. the quality of being bright and sending out rays of light

refulgent [riˈfʌldʒənt] – adj. radiating or as if radiating light: a refulgent sunset

refurbish [ri:ˈfə:biʃ] – v. make brighter and prettier: we refurbished the guest wing

refutation [.refjuˈteʃən] – n. the speech act of answering an attack on your assertions: his refutation of the charges was short and persuasive

regal [ˈri:gəl] – adj. belonging to or befitting a supreme ruler: regal attire

regale [riˈgeil] – v. provide with choice or abundant food or drink

regatta [riˈgætə] – n. a meeting for boat races

regenerate [riˈdʒenərit] – v. reestablish on a new, usually improved, basis or make new or like new

regeneration [ri.dʒenəˈreiʃən] – n. (biology) growth anew of lost tissue or destroyed parts or organs

regent [ˈri:dʒənt] – n. members of a governing board

regicide [ˈredʒisaid] – n. the act of killing a king

regimen [ˈredʒəmən] – n. (medicine) a systematic plan for therapy (often including diet)

regimentation [.redʒimenˈteiʃən] – n. the imposition of order or discipline

regress [ˈri:gres] – v. go back to a statistical means

regression  – n. an abnormal state in which development has stopped prematurely

regressive [riˈgresiv] – adj. (of taxes) adjusted so that the rate decreases as the amount of income increases

regurgitate [riˈgə:dʒiteit] – v. pour or rush back: The blood regurgitates into the heart ventricle

rehabilitate [.ri:həˈbiliteit] – v. help to readapt, as to a former state of health or good repute: The prisoner was successfully rehabilitated

rehash [ri:ˈhæʃ] – v. present or use over, with no or few changes

reimburse [.ri:imˈbə:s] – v. pay back for some expense incurred: Can the company reimburse me for my professional travel?

reimbursement [.ri:imˈbə:smənt] – n. compensation paid (to someone) for damages or losses or money already spent etc.: he received reimbursement for his travel expenses

reincarnate [.ri:inˈkɑ:neit] – v. be born anew in another body after death

reincarnation [.ri:inkɑ:ˈneiʃən] – n. embodiment in a new form (especially the reappearance or a person in another form): his reincarnation as a lion

reinstate [.ri:inˈsteit] – v. restore to the previous state or rank

reiterate [ri:ˈitəreit] – v. to say, state, or perform again

rejoicing [riˈdʒɔisiŋ] – n. a feeling of great happiness

rejoin [ri:ˈdʒɔin] – v. join again

rejoinder [riˈdʒɔində] – n. a quick reply to a question or remark (especially a witty or critical one): it brought a sharp rejoinder from the teacher

rejuvenate [riˈdʒu:vəneit] – v. cause (a stream or river) to erode, as by an uplift of the land

rekindle [ˈri:ˈkindl] – v. kindle anew, as of a fire

relapse [riˈlæps] – v. deteriorate in health: he relapsed

relegate [ˈreligeit] – v. refer to another person for decision or judgment: She likes to relegate difficult questions to her colleagues

relent [riˈlent] – v. give in, as to influence or pressure

relentless [riˈlentləs] – adj. not to be placated or appeased or moved by entreaty: relentless persecution

relevancy [ˈreləvənsi] – n. the relation of something to the matter at hand

relic [ˈrelik] – n. an antiquity that has survived from the distant past

relict [ˈrelikt] – n. geological feature that is a remnant of a pre-existing formation after other parts have disappeared

relinquish [riˈliŋkwiʃ] – v. part with a possession or right: I am relinquishing my bedroom to the long-term house guest

relish [ˈreliʃ] – n. vigorous and enthusiastic enjoyment

remediable [riˈmi:diəbəl] – adj. capable of being remedied or redressed: remediable problems

remedial [riˈmi:diəl] – adj. tending or intended to rectify or improve: a remedial reading course

reminisce [.remiˈnis] – v. recall the past

reminiscence [.remiˈnisns] – n. a mental impression retained and recalled from the past

reminiscent [remiˈnis(ə)nt] – adj. serving to bring to mind

remiss [riˈmis] – adj. failing in what duty requires: remiss of you not to pay your bills

remission [riˈmiʃən] – n. an abatement in intensity or degree (as in the manifestations of a disease): his cancer is in remission

remittance [riˈmitəns] – n. a payment of money sent to a person in another place

remittent [riˈmitənt] – adj. (of a disease) characterized by periods of diminished severity: a remittent fever

remodel [.ri:ˈmɔdl] – v. do over, as of (part of) a house: We are remodeling these rooms

remonstrance [riˈmɔnstrəns] – n. the act of expressing earnest opposition or protest

remonstrate [riˈmɔnstreit, ˈremənstreit] – v. argue in protest or opposition

remorse [riˈmɔ:s] – n. a feeling of deep regret (usually for some misdeed)

remunerate [riˈmju:nəreit] – v. make payment to; compensate: My efforts were not remunerated

remunerative [riˈmju:nərətiv] – adj. for which money is paid: remunerative work

renal [ˈri:nl] – adj. of or relating to the kidneys

renascent [riˈnæsənt] – adj. rising again as to new life and vigor

rend [rend] – v. tear or be torn violently

rendezvous [ˈrɔndivu:] – n. a meeting planned at a certain time and place

rendition [renˈdiʃən] – n. a performance of a musical composition or a dramatic role etc.: they heard a live rendition of three pieces by Schubert

renegade [ˈrenigeid] – n. someone who rebels and becomes an outlaw

renege [riˈni:g] – n. the mistake of not following suit when able to do so

renounce [riˈnauns] – v. give up, such as power, as of monarchs and emperors, or duties and obligations

renovate [ˈrenə.veit] – v. restore to a previous or better condition: They renovated the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel

renown [riˈnaun] – n. the state or quality of being widely honored and acclaimed

renunciation [ri.nʌnsiˈeiʃən] – n. rejecting or disowning or disclaiming as invalid

reparable [ˈrepərəbəl] – adj. capable of being repaired or rectified: reparable damage to the car

reparation [.repəˈreiʃən] – n. compensation (given or received) for an insult or injury: an act for which there is no reparation

repartee [.repɑ:ˈti:] – n. adroitness and cleverness in reply

repast  – n. the food served and eaten at one time

repatriate [ri:ˈpætrieit] – v. send someone back to his homeland against his will, as of refugees

repeal [riˈpi:l] – n. the act of abrogating; an official or legal cancellation

repel [riˈpel] – v. cause to move back by force or influence: repel the enemy

repellent [riˈpelənt] – n. a chemical substance that repels animals

repentance [riˈpentəns] – n. remorse for your past conduct

repentant [riˈpentənt] – adj. feeling or expressing remorse for misdeeds

repercussion [.ri:pəˈkʌʃən] – n. a remote or indirect consequence of some action: his declaration had unforeseen repercussions

repertoire [ˈrepətwɑ:] – n. the entire range of skills or aptitudes or devices used in a particular field or occupation

repine [riˈpain] – v. express discontent

replenish [riˈpleniʃ] – v. fill something that had previously been emptied

replete [riˈpli:t] – adj. filled to satisfaction with food or drink

repletion [riˈpli:ʃən] – n. the state of being satisfactorily full and unable to take on more

replica [ˈreplikə, riˈpli:kə] – n. copy that is not the original; something that has been copied

replicate [ˈreplikit] – v. bend or turn backward

reportage [.repɔ:ˈtɑ:ʒ] – n. the news as presented by reporters for newspapers or radio or television

repose [riˈpəuz] – v. put or confide something in a person or thing: These philosophers reposed the law in the people

repository [riˈpɔzitəri] – n. a facility where things can be deposited for storage or safekeeping

repossess [.ri:pəˈzes] – v. claim back

reprehend [.repriˈhend] – v. express strong disapproval of

reprehensible [.repriˈhensəbəl] – adj. bringing or deserving severe rebuke or censure: adultery is as reprehensible for a husband as for a wife

representational  – adj. (used especially of art) depicting objects, figures,or scenes as seen: representational art

repress [riˈpres] – v. put down by force or intimidation

repressive [riˈpresiv] – adj. restrictive of action: a repressive regime

reprieve [riˈpri:v] – n. a (temporary) relief from harm or discomfort

reprimand [ˈreprima:nd] – v. rebuke formally

reprisal [riˈpraizəl] – n. a retaliatory action against an enemy in wartime

reprise  – v. repeat an earlier theme of a composition

reprobate [ˈreprəbeit] – v. reject (documents) as invalid

reprobation [reprəˈbeiʃən] – n. rejection by God; the state of being condemned to eternal misery in Hell

reproof [riˈpru:f] – n. an act or expression of criticism and censure

reprove [riˈpru:v] – v. take to task

reptile [ˈreptail] – n. any cold-blooded vertebrate of the class Reptilia including tortoises, turtles, snakes, lizards, alligators, crocodiles, and extinct forms

reptilian [repˈtiliən] – adj. of or relating to the class Reptilia

repudiate [riˈpju:dieit] – v. cast off: The parents repudiated their son

repugnance [riˈpʌgnəns] – n. intense aversion

repugnant [riˈpʌgnənt] – adj. offensive to the mind: morally repugnant customs

repulse [riˈpʌls] – v. force or drive back

repulsion  – n. the force by which bodies repel one another

repulsive [riˈpʌlsiv] – adj. offensive to the mind: repulsive behavior

reputable [ˈrepjutəbl] – adj. having a good reputation: a reputable business

requiem [ˈrekwiem] – n. a song or hymn of mourning composed or performed as a memorial to a dead person

requisite [ˈrekwizit] – n. anything indispensable: a place where the requisites of water fuel and fodder can be obtained

requisition [.rekwiˈziʃən] – n. an official form on which a request in made: first you have to fill out the requisition

requital [riˈkwaitl] – n. a justly deserved penalty

requite [riˈkwait] – v. make repayment for or return something

rescind [riˈsind] – v. cancel officially

rescission [riˈsiʒən] – n. (law) the act of rescinding; the cancellation of a contract and the return of the parties to the positions they would have had if the contract had not been made

rescript  – n. a reply by a Pope to an inquiry concerning a point of law or morality

resemblance [riˈzembləns] – n. similarity in appearance or external or superficial details

reserved [riˈzə:vd] – adj. set aside for the use of a particular person or party

reshuffle [ri:ˈʃʌfəl] – n. a redistribution of something: there was a reshuffle of cabinet officers

residual [riˈzidjuəl] – n. something left after other parts have been taken away

resilience [riˈziliəns] – n. an occurrence of rebounding or springing back

resilient [riˈziliənt] – adj. recovering readily from adversity, depression, or the like

resin  – n. any of a class of solid or semisolid viscous substances obtained either as exudations from certain plants or prepared by polymerization of simple molecules

resolute [ˈrezə.lu:t] – adj. firm in purpose or belief; characterized by firmness and determination: stood resolute against the enemy

resonance [ˈrezənəns] – n. an excited state of a stable particle causing a sharp maximum in the probability of absorption of electromagnetic radiation

resonant [ˈrezənənt] – adj. serving to bring to mind

resound  – v. ring or echo with sound: the hall resounded with laughter

resourceful  – adj. having inner resources; adroit or imaginative: someone who is resourceful is capable of dealing with difficult situations

respecter [riˈspektə] – n. a person who respects someone or something; usually used in the negative: X is no respecter of Y

respiration [.respəˈreiʃən] – n. a single complete act of breathing in and out: thirty respirations per minute

respire  – v. breathe easily again, as after exertion or anxiety

respite [ˈrespait] – n. a (temporary) relief from harm or discomfort

resplendence [riˈsplendəns] – n. brilliant radiant beauty

resplendent [riˈsplendənt] – adj. having great beauty and splendor

responsive [riˈspɑnsiv] – adj. readily reacting or replying to people or events or stimuli; showing emotion: children are often the quickest and most responsive members of the audience

responsiveness  – n. responsive to stimulation

restitution [.restiˈtju:ʃən] – n. a sum of money paid in compensation for loss or injury

restive [ˈrestiv] – adj. being in a tense state

restorative [riˈstɔ:rətiv] – n. a medicine that strengthens and invigorates

resumption [riˈzʌmpʃən] – n. beginning again

resurge  – v. rise again: His need for a meal resurged

resurgence [riˈsə:dʒəns] – n. bringing again into activity and prominence

resurgent [riˈsə:dʒənt] – adj. rising again as to new life and vigor: resurgent nationalism

resurrect [.rezəˈrekt] – v. cause to become alive again: Slavery is already dead, and cannot be resurrected

resurrection [.rezəˈrekʃən] – n. (New Testament) the rising of Christ on the third day after the Crucifixion

resuscitate [riˈsʌsiteit] – v. cause to regain consciousness

resuscitation  – n. the act of reviving a person and returning them to consciousness: although he was apparently drowned, resuscitation was accomplished by artificial respiration

retainer  – n. a person working in the service of another (especially in the household)

retaliate [riˈtælieit] – v. take revenge for a perceived wrong

retaliation  – n. action taken in return for an injury or offense

retard [riˈtɑ:d] – v. cause to move more slowly or operate at a slower rate: This drug will retard your heart rate

retentive [riˈtentiv] – adj. good at remembering: a retentive mind

reticence [ˈretisəns] – n. the trait of being uncommunicative; not volunteering anything more than necessary

reticent [ˈretisənt] – adj. temperamentally disinclined to talk

reticulate  – v. form a net or a network

reticulation [ri.tikjuˈleiʃən] – n. (photography) the formation of a network of cracks or wrinkles in a photographic emulsion

retinue [ˈretinju:] – n. the group following and attending to some important person

retiring [riˈtaiəriŋ] – adj. not arrogant or presuming: a shy retiring girl

retouch [ri:ˈtʌtʃ] – v. alter so as to produce a more desirable appearance: This photograph has been retouched!

retrace [riˈtreis] – v. to go back over again: we retraced the route we took last summer

retract [riˈtrækt] – v. formally reject or disavow a formerly held belief, usually under pressure: He retracted his earlier statements about his religion

retraction [riˈtrækʃən] – n. a disavowal or taking back of a previous assertion

retrench [riˈtrentʃ] – v. tighten one’s belt; use resources carefully

retribution [.retriˈbju:ʃən] – n. a justly deserved penalty

retributive [riˈtribjutiv] – adj. given or inflicted in requital according to merits or deserts: retributive justice

retrieval [riˈtrivl] – n. (computer science) the operation of accessing information from the computer’s memory

retroactive [retrəʊˈæktiv] – adj. affecting things past: retroactive tax increase

retrograde [ˈretrəgreid] – v. move backward in an orbit, of celestial bodies

retrogress [.retrəˈgres] – v. get worse or fall back to a previous condition

retrospect [ˈretrəu.spekt] – n. contemplation of things past: in retrospect

retrospective [.retrəuˈspektiv] – n. an exhibition of a representative selection of an artist’s life work

revamp [ri:ˈvæmp] – v. to patch up or renovate; repair or restore: They revamped their old house before selling it

revelry [ˈrevəlri] – n. unrestrained merrymaking

reverberant [riˈvəbərənt] – adj. having a tendency to reverberate or be repeatedly reflected: a reverberant room

reverberate [riˈvə:bəreit] – v. ring or echo with sound

revere [riˈviə] – n. a lapel on a woman’s garment; turned back to show the reverse side

reverence [ˈrevərəns] – n. a feeling of profound respect for someone or something: the Chinese reverence for the dead

reverend  – n. a member of the clergy and a spiritual leader of the Christian Church

reverent [ˈrevərənt] – adj. feeling or showing profound respect or veneration: maintained a reverent silence

reverie [ˈrevəri] – n. absentminded dreaming while awake

reversion [riˈvə:ʃən] – n. (genetics) a return to a normal phenotype (usually resulting from a second mutation)

revile [riˈvail] – v. spread negative information about

revitalize [ri:ˈvaitəlaiz] – v. restore strength: This food revitalized the patient

revocable [ˈrevəkəbl] – adj. capable of being revoked or annulled: a revocable order

revocation [.revəˈkeiʃən] – n. the state of being cancelled or annulled

revoke [riˈvəuk] – v. fail to follow suit when able and required to do so

revue  – n. a variety show with topical sketches and songs and dancing and comedians

revulsion [riˈvʌlʃən] – n. intense aversion

rhapsodize [ˈræpsədaiz] – v. say (something) with great enthusiasm

rhapsody [ˈræpsədi] – n. an epic poem adapted for recitation

rheumy [ˈru:mi] – adj. moist, damp, wet (especially of air)

rhinestone [ˈrainstəun] – n. an imitation diamond made from rock crystal or glass or paste

rhubarb [ˈru:bɑ:b] – n. long pinkish sour leafstalks usually eaten cooked and sweetened

rhythmic [ˈriðmik] – adj. recurring with measured regularity: the rhythmic chiming of church bells

ribald [ˈribəld] – adj. humorously vulgar: ribald language

rickety [ˈrikiti] – adj. inclined to shake as from weakness or defect: a rickety table

ridicule [ˈridikju:l] – n. language or behavior intended to mock or humiliate

rife [raif] – adj. most frequent or common

riffraff  – n. disparaging terms for the common people

rift [rift] – n. a gap between cloud masses: the sun shone through a rift in the clouds

rig [rig] – n. a truck consisting of a tractor and trailer together

righteous [ˈraitʃəs] – adj. characterized by or proceeding from accepted standards of morality or justice: the…prayer of a righteous man availeth much

rightful [ˈraitful] – adj. legally valid: a rightful inheritance

rigidity [riˈdʒiditi] – n. the physical property of being stiff and resisting bending

rigmarole [ˈrigmərəul] – n. a set of confused and meaningless statements

rigor [ˈrigə] – n. something hard to endure

rigorous [ˈrigərəs] – adj. rigidly accurate; allowing no deviation from a standard: rigorous application of the law

rile  – v. make turbid by stirring up the sediments of

rime [raim] – n. ice crystals forming a white deposit (especially on objects outside)

rind [raind] – n. the natural outer covering of food (usually removed before eating)

ringlet [ˈriŋlit] – n. a round shape formed by a series of concentric circles (as formed by leaves or flower petals)

rinse [rins] – n. a liquid preparation used on wet hair to give it a tint

riotous [ˈraiətəs] – adj. produced or growing in extreme abundance: their riotous blooming

risible [ˈrizəbəl] – adj. arousing or provoking laughter: risible courtroom antics

risque [ˈriskei] – adj. suggestive of sexual impropriety: a risque story

rite [rait] – n. any customary observance or practice

rive  – v. tear or be torn violently

rivet [ˈrivit] – v. direct one’s attention on something

rivulet [ˈrivjulit] – n. a small stream

roan [rəun] – n. a horse having a brownish coat thickly sprinkled with white or gray

robust [rəuˈbʌst] – adj. sturdy and strong in form, constitution, or construction: a robust body

rococo [rəˈkəukəu] – n. fanciful but graceful asymmetric ornamentation in art and architecture that originated in France in the 18th century

rodent [ˈrəudnt] – n. relatively small placental mammals having a single pair of constantly growing incisor teeth specialized for gnawing

roe [rəu] – n. fish eggs or egg-filled ovary; having a grainy texture

roguish [ˈrəugiʃ] – adj. playful in an appealingly bold way: a roguish grin

roil [rɔil] – v. be agitated

roister  – v. engage in boisterous, drunken merrymaking

rollicking [ˈrɔlikiŋ] – adj. given to merry frolicking

rolling  – n. a deep prolonged sound (as of thunder or large bells)

