Common Vocabulary Words


Below are the list of the Common Vocabulary Words identified by VocabularyShop and grouped together in the Select function.  They are the mostly used words in people’s daily life. When choosing Common word group in the Select function, these Common Vocabulary Words will be displayed in the Source List for you to choose for your study.

You can download this list of Common Vocabulary Words at the bottom of this page and use it to plan your study and set up your priority and strategy.  For example, you can put all words you already know into the Known List, leaving only the new words you need to learn in the Source List.  You can then set up your goal and figure out how much work is needed to reach your goal and make your plan accordingly.

In the Common Vocabulary Words listed below, only the primary or the most popular definition is provided for each word.  You will see the complete dictionary definition and plenty of useful information of each word when you access the Dictionary Dialog in VocabularyShop.

 

 

abandon [əˈbændən] – v. forsake, leave behind: We abandoned the old car in the empty parking lot

ability [əˈbiliti] – n. the quality of being able to perform; a quality that permits or facilitates achievement or accomplishment

able [ˈeibl] – adj. (usually followed by `to’) having the necessary means or skill or know-how or authority to do something: able to swim

abnormal [æbˈnɔ:məl] – adj. not normal; not typical or usual or regular or conforming to a norm: abnormal powers of concentration

abolish [əˈbɔliʃ] – v. do away with: Slavery was abolished in the mid-19th century in America and in Russia

abolition [æbəˈliʃən] – n. the act of abolishing a system or practice or institution (especially abolishing slavery): the abolition of capital punishment

abortion [əˈbɔ:ʃən] – n. termination of pregnancy

about [əˈbaut] – adv. (of quantities) imprecise but fairly close to correct: in just about a minute

above [əˈbʌv] – adv. at an earlier place: see above

abroad [əˈbrɔ:d] – adv. to or in a foreign country: they had never travelled abroad

abruptly [əˈbrʌptli] – adv. quickly and without warning

absence [ˈæbsns] – n. failure to be present

absent [ˈæbsənt] – adj. not being in a specified place

absolute [ˈæbsəlu:t] – adj. perfect or complete or pure: absolute loyalty

absolutely [ˈæbsəlu:tli] – adv. completely and without qualification; used informally as intensifiers: an absolutely magnificent painting

absorb [əbˈsɔ:b] – v. become imbued: The liquids, light, and gases absorb

absorption [əbˈsɔ:pʃən] – n. (chemistry) a process in which one substance permeates another; a fluid permeates or is dissolved by a liquid or solid

abstract [ˈæbstrækt] – v. make off with belongings of others

absurd [əbˈsə:d] – adj. inconsistent with reason or logic or common sense: the absurd predicament of seeming to argue that virtue is highly desirable but intensely unpleasant

abuse [əˈbju:s,əˈbju:z] – v. treat badly: This boss abuses his workers

academic [.ækəˈdemik] – adj. hypothetical or theoretical and not expected to produce an immediate or practical result: an academic discussion

academy [əˈkædəmi] – n. a secondary school (usually private)

accelerate [ækˈseləreit] – v. move faster: The car accelerated

accent [ˈæksənt] – n. distinctive manner of oral expression: he couldn’t suppress his contemptuous accent

accept [əkˈsept] – v. consider or hold as true: I cannot accept the dogma of this church

acceptable [əkˈseptəbl] – adj. judged to be in conformity with approved usage: acceptable English usage

acceptance [əkˈseptəns] – n. the act of accepting with approval; favorable reception: the proposal found wide acceptance

access [ˈækses] – n. the right to enter

accessible [əkˈsesəbl] – adj. capable of being reached: a town accessible by rail

accident [ˈæksidənt] – n. an unfortunate mishap; especially one causing damage or injury

accommodate [əˈkɔmədeit] – v. be agreeable or acceptable to

accommodation [ə.kɔməˈdeiʃn] – n. making or becoming suitable; adjusting to circumstances

accompany [əˈkʌmpəni] – v. be present or associated with an event or entity

accomplish [əˈkɔmpliʃ] – v. put in effect

accord [əˈkɔ:d] – n. harmony of people’s opinions or actions or characters

accordance [əˈkɔ:dəns] – n. concurrence of opinion

accordingly [əˈkɔ:diŋli] – adv. (sentence connectors) because of the reason given: continued to have severe headaches and accordingly returned to the doctor

account [əˈkaunt] – n. a record or narrative description of past events: he gave an inaccurate account of the plot to kill the president

accountability  – n. responsibility to someone or for some activity

accountant [əˈkauntənt] – n. someone who maintains and audits business accounts

accounting [əˈkauntiŋ] – n. a convincing explanation that reveals basic causes: he was unable to give a clear accounting for his actions