romp  – n. an easy victory

rood [ru:d] – n. representation of the cross on which Jesus died

rookie [ˈruki] – n. an awkward and inexperienced youth

roost [ru:st] – n. a shelter with perches for fowl or other birds

rooster [ˈru:stə] – n. adult male chicken

roseate [ˈrəuziət] – adj. of something having a dusty purplish pink color: the roseate glow of dawn

roster [ˈrɔstə] – n. a list of names

rostrum [ˈrɔstrəm] – n. a platform raised above the surrounding level to give prominence to the person on it

rosy [ˈrəuzi] – adj. reflecting optimism: a rosy future

rote [rəut] – n. memorization by repetition

rotund [rəuˈtʌnd] – adj. spherical in shape

rotunda [rəuˈtʌndə] – n. a building having a circular plan and a dome

rotundity [rəuˈtʌnditi] – n. the roundness of a 3-dimensional object

roundabout [ˈraundəbaut] – n. a large, rotating machine with seats for children to ride or amusement

rousing  – n. the act of arousing

rout [raut] – v. cause to flee: rout out the fighters from their caves

rove [rəuv] – v. move about aimlessly or without any destination, often in search of food or employment

rowdy [ˈraudi] – n. a cruel and brutal fellow

rubbery [ˈrʌbəri] – adj. difficult to chew

rubble [ˈrʌbl] – n. the remains of something that has been destroyed or broken up

rubicund [ˈru:bikənd] – adj. inclined to a healthy reddish color often associated with outdoor life: Santa’s rubicund cheeks

rubric  – n. an authoritative rule of conduct or procedure

ruck [rʌk] – n. a crowd especially of ordinary or undistinguished persons or things: his brilliance raised him above the ruck

rucksack [ˈrʌksæk] – n. a bag carried by a strap on your back or shoulder

rudder [ˈrʌdə] – n. a hinged vertical airfoil mounted at the tail of an aircraft and used to make horizontal course changes

ruddy [ˈrʌdi] – adj. inclined to a healthy reddish color often associated with outdoor life: a ruddy complexion

rudimentary [ru:diˈmentəri] – adj. being or involving basic facts or principles: these rudimentary truths

rudiments [ˈru:dimənts] – n. a statement of fundamental facts or principles

rue [ru:] – n. European strong-scented perennial herb with grey-green bitter-tasting leaves; an irritant similar to poison ivy

rueful [ˈru:fəl] – adj. feeling or expressing pain or sorrow for sins or offenses

ruffian [ˈrʌfiən] – n. a cruel and brutal fellow

ruffle [ˈrʌfl] – v. stir up (water) so as to form ripples

rumble [ˈrʌmbl] – n. a loud low dull continuous noise

ruminant [ˈru:minənt] – n. any of various cud-chewing hoofed mammals having a stomach divided into four (occasionally three) compartments

ruminate [ˈru:mineit] – v. chew the cuds: cows ruminate

ruminative [ˈru:minətiv] – adj. deeply or seriously thoughtful

rummage [ˈrʌmidʒ] – n. a jumble of things to be given away

rumple [ˈrʌmpəl] – v. disturb the smoothness of

rumpus [ˈrʌmpəs] – n. the act of making a noisy disturbance

run-down  – adj. worn and broken down by hard use: a run-down neighborhood

runic  – adj. relating to or consisting of runes: runic inscription

rupture [ˈrʌptʃə] – n. state of being torn or burst open

ruse [ru:z, ru:s] – n. a deceptive maneuver (especially to avoid capture)

rustic [ˈrʌstik] – adj. characteristic of rural life: rustic awkwardness

rusticate [ˈrʌstikeit] – v. send to the country: He was rusticated for his bad behavior

rustle [ˈrʌsl] – v. make a dry crackling sound

rustler [ˈrʌslə] – n. someone who steals livestock (especially cattle)

sabbatical  – adj. of or relating to the Sabbath: Friday is a sabbatical day for Muslims

sabotage [ˈsæbətɑ:ʒ] – n. a deliberate act of destruction or disruption in which equipment is damaged

saboteur  – n. a member of a clandestine subversive organization who tries to help a potential invader

sabre  – n. a fencing sword with a v-shaped blade and a slightly curved handle

saccharin [ˈsækərin] – n. a crystalline substance 500 times sweeter than sugar; used as a calorie-free sweetener

saccharine  – adj. overly sweet

sachet [sæˈʃe, ˈsæʃei] – n. a small soft bag containing perfumed powder; used to perfume items in a drawer or chest

sacrament [ˈsækrəmənt] – n. a formal religious ceremony conferring a specific grace on those who receive it; the two Protestant ceremonies are baptism and the Lord’s Supper; in the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church there are seven traditional rites accepted as instituted by Jesus: baptism and confirmation and Holy Eucharist and penance and holy orders and matrimony and extreme unction

sacrilege [ˈsækrilidʒ] – n. blasphemous behavior; the act of depriving something of its sacred character

sacrilegious [sækriˈlidʒəs] – adj. grossly irreverent toward what is held to be sacred: it is sacrilegious to enter with shoes on

sacrosanct [ˈsækrəusæŋkt] – adj. must be kept sacred

sadistic [səˈdistik,sei-] – adj. deriving pleasure or sexual gratification from inflicting pain on another

safari [səˈfɑ:ri] – n. an overland journey by hunters (especially in Africa)

safeguard [ˈseifgɑ:d] – n. a precautionary measure warding off impending danger or damage or injury etc.: an insurance policy is a good safeguard

saffron [ˈsæfrən] – n. Old World crocus having purple or white flowers with aromatic pungent orange stigmas used in flavoring food

sag [sæg] – v. droop, sink, or settle from or as if from pressure or loss of tautness

saga [ˈsɑ:gə] – n. a narrative telling the adventures of a hero or a family; originally (12th to 14th centuries) a story of the families that settled Iceland and their descendants but now any prose narrative that resembles such an account

sagacious [səˈgeiʃəs] – adj. acutely insightful and wise: observant and thoughtful, he was given to asking sagacious questions

sagacity [səˈgæsəti] – n. the mental ability to understand and discriminate between relations

sage [seidʒ] – n. a mentor in spiritual and philosophical topics who is renowned for profound wisdom

salacious [səˈleiʃəs] – adj. characterized by lust: a salacious rooster of a little man

salacity [səˈlæsəti] – n. the trait of behaving in an obscene manner

salient [ˈseiljənt] – adj. having a quality that thrusts itself into attention: salient traits

saliferous [səˈlifərəs] – adj. containing or yielding salt: saliferous formations

saline [ˈseilain] – n. an isotonic solution of sodium chloride and distilled water

saliva [səˈlaivə] – n. a clear liquid secreted into the mouth by the salivary glands and mucous glands of the mouth; moistens the mouth and starts the digestion of starches

sallow [ˈsæləu] – adj. unhealthy looking

salubrious [səˈlu:briəs] – adj. promoting health; healthful: the salubrious mountain air and water

salutary [ˈsæljuətəri, -jəteri] – adj. tending to promote physical well-being; beneficial to health: the salutary influence of pure air

salutation [.sæljuˈteiʃ(ə)n] – n. an act of honor or courteous recognition

salvage [ˈsælvidʒ] – n. property or goods saved from damage or destruction

salve [sɑ:v] – n. semisolid preparation (usually containing a medicine) applied externally as a remedy or for soothing an irritation

salver [ˈsælvə] – n. a tray (or large plate) for serving food or drinks; usually made of silver

salvo [ˈsælvəu] – n. an outburst resembling the discharge of firearms or the release of bombs

sampler [ˈsɑ:mplə] – n. someone who samples food or drink for its quality

sanatorium [.sænəˈtɔ:riəm] – n. a hospital for recuperation or for the treatment of chronic diseases

sanctify  – v. render holy by means of religious rites

sanctimonious [.sæŋktiˈməuniəs] – adj. excessively or hypocritically pious: a sickening sanctimonious smile

sanctum [ˈsæŋktəm] – n. a place of inviolable privacy: he withdrew to his sanctum sanctorum, where the children could never go

sane [sein] – adj. mentally healthy; free from mental disorder: appears to be completely sane

sanguinary [ˈsæŋgwinəri] – adj. accompanied by bloodshed: this bitter and sanguinary war

sanguine [ˈsæŋgwin] – adj. confidently optimistic and cheerful

sanitary [ˈsænitəri, -teri] – adj. free from filth and pathogens: sanitary conditions for preparing food

sanitation [sæniˈteiʃən] – n. the state of being clean and conducive to health

sanity [ˈsæniti] – n. normal or sound powers of mind

sap [sæp] – n. a person who lacks good judgment

sapid [ˈsæpid] – adj. full of flavor

sapience [ˈsepiəns] – n. ability to apply knowledge or experience or understanding or common sense and insight

sapient [ˈseipiənt] – adj. acutely insightful and wise: a source of valuable insights and sapient advice to educators

sapless [ˈsæplis, ˈsæpləs] – adj. lacking bodily or muscular strength or vitality: her body looked sapless

sapling [ˈsæpliŋ] – n. young tree

sapphire [ˈsæfaiə] – n. a precious transparent stone of rich blue corundum valued as a gemstone

sarcasm [ˈsɑ:kæzəm] – n. witty language used to convey insults or scorn: he used sarcasm to upset his opponent

sarcastic [sɑ:ˈkæstik] – adj. expressing or expressive of ridicule that wounds

sarcophagus [sɑ:ˈkɔfəgəs] – n. a stone coffin (usually bearing sculpture or inscriptions)

sardonic [sɑ:ˈdɔnik, sɑrˈdɑnik] – adj. disdainfully or ironically humorous; scornful and mocking: his rebellion is the bitter, sardonic laughter of all great satirists

sartorial [sɑ:ˈtɔ:riəl] – adj. of or relating to a tailor or to tailoring

sash [sæʃ] – n. a framework that holds the panes of a window in the window frame

satanic [seˈtænik, səˈtænik] – adj. extremely evil or cruel; expressive of cruelty or befitting hell: satanic cruelty

sate [set, seit] – v. fill to satisfaction: I am sated

satiate [ˈseiʃieit] – v. overeat or eat immodestly; make a pig of oneself

satiated  – adj. supplied (especially fed) to satisfaction

satiety [səˈtaiəti] – n. the state of being satisfactorily full and unable to take on more

satiny [ˈsætini] – adj. having a smooth, gleaming surface reflecting light: satiny gardenia petals

satire [ˈsætaiə] – n. witty language used to convey insults or scorn

satirical [səˈtirikəl] – adj. exposing human folly to ridicule: a persistent campaign of mockery by the satirical fortnightly magazine

satrap [ˈsætrəp] – n. a governor of a province in ancient Persia

saturate [ˈsætʃəreit] – v. infuse or fill completely

saturated [ˈsætʃəreitid] – adj. being the most concentrated solution possible at a given temperature; unable to dissolve still more of a substance: a saturated solution

saturnalia [.sætəˈneiliə] – n. an orgiastic festival in ancient Rome in honor of Saturn

saturnine [ˈsætənain] – adj. bitter or scornful: the face was saturnine and swarthy, and the sensual lips…twisted with disdain

satyr [ˈsætə] – n. man with strong sexual desires

saunter [ˈsɔ:ntə] – n. a careless leisurely gait: he walked with a kind of saunter as if he hadn’t a care in the world

savanna [səˈvænə] – n. a flat grassland in tropical or subtropical regions

savant [ˈsævənt] – n. someone who has been admitted to membership in a scholarly field

savor [ˈseivə] – v. derive or receive pleasure from; get enjoyment from; take pleasure in

savory  – n. any of several aromatic herbs or subshrubs of the genus Satureja having spikes of flowers attractive to bees

savvy  – n. the cognitive condition of someone who understands

sawdust [ˈsɔ:dʌst] – n. fine particles of wood made by sawing wood

scab [skæb] – n. someone who works (or provides workers) during a strike

scabbard [ˈskæbəd, -ərd] – n. a sheath for a sword or dagger or bayonet

scabrous [ˈskeibrəs] – adj. rough to the touch; covered with scales or scurf

scad  – n. any of a number of fishes of the family Carangidae

scads [skædz] – n. a large number or amount

scaffold [ˈskæfəld, -fəuld] – n. a platform from which criminals are executed (hanged or beheaded)

scald [skɔ:ld] – v. subject to harsh criticism

scalp [skælp] – v. sell illegally, as on the black market

scalpel [ˈskælpəl] – n. a thin straight surgical knife used in dissection and surgery

scamper [ˈskæmpə] – n. rushing about hastily in an undignified way

scandalous [ˈskændələs] – adj. giving offense to moral sensibilities and injurious to reputation: scandalous behavior

scant [skænt] – v. work hastily or carelessly; deal with inadequately and superficially

scanty  – n. short underpants for women or children (usually used in the plural)

scapegoat [ˈskeipgəut] – n. someone who is punished for the errors of others

scarify [ˈskɛərifai] – v. scratch the surface of: scarify seeds

scarp [skɑ:p] – n. a long steep slope or cliff at the edge of a plateau or ridge; usually formed by erosion

scathe [skeið] – n. the act of damaging something or someone

scathing [ˈskeiðiŋ] – adj. marked by harshly abusive criticism: his scathing remarks about silly lady novelists

scavenge [ˈskævindʒ] – v. clean refuse from

scavenger [ˈskævindʒə] – n. a chemical agent that is added to a chemical mixture to counteract the effects of impurities

sceptical  – adj. marked by or given to doubt

sceptre  – n. a ceremonial or emblematic staff

schematic [ski:ˈmætik] – n. diagram of an electrical or mechanical system

schematize [ˈski:mətaiz] – v. give conventional form to

schism [ˈsizəm, ˈskizəm] – n. division of a group into opposing factions: another schism like that and they will wind up in bankruptcy

schismatic [sizˈmætik, skiz-] – adj. of or relating to or involved in or characteristic of schism: schismatic sects

schizophrenia [.skitsəuˈfri:niə] – n. any of several psychotic disorders characterized by distortions of reality and disturbances of thought and language and withdrawal from social contact

scholarly [ˈskɔləli] – adj. characteristic of scholars or scholarship: scholarly pursuits

schooner [ˈsku:nə] – n. a large beer glass

scintilla [sinˈtilə] – n. a tiny or scarcely detectable amount

scintillate [ˈsintileit] – v. give off: the substance scintillated sparks and flashes

scintillating  – adj. brilliantly clever: scintillating wit

sciolism [ˈsaiəliz(ə)m] – n. pretentious superficiality of knowledge

scion [ˈsaiən] – n. a descendent or heir: a scion of royal stock

scission  – n. the act of dividing by cutting or splitting

scissor  – v. cut with or as if with scissors

scoff [skɔf] – v. laugh at with contempt and derision

scooter  – n. child’s two-wheeled vehicle operated by foot

scorch [skɔ:tʃ] – v. make very hot and dry: The heat scorched the countryside

scorpion [ˈskɔ:piən] – n. (astrology) a person who is born while the sun is in Scorpio

scotch [skɔtʃ] – n. a slight surface cut (especially a notch that is made to keep a tally)

scour [ˈskauə] – v. examine minutely: The police scoured the country for the fugitive

scourge [skə:dʒ] – n. a whip used to inflict punishment (often used for pedantic humor)

scowl [skaul] – n. a facial expression of dislike or displeasure

scraggy [ˈskrægi] – adj. being very thin

scrappy  – adj. full of fighting spirit: a scrappy admiral

scraps  – n. food that is discarded (as from a kitchen)

scrawl [skrɔ:l] – n. poor handwriting

scree [skri:] – n. a sloping mass of loose rocks at the base of a cliff

screech [skri:tʃ] – n. a high-pitched noise resembling a human cry: he ducked at the screechings of shells

screed [skri:d] – n. a long monotonous harangue

screwdriver [ˈskru:.draivə] – n. a hand tool for driving screws; has a tip that fits into the head of a screw

scribble [ˈskribəl] – n. poor handwriting

scrimmage  – n. (American football) practice play between a football team’s squads

scroll [skrəul] – n. a round shape formed by a series of concentric circles (as formed by leaves or flower petals)

scrooge [skru:dʒ] – n. a selfish person who is unwilling to give or spend

scrub [skrʌb] – v. clean with hard rubbing: She scrubbed his back

scruffy [ˈskrʌfi] – adj. shabby and untidy: a surge of ragged scruffy children

scrumptious [ˈskrʌmpʃəs] – adj. extremely pleasing to the sense of taste

scrunch [skrʌntʃ] – v. make a noise typical of an engine lacking lubricants

scruple [ˈskru:pl] – n. a unit of apothecary weight equal to 20 grains

scrupulous [ˈskru:pjuləs] – adj. characterized by extreme care and great effort: scrupulous attention to details

scrutinize [ˈskru:tinaiz] – v. to look at critically or searchingly, or in minute detail: he scrutinized his likeness in the mirror

scud [skʌd] – v. run or move very quickly or hastily

scuff [skʌf] – v. walk without lifting the feet

scuffle [ˈskʌfəl] – n. disorderly fighting

scullion [ˈskʌliən] – n. a kitchen servant employed to do menial tasks (especially washing)

sculpt [skʌlpt] – v. create by shaping stone or wood or any other hard material: sculpt a swan out of a block of ice

sculptor [ˈskʌlptə(r)] – n. a faint constellation in the southern hemisphere near Phoenix and Cetus

scum [skʌm] – n. worthless people

scurrilous [ˈskʌriləs] – adj. expressing offensive reproach

scurry [ˈskʌri] – n. rushing about hastily in an undignified way

scurvy [ˈskə:vi] – n. a condition caused by deficiency of ascorbic acid (vitamin C)

scuttle [ˈskʌtl] – n. container for coal; shaped to permit pouring the coal onto the fire

scythe [saið] – n. an edge tool for cutting grass; has a long handle that must be held with both hands and a curved blade that moves parallel to the ground

seafaring [ˈsi:.feəriŋ] – n. the work of a sailor

seam [si:m] – n. joint consisting of a line formed by joining two pieces

seamstress [ˈsi:mstris] – n. someone who makes or mends dresses

seamy [ˈsi:mi] – adj. morally degraded: the seamy side of life

sear [siə] – v. make very hot and dry

searing [ˈsiəriŋ] – adj. severely critical

seascape [ˈsi:skeip] – n. a view of the sea

seasonable  – adj. done or happening at the appropriate or proper time: a seasonable time for discussion

seasoned  – adj. aged or processed: seasoned wood

seasoning [ˈsi:zniŋ] – n. something added to food primarily for the savor it imparts

sebaceous [siˈbeiʃəs] – adj. containing an unusual amount of grease or oil

secateurs [ˈsekətə:z] – n. small pruning shears with a spring that holds the handles open and a single blade that closes against a flat surface

secede [siˈsi:d] – v. withdraw from an organization or communion

secession [siˈseʃən] – n. an Austrian school of art and architecture parallel to the French art nouveau in the 1890s

seclude [siˈklu:d] – v. keep away from others

secluded [siˈklu:did] – adj. hidden from general view or use: a secluded romantic spot

seclusion [siˈklu:ʒən] – n. the act of secluding yourself from others

secretarial [.sekrəˈteəriəl] – adj. of or relating to a secretary or to a secretary’s work