accumulate [əˈkju:mjuleit] – v. get or gather together

accumulation [əkju:mjʊˈleiʃ(ə)n] – n. an increase by natural growth or addition

accuracy [ˈækjurəsi] – n. the quality of being near to the true value: he was beginning to doubt the accuracy of his compass

accurate [ˈækjurit] – adj. (of ideas, images, representations, expressions) characterized by perfect conformity to fact or truth ; strictly correct

accurately [ˈækjuritli] – adv. with few mistakes: he works very accurately

accusation [ækju(:)ˈzeiʃən] – n. a formal charge of wrongdoing brought against a person; the act of imputing blame or guilt

accuse [əˈkju:z] – v. blame for, make a claim of wrongdoing or misbehavior against

accused  – n. a defendant in a criminal proceeding

achieve [əˈtʃi:v] – v. to gain with effort: she achieved her goal despite setbacks

achievement [əˈtʃi:vmənt] – n. the action of accomplishing something

acid [ˈæsid] – adj. harsh or corrosive in tone: a barrage of acid comments

acknowledge [əkˈnɔlidʒ] – v. declare to be true or admit the existence or reality or truth of: She acknowledged that she might have forgotten

acquaintance [əˈkweintəns] – n. personal knowledge or information about someone or something

acquire [əˈkwaiə] – v. come into the possession of something concrete or abstract: They acquired a new pet

acquisition [.ækwiˈziʃən] – n. the act of contracting or assuming or acquiring possession of something: the acquisition of wealth

acre [ˈeikə] – n. a unit of area (4840 square yards) used in English-speaking countries

across [əˈkrɔ:s] – adv. to the opposite side: the football field was 300 feet across

act [ækt] – v. behave in a certain manner; show a certain behavior; conduct or comport oneself: You should act like an adult

action [ˈækʃən] – n. something done (usually as opposed to something said): there were stories of murders and other unnatural actions

activate [ˈæktiveit] – v. put in motion or move to act

active [ˈæktiv] – adj. tending to become more severe or wider in scope: active tuberculosis

actively [ˈæktivli] – adv. in an active manner: he participated actively in the war

activist [ˈæktivist] – n. a militant reformer

activity [ækˈtiviti] – n. any specific behavior: they avoided all recreational activity

actor [ˈæktə] – n. a theatrical performer

actress [ˈæktris] – n. a female actor

actual [ˈæktjuəl] – adj. taking place in reality; not pretended or imitated: we saw the actual wedding on television

actually [ˈæktʃuəli] – adv. used to imply that one would expect the fact to be the opposite of that stated; surprisingly: you may actually be doing the right thing by walking out

acute [əˈkju:t] – adj. having or experiencing a rapid onset and short but severe course: acute appendicitis

adapt [əˈdæpt] – v. make fit for, or change to suit a new purpose

adaptation [.ædæpˈteiʃən] – n. a written work (as a novel) that has been recast in a new form: the play is an adaptation of a short novel

add [æd] – v. state or say further

addition [əˈdiʃən] – n. a component that is added to something to improve it: the addition of a bathroom was a major improvement

additional [əˈdiʃənl] – adj. further or added: called for additional troops

address [əˈdres] – v. speak to: He addressed the crowd outside the window

adequate [ˈædikwit] – adj. having the requisite qualities or resources to meet a task: she had adequate training

adequately [ˈædikwitli] – adv. in an adequate manner or to an adequate degree: he was adequately prepared

adjacent [əˈdʒeisnt] – adj. nearest in space or position; immediately adjoining without intervening space: had adjacent rooms

adjective [ˈædʒiktiv] – n. a word that expresses an attribute of something

adjust [əˈdʒʌst] – v. alter or regulate so as to achieve accuracy or conform to a standard

adjustment [əˈdʒʌstmənt] – n. the act of making something different (as e.g. the size of a garment)

administer [ədˈministə] – v. perform (a church sacrament) ritually: administer the last unction

administration [əd.miniˈstreiʃən] – n. a method of tending to or managing the affairs of a some group of people (especially the group’s business affairs)

administrative [ədˈministrətiv] – adj. of or relating to or responsible for administration

administrator [ədˈministreitə] – n. someone who administers a business

admiration [.ædməˈreiʃən] – n. a feeling of delighted approval and liking

admire [ədˈmaiə] – v. look at with admiration

admission [ədˈmiʃən] – n. the act of admitting someone to enter: the surgery was performed on his second admission to the clinic

admit [ədˈmit] – v. allow to enter; grant entry to: We cannot admit non-members into our club building

adopt [əˈdɔpt] – v. choose and follow; as of theories, ideas, policies, strategies or plans

adoption [əˈdɔpʃən] – n. the act of accepting with approval; favorable reception: its adoption by society