secrete [siˈkri:t] – v. generate and separate from cells or bodily fluids: secrete digestive juices

sect [sekt] – n. a subdivision of a larger religious group

sectarian [sekˈteəriən] – adj. of or relating to or characteristic of a sect or sects: sectarian differences

sedate [siˈdeit] – adj. characterized by dignity and propriety

sedative [ˈsedətiv] – n. a drug that reduces excitability and calms a person

sedentary [ˈsedəntəri] – adj. requiring sitting or little activity: forced by illness to lead a sedentary life

sedition [siˈdiʃən] – n. an illegal action inciting resistance to lawful authority and tending to cause the disruption or overthrow of the government

seditious [siˈdiʃəs] – adj. arousing to action or rebellion

seduce [siˈdju:s] – v. induce to have sex: Harry finally seduced Sally

seductive [siˈdʌktiv] – adj. tending to entice into a desired action or state

sedulity  – n. the quality of being constantly diligent and attentive

sedulous [ˈsedjuləs] – adj. marked by care and persistent effort: sedulous pursuit of legal and moral principles

seedling [ˈsi:dliŋ] – n. young plant or tree grown from a seed

seedy  – adj. shabby and untidy: he was soiled and seedy and fragrant with gin

seemly  – adj. according with custom or propriety: seemly behavior

seep [si:p] – v. pass gradually or leak through or as if through small openings

seethe [si:ð] – v. be noisy with activity

segregate [ˈsegrigeit] – v. divide from the main body or mass and collect: Many towns segregated into new counties

seine [sein] – n. a French river that flows through the heart of Paris and then northward into the English Channel

seismic [ˈsaizmik] – adj. subject to or caused by an earthquake or earth vibration

self-assertion [.selfəˈsə:ʃən] – n. the act of asserting yourself in an aggressive manner

self-indulgence  – n. an inability to resist the gratification of whims and desires

self-possession  – n. the trait of resolutely controlling your own behavior

self-righteous  – adj. excessively or hypocritically pious

semblance [ˈsembləns] – n. an outward or token appearance or form that is deliberately misleading: he hoped his claims would have a semblance of authenticity

seminal [ˈseminəl] – adj. pertaining to or containing or consisting of semen: seminal fluid

seminary [ˈseminəri] – n. a private place of education for the young

senescence [siˈnesəns] – n. the organic process of growing older and showing the effects of increasing age

senescent [siˈnesənt] – adj. growing old

seneschal [ˈseniʃəl] – n. the chief steward or butler of a great household

senile [ˈsi:nail] – adj. mentally or physically infirm with age

senility [siˈniliti] – n. mental infirmity as a consequence of old age; sometimes shown by foolish infatuations

sensational [senˈseiʃənəl] – adj. causing intense interest, curiosity, or emotion

sensitization  – n. the state of being sensitive (as to an antigen)

sensual [ˈsenʃuəl] – adj. marked by the appetites and passions of the body: a sensual delight in eating

sensuality [.senʃuˈæliti] – n. desire for sensual pleasures

sensuous [ˈsɛnʃuəs] – adj. taking delight in beauty: the sensuous joy from all things fair

sententious [senˈtenʃəs] – adj. abounding in or given to pompous or aphoristic moralizing: too often the significant episode deteriorates into sententious conversation

sentient [ˈsenʃənt] – adj. endowed with feeling and unstructured consciousness: the living knew themselves just sentient puppets on God’s stage

sentimental [.sentiˈmentl] – adj. effusively or insincerely emotional: sentimental soap operas

sentinel [ˈsentinl] – n. a person employed to keep watch for some anticipated event

sentry [ˈsentri] – n. a person employed to keep watch for some anticipated event

sepsis [ˈsepsis] – n. the presence of pus-forming bacteria or their toxins in the blood or tissues

septic [ˈseptik] – adj. containing or resulting from disease-causing organisms: a septic sore throat

sepulcher [ˈsepəlkə] – n. a chamber that is used as a grave

sepulchral [siˈpʌlkrəl] – adj. gruesomely indicative of death or the dead: the sepulchral darkness of the catacombs

sequela  – n. any abnormality following or resulting from a disease or injury or treatment: paralysis is one of the sequelae of poliomyelitis

sequential [siˈkwenʃəl] – adj. in regular succession without gaps

sequester [siˈkwestə] – v. requisition forcibly, as of enemy property: the estate was sequestered

sequestrate [siˈkwestreit] – v. keep away from others

seraph [ˈserəf] – n. an angel of the first order; usually portrayed as the winged head of a child

seraphic [siˈræfik] – adj. of or relating to an angel of the first order: he imagined a seraphic presence in the room

sere [siə] – adj. (used especially of vegetation) having lost all moisture: the desert was edged with sere vegetation

serenade [.seriˈneid] – n. a musical composition in several movements; has no fixed form

serendipity [.serənˈdipiti] – n. good luck in making unexpected and fortunate discoveries

serenity [siˈreniti] – n. a disposition free from stress or emotion

serfdom  – n. the state of a serf

sermonize [ˈsə:mənaiz] – v. speak as if delivering a sermon; express moral judgements: This man always sermonizes

serpentine [ˈsə:pəntain] – adj. resembling a serpent in form: a serpentine wall

serrate  – v. make saw-toothed or jag the edge of: serrate the edges of the teeth

serrated [seˈreitid] – adj. notched like a saw with teeth pointing toward the apex

serration  – n. a row of notches: the pliers had serrations to improve the grip

serried [ˈserid] – adj. (especially of rows as of troops or mountains) pressed together: in serried ranks

servile [ˈsə:vail] – adj. submissive or fawning in attitude or behavior: spoke in a servile tone

servitude [ˈsə:vitju:d] – n. state of subjection to an owner or master or forced labor imposed as punishment: penal servitude

sever [ˈsevə] – v. set or keep apart: sever a relationship

severance [ˈsevərəns] – n. a personal or social separation (as between opposing factions)

severity  – n. used of the degree of something undesirable e.g. pain or weather

sewer [ˈsju:ə, ˈsu:ə] – n. someone who sews: a sewer of fine gowns

sextant [ˈsekstənt] – n. a unit of angular distance equal to 60 degrees

shabby [ˈʃæbi] – adj. showing signs of wear and tear: shabby furniture

shack [ʃæk] – v. make one’s home in a particular place or community

shackle [ˈʃækəl] – n. a restraint that confines or restricts freedom (especially something used to tie down or restrain a prisoner)

shale [ʃeil] – n. a sedimentary rock formed by the deposition of successive layers of clay

sham [ʃæm] – n. something that is a counterfeit; not what it seems to be

shambles [ˈʃæmbəlz] – n. a condition of great disorder

Shangri-la  – n. any place of complete bliss and delight and peace

shanty [ˈʃænti] – n. small crude shelter used as a dwelling

shard [ʃɑ:d] – n. a broken piece of a brittle artifact

shaving  – n. the act of removing hair with a razor

shawl [ʃɔ:l] – n. cloak consisting of an oblong piece of cloth used to cover the head and shoulders

sheaf [ʃi:f] – n. a package of several things tied together for carrying or storing

shears [ʃiəz] – n. large scissors with strong blades

sheath [ʃi:θ] – n. a protective covering (as for a knife or sword)

sheathe [ʃi:ð] – v. enclose with a sheath: sheathe a sword

sheen [ʃi:n] – n. the visual property of something that shines with reflected light

shelve [ʃelv] – v. hold back to a later time

sherbet [ˈʃə:bət] – n. a frozen dessert made primarily of fruit juice and sugar, but also containing milk or egg-white or gelatin

sheriff [ˈʃerif] – n. the principal law-enforcement officer in a county

shibboleth [ˈʃibəleθ] – n. a favorite saying of a sect or political group

shiftless [ˈʃiftlis] – adj. lacking or characterized by lack of ambition or initiative; lazy: a shiftless student

shimmer [ˈʃimə] – v. shine with a weak or fitful light: Beech leaves shimmered in the moonlight

shindy [ˈʃindi] – n. a large and noisy party of people

shingle [ˈʃiŋgl] – n. building material used as siding or roofing

shipshape [ˈʃipʃeip] – adj. of places; characterized by order and neatness; free from disorder: even the barn was shipshape

shipwright [ˈʃiprait] – n. a carpenter who helps build and launch wooden vessels

shirk [ʃə:k] – v. avoid (one’s assigned duties): The derelict soldier shirked his duties

shoal [ʃəul] – n. a sandbank in a stretch of water that is visible at low tide

shoddy [ˈʃɔdi] – adj. of inferior workmanship and materials

shopsoiled [ˈʃɔpsɔild] – adj. worn or faded from being on display in a store

shopworn  – adj. worn or faded from being on display in a store: shopworn merchandise at half price

short-range [ˈʃɔ:tˈreindʒ] – adj. relating to the near future: a short-range policy

shove [ʃʌv] – v. come into rough contact with while moving

shovel [ˈʃʌvl] – n. a hand tool for lifting loose material; consists of a curved container or scoop and a handle

showpiece [ˈʃəupi:s] – n. the outstanding item (the prize piece or main exhibit) in a collection

showy [ˈʃəui] – adj. marked by ostentation but often tasteless: a cheap showy rhinestone bracelet

shred [ʃred] – n. a tiny or scarcely detectable amount

shrew  – n. a scolding nagging bad-tempered woman

shrewd [ʃru:d] – adj. marked by practical hardheaded intelligence: he was too shrewd to go along with them on a road that could lead only to their overthrow

shrill [ʃril] – adj. having or emitting a high-pitched and sharp tone or tones: a shrill whistle

shrine [ʃrain] – n. a place of worship hallowed by association with some sacred thing or person

shrivel [ˈʃrivl] – v. wither, as with a loss of moisture: The fruit dried and shriveled

shroud [ʃraud] – n. a line that suspends the harness from the canopy of a parachute

shuck [ʃʌk] – v. remove from the shell: shuck oysters

shudder [ˈʃʌdə] – n. an almost pleasurable sensation of fright

shuffle [ˈʃʌfl] – v. walk by dragging one’s feet: he shuffled out of the room

shun [ʃʌn] – v. avoid and stay away from deliberately; stay clear of

shunt [ʃʌnt] – n. a passage by which a bodily fluid (especially blood) is diverted from one channel to another: an arteriovenus shunt

shyster [ˈʃaistə] – n. a person (especially a lawyer or politician) who uses unscrupulous or unethical methods

sibilant [ˈsibilənt] – n. a consonant characterized by a hissing sound (like s or sh)

sibling [ˈsibliŋ] – n. a person’s brother or sister

sibyl [ˈsibil, sibəl] – n. a woman who tells fortunes

sibylline [ˈsibilain] – adj. resembling or characteristic of a prophet or prophecy: a kind of sibylline book with ready and infallible answers to questions

sidereal [saiˈdiəriəl] – adj. of or relating to the stars or constellations: sidereal bodies

sidesplitting [ˈsaid.splitiŋ] – adj. very funny: sidesplitting antics

sidetrack  – n. a short stretch of railroad track used to store rolling stock or enable trains on the same line to pass

sidle [ˈsaidl] – v. move unobtrusively or furtively: The young man began to sidle near the pretty girl sitting on the log

sieve [siv] – v. examine in order to test suitability

sift [sift] – v. separate by passing through a sieve or other straining device to separate out coarser elements: sift the flour

sifter [ˈsiftə] – n. a household sieve (as for flour)

sill [sil] – n. (geology) a flat (usually horizontal) mass of igneous rock between two layers of older sedimentary rock

silt [silt] – n. mud or clay or small rocks deposited by a river or lake

simian [ˈsimiən] – n. an ape or monkey

simile [ˈsimili] – n. a figure of speech that expresses a resemblance between things of different kinds (usually formed with `like’ or `as’)

similitude [siˈmilitju:d] – n. a duplicate copy

simper [ˈsimpə] – n. a silly self-conscious smile

simpleton  – n. a person lacking intelligence or common sense

simplistic  – adj. characterized by extreme and often misleading simplicity: a simplistic theory of the universe

simulate [ˈsimjuleit] – v. reproduce someone’s behavior or looks

simulated [ˈsimjuleitid] – adj. not genuine or real; being an imitation of the genuine article: a purse of simulated alligator hide

simultaneous [.saiməlˈteinjəs] – adj. occurring or operating at the same time

sinecure [ˈsainikjuə, ˈsin-] – n. a benefice to which no spiritual or pastoral duties are attached

sinew [ˈsinju:] – n. a cord or band of inelastic tissue connecting a muscle with its bony attachment

sinewy [ˈsinju:i] – adj. consisting of tendons or resembling a tendon

singe [sindʒ] – v. burn superficially or lightly: I singed my eyebrows

singularity [.siŋgjəˈlæriti] – n. the quality of being one of a kind: that singularity distinguished him from all his companions

sinister [ˈsinistə] – adj. threatening or foreshadowing evil or tragic developments: sinister storm clouds

sinistral  – adj. of or on the left: a sinistral gastropod shell with the apex upward has its opening on the left when facing the observer

sinuous [ˈsinjuəs] – adj. curved or curving in and out

sirocco [səˈrɔkəu] – n. a windstorm that lifts up clouds of dust or sand

skein [skein] – n. coils of worsted yarn

skeptic [ˈskeptik] – n. someone who habitually doubts accepted beliefs

skeptical [ˈskeptikəl] – adj. denying or questioning the tenets of especially a religion: a skeptical approach to the nature of miracles

sketchy [ˈsketʃi] – adj. giving only major points; lacking completeness: a sketchy account

skew [skju:] – v. turn or place at an angle: the lines on the sheet of paper are skewed

skewer [ˈskju:ə] – n. a long pin for holding meat in position while it is being roasted

skiff [skif] – n. any of various small boats propelled by oars or by sails or by a motor

skillet [ˈskilit] – n. a pan used for frying foods

skimp [skimp] – v. work hastily or carelessly; deal with inadequately and superficially

skimpy [ˈskimpi] – adj. containing little excess: a skimpy allowance

skinflint [ˈskin.flint] – n. a selfish person who is unwilling to give or spend

skirmish [ˈskə:miʃ] – n. a minor short-term fight

skit [skit] – n. a short theatrical episode

skittish [ˈskitiʃ] – adj. unpredictably excitable (especially of horses)

skive [skaiv] – v. remove the surface of: skive leather

skulduggery  – n. verbal misrepresentation intended to take advantage of you in some way

skulk [skʌlk] – v. lie in wait, lie in ambush, behave in a sneaky and secretive manner

skunk [skʌŋk] – n. a person who is deemed to be despicable or contemptible

skyrocket [ˈskai.rɔkit] – n. propels bright light high in the sky, or used to propel a lifesaving line or harpoon

slack [slæk] – v. avoid responsibilities and work, be idle

slacken [ˈslækən] – v. become slow or slower

slacker [ˈslækə] – n. a person who shirks his work or duty (especially one who tries to evade military service in wartime)

slag [slæg] – n. the scum formed by oxidation at the surface of molten metals

slake [sleik] – v. satisfy (thirst)

slander [ˈslɑ:ndə] – n. words falsely spoken that damage the reputation of another

slanderous [ˈslɑ:ndərəs] – adj. (used of statements) harmful and often untrue; tending to discredit or malign

slant [slɑ:nt] – v. lie obliquely: A scar slanted across his face

slapdash [ˈslæpdæʃ] – adv. in a careless or reckless manner: the shelves were put up slapdash

slate [sleit] – n. thin layers of rock used for roofing

slattern [ˈslætən] – n. a prostitute who attracts customers by walking the streets

slaughter [ˈslɔ:tə] – n. the killing of animals (as for food)

slaver [ˈslævə, ˈsleivə] – n. someone who holds slaves

slavish [ˈsleiviʃ] – adj. blindly imitative: a slavish copy of the original

slay [slei] – v. kill intentionally and with premeditation

sleazy [ˈsli:zi] – adj. of cloth; thin and loosely woven: the coat has a sleazy lining

sledge  – v. transport in a sleigh

sledgehammer [ˈsledʒ.hæmə] – n. a heavy long-handled hammer used to drive stakes or wedges

sleek [sli:k] – adj. well-groomed and neatly tailored; especially too well-groomed: sleek figures in expensive clothes

sleeper  – n. a rester who is sleeping

sleigh  – n. a vehicle mounted on runners and pulled by horses or dogs; for transportation over snow

sleight [slait] – n. adroitness in using the hands

slew [slu:] – v. turn sharply; change direction abruptly

slick [slik] – n. a magazine printed on good quality paper

sling [sliŋ] – n. a highball with liquor and water with sugar and lemon or lime juice

slink [sliŋk] – v. walk stealthily: I saw a cougar slinking toward its prey

slipshod  – adj. marked by great carelessness: slipshod spelling

slither [ˈsliðə] – v. to pass or move unobtrusively or smoothly

sliver [ˈslivə] – n. a small thin sharp bit or wood or glass or metal: it broke into slivers

slobber [ˈslɔbə, ˈslɑ-] – n. saliva spilling from the mouth

sloop [slu:p] – n. a sailing vessel with a single mast set about one third of the boat’s length aft of the bow

sloppy [ˈslɔpi] – adj. lacking neatness or order: a sloppy room

sloth [sləuθ] – n. a disinclination to work or exert yourself

slothful [ˈsləʊθfʊl] – adj. disinclined to work or exertion: slothful employees

slouch  – n. an incompetent person; usually used in negative constructions: he’s no slouch when it comes to baseball

slough [slʌf, slau] – n. necrotic tissue; a mortified or gangrenous part or mass

sloven [ˈslʌvən] – n. a coarse obnoxious person

slovenly [ˈslʌvənli] – adj. negligent of neatness especially in dress and person; habitually dirty and unkempt: slovenly appearance

slue [slu:] – v. turn sharply; change direction abruptly

sluggard [ˈslʌgəd] – n. an idle slothful person

sluggish [ˈslʌgiʃ] – adj. moving slowly: a sluggish stream

sluice [slu:s] – n. conduit that carries a rapid flow of water controlled by a sluicegate

slumber [ˈslʌmbə] – n. a natural and periodic state of rest during which consciousness of the world is suspended: calm as a child in dreamless slumber

slumberous [ˈslʌmbərəs] – adj. quiet and tranquil: a slumberous June morning

slur [slə:] – v. play smoothly or legato: the pianist slurred the most beautiful passage in the sonata

smarmy [ˈsmɑ:mi] – adj. unpleasantly and excessively suave or ingratiating in manner or speech: smarmy self-importance

smattering [ˈsmætəriŋ] – n. a small number or amount

smear [smiə] – n. slanderous defamation

smelt [smelt] – n. small cold-water silvery fish; migrate between salt and fresh water

smirch [smə:tʃ] – n. a blemish made by dirt

smirk [smə:k] – n. a smile expressing smugness or scorn instead of pleasure

smithereens [.smiðəˈri:nz] – n. a collection of small fragments considered as a whole: Berlin was bombed to smithereens

smolder [ˈsməuldə] – v. burn slowly and without a flame: a smoldering fire

smother [ˈsmʌðə] – v. envelop completely: smother the meat in gravy

smudge [smʌdʒ] – n. a smoky fire to drive away insects

smug [smʌg] – adj. marked by excessive complacency or self-satisfaction: a smug glow of self-congratulation

smutty [ˈsmʌti] – adj. characterized by obscenity: smutty jokes

snaky [ˈsneiki] – adj. resembling a serpent in form: snaky ridges in the sand

snappish [ˈsnæpiʃ] – adj. apt to speak irritably: a snappish tone of voice

snappy [ˈsnæpi] – adj. apt to speak irritably

snare [sneə] – n. something (often something deceptively attractive) that catches you unawares: it was all a snare and delusion

snarl [snɑ:l] – v. utter in an angry, sharp, or abrupt tone: The guard snarled at us

snazzy [ˈsnæzi] – adj. flashily stylish: a snazzy outfit

sneak [sni:k] – v. to go stealthily or furtively: ..stead of sneaking around spying on the neighbor’s house

sneaking [ˈsni:kiŋ] – adj. not openly expressed: a sneaking suspicion

sneer [sniə] – n. a facial expression of contempt or scorn; the upper lip curls

snicker  – n. a disrespectful laugh

snide [snaid] – adj. expressive of contempt: makes many a sharp comparison but never a mean or snide one

snigger [ˈsnigə] – n. a disrespectful laugh

snip [snip] – v. cultivate, tend, and cut back the growth of

snips [snips] – n. (plural) hand shears for cutting sheet metal

snivel  – v. talk in a tearful manner

snob [snɔb] – n. a person regarded as arrogant and annoying

snobbish [ˈsnɔbiʃ] – adj. befitting or characteristic of those who incline to social exclusiveness and who rebuff the advances of people considered inferior

snoop [snu:p] – n. a spy who makes uninvited inquiries into the private affairs of others

snooty [ˈsnu:ti] – adj. (used colloquially) overly conceited or arrogant

snowdrift [ˈsnəʊdrift] – n. a mass of snow heaped up by the wind

snub [snʌb] – n. an instance of driving away or warding off

snuffle  – v. sniff or smell inquiringly

snug [snʌg] – adj. offering safety; well protected or concealed: a snug harbor

snuggle [ˈsnʌg(ə)l] – v. move or arrange oneself in a comfortable and cozy position: The children snuggled into their sleeping bags

sobriety [səˈbraiəti] – n. the state of being sober and not intoxicated by alcohol

sobriquet [ˈsəubrikei] – n. a familiar name for a person (often a shortened version of a person’s given name)

socialite [ˈsəuʃəl-ait] – n. a socially prominent person

sociopath  – n. someone with a sociopathic personality; a person with an antisocial personality disorder (`psychopath’ was once widely used but has now been superseded by `sociopath’)

sodden [ˈsɔdn] – adj. wet through and through; thoroughly wet: the speaker’s sodden collar

soggy [ˈsɔgi] – adj. (of soil) soft and watery

sojourn [ˈsɔdʒə:n] – n. a temporary stay (e.g., as a guest)

solace [ˈsɔləs] – n. comfort in disappointment or misery

solder [ˈsɔldə, ˈsɔ(:)ldə] – n. an alloy (usually of lead and tin) used when melted to join two metal surfaces

solecism [ˈsɔlisizəm] – n. a socially awkward or tactless act

solemnity [səˈlemniti] – n. a trait of dignified seriousness

solicit [səˈlisit] – v. make amorous advances towards

solicitation [sə.lisiˈteiʃən] – n. an entreaty addressed to someone of superior status: a solicitation to the king for relief

solicitous [səˈlisitəs] – adj. full of anxiety and concern: solicitous parents

solidify [səˈlidifai] – v. become solid

soliloquy [səˈliləkwi] – n. speech you make to yourself

solitary [ˈsɔlitəri] – adj. of plants and animals; not growing or living in groups or colonies: solitary bees

solitude [ˈsɔlitju:d] – n. a state of social isolation

solstice [ˈsɔlstis] – n. either of the two times of the year when the sun is at its greatest distance from the celestial equator

solvency [ˈsɔlvənsi] – n. the ability to meet maturing obligations as they come due

somatic [səˈmætik] – adj. affecting or characteristic of the body as opposed to the mind or spirit: a somatic symptom or somatic illness

somber [ˈsɔmbə] – adj. lacking brightness or color; dull: children in somber brown clothes

somnambulist [sɔmˈnæmbjʊlist, səm-] – n. someone who walks about in their sleep

somniferous [sɔmˈnifərəs] – adj. sleep inducing

somnolence [ˈsɔmnələns] – n. a very sleepy state

somnolent [ˈsɔmnələnt] – adj. inclined to or marked by drowsiness: the sound had a somnolent effect

sonata [səˈnɑ:tə] – n. a musical composition of 3 or 4 movements of contrasting forms

sonic  – adj. (of speed) having or caused by speed approximately equal to that of sound in air at sea level: a sonic boom

sonnet [ˈsɔnit] – n. a verse form consisting of 14 lines with a fixed rhyme scheme

sonority [səˈnɔriti] – n. having the character of a loud deep sound; the quality of being resonant

sonorous [ˈsɔnərəs] – adj. full and loud and deep: a herald chosen for his sonorous voice

soot [sut] – n. a black colloidal substance consisting wholly or principally of amorphous carbon and used to make pigments and ink

soothe [su:ð] – v. give moral or emotional strength to

soothsayer [ˈsu:θseiə] – n. someone who makes predictions of the future (usually on the basis of special knowledge)

sop [sɔp] – v. give a conciliatory gift or bribe to

sophism [ˈsɔfizəm] – n. a deliberately invalid argument displaying ingenuity in reasoning in the hope of deceiving someone

sophist [ˈsɔfist] – n. someone whose reasoning is subtle and often specious

sophistication [sə.fistiˈkeiʃən] – n. uplifting enlightenment

sophistry [ˈsɔfistri] – n. a deliberately invalid argument displaying ingenuity in reasoning in the hope of deceiving someone

soporific [.sɔpəˈrifik] – adj. sleep inducing

soprano [səˈprɑ:nəu] – n. a female singer

sorcery [ˈsɔ:səri] – n. the belief in magical spells that harness occult forces or evil spirits to produce unnatural effects in the world

sordid [ˈsɔ:did] – adj. morally degraded: the sordid details of his orgies stank under his very nostrils

soupcon [ˈsu:psɔn] – n. a slight but appreciable amount

sourpuss [ˈsauəpus] – n. someone with a habitually sullen or gloomy expression

souse [saus] – v. cover with liquid; pour liquid onto: souse water on his hot face

souvenir [ˈsu:vəniə] – n. something of sentimental value

sovereign [ˈsɔvrin] – adj. (of political bodies) not controlled by outside forces: a sovereign state

spacious [ˈspeiʃəs] – adj. very large in expanse or scope: a spacious view

spangle [ˈspæŋgl] – n. adornment consisting of a small piece of shiny material used to decorate clothing

spank [spæŋk] – n. a slap with the flat of the hand

sparing [ˈspeəriŋ] – adj. avoiding waste: a sparing father and a spending son

sparse [spɑ:s] – adj. not dense: trees were sparse

Spartan [ˈspɑ:tən] – n. a resident of Sparta

spasm [ˈspæzəm] – n. a painful and involuntary muscular contraction

spasmodic [spæzˈmɔdik] – adj. occurring in spells and often abruptly: spasmodic rifle fire

spat [spæt] – v. come down like raindrops: Bullets were spatting down on us

spatchcock [ˈspætʃkɔk] – v. interpolate or insert (words) into a sentence or story

spate [speit] – n. (often followed by `of’) a large number or amount or extent

spatula [ˈspætjulə] – n. a turner with a narrow flexible blade

spawn [spɔ:n] – v. call forth

specious [ˈspi:ʃəs] – adj. plausible but false: a specious claim

speck [spek] – n. a very small spot: the plane was just a speck in the sky

specter [ˈspektə] – n. a mental representation of some haunting experience: it aroused specters from his past

spectral [ˈspektrəl] – adj. resembling or characteristic of a phantom: spectral emanations

speechless  – adj. temporarily incapable of speaking: speechless with shock

speleology [.spi:liˈɔlədʒi] – n. the scientific study of caves

spellbind [ˈspelbaind] – v. to render motionless, as with a fixed stare or by arousing terror or awe

spelunker [spiˈlʌŋkə(r)] – n. a person who explores caves

spendthrift [ˈspend.θrift] – n. someone who spends money prodigally

spent  – adj. depleted of energy, force, or strength

sphagnum [ˈsfægnəm] – n. any of various pale or ashy mosses of the genus Sphagnum whose decomposed remains form peat

sphinx [sfiŋks] – n. an inscrutable person who keeps his thoughts and intentions secret

spiel [ʃpi:l, spi:l] – v. replay (as a melody)

spike [spaik] – n. a transient variation in voltage or current

spindly [ˈspindli] – adj. long and lean

spineless [ˈspainləs] – adj. weak in willpower, courage or vitality

spinney [ˈspini] – n. a copse that shelters game

spinster [ˈspinstə] – n. an elderly unmarried woman

spiny [ˈspaini] – adj. having or covered with protective barbs or quills or spines or thorns or setae etc.

spiral [ˈspairəl] – n. a plane curve traced by a point circling about the center but at increasing distances from the center

spire [ˈspaiə] – n. a tall tower that forms the superstructure of a building (usually a church or temple) and that tapers to a point at the top

splashy [ˈsplæʃi] – adj. characterized by water flying about haphazardly

spleen  – n. a feeling of resentful anger

splendor [ˈsplendə] – n. a quality that outshines the usual

splenetic [spliˈnetik] – adj. of or relating to the spleen

splice [splais] – v. join the ends of: splice film

splint [splint] – n. a thin sliver of wood: he lit the fire with a burning splint

splinter [ˈsplintə] – v. withdraw from an organization or communion

splurge [splə:dʒ] – n. an ostentatious display (of effort or extravagance etc.)

spoilsport  – n. someone who spoils the pleasure of others

spoke [spəuk] – n. support consisting of a radial member of a wheel joining the hub to the rim

spoliation [.spəuliˈeiʃən] – n. (law) the intentional destruction of a document or an alteration of it that destroys its value as evidence

spongy [ˈspʌndʒi] – adj. like a sponge in being able to absorb liquids and yield it back when compressed

spontaneity [.spɔntəˈni:iti] – n. the quality of being spontaneous and coming from natural feelings without constraint: the spontaneity of his laughter

spoof [spu:f] – n. a composition that imitates or misrepresents somebody’s style, usually in a humorous way

spool [spu:l] – v. transfer data intended for a peripheral device (usually a printer) into temporary storage

spoonerism [ˈspu:nərizəm] – n. transposition of initial consonants in a pair of words

spoor [spɔ:, spuə] – n. the trail left by a person or an animal; what the hunter follows in pursuing game: the hounds followed the fox’s spoor

sporadic [spəˈrædik] – adj. recurring in scattered and irregular or unpredictable instances: a city subjected to sporadic bombing raids

sportive [ˈspɔ:tiv] – adj. given to merry frolicking

spout [spaut] – v. gush forth in a sudden stream or jet

sprain [sprein] – n. a painful injury to a joint caused by a sudden wrenching of its ligaments

sprawl [sprɔ:l] – n. an aggregation or continuous network of urban communities

sprig [sprig] – n. an ornament that resembles a spray of leaves or flowers

sprightly [ˈspraitli] – adj. full of spirit and vitality: a sprightly young girl

sprinkler [ˈspriŋklə] – n. mechanical device that attaches to a garden hose for watering lawn or garden

sprinkling [ˈsprinkliŋ] – n. a small number (of something) dispersed haphazardly: a sprinkling of grey at his temples

sprint [sprint] – n. a quick run

sprout [spraut] – n. any new growth of a plant such as a new branch or a bud

spruce [spru:s] – n. any coniferous tree of the genus Picea

spry  – adj. moving quickly and lightly: the old dog was so spry it was halfway up the stairs before we could stop it

spume [spju:m] – n. foam or froth on the sea

spunk [spʌŋk] – n. material for starting a fire

spurious [ˈspjuəriəs] – adj. plausible but false: spurious inferences

spurn [spə:n] – v. reject with contempt: She spurned his advances

squabble [ˈskwɔbl] – n. a quarrel about petty points

squalid [ˈskwɔlid] – adj. morally degraded: the squalid atmosphere of intrigue and betrayal

squall [skwɔ:l] – v. make high-pitched, whiney noises

squalor [ˈskwɔlə] – n. sordid dirtiness

squander [ˈskwɔndə] – v. spend thoughtlessly; throw away: You squandered the opportunity to get and advanced degree

squash [skwɔʃ] – n. any of numerous annual trailing plants of the genus Cucurbita grown for their fleshy edible fruits

squat [skwɔt] – n. exercising by repeatedly assuming a crouching position with the knees bent; strengthens the leg muscles

squeamish  – adj. excessively fastidious and easily disgusted: so squeamish he would only touch the toilet handle with his elbow

squelch [skweltʃ] – v. suppress or crush completely: squelch any sign of dissent

squint  – v. cross one’s eyes as if in strabismus: The children squinted so as to scare each other

staccato [stəˈkɑ:təu] – adj. (music) marked by or composed of disconnected parts or sounds; cut short crisply: staccato applause

stagnant [ˈstægnənt] – adj. not circulating or flowing: stagnant water

stagy [ˈsteidʒi] – adj. having characteristics of the stage especially an artificial and mannered quality: stagy heroics

staid [steid] – adj. characterized by dignity and propriety

stalemate [ˈsteilmeit] – n. a situation in which no progress can be made or no advancement is possible

stalk [stɔ:k] – n. material consisting of seed coverings and small pieces of stem or leaves that have been separated from the seeds

stalwart [ˈstɔ:lwət] – adj. having rugged physical strength; inured to fatigue or hardships: proud of her tall stalwart son

stamina [ˈstæminə] – n. enduring strength and energy

stammer [ˈstæmə] – n. a speech disorder involving hesitations and involuntary repetitions of certain sounds

stampede  – v. cause to run in panic: Thunderbolts can stampede animals

stanch [stɔ:ntʃ, stɑ:ntʃ] – v. stop the flow of a liquid

standoffish [stændˈɔfiʃ] – adj. lacking cordiality; unfriendly: a standoffish manner

standstill [ˈstændstil] – n. a situation in which no progress can be made or no advancement is possible

stanza [ˈstænzə] – n. a fixed number of lines of verse forming a unit of a poem

staple [ˈsteipl] – n. a natural fiber (raw cotton, wool, hemp, flax) that can be twisted to form yarn: staple fibers vary widely in length

stapler [ˈsteiplə] – n. a machine that inserts staples into sheets of paper in order to fasten them together

starchy [ˈstɑ:tʃi] – adj. rigidly formal: a starchy manner

stark [stɑ:k] – adj. devoid of any qualifications or disguise or adornment: facing the stark reality of the deadline

stash [stæʃ] – n. a secret store of valuables or money

stately [ˈsteitli] – adj. impressive in appearance: stately columns

stationary [ˈsteiʃənəri] – adj. standing still: the car remained stationary with the engine running

stationery [ˈsteiʃ(ə)nəri] – n. paper cut to an appropriate size for writing letters; usually with matching envelopes

statuary [ˈstætʃuəri] – n. statues collectively

statuette [.stætʃuˈet] – n. a small carved or molded figure

stature [ˈstætʃə] – n. high level of respect gained by impressive development or achievement: a man of great stature

steadfast [ˈstedfɑ:st, -fæst] – adj. marked by firm determination or resolution; not shakable: steadfast resolve

stealth [stelθ] – n. avoiding detection by moving carefully

steeple [ˈsti:pəl] – n. a tall tower that forms the superstructure of a building (usually a church or temple) and that tapers to a point at the top

stein [stain] – n. a mug intended for serving beer

stellar [ˈstelə] – adj. indicating the most important performer or role: a stellar role

stench [stentʃ] – n. a distinctive odor that is offensively unpleasant

stencil [ˈstensl, -sil] – n. a sheet of material (metal, plastic, cardboard, waxed paper, silk, etc.) that has been perforated with a pattern (printing or a design); ink or paint can pass through the perforations to create the printed pattern on the surface below

stenography [stəˈnɔgrəfi] – n. a method of writing rapidly

stentorian [stenˈtɔ:riən] – adj. used of the voice

stereotype [ˈsteriətaip] – n. a conventional or formulaic conception or image: regional stereotypes have been part of America since its founding

stereotyped [ˈsteriətaipt] – adj. lacking spontaneity or originality or individuality: stereotyped phrases of condolence

sterile [ˈsterail] – adj. incapable of reproducing

sterilize [ˈsterilaiz] – v. make free from bacteria

stertorous [ˈstə:tərəs] – adj. of breathing having a heavy snoring sound

stethoscope [ˈsteθəskəup] – n. a medical instrument for listening to the sounds generated inside the body

stickler [ˈstiklə] – n. someone who insists on something: a stickler for promptness

stifle [ˈstaifl] – v. conceal or hide

stigma [ˈstigmə] – n. a symbol of disgrace or infamy

stigmatize [ˈstigmətaiz] – v. to accuse or condemn or openly or formally or brand as disgraceful: She was stigmatized by society because she had a child out of wedlock

stiletto [stiˈletəu] – n. a small dagger with a tapered blade

stimulant [ˈstimjulənt] – n. a drug that temporarily quickens some vital process

stingy [ˈstindʒi] – adj. unwilling to spend: she practices economy without being stingy

stink [stiŋk] – v. be extremely bad in quality or in one’s performance: This term paper stinks!

stint [stint] – n. an unbroken period of time during which you do something

stipend [ˈstaipend] – n. a sum of money allotted on a regular basis; usually for some specific purpose

stipple [ˈstipəl] – v. engrave by means of dots and flicks

stipulate [ˈstipjuleit] – v. specify as a condition or requirement in a contract or agreement; make an express demand or provision in an agreement: The will stipulates that she can live in the house for the rest of her life

stipulation [.stipjuˈleiʃən] – n. an assumption on which rests the validity or effect of something else

stockade [stɔˈkeid, stɑ-] – n. fortification consisting of a fence made of a line of stout posts set firmly for defense

stocky [ˈstɔki] – adj. having a short and solid form or stature: stocky legs

stodge [stɔdʒ] – n. heavy and filling (and usually starchy) food

stodgy [ˈstɔdʒi] – adj. heavy and starchy and hard to digest: stodgy food

stoic [ˈstəuik] – n. a member of the ancient Greek school of philosophy founded by Zeno