adult [ˈædʌlt] – n. a fully developed person from maturity onward

advance [ədˈvɑ:ns] – v. move forward, also in the metaphorical sense

advanced [ədˈvɑ:nst] – adj. farther along in physical or mental development: the child’s skeletal age was classified as `advanced’

advantage [ədˈvɑ:ntidʒ] – n. the quality of having a superior or more favorable position: the experience gave him the advantage over me

adventure [ədˈventʃə] – v. take a risk in the hope of a favorable outcome

adverse [ˈædvə:s] – adj. contrary to your interests or welfare: adverse circumstances

advertise [ˈædvətaiz] – v. call attention to: Please don’t advertise the fact that he has AIDS

advertisement [ədˈvə:tismənt] – n. a public promotion of some product or service

advertising [ˈædvətaiziŋ] – n. a public promotion of some product or service

advice [ədˈvais] – n. a proposal for an appropriate course of action

advise [ədˈvaiz] – v. inform (somebody) of something: I advised him that the rent was due

adviser [ədˈvaizə] – n. an expert who gives advice: an adviser helped students select their courses

advisory [ədˈvaizəri] – n. an announcement that usually advises or warns the public of some threat: a frost advisory

advocate [ˈædvəkeit,ˈædvəkit] – n. a person who pleads for a cause or propounds an idea

aesthetic [i:sˈθetik] – adj. concerning or characterized by an appreciation of beauty or good taste: the aesthetic faculties

affair [əˈfɛə] – n. a vaguely specified concern: it is none of your affair

affect [əˈfekt] – v. have an effect upon: Will the new rules affect me?

affection [əˈfekʃən] – n. a positive feeling of liking: he had trouble expressing the affection he felt

affinity [əˈfiniti] – n. (immunology) the attraction between an antigen and an antibody

afford [əˈfɔ:d] – v. be able to spare or give up: I can’t afford to spend two hours with this person

afraid [əˈfreid] – adj. filled with fear or apprehension: afraid even to turn his head

afternoon [ˈɑ:ftəˈnu:n] – n. the part of the day between noon and evening: he spent a quiet afternoon in the park

afterwards [ˈa:ftəwədz] – adv. happening at a time subsequent to a reference time

again [əˈgein,əˈgen] – adv. anew: she tried again

age [eidʒ] – n. how long something has existed: it was replaced because of its age

agency [ˈeidʒənsi] – n. an administrative unit of government

agenda [əˈdʒendə] – n. a temporally organized plan for matters to be attended to

agent [ˈeidʒənt] – n. an active and efficient cause; capable of producing a certain effect: their research uncovered new disease agents

aggregate [ˈægrigeit,ˈægrigit] – n. the whole amount

aggression [əˈgreʃən] – n. a feeling of hostility that arouses thoughts of attack

aggressive [əˈgresiv] – adj. having or showing determination and energetic pursuit of your ends: an aggressive businessman

ago [əˈgəu] – adj. gone by; or in the past: two years ago

agony [ˈægəni] – n. intense feelings of suffering; acute mental or physical pain: an agony of doubt

agree [əˈgri:] – v. be compatible, similar or consistent; coincide in their characteristics: The two stories don’t agree in many details

agreed [əˈgri:d] – adj. united by being of the same opinion: agreed in their distrust of authority

agreement [əˈgri:mənt] – n. the statement (oral or written) of an exchange of promises: they had an agreement that they would not interfere in each other’s business

agricultural [.ægriˈkʌltʃərəl] – adj. relating to rural matters: an agrarian (or agricultural) society

agriculture [ˈægrikʌltʃə] – n. a large-scale farming enterprise

ahead [əˈhed] – adv. at or in the front: I see the lights of a town ahead

aid [eid] – n. a resource: visual aids in teaching

aids [eidz] – n. a serious (often fatal) disease of the immune system transmitted through blood products especially by sexual contact or contaminated needles

aim [eim] – v. point or cause to go (blows, weapons, or objects such as photographic equipment) towards: Please don’t aim at your little brother!