Stoicism  – n. (philosophy) the philosophical system of the Stoics following the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Zeno

stoke [stəuk] – v. stir up or tend; of a fire

stolid [ˈstɔlid] – adj. having or revealing little emotion or sensibility; not easily aroused or excited: a silent stolid creature who took it all as a matter of course

stonewall [.stəunˈwɔ:l] – v. obstruct or hinder any discussion: Nixon stonewalled the Watergate investigation

storehouse [ˈstɔ:haus] – n. a depository for goods: storehouses were built close to the docks

stout [staut] – adj. dependable: stout hearts

stouthearted [.stautˈhɑ:tid] – adj. used especially of persons: a stouthearted fellow who had an active career in the army

stowaway [ˈstəuəwei] – n. a person who hides aboard a ship or plane in the hope of getting free passage

straggle  – v. go, come, or spread in a rambling or irregular way

strait [streit] – n. a narrow channel of the sea joining two larger bodies of water

straits [streits] – n. a bad or difficult situation or state of affairs

strangle [ˈstræŋgl] – v. kill by squeezing the throat of so as to cut off the air: he tried to strangle his opponent

strangulation [.stræŋgjuˈleiʃən] – n. the act of suffocating (someone) by constricting the windpipe

stratagem [ˈstrætədʒəm] – n. a maneuver in a game or conversation

stratified  – adj. arranged in a sequence of grades or ranks: stratified areas of the distribution

stratify [ˈstrætifai] – v. divide society into social classes or castes

stratum [ˈstrɑ:təm] – n. people having the same social, economic, or educational status

stray [strei] – v. move about aimlessly or without any destination, often in search of food or employment

streak [stri:k] – n. an unbroken series of events: had a streak of bad luck

strenuous [ˈstrenjuəs] – adj. characterized by or performed with much energy or force: strenuous exercise

strew  – v. spread by scattering (: strew toys all over the carpet

striate  – v. mark with striae or striations

stricture [ˈstriktʃə] – n. abnormal narrowing of a bodily canal or passageway

stridency [ˈstraidənsi] – n. having the timbre of a loud high-pitched sound

strident [ˈstraidənt] – adj. conspicuously and offensively loud; given to vehement outcry: strident demands

stridulate [ˈstridjuleit] – v. make a shrill creaking noise by rubbing together special bodily structures: male insects such as crickets or grasshoppers stridulate

strife [straif] – n. lack of agreement or harmony

stringent [ˈstrindʒənt] – adj. demanding strict attention to rules and procedures: stringent safety measures

stripling [ˈstripliŋ] – n. a juvenile between the onset of puberty and maturity

strum [strʌm] – v. sound the strings of (a string instrument): strum a guitar

strut [strʌt] – n. a proud stiff pompous gait

stubborn [ˈstʌbən] – adj. tenaciously unwilling or marked by tenacious unwillingness to yield

studied  – adj. produced or marked by conscious design or premeditation: a studied smile

studious [ˈstju:djəs] – adj. marked by care and effort: made a studious attempt to fix the television set

stuffy [ˈstʌfi] – adj. lacking fresh air: hot and stuffy and the air was blue with smoke

stultify [ˈstʌltifai] – v. prove to be of unsound mind or demonstrate someone’s incompetence: nobody is legally allowed to stultify himself

stump [stʌmp] – n. the base part of a tree that remains standing after the tree has been felled

stun [stʌn] – v. make senseless or dizzy by or as if by a blow: stun fish

stunt [stʌnt] – n. a difficult or unusual or dangerous feat; usually done to gain attention

stupefy [ˈstju:pifai] – v. be a mystery or bewildering to

stupendous [stju:ˈpendəs] – adj. so great in size or force or extent as to elicit awe: a stupendous field of grass

stupor [ˈstju:pə] – n. the feeling of distress and disbelief that you have when something bad happens accidentally

sturdy [ˈstə:di] – adj. having rugged physical strength; inured to fatigue or hardships: sturdy young athletes

stutter [ˈstʌtə] – n. a speech disorder involving hesitations and involuntary repetitions of certain sounds

stygian  – adj. hellish

stylus  – n. a sharp pointed device attached to the cartridge of a record player

stymie [ˈstaimi] – n. a situation in golf where an opponent’s ball blocks the line between your ball and the hole

styptic [ˈstiptik] – n. a drug that causes contraction of body tissues and canals

suave [swɑ:v] – adj. having a sophisticated charm

suavity [ˈswævəti] – n. the quality of being bland and gracious or ingratiating in manner

subaltern [ˈsʌbəltən] – n. a British commissioned army officer below the rank of captain

subcutaneous [.sʌbkju:ˈteiniəs] – adj. relating to or located below the epidermis: subcutaneous implant

subdue [sʌbˈdju:] – v. put down by force or intimidation

subdued  – adj. in a softened tone: a subdued whisper

subjugate [ˈsʌbdʒugeit] – v. put down by force or intimidation: The rich landowners subjugated the peasants working the land

sublimate [ˈsʌblə.met, ˈsʌblimeit] – v. direct energy or urges into useful activities

sublime [səˈblaim] – adj. inspiring awe: the sublime beauty of the night

subliminal [sʌbˈliminəl] – adj. below the threshold of conscious perception

submissive [səbˈmisiv] – adj. inclined or willing to submit to orders or wishes of others or showing such inclination: submissive servants

subordinate [səˈbɔ:dineit] – adj. lower in rank or importance

suborn [səˈbɔ:n] – v. incite to commit a crime or an evil deed: He suborned his butler to cover up the murder of his wife

subpoena [səˈpi:nə, səb-] – n. a writ issued by court authority to compel the attendance of a witness at a judicial proceeding; disobedience may be punishable as a contempt of court

subscribe [səbˈskraib] – v. offer to buy, as of stocks and shares: The broker subscribed 500 shares

subservient [səbˈsə:viənt] – adj. compliant and obedient to authority: editors and journalists who express opinions in print that are opposed to the interests of the rich are dismissed and replaced by subservient ones

subside [səbˈsaid] – v. wear off or die down: The pain subsided

subsistence [sʌbˈsistəns] – n. a means of surviving: farming is a hard means of subsistence

substantiate [sʌbsˈtænʃieit] – v. establish or strengthen as with new evidence or facts

substratum [.sʌbˈstrɑ:təm] – n. a surface on which an organism grows or is attached

subsume [səbˈsju:m] – v. contain or include: This new system subsumes the old one

subterfuge [ˈsʌbtəfju:dʒ] – n. something intended to misrepresent the true nature of an activity: he wasn’t sick–it was just a subterfuge

subterranean [sʌbtəˈreiniən] – adj. being or operating under the surface of the earth: subterranean passages

subtlety [ˈsʌtlti] – n. the quality of being difficult to detect or analyze: you had to admire the subtlety of the distinctions he drew

subvention [səbˈvenʃən] – n. grant of financial aid as from a government to an educational institution

subversive [sʌbˈvə:siv] – n. a radical supporter of political or social revolution

subvert [səbˈvə:t] – v. cause the downfall of; of rulers: subvert the ruling class

succinct [səkˈsiŋkt] – adj. briefly giving the gist of something: succinct comparisons

succor [ˈsʌkə] – n. assistance in time of difficulty

succubus [ˈsʌkjubəs] – n. a female demon believed to have sexual intercourse with sleeping men

succulent [ˈsʌkjulənt] – n. a plant adapted to arid conditions and characterized by fleshy water-storing tissues that act as water reservoirs

succumb [səˈkʌm] – v. consent reluctantly

suckle  – v. give suck to: The wetnurse suckled the infant

sudorific [su:dəˈrifik] – n. a medicine that causes or increases sweating

suede [sweid] – n. leather with a napped surface

suffice [səˈfais] – v. be sufficient; be adequate, either in quality or quantity: A ‘B’ grade doesn’t suffice to get me into medical school

suffocate [ˈsʌfəkeit] – v. deprive of oxygen and prevent from breathing: The child suffocated herself with a plastic bag that the parents had left on the floor

suffrage [ˈsʌfridʒ] – n. a legal right guaranteed by the 15th amendment to the US Constitution; guaranteed to women by the 19th amendment

suffragist  – n. an advocate of the extension of voting rights (especially to women)

suffuse [səˈfju:z] – v. cause to spread or flush or flood through, over, or across: The sky was suffused with a warm pink color

suggestible [səˈdʒestəbəl] – adj. susceptible or responsive to suggestion: suggestible young minds

suitor [ˈsu:tə, ˈsju:-] – n. a man who courts a woman

sulk  – n. a mood or display of sullen aloofness or withdrawal: stayed home in a sulk

sulky [ˈsʌlki] – adj. moving slowly

sullen [ˈsʌlən] – adj. showing a brooding ill humor: a sullen crowd

sully [ˈsʌli] – v. place under suspicion or cast doubt upon: sully someone’s reputation

sultry [ˈsʌltri] – adj. sexually exciting or gratifying: a sultry look

summarily [ˈsʌmərəli, səˈme-] – adv. without delay; in a summary manner: the suspected spy was summarily executed

summation [səˈmeiʃən] – n. a concluding summary (as in presenting a case before a law court)

sumptuary [ˈsʌmptʃuəri] – adj. regulating or controlling expenditure or personal behavior: sumptuary laws discouraging construction of large houses on small plots

sumptuous [ˈsʌmptʃuəs] – adj. rich and superior in quality

sunder [ˈsʌndə] – v. break apart or in two, using violence

sundry [ˈsʌndri] – adj. consisting of a haphazard assortment of different kinds: sundry sciences commonly known as social

superannuated [.su:pərˈænjueitid, ˈsju:-] – adj. too old to be useful: He left the house…for the support of twelve superannuated wool carders

supercilious [.su:pəˈsiliəs, .sju:-] – adj. having or showing arrogant superiority to and disdain of those one views as unworthy: his mother eyed my clothes with a supercilious air

supererogatory  – adj. more than is needed, desired, or required: it was supererogatory of her to gloat

superfluity [ˈsju:pəˈflu(:)iti, ˈsu:-] – n. extreme excess

superfluous [su:ˈpə:fluəs, sju:-] – adj. serving no useful purpose; having no excuse for being

superimpose [.su:pərimˈpəuz, .sju:-] – v. place on top of: can you superimpose the two images?

superintend [.su:pərinˈtend, .sju:-] – v. watch and direct

superlative [su:ˈpə:lətiv, sju:-] – n. an exaggerated expression (usually of praise): the critics lavished superlatives on it

supernal [su:ˈpə:nl, sju:-] – adj. being or coming from on high: interpret the plague as a visitation from heaven, a supernal punishment for the sins of men

supernumerary [ˈsu:pəˈnju:mərəri] – n. a person serving no apparent function

supersede [.sju:pəˈsi:d] – v. take the place or move into the position of

superstition [.sju:pəˈstiʃən] – n. an irrational belief arising from ignorance or fear

supine [ˈsu:pain, ˈsju:-] – adj. lying face upward

supplant [səˈplɑ:nt] – v. take the place or move into the position of: the computer has supplanted the slide rule

supple [ˈsʌpl] – adj. moving and bending with ease

suppliant [ˈsʌpliənt] – n. one praying humbly for something: a suppliant for her favors

supplicant [ˈsʌplikənt] – n. someone who prays to God

supplicate [ˈsʌplikeit] – v. ask humbly (for something): He supplicated the King for clemency

supposition [.sʌpəˈziʃən] – n. a message expressing an opinion based on incomplete evidence

supposititious [səpɔziˈtiʃəs] – adj. based primarily on surmise rather than adequate evidence

suppurate [ˈsʌpjureit] – v. cause to ripen and discharge pus: The oil suppurates the pustules

surcease [sə:ˈsi:s] – n. a stopping

surcharge [ˈsə:tʃɑ:dʒ] – v. charge an extra fee, as for a special service

surfeit [ˈsə:fit] – n. the state of being more than full

surge [sə:dʒ] – v. rise and move, as in waves or billows: The army surged forward

surly [ˈsə:li] – adj. inclined to anger or bad feelings with overtones of menace: a surly waiter

surmise [ˈsə:maiz] – v. infer from incomplete evidence

surmount [səˈmaunt] – v. get on top of; deal with successfully

surpass [səˈpɑ:s] – v. distinguish oneself

surreptitious [.sʌrəpˈtiʃəs] – adj. marked by quiet and caution and secrecy; taking pains to avoid being observed: a surreptitious glance at his watch

surrogate [ˈsʌrəgeit] – n. someone who takes the place of another person

surveillance [sə:ˈveiləns] – n. close observation of a person or group (usually by the police)

susceptibility [səseptəˈbiliti] – n. the state of being susceptible; easily affected

susceptible [səˈseptəbl] – adj. (often followed by `of’ or `to’) yielding readily to or capable of: susceptible to colds

suspense [səsˈpens] – n. apprehension about what is going to happen

sustenance [ˈsʌstənəns] – n. a source of materials to nourish the body

suture [ˈsu:tʃə] – n. an immovable joint (especially between the bones of the skull)

svelte [svelt] – adj. showing a high degree of refinement and the assurance that comes from wide social experience

swagger [ˈswægə] – v. to walk with a lofty proud gait, often in an attempt to impress others

swank [swæŋk] – n. elegance by virtue of being fashionable

swarthy [ˈswɔ:ði] – adj. naturally having skin of a dark color: a smile on his swarthy face

swathe [sweið] – n. an enveloping bandage

swelter [ˈsweltə] – v. be uncomfortably hot

swerve [swə:v] – n. the act of turning aside suddenly

swig [swig] – v. strike heavily, especially with the fist or a bat

swill [swil] – v. feed pigs

swindle [ˈswindl] – n. the act of swindling by some fraudulent scheme

swindler  – n. a person who swindles you by means of deception or fraud

swine [swain] – n. stout-bodied short-legged omnivorous animals

swipe  – v. make off with belongings of others

swirl [swə:l] – v. turn in a twisting or spinning motion: The leaves swirled in the autumn wind

swot [swɔt] – n. an insignificant student who is ridiculed as being affected or boringly studious

sycophant [ˈsikəfənt] – n. a person who tries to please someone in order to gain a personal advantage

sycophantic [.sikəˈfæntik] – adj. attempting to win favor from influential people by flattery

syllabus [ˈsiləbəs] – n. an integrated course of academic studies

syllogism [ˈsilədʒizəm] – n. deductive reasoning in which a conclusion is derived from two premises

sylvan [ˈsilvən] – n. a spirit that lives in or frequents the woods

symbiosis [simbaiˈəusis] – n. the relation between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other

symmetrical [siˈmetrikəl] – adj. having similarity in size, shape, and relative position of corresponding parts

symphony [ˈsimfəni] – n. a large orchestra; can perform symphonies: we heard the Vienna symphony

symposium [simˈpəuziəm] – n. a meeting or conference for the public discussion of some topic especially one in which the participants form an audience and make presentations

synapse [ˈsainæps, ˈsin-] – n. the junction between two neurons (axon-to-dendrite) or between a neuron and a muscle: nerve impulses cross a synapse through the action of neurotransmitters

synchronize [ˈsiŋkrənaiz] – v. happen at the same time

synchronous [ˈsiŋkrənəs] – adj. occurring or existing at the same time or having the same period or phase: recovery was synchronous with therapy

syncopate [ˈsiŋkəpeit] – v. omit a sound or letter in a word: syncopate a word

syncopation  – n. (phonology) the loss of sounds from within a word (as in `fo’c’sle’ for `forecastle’)

synonymous [siˈnɔniməs] – adj. (of words) meaning the same or nearly the same

synopsis [siˈnɔpsis] – n. a sketchy summary of the main points of an argument or theory

synoptic [siˈnɔptik] – adj. presenting a summary or general view of a whole: a synoptic presentation of a physical theory

syringe [ˈsiriŋdʒ] – n. a medical instrument used to inject or withdraw fluids

tableau [ˈtæbləu] – n. a group of people attractively arranged (as if in a painting)

tableland [ˈteibllænd] – n. a relatively flat highland

taboo [təˈbu:, tæˈbu:] – n. an inhibition or ban resulting from social custom or emotional aversion

tacit [ˈtæsit] – adj. implied by or inferred from actions or statements: a tacit agreement

taciturn [ˈtæsitə:n] – adj. habitually reserved and uncommunicative

tack [tæk] – n. the heading or position of a vessel relative to the trim of its sails

tacky [ˈtæki] – adj. (of a glutinous liquid such as paint) not completely dried and slightly sticky to the touch: tacky varnish

tact [tækt] – n. consideration in dealing with others and avoiding giving offense

tactful [ˈtæktful] – adj. having or showing a sense of what is fitting and considerate in dealing with others: she was tactful enough not to shatter his illusion

tactile [ˈtæktail] – adj. of or relating to or proceeding from the sense of touch: a tactile reflex

tactless  – adj. lacking or showing a lack of what is fitting and considerate in dealing with others: in the circumstances it was tactless to ask her age

tadpole [ˈtædpəul] – n. a larval frog or toad

tailwind [ˈteil.wind] – n. wind blowing in the same direction as the path of a ship or aircraft

taint [teint; tent] – v. place under suspicion or cast doubt upon

takeoff  – n. a departure; especially of airplanes

taking [ˈteikiŋ] – n. the act of someone who picks up or takes something: clothing could be had for the taking

talebearer [ˈteil.beərə] – n. someone who gossips indiscreetly

talisman [ˈtælizmən] – n. a trinket or piece of jewelry usually hung about the neck and thought to be a magical protection against evil or disease

tally [ˈtæli] – v. be compatible, similar or consistent; coincide in their characteristics

talon [ˈtælən] – n. a sharp hooked claw especially on a bird of prey

tambourine [.tæmbəˈri:n] – n. a shallow drum with a single drumhead and with metallic disks in the sides

tamp [tæmp] – v. press down tightly: tamp the coffee grinds in the container to make espresso

tamper [ˈtæmpə] – v. play around with or alter or falsify, usually secretively or dishonestly: Someone tampered with the documents on my desk

tangent [ˈtændʒənt] – n. a straight line or plane that touches a curve or curved surface at a point but does not intersect it at that point

tangential [tænˈdʒenʃəl] – adj. of superficial relevance if any: a tangential remark

tangible [ˈtændʒəbəl] – adj. perceptible by the senses especially the sense of touch: skin with a tangible roughness

tango [ˈtæŋgəu] – n. a ballroom dance of Latin-American origin

tangy  – adj. tasting sour like a lemon

tanner [ˈtænə] – n. a small coin of the United Kingdom worth six pennies; not minted since 1970

tantalize [ˈtæntl-aiz] – v. harass with persistent criticism or carping

tantamount [ˈtæntəmaunt] – adj. being essentially equal to something: his statement was tantamount to an admission of guilt

tantrum [ˈtæntrəm] – n. a display of bad temper: she threw a tantrum

taper [ˈteipə] – n. a convex shape that narrows toward a point

tapestry [ˈtæpistri] – n. a heavy textile with a woven design; used for curtains and upholstery

tarantula [təˈræntjulə] – n. large hairy tropical spider with fangs that can inflict painful but not highly venomous bites

tardy [ˈtɑ:di] – adj. after the expected or usual time; delayed: tardy children are sent to the principal

tare [tɛə] – n. an adjustment made for the weight of the packaging in order to determine the net weight of the goods

tarn [tɑ:n] – n. a mountain lake (especially one formed by glaciers)

tarnish [ˈtɑ:niʃ] – n. discoloration of metal surface caused by oxidation

tarpaulin [tɑ:ˈpɔ:lin] – n. waterproofed canvas

tarry [ˈtæri, ˈtɑ:ri] – v. be about

tart [tɑ:t] – n. a woman who engages in sexual intercourse for money

tassel [ˈtæsəl] – n. adornment consisting of a bunch of cords fastened at one end

tasty [ˈteisti] – adj. pleasing to the sense of taste: a tasty morsel

tatter  – n. a small piece of cloth or paper

tatterdemalion [.tætədəˈmeiljən] – adj. worn to shreds; or wearing torn or ragged clothing: a tatterdemalion prince

tattered [ˈtætəd] – adj. worn to shreds; or wearing torn or ragged clothing: a man in a tattered shirt

tattle [ˈtætl] – v. speak (about unimportant matters) rapidly and incessantly

tatty [ˈtæti] – adj. showing signs of wear and tear: an old house with dirty windows and tatty curtains

taunt [tɔ:nt] – n. aggravation by deriding or mocking or criticizing

taut [tɔ:t] – adj. pulled or drawn tight: taut sails

tautological [.tɔ:təˈlɔdʒikəl] – adj. repetition of same sense in different words: the phrase `a beginner who has just started’ is tautological

tautology [tɔ:ˈtɔlədʒi] – n. (logic) a statement that is necessarily true: the statement `he is brave or he is not brave’ is a tautology

tawdry [ˈtɔ:dri] – adj. tastelessly showy: tawdry ornaments

tawny  – adj. of a light brown to brownish orange color; the color of tanned leather

taxing  – adj. not easily borne; wearing: a taxing schedule

taxonomist  – n. a biologist who specializes in the classification of organisms into groups on the basis of their structure and origin and behavior

taxonomy [tækˈsɔnəmi] – n. a classification of organisms into groups based on similarities of structure or origin etc

teal  – n. a blue-green color or pigment

teat [ti:t] – n. the small projection of a mammary gland

technocrat [ˈteknəkræt] – n. an expert who is a member of a highly skilled elite group

tedium [ˈti:diəm] – n. dullness owing to length or slowness

teem [ti:m] – v. move in large numbers

teeter  – n. a plaything consisting of a board balanced on a fulcrum; the board is ridden up and down by children at either end

teetotal [.ti:ˈtəutl] – adj. practicing complete abstinence from alcoholic beverages: no thank you; I happen to be teetotal

teetotalism  – n. abstaining from alcohol

teleology [.teliˈɔlədʒi] – n. (philosophy) a doctrine explaining phenomena by their ends or purposes

telepathy [tiˈlepəθi] – n. apparent communication from one mind to another without using sensory perceptions

telling [ˈteliŋ] – n. an act of narration

temerarious [.teməˈrɛəriəs] – adj. presumptuously daring

temerity [tiˈmeriti] – n. fearless daring

temp [temp] – n. a worker (especially in an office) hired on a temporary basis

temperament [ˈtempərəmənt] – n. your usual mood

temperamental [.tempərəˈmentl] – adj. subject to sharply varying moods: a temperamental opera singer

temperance [ˈtempərəns] – n. the trait of avoiding excesses

temperate [ˈtempərit] – adj. (of weather or climate) free from extremes; mild; or characteristic of such weather or climate: a temperate region

tempest [ˈtempist] – n. a violent commotion or disturbance: it was only a tempest in a teapot

tempestuous [temˈpestʃuəs] – adj. characterized by violent emotions or behavior

tempo [ˈtempəu] – n. (music) the speed at which a composition is to be played

temporal [ˈtempərəl] – adj. not eternal: temporal matters of but fleeting moment

temporize [ˈtempəraiz] – v. draw out a discussion or process in order to gain time: The speaker temporized in order to delay the vote

tenable [ˈtenəbəl] – adj. based on sound reasoning or evidence

tenacious [tiˈneiʃəs] – adj. good at remembering: tenacious memory

tenacity [tiˈnæsiti] – n. persistent determination

tenancy [ˈtenənsi] – n. an act of being a tenant or occupant

tendentious [tenˈdenʃəs] – adj. having or marked by a strong tendency especially a controversial one: a tendentious account of recent elections

tenderfoot [ˈtendəfut] – n. an inexperienced person (especially someone inexperienced in outdoor living)

tendinous  – adj. consisting of tendons or resembling a tendon

tenebrous [ˈtenibrəs] – adj. dark and gloomy: a tenebrous cave

tenet [ˈtenit] – n. a religious doctrine that is proclaimed as true without proof

tenon  – n. a projection at the end of a piece of wood that is shaped to fit into a mortise and form a mortise joint

tenor [ˈtenə] – n. the adult male singing voice above baritone

tensile [ˈtensail] – adj. capable of being shaped or bent or drawn out: made of highly tensile steel alloy

tentative [ˈtentətiv] – adj. under terms not final or fully worked out or agreed upon: just a tentative schedule

tenuous [ˈtenjuəs] – adj. having thin consistency: a tenuous fluid

tenure [ˈtenjuə] – n. the term during which some position is held

tepid [ˈtepid] – adj. moderately warm: tepid bath water

tergiversation [.tɜ:dʒivɜ:ˈseiʃɚn] – n. falsification by means of vague or ambiguous language

termagant [ˈtə:məgənt] – n. a scolding nagging bad-tempered woman

terminable [ˈtə:minəbl] – adj. capable of being terminated after a designated time: terminable employees

termination [.tə:miˈneiʃən] – n. a coming to an end of a contract period

terminology [.tə:miˈnɔlədʒi] – n. a system of words used to name things in a particular discipline: legal terminology

terminus [ˈtə:minəs] – n. a place where something ends or is complete

termite [ˈtə:mait] – n. whitish soft-bodied ant-like social insect that feeds on wood

terpsichorean [.tə:psikəˈriən] – n. a performer who dances professionally

terrain [teˈrein] – n. a piece of ground having specific characteristics or military potential: they decided to attack across the rocky terrain

terrapin [ˈterəpin] – n. any of various edible North American web-footed turtles living in fresh or brackish water

terrestrial [tiˈrestriəl] – adj. of or relating to or inhabiting the land as opposed to the sea or air

terse [tə:s] – adj. brief and to the point; effectively cut short: short and terse and easy to understand

tertiary [ˈtə:ʃəri] – n. from 63 million to 2 million years ago

tessellated [ˈtesileitid] – adj. having a checkered or mottled appearance

testator [tesˈteitə] – n. a person who makes a will

testify [ˈtestifai] – v. provide evidence for

testimonial [.testiˈməuniəl] – n. something that serves as evidence

testimony [ˈtestiməni] – n. a solemn statement made under oath

testiness  – n. feeling easily irritated

testy [ˈtesti] – adj. easily irritated or annoyed

tether [ˈteðə] – n. restraint consisting of a rope (or light chain) used to restrain an animal

thatch [θætʃ] – n. plant stalks used as roofing material

thaumaturgist  – n. one who practices magic or sorcery

thaw [θɔ:] – n. warm weather following a freeze; snow and ice melt: they welcomed the spring thaw

theatrical [θiˈætrikəl] – adj. suited to or characteristic of the stage or theater: a theatrical pose

theism [ˈθi:izəm] – n. the doctrine or belief in the existence of a God or gods

thematic  – adj. relating to or constituting a topic of discourse

theocracy [θiˈɔkrəsi] – n. a political unit governed by a deity (or by officials thought to be divinely guided)

theosophy [θiˈɔsəfi] – n. a system of belief based on mystical insight into the nature of God and the soul

therapeutic [.θerəˈpju:tik] – adj. tending to cure or restore to health: a therapeutic agent

thermal [ˈθə:məl,ˈθə:ml] – adj. relating to or associated with heat: thermal movements of molecules

thesaurus [θiˈsɔ:rəs] – n. a book containing a classified list of synonyms

thespian [ˈθespiən] – n. a theatrical performer

thicket [ˈθikit] – n. a dense growth of bushes

thorny [ˈθɔ:ni] – adj. bristling with perplexities: the thorny question of states’ rights

thrall [θrɔ:l] – n. the state of being under the control of another person

thrash [θræʃ] – v. move or stir about violently: The feverish patient thrashed around in his bed

threadbare [ˈθredbeə] – adj. repeated too often; overfamiliar through overuse: repeating threadbare jokes

threnody [ˈθrenədi] – n. a song or hymn of mourning composed or performed as a memorial to a dead person

thresh  – v. move or stir about violently

thrifty [ˈθrifti] – adj. careful and diligent in the use of resources

throaty [ˈθrəuti] – adj. sounding as if pronounced low in the throat: a rich throaty voice

throb [θrɔb] – v. pulsate or pound with abnormal force: my head is throbbing

throes [θrəuz] – n. violent pangs of suffering: death throes

throttle [ˈθrɔtl] – v. place limits on (extent or access)

throwback  – n. an organism that has the characteristics of a more primitive type of that organism

thwart [θwɔ:t] – n. a crosspiece spreading the gunnels of a boat; used as a seat in a rowboat

thyme [taim] – n. any of various mints of the genus Thymus

tickle [ˈtikl] – v. touch (a body part) lightly so as to excite the surface nerves and cause uneasiness, laughter, or spasmodic movements

tickler [ˈtiklə] – n. a file of memoranda or notices that remind of things to be done

ticklish  – adj. difficult to handle; requiring great tact: hesitates to be explicit on so ticklish a matter

tiddler  – n. a young person of either sex: `tiddler’ is a British term for youngster

tiff [tif] – n. a quarrel about petty points

tightfisted  – adj. unwilling to part with money

tightwad  – n. a miserly person

tiller  – n. a shoot that sprouts from the base of a grass

tilt [tilt] – n. a contentious speech act; a dispute where there is strong disagreement

timbre [ˈtæmbə, ˈtim-] – n. (music) the distinctive property of a complex sound (a voice or noise or musical sound): the timbre of her soprano was rich and lovely

timely [ˈtaimli] – adj. done or happening at the appropriate or proper time: a timely warning

timeworn  – adj. repeated too often; overfamiliar through overuse: parroting some timeworn axiom

timidity [tiˈmiditi] – n. fear of the unknown or unfamiliar or fear of making decisions

timorous [ˈtimərəs] – adj. timid by nature or revealing timidity: timorous little mouse

tinder [ˈtində] – n. material for starting a fire

tined [taind] – adj. having prongs or tines; usually used in combination: a three-tined fork

tinge [tindʒ] – n. a slight but appreciable amount

tinker  – n. a person who enjoys fixing and experimenting with machines and their parts

tint [tint] – n. a quality of a given color that differs slightly from another color

tipple [ˈtipəl] – n. a serving of drink (usually alcoholic) drawn from a keg

tirade [taiˈreid] – n. a speech of violent denunciation

tithe [taið] – v. pay a tenth of one’s income, especially to the church: Although she left the church officially, she still tithes

titillate [ˈtitileit] – v. touch (a body part) lightly so as to excite the surface nerves and cause uneasiness, laughter, or spasmodic movements

titivate [ˈtitiveit] – v. make neat, smart, or trim: titivate the child

titter  – n. a nervous restrained laugh

titular [ˈtitʃulə] – adj. of or relating to a legal title to something: titulary rights

toady [ˈtəudi] – n. a person who tries to please someone in order to gain a personal advantage

tocsin [ˈtɔksin] – n. the sound of an alarm (usually a bell)

toga [ˈtəugə] – n. a one-piece cloak worn by men in ancient Rome

toil [tɔil] – n. productive work (especially physical work done for wages)

token [ˈtəukən] – n. an individual instance of a type of symbol: the word`error’ contains three tokens of `r’

tome [təum] – n. a (usually) large and scholarly book

tonality [təuˈnæliti] – n. any of 24 major or minor diatonic scales that provide the tonal framework for a piece of music

tongs [tɔŋz] – n. any of various devices for taking hold of objects; usually have two hinged legs with handles above and pointed hooks below

tonic [ˈtɔnik] – adj. employing variations in pitch to distinguish meanings of otherwise similar words

tonsorial  – adj. of or relating to barbers and barbering: tonsorial work

tonsure [ˈtɔnʃə] – n. the shaved crown of a monk’s or priest’s head

topography [təˈpɔgrəfi] – n. the configuration of a surface and the relations among its man-made and natural features

topple [ˈtɔpəl] – v. fall down, as if collapsing

topsoil [ˈtɔpˈsɔil] – n. the layer of soil on the surface

topsy-turvy  – adv. in a disordered manner

tornado [tɔ:ˈneidəu] – n. a purified and potent form of cocaine that is smoked rather than snorted; highly addictive

torpedo [tɔ:ˈpi:dəu] – n. a professional killer who uses a gun

torpid [ˈtɔ:pid] – adj. slow and apathetic: a mind grown torpid in old age

torpor [ˈtɔ:pə] – n. inactivity resulting from lethargy and lack of vigor or energy

torque [tɔ:k] – n. a twisting force

torrential [tɔˈrenʃəl] – adj. resembling a torrent in force and abundance: torrential applause

torrid [ˈtɔrid] – adj. characterized by intense emotion: a torrid love affair

torso [ˈtɔ:səu] – n. the body excluding the head and neck and limbs

tortilla [tɔ:ˈti:lə] – n. thin unleavened pancake made from cornmeal or wheat flour

tortuous [ˈtɔ:tjuəs] – adj. highly complex or intricate and occasionally devious: tortuous legal procedures

totalitarian [təu.tæliˈteəriən] – adj. characterized by a government in which the political authority exercises absolute and centralized control: a totalitarian regime crushes all autonomous institutions in its drive to seize the human soul

totality [təuˈtæliti] – n. the quality of being complete and indiscriminate: the totality of war and its consequences

totem [ˈtəutəm] – n. emblem consisting of an object such as an animal or plant; serves as the symbol of a family or clan (especially among American Indians)

totter [ˈtɔtə] – v. move without being stable, as if threatening to fall: The drunk man tottered over to our table

touching [ˈtʌtʃiŋ] – n. the event of something coming in contact with the body

touchstone [ˈtʌtʃstəʊn] – n. a basis for comparison; a reference point against which other things can be evaluated

touchy [ˈtʌtʃi] – adj. quick to take offense

toupee [ˈtu:pei] – n. a small hairpiece to cover partial baldness

tourniquet [ˈtuəniket] – n. bandage that stops the flow of blood from an artery by applying pressure

tousle [ˈtauzəl] – v. disarrange or rumple; dishevel: The strong wind tousled my hair

tout [taut] – n. someone who advertises for customers in an especially brazen way

toxin [ˈtɔksin] – n. a poisonous substance produced during the metabolism and growth of certain microorganisms and some higher plant and animal species

tractable [ˈtræktəbəl] – adj. easily managed (controlled or taught or molded): tractable young minds

traction [ˈtrækʃən] – n. the friction between a body and the surface on which it moves (as between an automobile tire and the road)

traduce [trəˈdju:s] – v. speak unfavorably about

tragedienne [trə.dʒi:diˈen] – n. an actress who specializes in tragic roles

trajectory [trəˈdʒektəri] – n. the path followed by an object moving through space

trammel [ˈtræməl] – n. a fishing net with three layers; the outer two are coarse mesh and the loose inner layer is fine mesh

trample [ˈtræmpl] – v. tread or stomp heavily or roughly: The soldiers trampled across the fields

trance  – n. a psychological state induced by (or as if induced by) a magical incantation

tranquil [ˈtræŋkwil] – adj. (of a body of water) free from disturbance by heavy waves: a lake of tranquil blue water reflecting a tranquil blue sky

tranquillity  – n. an untroubled state; free from disturbances

tranquillizer [ˈtræŋkwilaizə] – n. a drug used to reduce stress or tension without reducing mental clarity

transcend [trænˈsend] – v. be greater in scope or size than some standard

transcendence [trænˈsendəns] – n. a state of being or existence above and beyond the limits of material experience

transcendent [trænˈsendənt] – adj. exceeding or surpassing usual limits especially in excellence

transcendental [.trænsenˈdentl] – adj. existing outside of or not in accordance with nature: find transcendental motives for sublunary action

transcribe [trænˈskraib] – v. write out from speech, notes, etc.

transfigure [trænsˈfigə] – v. change completely the nature or appearance of: The treatment and diet transfigured her into a beautiful young woman

transfuse [trænsˈfju:z] – v. impart gradually: transfuse love of music into the students

transgress [trænsˈgres] – v. act in disregard of laws, rules, contracts, or promises

transgression [trænsˈgreʃən, trænz-] – n. the spreading of the sea over land as evidenced by the deposition of marine strata over terrestrial strata

transient [ˈtrænʃənt,ˈtrænziənt] – n. one who stays for only a short time: transient laborers

transitory [ˈtrænzitəri] – adj. lasting a very short time: love is transitory but it is eternal

translucent [trænzˈlusənt, træns-] – adj. allowing light to pass through diffusely: translucent amber

transmogrify [trænzˈmɔgrifai, træns-] – v. change completely the nature or appearance of

transmute [trænzˈmju:t] – v. change in outward structure or looks

transpire [trænˈspaiə] – v. pass through the tissue or substance or its pores or interstices, as of gas

transpose  – v. change the order or arrangement of: Dyslexics often transpose letters in a word

trapezium [trəˈpi:ziəm] – n. a quadrilateral with no parallel sides

trappings  – n. (usually plural) accessory wearing apparel

trauma [ˈtrɔ:mə, ˈtraumə] – n. any physical damage to the body caused by violence or accident or fracture etc.

traumatic [trɔ:ˈmætik] – adj. of or relating to a physical injury or wound to the body

travail [ˈtræveil] – n. concluding state of pregnancy; from the onset of contractions to the birth of a child

travelogue [ˈtrævəlɔg] – n. a film or illustrated lecture on traveling

traverse [ˈtrævə(:)s] – n. a horizontal beam that extends across something

travesty [ˈtrævisti] – n. a comedy characterized by broad satire and improbable situations

trawl [trɔ:l] – n. a long fishing line with many shorter lines and hooks attached to it (usually suspended between buoys)

treacherous [ˈtretʃərəs] – adj. dangerously unstable and unpredictable: treacherous winding roads

treachery [ˈtretʃəri] – n. betrayal of a trust

treacle [ˈtri:kəl] – n. a pale cane syrup

treadmill [ˈtredmil] – n. an exercise device consisting of an endless belt on which a person can walk or jog without changing place

treatise [ˈtri:tiz, -tis] – n. a formal exposition

trek [trek] – n. a journey by ox wagon (especially an organized migration by a group of settlers)

tremor [ˈtremə] – n. an involuntary vibration (as if from illness or fear)

tremulous [ˈtremjuləs] – adj. (of the voice) quivering as from weakness or fear: spoke timidly in a tremulous voice

trenchant [ˈtrentʃənt] – adj. having keenness and forcefulness and penetration in thought, expression, or intellect: trenchant criticism

trencherman [ˈtrentʃəmən] – n. a person who is devoted to eating and drinking to excess

trepidation [.trepiˈdeiʃən] – n. a feeling of alarm or dread

trespass [ˈtrespəs, -pæs] – v. enter unlawfully on someone’s property: Don’t trespass on my land!

tribulation [.tribjuˈleiʃən] – n. an annoying or frustrating or catastrophic event: life is full of tribulations

tribune [ˈtribju:n] – n. (ancient Rome) an official elected by the plebeians to protect their interests

tributary [ˈtribjutəri] – adj. (of a stream) flowing into a larger stream

trice [trais] – v. raise with a line: trice a window shade

trickery [ˈtrikəri] – n. verbal misrepresentation intended to take advantage of you in some way

trickle [ˈtrikl] – n. flowing in drops; the formation and falling of drops of liquid

trickster  – n. someone who plays practical jokes on others

trident [ˈtraidnt] – n. a spear with three prongs

trifling  – n. the deliberate act of delaying and playing instead of working

trilogy [ˈtrilədʒi] – n. a set of three literary or dramatic works related in subject or theme

trinket [ˈtriŋkit] – n. cheap showy jewelry or ornament on clothing

trite [trait] – adj. repeated too often; overfamiliar through overuse: his remarks were trite and commonplace

trivia [ˈtriviə] – n. something of small importance

troglodyte [ˈtrɔglədait] – n. one who lives in solitude

trope [trəup] – n. language used in a figurative or nonliteral sense

troth [trəuθ] – n. a mutual promise to marry

trough  – n. a narrow depression (as in the earth or between ocean waves or in the ocean bed)

trounce [trauns] – v. beat severely with a whip or rod: The children were severely trounced

troupe [tru:p] – n. organization of performers and associated personnel (especially theatrical)

trowel [ˈtrauəl] – n. a small hand tool with a handle and flat metal blade; used for scooping or spreading plaster or similar materials

truancy [ˈtru:ənsi] – n. failure to attend (especially school)

truant [ˈtru:ənt] – n. one who is absent from school without permission

truce [tru:s] – n. a state of peace agreed to between opponents so they can discuss peace terms

truckle [ˈtrʌkəl] – v. yield to out of weakness

truculence [ˈtrʌkjuləns] – n. obstreperous and defiant aggressiveness

truculent [ˈtrʌkjulənt] – adj. defiantly aggressive: a truculent speech against the new government

trudge [trʌdʒ] – n. a long difficult walk

truism [ˈtru:izəm] – n. an obvious truth

trumpery [ˈtrʌmpəri] – n. nonsensical talk or writing

truncate [trʌŋˈkeit] – v. replace a corner by a plane

truncheon [ˈtrʌnʃən] – n. a short stout club used primarily by policemen

truss  – n. (medicine) a bandage consisting of a pad and belt; worn to hold a hernia in place by pressure

tryst [traist, trist] – n. a date; usually with a member of the opposite sex

tuber [ˈtju:bə, tu:bə] – n. a fleshy underground stem or root serving for reproductive and food storage

tugboat [ˈtʌgbəut] – n. a powerful small boat designed to pull or push larger ships

tumbrel [ˈtʌmbril] – n. a farm dumpcart for carrying dung; carts of this type were used to carry prisoners to the guillotine during the French Revolution

tumid [ˈtju:mid, ˈtu:-] – adj. ostentatiously lofty in style: tumid political prose

tumult [ˈtju:mʌlt] – n. a state of commotion and noise and confusion

tumultuous [tju:ˈmʌltʃuəs, tu:-] – adj. characterized by unrest or disorder or insubordination: the tumultuous years of his administration

tundra [ˈtʌndrə] – n. a vast treeless plain in the Arctic regions where the subsoil is permanently frozen

turbid [ˈtə:bid] – adj. (of liquids) clouded as with sediment

turbulence [ˈtɜ:bjʊləns] – n. unstable flow of a liquid or gas

tureen [tjuˈri:n, təˈri:n] – n. large deep serving dish with a cover; for serving soups and stews

turgid [ˈtə:dʒid] – adj. ostentatiously lofty in style

turmoil [ˈtə:mɔil] – n. a violent disturbance

turncoat  – n. a disloyal person who betrays or deserts his cause or religion or political party or friend etc.

turnkey [ˈtə:nki:] – n. someone who guards prisoners

turpitude [ˈtə:pitju:d] – n. a corrupt or depraved or degenerate act or practice: the various turpitudes of modern society

turquoise [ˈtə:kwɑ:z, kwɔiz] – n. a blue to grey green mineral consisting of copper aluminum phosphate: blue turquoise is valued as a gemstone

turret [ˈtʌrit] – n. a small tower extending above a building

tusk [tʌsk] – n. a long pointed tooth specialized for fighting or digging; especially in an elephant or walrus or hog

tussle [ˈtʌsəl] – v. fight or struggle in a confused way at close quarters

tutelage [ˈtju:tilidʒ] – n. teaching pupils individually (usually by a tutor hired privately)

tutelary [ˈtju:tiləri] – adj. providing protective supervision; watching over or safeguarding: tutelary gods

tuxedo [tʌkˈsi:dəu] – n. semiformal evening dress for men

twaddle [ˈtwɔdl] – n. pretentious or silly talk or writing

twee [twi:] – adj. affectedly dainty or refined

twig [twig] – v. understand, usually after some initial difficulty

twinge [twindʒ] – v. cause a stinging pain

twirl [twə:l] – n. a sharp bend in a line produced when a line having a loop is pulled tight

twit [twit] – n. someone who is regarded as contemptible

tycoon [taiˈku:n] – n. a very wealthy or powerful businessman

typhoid [ˈtaifɔid] – n. serious infection marked by intestinal inflammation and ulceration; caused by Salmonella typhosa ingested with food or water

typo  – n. a mistake in printed matter resulting from mechanical failures of some kind

tyrannical [tiˈrænikəl] – adj. marked by unjust severity or arbitrary behavior: a tyrannical parent

tyro [ˈtaiərəu] – n. someone new to a field or activity

ubiquitous [juˈbikwitəs] – adj. being present everywhere at once

ukase [ju:ˈkeiz] – n. an edict of the Russian tsar

ulcerate [ˈʌlsəreit] – v. affect with an ulcer: Her stomach was ulcerated

ulterior [ʌlˈtiəriə] – adj. lying beyond what is openly revealed or avowed (especially being kept in the background or deliberately concealed): looked too closely for an ulterior purpose in all knowledge

ultimatum [.ʌltiˈmeitəm] – n. a final peremptory demand

umbrage [ˈʌmbridʒ] – n. a feeling of anger caused by being offended

umpire [ˈʌmpaiə] – n. an official at a baseball game

umpteen [.ʌmpˈti:n] – adj. innumerable but many

unabashed [.ʌnəˈbæʃt] – adj. not embarrassed: a tinseled charm and unabashed sentimentality

unaccountable [ˈʌnəˈkauntəbl] – adj. not to be accounted for or explained: perceptible only as unaccountable influences that hinder progress

unadvised [.ʌnədˈvaizd] – adj. without careful prior deliberation or counsel: took the unadvised measure of going public with the accusations

unaffected [.ʌnəˈfektid] – adj. undergoing no change when acted upon: entirely unaffected by each other’s writings

unalloyed [.ʌnəˈlɔid] – adj. free from admixture: unalloyed metal

unanimity [ˈju:nəˈnimiti] – n. everyone being of one mind

unanimous [juˈnæniməs] – adj. in complete agreement: a unanimous decision

unassailable  – adj. immune to attack; incapable of being tampered with

unassuming [ʌnəˈsju:miŋ] – adj. not arrogant or presuming: unassuming to a fault, skeptical about the value of his work

unassured  – adj. lacking boldness or confidence

unavailing [.ʌnəˈveiliŋ] – adj. producing no result or effect: an unavailing attempt

unbridled [ʌnˈbraidld] – adj. not restrained or controlled: unbridled rage

uncanny [ʌnˈkæni] – adj. suggesting the operation of supernatural influences: stumps…had uncanny shapes as of monstrous creatures

unceremonious  – adj. without ceremony or formality: an unceremonious speech

uncharted [ˈʌnˈtʃɑ:tid] – adj. (of unknown regions) not yet surveyed or investigated: uncharted seas

uncommitted [.ʌnkəˈmitid] – adj. not bound or pledged

unconscionable [ʌnˈkɔnʃənəbəl] – adj. lacking a conscience: an unconscionable liar

uncouth [ʌnˈku:θ] – adj. lacking refinement or cultivation or taste: an untutored and uncouth human being

unction [ˈʌŋkʃən] – n. excessive but superficial compliments given with affected charm

unctuous [ˈʌŋktʃuəs] – adj. unpleasantly and excessively suave or ingratiating in manner or speech: the unctuous Uriah Heep

undaunted [ʌnˈdɔ:ntid] – adj. unshaken in purpose

underdog  – n. one at a disadvantage and expected to lose

undergird  – v. lend moral support to

underhand  – adj. with hand brought forward and up from below shoulder level: an underhand pitch

underling [ˈʌndəliŋ] – n. an assistant subject to the authority or control of another

underpin [ʌndəˈpin] – v. support from beneath

underplay [.ʌndəˈplei] – v. act (a role) with great restraint

underscore [.ʌndəˈskɔ:] – v. give extra weight to (a communication)

understate [ʌndəˈsteit] – v. represent as less significant or important

undertaker  – n. one whose business is the management of funerals

underwrite [.ʌndəˈrait] – v. guarantee financial support of

undesirable [.ʌndiˈzaiərəbəl] – adj. not wanted: undesirable impurities in steel

undulate [ˈʌndjuleit] – v. stir up (water) so as to form ripples

unearth [ˈʌnˈə:θ] – v. bring to light: The CIA unearthed a plot to kill the President

unearthly [ʌnˈə:θli] – adj. concerned with or affecting the spirit or soul: unearthly love

unequivocal [.ʌniˈkwivəkəl] – adj. admitting of no doubt or misunderstanding; having only one meaning or interpretation and leading to only one conclusion: unequivocal evidence

unerringly  – adv. without making errors: he unerringly fixed things for us

unexampled [.ʌnigˈzɑ:mpəld] – adj. having no previous example or precedent or parallel: a time of unexampled prosperity

unexceptionable  – adj. completely acceptable; not open to exception or reproach: two unexceptionable witnesses

unexceptional  – adj. not special in any way: a unexceptional an incident as can be found in a lawyer’s career

unfailing [ʌnˈfeiliŋ] – adj. not liable to failure: the unfailing sign of an amateur

unfaltering [ʌnˈfɔ:ltəriŋ] – adj. marked by firm determination or resolution; not shakable

unfathomed [ʌnˈfæðəmd] – adj. situated at or extending to great depth; too deep to have been sounded or plumbed: the dark unfathomed caves of ocean

unfeigned [ʌnˈfeind] – adj. not pretended; sincerely felt or expressed: her interest in people was unfeigned

unflappable [ʌnˈflæpəbəl] – adj. not easily perturbed or excited or upset; marked by extreme calm and composure: unflappable in a crisis

unfledged  – adj. (of birds) not yet having developed feathers: a small unfledged sparrow on the window sill

unfounded [ʌnˈfaundid] – adj. without a basis in reason or fact: unfounded suspicions

unfrock  – v. divest of the frock; of church officials

ungainly [ʌnˈgeinli] – adj. lacking grace in movement or posture: a gawky lad with long ungainly legs

unguarded [ʌnˈgɑ:did] – adj. lacking protection or a guard: an unguarded gate

unguent [ˈʌŋgwənt] – n. semisolid preparation (usually containing a medicine) applied externally as a remedy or for soothing an irritation

unhinge [ʌnˈhindʒ] – v. disturb in mind or make uneasy or cause to be worried or alarmed

unicorn [ˈju:nikɔ:n] – n. an imaginary creature represented as a white horse with a long horn growing from its forehead

uniformity [.ju:niˈfɔ:miti] – n. a condition in which everything is regular and unvarying

unilateral [.ju:niˈlætərəl] – adj. involving only one part or side: unilateral paralysis

unimpeachable [.ʌnimˈpi:tʃəbəl] – adj. beyond doubt or reproach: an unimpeachable source

uninhibited  – adj. not inhibited or restrained: uninhibited exuberance

unison [ˈju:nizn] – n. corresponding exactly: marching in unison

unkempt [.ʌnˈkempt] – adj. not neatly combed: wild unkempt hair

unlettered  – adj. having little acquaintance with writing: special tutorials to assist the unlettered sector of society

unmitigated [ʌnˈmitigeitid] – adj. not diminished or moderated in intensity or severity; sometimes used as an intensifier: unmitigated suffering

unobtrusive  – adj. not obtrusive or undesirably noticeable: a quiet, unobtrusive life of self-denial

unpalatable [ʌnˈpælətəbl] – adj. not pleasant or acceptable to the taste or mind: an unpalatable meal

unprepossessing  – adj. creating an unfavorable or neutral first impression

unpretentious  – adj. lacking pretension or affectation: an unpretentious country church

unprovoked [.ʌnprəˈvəukt] – adj. occurring without motivation or provocation: unprovoked and dastardly attack

unravel [ʌnˈrævəl] – v. become or cause to become undone by separating the fibers or threads of: unravel the thread

unregenerate  – adj. tenaciously unwilling or marked by tenacious unwillingness to yield

unrequited  – adj. not returned in kind: unrequited (unanswered) love

unruly [ʌnˈru:li] – adj. noisy and lacking in restraint or discipline: an unruly class

unsavory  – adj. morally offensive: an unsavory reputation

unscathed [ʌnˈskeiðd] – adj. not injured

unscrupulous [ʌnˈskru:pjuləs] – adj. without scruples or principles: unscrupulous politicos who would be happy to sell…their country in order to gain power

unseemly [ʌnˈsi:mli] – adj. not in keeping with accepted standards of what is right or proper in polite society: unseemly to use profanity

unsightly  – adj. unpleasant to look at: unsightly billboards

unspotted [ˈʌnˈspɔtid] – adj. without soil or spot or stain

unstudied [ʌnˈstʌdid] – adj. not by design or artifice; unforced and impromptu: an air of unstudied spontaneous utterance is apt to be painstakingly achieved

unsullied [.ʌnˈsʌlid] – adj. spotlessly clean and fresh: the unsullied snow of mountains

untenable [ʌnˈtenəbəl] – adj. (of theories etc) incapable of being defended or justified

untold [.ʌnˈtəuld] – adj. of an incalculable amount: untold suffering

untoward [.ʌntəˈwɔ:d] – adj. not in keeping with accepted standards of what is right or proper in polite society: moved to curb their untoward ribaldry

untrammeled  – adj. not confined or limited: the gift of a fresh eye and an untrammeled curiosity

untutored  – adj. lacking in schooling: an untutored genius

unversed [.ʌnˈvə:st] – adj. not having had extensive practice

unwarranted [ˈʌnˈwɔrəntid] – adj. incapable of being justified or explained

unwieldy [ʌnˈwi:ldi] – adj. difficult to use or handle or manage because of size or weight or shape: we set about towing the unwieldy structure into the shelter

unwitting [.ʌnˈwitiŋ] – adj. not done with purpose or intent: an unwitting mistake may be overlooked

unwonted [ʌnˈwəuntid] – adj. out of the ordinary: an unwonted softness in her face

upbraid [.ʌpˈbreid] – v. express criticism towards

upheaval [ʌpˈhi:vəl] – n. a state of violent disturbance and disorder (as in politics or social conditions generally)

upholstery [ʌpˈhəulstəri] – n. covering (padding and springs and webbing and fabric) on a piece of furniture

uproar [ˈʌprɔ:] – n. a state of commotion and noise and confusion

uproarious [ʌpˈrɔ:riəs] – adj. uncontrollably noisy

upshot  – n. a phenomenon that follows and is caused by some previous phenomenon

upstage [ʌpˈsteidʒ] – v. treat snobbishly, put in one’s place

upstart [ˈʌpstɑ:t] – n. an arrogant or presumptuous person

upsurge [ˈʌpsə:dʒ] – n. a sudden forceful flow

uptake [ˈʌpteik] – n. the process of taking food into the body through the mouth (as by eating)

uptight [ˈʌptait, ʌpˈtait] – adj. being in a tense state

urbane [ɜ:ˈbein] – adj. showing a high degree of refinement and the assurance that comes from wide social experience: maintained an urbane tone in his letters

urchin [ˈə:tʃin] – n. poor and often mischievous city child

ursine [ˈə:sain] – adj. of or relating to or similar to bears

usher [ˈʌʃə] – n. Irish prelate who deduced from the Bible that Creation occurred in the year 4004 BC (1581-1656)

usufruct [ˈju:sju(:)frʌkt] – n. a legal right to use and derive profit from property belonging to someone else provided that the property itself is not injured in any way

usurious [ju:ˈʒuriəs, ju:ˈzjuəriəs] – adj. greatly exceeding bounds of reason or moderation: usurious interest rate

usurp [ju:ˈzə:p] – v. seize and take control without authority and possibly with force; take as one’s right or possession: he usurped my rights

usurpation [.juzəˈpeʃən] – n. entry to another’s property without right or permission

usury [ˈju:ʒəri] – n. an exorbitant or unlawful rate of interest

utensil [ju:ˈtensl] – n. an implement for practical use (especially in a household)

utilitarian [.ju:tiliˈtɛəriən] – adj. having a useful function: utilitarian steel tables

utopia [ju:ˈtəupjə, -piə] – n. a book written by Sir Thomas More (1516) describing the perfect society on an imaginary island

utopian [ju:ˈtəupjən] – adj. characterized by or aspiring to impracticable perfection: the dim utopian future

uxorious [ʌkˈsɔ:riəs] – adj. foolishly fond of or submissive to your wife

vacate [veiˈkeit] – v. leave (a job, post, or position) voluntarily: She vacated the position when she got pregnant

vaccinate [ˈvæksineit] – v. perform vaccinations or produce immunity in by inoculation: We vaccinate against scarlet fever

vaccination [.væksiˈneiʃən] – n. the scar left following inoculation with a vaccine

vaccine [ˈvæksi:n] – n. immunogen consisting of a suspension of weakened or dead pathogenic cells injected in order to stimulate the production of antibodies

vacillate [ˈvæsileit] – v. be undecided about something; waver between conflicting positions or courses of action

vacuity [væˈkju(:)iti, və-] – n. the absence of matter

vacuous [ˈvækjuəs] – adj. devoid of intelligence

vagabond [ˈvægəbɔnd] – n. a wanderer who has no established residence or visible means of support

vagary [ˈveigəri] – n. an unexpected and inexplicable change in something (in a situation or a person’s behavior, etc.)

vagrant [ˈvægrənt] – n. a wanderer who has no established residence or visible means of support

vainglorious [veinˈglɔ:riəs] – adj. feeling self-importance

vainglory [veinˈglɔ:ri] – n. outspoken conceit

valance [ˈvæləns] – n. a decorative framework to conceal curtain fixtures at the top of a window casing

valediction [.væliˈdikʃən] – n. a farewell oration (especially one delivered during graduation exercises by an outstanding member of a graduating class)

valedictory [.væliˈdiktəri] – adj. of or relating to an occasion or expression of farewell: a valedictory address

valetudinarian [.vælitju:diˈneəriən] – n. weak or sickly person especially one morbidly concerned with his or her health

valiant [ˈvæliənt] – adj. having or showing valor: a valiant attempt to prevent the hijack

validate [ˈsimjuleit] – v. prove valid; show or confirm the validity of something

valor [ˈvælə] – n. the qualities of a hero or heroine; exceptional or heroic courage when facing danger (especially in battle): he received a medal for valor

valorous [ˈvælərəs] – adj. having or showing valor

valour  – n. the qualities of a hero or heroine; exceptional or heroic courage when facing danger (especially in battle)

vamp [væmp] – v. make up: vamp up an excuse for not attending the meeting

vampire [ˈvæmpaiə] – n. (folklore) a corpse that rises at night to drink the blood of the living

vandalism [ˈvændəlizəm] – n. willful wanton and malicious destruction of the property of others

vandalize [ˈvændəlaiz] – v. destroy wantonly, as through acts of vandalism: vandalize the park

vanguard [ˈvængɑ:d] – n. the leading units moving at the head of an army

vanilla [vəˈnilə] – adj. plain and without any extras or adornments: the most common type of bond is the straight or plain vanilla bond

vanquish [ˈvæŋkwiʃ] – v. come out better in a competition, race, or conflict

vantage [ˈvɑ:ntidʒ] – n. the quality of having a superior or more favorable position: the experience gave him the advantage over me

vapid [ˈvæpid] – adj. lacking taste or flavor or tang: vapid beer

vaporize [ˈveipəraiz] – v. kill with or as if with a burst of gunfire or electric current or as if by shooting: in this computer game, space travellers are vaporized by aliens

variability [.vɛəriəˈbiliti] – n. the quality of being subject to variation

variance [ˈvɛəriəns] – n. an event that departs from expectations

variegate [ˈvɛərigeit] – v. change the appearance of, especially by marking with different colors

variegated [ˈveərigeitid, ˈver-] – adj. having a variety of colors

varnish [ˈvɑ:niʃ] – n. a coating that provides a hard, lustrous, transparent finish to a surface

vascular [ˈvæskjulə] – adj. of or relating to or having vessels that conduct and circulate fluids: vascular constriction

vassal [ˈvæsəl] – n. a person holding a fief; a person who owes allegiance and service to a feudal lord

vaunt [vɔ:nt] – n. extravagant self-praise

veal [vi:l] – n. meat from a calf

veer [viə] – v. turn sharply; change direction abruptly: The motorbike veered to the right

vegetate [ˈvedʒiteit] – v. lead a passive existence without using one’s body or mind

vehement [ˈviəmənt] – adj. marked by extreme intensity of emotions or convictions; inclined to react violently; fervid: vehement dislike

vellum [ˈveləm] – n. a heavy creamy-colored paper resembling parchment

venal [ˈvi:nl] – adj. capable of being corrupted: a venal police officer

venality [vi(:)ˈnæliti] – n. prostitution of talents or offices or services for reward

vendetta [venˈdetə] – n. a feud in which members of the opposing parties murder each other

veneer [viˈniə] – n. coating consisting of a thin layer of superior wood glued to a base of inferior wood

venerable [ˈvenərəbl] – adj. impressive by reason of age: a venerable sage with white hair and beard

venerate [ˈvenəreit] – v. regard with feelings of respect and reverence; consider hallowed or exalted or be in awe of: We venerate genius

veneration [.venəˈreiʃən] – n. a feeling of profound respect for someone or something: his respect for the law bordered on veneration

vengeance [ˈvendʒəns] – n. the act of taking revenge (harming someone in retaliation for something harmful that they have done) especially in the next life: For vengeance I would do nothing. This nation is too great to look for mere revenge

vengeful  – adj. disposed to seek revenge or intended for revenge

venial [ˈvi:niəl] – adj. warranting only temporal punishment: venial sin

venison [ˈvenisən] – n. meat from a deer used as food

venom [ˈvenəm] – n. toxin secreted by animals; secreted by certain snakes and poisonous insects (e.g., spiders and scorpions)

vent [vent] – n. a hole for the escape of gas or air

ventilate [ˈventileit] – v. expose to cool or cold air so as to cool or freshen

ventral [ˈventr(ə)l] – adj. toward or on or near the belly (front of a primate or lower surface of a lower animal): the ventral aspect of the human body

ventriloquist  – n. a performer who projects the voice into a wooden dummy

venturesome [ˈventʃəsəm] – adj. disposed to venture or take risks: a venturesome investor

venturous [ˈventʃərəs] – adj. disposed to venture or take risks: a venturous spirit

veracious [vəˈreiʃəs] – adj. habitually speaking the truth: a veracious witness

veracity [vəˈræsəti] – n. unwillingness to tell lies

verbalize  – v. be verbose: This lawyer verbalizes and is rather tedious

verbatim [və:ˈbeitim] – adj. in precisely the same words used by a writer or speaker: repeated their dialog verbatim

verbiage [ˈvə:biidʒ] – n. overabundance of words

verbose [və:ˈbəus] – adj. using or containing too many words: verbose and ineffective instructional methods

verbosity [vəˈbɑsəti] – n. an expressive style that uses excessive or empty words

verdant [ˈvə:dənt] – adj. characterized by abundance of verdure

verdigris [ˈvə:digris] – n. a blue or green powder used as a paint pigment

verge [və:dʒ] – n. a region marking a boundary

verisimilar  – adj. appearing to be true or real: a verisimilar tale

verisimilitude [.verisiˈmilitju:d, -tu:d] – n. the appearance of truth; the quality of seeming to be true

veritable  – adj. often used as intensifiers: he’s a veritable swine

verity [ˈveriti] – n. conformity to reality or actuality

vermicular [və:ˈmikjulə] – adj. decorated with wormlike tracery or markings: vermicular (or vermiculated) stonework

vermin [ˈvə:min] – n. an irritating or obnoxious person

vernacular [vəˈnækjulə] – n. a characteristic language of a particular group (as among thieves)

vernal [ˈvə:nl] – adj. suggestive of youth; vigorous and fresh

versatile [ˈvə:sətail] – adj. having great diversity or variety: his vast and versatile erudition

versed [və:st] – adj. thoroughly acquainted through study or experience

vertebrate [ˈvə:tibrit] – adj. having a backbone or spinal column

vertex [ˈvə:teks] – n. the point of intersection of lines or the point opposite the base of a figure

vertiginous [və:ˈtidʒinəs] – adj. having or causing a whirling sensation; liable to falling: a vertiginous climb up the face of the cliff

vertigo [ˈvə:tigəu] – n. a reeling sensation; a feeling that you are about to fall

verve [və:v] – n. an energetic style

vestige [ˈvestidʒ] – n. an indication that something has been present

vestigial  – adj. not fully developed in mature animals

vestment [ˈvestmənt] – n. gown (especially ceremonial garments) worn by the clergy

vesture [ˈvestʃə] – n. something that covers or cloaks like a garment: fields in a vesture of green

veterinary [ˈvətərinəri] – adj. of or relating to veterinarians or veterinary medicine

veto [ˈvi:təu] – n. a vote that blocks a decision

vexation [vekˈseiʃən] – n. anger produced by some annoying irritation

viaduct [ˈvaiədʌkt] – n. bridge consisting of a series of arches supported by piers used to carry a road (or railroad) over a valley

viand [ˈvaiənd] – n. a choice or delicious dish

viands [ˈvaiəndz] – n. a stock or supply of foods

vibrancy [ˈvaibrənsi] – n. having the character of a loud deep sound; the quality of being resonant

vibrant [ˈvaibrənt] – adj. vigorous and animated: a vibrant group that challenged the system

vicarious [viˈkeəriəs] – adj. experienced at secondhand: read about mountain climbing and felt vicarious excitement

vicinity [viˈsiniti] – n. a surrounding or nearby region: the plane crashed in the vicinity of Asheville

vicissitude [viˈsisitju:d] – n. a variation in circumstances or fortune at different times in your life or in the development of something: the project was subject to the usual vicissitudes of exploratory research

victimize  – v. punish unjustly

victuals [ˈvitlz] – n. a stock or supply of foods

vie [vai] – v. compete for something; engage in a contest; measure oneself against others

vigil  – n. a period of sleeplessness

vigilance [ˈvidʒələns] – n. the process of paying close and continuous attention: vigilance is especially susceptible to fatigue

vigilant [ˈvidʒilənt] – adj. carefully observant or attentive; on the lookout for possible danger: the vigilant eye of the town watch

vigilante  – n. member of a vigilance committee

vignette [viˈnjet] – n. a brief literary description

vigor [ˈvigə] – n. forceful exertion

vile [vail] – adj. morally reprehensible: the vile development of slavery appalled them

vilify [ˈvilifai] – v. spread negative information about

villainous [ˈvilənəs] – adj. extremely wicked: a villainous plot

villein [ˈvilin] – n. (Middle Ages) a person who is bound to the land and owned by the feudal lord

vim [vim] – n. an imaginative lively style (especially style of writing)

vindicate [ˈvindikeit] – v. show to be right by providing justification or proof: vindicate a claim

vindication [.vindiˈkeiʃən] – n. the justification for some act or belief

vindictive [vinˈdikətiv] – adj. disposed to seek revenge or intended for revenge: more vindictive than jealous love

vinegary [ˈvinigəri] – adj. having a sour disposition; ill-tempered

vintner [ˈvintnə] – n. someone who sells wine

viper [ˈvaipə] – n. venomous Old World snakes characterized by hollow venom-conducting fangs in the upper jaw

virago [viˈrɑ:gəu] – n. a noisy or scolding or domineering woman

virile [ˈvirail, ˈvairəl] – adj. characterized by energy and vigor: a virile and ever stronger free society

virility [viˈriliti] – n. the masculine property of being capable of copulation and procreation

virtu [ˈvə:tu] – n. love of or taste for fine objects of art

virtuosity [.və:tjuˈɔsiti] – n. technical skill or fluency or style exhibited by a virtuoso

virtuoso [.və:tʃuˈəusəu] – n. someone who is dazzlingly skilled in any field

virtuous [ˈvə:tjuəs] – adj. morally excellent

virulent [ˈvirulənt] – adj. extremely poisonous or injurious; producing venom: a virulent insect bite

visage [ˈvizidʒ] – n. the human face (`kisser’ and `smiler’ and `mug’ are informal terms for `face’ and `phiz’ is British)

visceral  – adj. obtained through intuition rather than from reasoning or observation

viscid [ˈvisid] – adj. having the sticky properties of an adhesive

viscosity [visˈkɔsiti] – n. resistance of a liquid to shear forces (and hence to flow)

viscous [ˈviskəs] – adj. having a relatively high resistance to flow

vise  – n. a holding device attached to a workbench; has two jaws to hold workpiece firmly in place

visionary [ˈviʒənəri, -neri] – n. a person given to fanciful speculations and enthusiasms with little regard for what is actually possible

vista [ˈvistə] – n. the visual percept of a region

vitality [vaiˈtæliti] – n. an energetic style

vitiate [ˈviʃieit] – v. corrupt morally or by intemperance or sensuality

vitreous [ˈvitriəs] – adj. relating to or resembling or derived from or containing glass: vitreous rocks

vitrify  – v. change into glass or a glass-like substance by applying heat

vitriolic [.vitriˈɔlik] – adj. harsh or corrosive in tone: a vitriolic critique

vituperate [viˈtju:pəreit, vaiˈtu:-] – v. spread negative information about

vituperative [viˈtjupərətiv, vaiˈtu:-] – adj. marked by harshly abusive criticism: her vituperative railing

vivacious [viˈveiʃəs] – adj. vigorous and animated: a charming and vivacious hostess

vivify [ˈvivifai] – v. give new life or energy to

vivisection [viviˈsekʃən] – n. the act of operating on living animals (especially in scientific research)

vixen [ˈviksən] – n. a malicious woman with a fierce temper

vocalist [ˈvəukəlist] – n. a person who sings

vociferate [vəˈsifəreit, vəu-] – v. utter in a very loud voice: They vociferated their demands

vociferous [vəˈsifərəs, vəu-] – adj. conspicuously and offensively loud; given to vehement outcry: a vociferous mob

vogue [vəug] – n. the popular taste at a given time: leather is the latest vogue

volatile [ˈvɔlətail] – adj. evaporating readily at normal temperatures and pressures: volatile oils

volition [vəˈliʃən] – n. the capability of conscious choice and decision and intention: the exercise of their volition we construe as revolt

volley [ˈvɔli] – v. hit before it touches the ground: volley the tennis ball

volubility  – n. the quality of being facile in speech and writing

voluble [ˈvɔljubl] – adj. marked by a ready flow of speech: she is an extremely voluble young woman who engages in soliloquies not conversations

voluminous [vəˈlu:minəs, vəˈlju:-] – adj. marked by repeated turns and bends

voluptuary [vəˈlʌptʃuəri] – n. a person addicted to luxury and pleasures of the senses

voluptuous [vəˈlʌptʃuəs] – adj. having strong sexual appeal: a voluptuous woman

vomit [ˈvɔmit] – n. the reflex act of ejecting the contents of the stomach through the mouth

voodoo  – n. a charm superstitiously believed to embody magical powers

voracious [vəˈreiʃəs, vɔ-] – adj. excessively greedy and grasping: paying taxes to voracious governments

voracity [vəˈræsiti, vɔ-] – n. excessive desire to eat

vortex [ˈvɔ:teks] – n. the shape of something rotating rapidly

votary [ˈvəutəri] – n. one bound by vows to a religion or life of worship or service

vouch [vaʊtʃ] – v. give personal assurance; guarantee: Will he vouch for me?

vouchsafe [vautʃˈseif] – v. grant in a condescending manner

voyeur [vwɑ:ˈjə:] – n. a viewer who enjoys seeing the sex acts or sex organs of others

vulgar [ˈvʌlgə] – adj. lacking refinement or cultivation or taste: appealing to the vulgar taste for violence

vulgarity [vʌlˈgæriti] – n. the quality of lacking taste and refinement

vulpine [ˈvʌlpain] – adj. resembling or characteristic of a fox: vulpine cunning

vulture  – n. any of various large diurnal birds of prey having naked heads and weak claws and feeding chiefly on carrion

waddle [ˈwɔdəl] – n. walking with short steps and the weight tilting from one foot to the other: ducks walk with a waddle

wade [weid] – n. English tennis player who won many women’s singles titles (born in 1945)

waffle [ˈwɑfəl, ˈwɔ-] – v. pause or hold back in uncertainty or unwillingness

waft [wɑ:ft, wɔft] – v. be driven or carried along, as by the air: Sounds wafted into the room

waggish [ˈwægiʃ] – adj. witty or joking: Muskrat Castle as the house has been facetiously named by some waggish officer

waif [weif] – n. a homeless child especially one forsaken or orphaned

wail [weil] – v. emit long loud cries: wail in self-pity

wainscot [ˈweinskət, -skɔt] – n. panel forming the lower part of an interior wall when it is finished differently from the rest of the wall

waive [weiv] – v. do without or cease to hold or adhere to

wallop [ˈwɔləp, ˈwɑ:ləp] – n. a forceful consequence; a strong effect: the book packs a wallop

wallow [ˈwɔləu, ˈwa:-] – v. devote oneself entirely to something; indulge in to an immoderate degree, usually with pleasure: wallow in your sorrows

walrus [ˈwɔ:lrəs] – n. either of two large northern marine mammals having ivory tusks and tough hide over thick blubber

wan [wɔn, wɑ:n] – adj. (of light) lacking in intensity or brightness; dim or feeble: the pale (or wan) stars

wanderlust [ˈwɔndəlʌst, ˈwɑ:ndər-] – n. very strong or irresistible impulse to travel

wane [wein] – v. grow smaller: Interest in the project waned

wangle [ˈwæŋgəl] – v. achieve something by means of trickery or devious methods

wanton [ˈwɔntən, ˈwɑ:n-] – v. waste time; spend one’s time idly or inefficiently

warble  – v. sing or play with trills, alternating with the half note above or below

warden [ˈwɔ:dn] – n. the chief official in charge of a prison

warfare [ˈwɔ:fɛə] – n. the waging of armed conflict against an enemy

warmonger [ˈwɔ:.mʌŋgə] – n. a person who advocates war or warlike policies

warp [wɔ:p] – n. a shape distorted by twisting or folding

warren  – n. United States writer and poet (1905-1989)

washout [ˈwɔʃ-aut] – n. the channel or break produced by erosion of relatively soft soil by water: it was several days after the storm before they could repair the washout and open the road

waspish [ˈwɔspiʃ] – adj. very irritable: witty and waspish about his colleagues

wastrel [ˈweistrəl] – n. someone who dissipates resources self-indulgently

watershed [ˈwɔ:təʃed] – n. a ridge of land that separates two adjacent river systems

waver [ˈweivə] – v. pause or hold back in uncertainty or unwillingness

wavy [ˈweivi] – adj. uneven by virtue of having wrinkles or waves

waylay  – v. wait in hiding to attack

wean [wi:n] – v. gradually deprive (infants and young mammals) of mother’s milk: she weaned her baby when he was 3 months old and started him on powdered milk

weasel [ˈwi:zəl] – n. a person who is regarded as treacherous or sneaky

welkin [ˈwelkin] – n. the apparent surface of the imaginary sphere on which celestial bodies appear to be projected

well-bred [welˈbred] – adj. of good upbringing

welsh [welʃ] – n. a native or resident of Wales

welt  – n. a raised mark on the skin (as produced by the blow of a whip); characteristic of many allergic reactions

welter [ˈweltə] – v. toss, roll, or rise and fall in an uncontrolled way: The shipwrecked survivors weltered in the sea for hours

whacked [wækt] – adj. (British informal) exhausted or worn out

wheedle [ˈwi:dl] – v. influence or urge by gentle urging, caressing, or flattering

whelm [(h)welm] – v. overcome, as with emotions or perceptual stimuli

whelp  – n. young of any of various canines such as a dog or wolf

wherry [ˈweri] – n. sailing barge used especially in East Anglia

whet [wet] – v. make keen or more acute: whet my appetite

whiff  – v. perceive by inhaling through the nose

whim [hwim] – n. a sudden desire

whimper [ˈwimpə] – n. a complaint uttered in a plaintive whining way

whimsical [ˈwimzikəl] – adj. determined by chance or impulse or whim rather than by necessity or reason: the victim of whimsical persecutions

whimsy [ˈhwimzi] – n. an odd or fanciful or capricious idea: he had a whimsy about flying to the moon

whine [wain] – v. talk in a tearful manner

whinny  – n. the characteristic sounds made by a horse

whit [wit] – n. a tiny or scarcely detectable amount

whittle [ˈ(h)witl] – n. English aeronautical engineer who invented the jet aircraft engine (1907-1996)

wholesale [ˈhəulseil] – adv. on a large scale without careful discrimination: I buy food wholesale

wholesome [ˈhəulsəm] – adj. conducive to or characteristic of physical or moral well-being: wholesome attitude

whorl [wə:l, wɔ:rl] – n. a round shape formed by a series of concentric circles (as formed by leaves or flower petals)

wield [wi:ld] – v. have and exercise: wield power and authority

wig [wig] – n. hairpiece covering the head and made of real or synthetic hair

wiggle [ˈwigl] – n. the act of wiggling

wile [wail] – n. the use of tricks to deceive someone (usually to extract money from them)

wiliness [ˈwailinis] – n. shrewdness as demonstrated by being skilled in deception

willful [ˈwilfəl] – adj. done by design: willful disobedience

willow [ˈwiləu] – n. any of numerous deciduous trees and shrubs of the genus Salix

willowy [ˈwiləui] – adj. slender and graceful

wilt [wilt] – n. any plant disease characterized by drooping and shriveling; usually caused by parasites attacking the roots

wily [ˈwaili] – adj. marked by skill in deception: a wily old attorney

wimple [ˈwimpəl] – n. headdress of cloth; worn over the head and around the neck and ears by medieval women

wince [wins] – n. the facial expression of sudden pain

windbag  – n. a boring person who talks a great deal about uninteresting topics

windfall  – n. fruit that has fallen from the tree

winding [ˈwaindiŋ] – adj. marked by repeated turns and bends: winding roads are full of surprises

windy [ˈwindi] – adj. not practical or realizable; speculative

winnow [ˈwinəu] – v. separate the chaff from by using air currents: She stood there winnowing chaff all day in the field

winsome [ˈwinsəm] – adj. charming in a childlike or naive way

wisp  – n. a small tuft or lock: wisps of hair

 

GRE Vocabulary Words