air [ɛə] – n. a mixture of gases (especially oxygen) required for breathing; the stuff that the wind consists of: air pollution

aircraft [ˈɛəkrɑ:ft] – n. a vehicle that can fly

airline [ˈɛəlain] – n. a hose that carries air under pressure

airport [ˈɛəpɔ:t] – n. an airfield equipped with control tower and hangars as well as accommodations for passengers and cargo

alarm [əˈlɑ:m] – n. fear resulting from the awareness of danger

album [ˈælbəm] – n. a book of blank pages with pockets or envelopes; for organizing photographs or stamp collections etc

alcohol [ˈælkəhɔl] – n. any of a series of volatile hydroxyl compounds that are made from hydrocarbons by distillation

alert [əˈlə:t] – n. condition of heightened watchfulness or preparation for action: bombers were put on alert during the crisis

alien [ˈeiljən] – n. a person who comes from a foreign country; someone who does not owe allegiance to your country

alike [əˈlaik] – adv. equally: parents and teachers alike demanded reforms

alive [əˈlaiv] – adj. possessing life: the happiest person alive

all [ɔ:l] – adj. quantifier; used with either mass or count nouns to indicate the whole number or amount of or every one of a class: we sat up all night

allegation [.æliˈgeiʃən] – n. (law) a formal accusation against somebody (often in a court of law): an allegation of malpractice

allege [əˈledʒ] – v. report or maintain: He alleged that he was the victim of a crime

alleged  – adj. declared but not proved: alleged abuses of housing benefits

allegedly  – adv. according to what has been alleged: he was on trial for allegedly murdering his wife

alliance [əˈlaiəns] – n. a connection based on kinship or marriage or common interest: the shifting alliances within a large family

allied [ˈælaid] – adj. related by common characteristics or ancestry: allied species

allocate [ˈæləkeit] – v. distribute according to a plan or set apart for a special purpose

allocation [.æləˈkeiʃən] – n. a share set aside for a specific purpose

allow [əˈlau] – v. make it possible through a specific action or lack of action for something to happen: This sealed door won’t allow the water come into the basement

allowance [əˈlauəns] – n. a sum granted as reimbursement for expenses

ally [əˈlai] – n. a friendly nation

almost [ˈɔ:lməust] – adv. (of actions or states) slightly short of or not quite accomplished; all but: the baby was almost asleep when the alarm sounded

alone [əˈləun] – adj. isolated from others: could be alone in a crowded room

along [əˈlɔŋ] – adv. with a forward motion: we drove along admiring the view

aloud [əˈlaud] – adv. using the voice; not silently: please read the passage aloud

already [ɔ:lˈredi] – adv. prior to a specified or implied time: she has already graduated

alright  – adv. without doubt (used to reinforce an assertion)

also [ˈɔ:lsəu] – adv. in addition

altar [ˈɔ:ltə] – n. the table in Christian churches where communion is given

alter [ˈɔ:ltə] – v. cause to change; make different; cause a transformation: The advent of the automobile may have altered the growth pattern of the city

alteration [.ɔ:ltəˈreiʃən] – n. an event that occurs when something passes from one state or phase to another

alternative [ɔ:lˈtə:nətiv] – adj. serving or used in place of another: an alternative plan

alternatively  – adv. in place of, or as an alternative to: alternatively we could buy a used car

altogether [.ɔ:ltəˈgeðə] – adv. to a complete degree or to the full or entire extent (`whole’ is often used informally for `wholly’): it was not altogether her fault

aluminium  – n. a silvery ductile metallic element found primarily in bauxite

always [ˈɔ:lweiz] – adv. at all times; all the time and on every occasion: I will always be there to help you

amateur [ˈæmətə:] – n. someone who pursues a study or sport as a pastime

amazing [əˈmeiziŋ] – adj. surprising greatly: she does an amazing amount of work

ambassador [æmˈbæsədə] – n. a diplomat of the highest rank; accredited as representative from one country to another

ambiguity [.æmbiˈgju:iti] – n. an expression whose meaning cannot be determined from its context

ambiguous [æmˈbigjuəs] – adj. open to two or more interpretations; or of uncertain nature or significance; or (often) intended to mislead: the polling had a complex and equivocal (or ambiguous) message for potential female candidates

ambition [æmˈbiʃən] – n. a cherished desire: his ambition is to own his own business

ambitious [æmˈbiʃəs] – adj. having a strong desire for success or achievement

ambulance [ˈæmbjuləns] – n. a vehicle that takes people to and from hospitals

amend [əˈmend] – v. to make better

amendment [əˈmendmənt] – n. a statement that is added to or revises or improves a proposal or document (a bill or constitution etc.)

amount [əˈmaunt] – n. a quantity of money: the amount he had in cash was insufficient

amp  – n. the basic unit of electric current adopted under the Systeme International d’Unites: a typical household circuit carries 15 to 50 amps

ample [ˈæmpl] – adj. more than enough in size or scope or capacity: had ample food for the party

amuse [əˈmju:z] – v. occupy in an agreeable, entertaining or pleasant fashion: The play amused the ladies

amusement [əˈmju:zmənt] – n. a feeling of delight at being entertained

analogy [əˈnælədʒi] – n. an inference that if things agree in some respects they probably agree in others

analyse  – v. break down into components or essential features

analysis [əˈnæləsis] – n. an investigation of the component parts of a whole and their relations in making up the whole

analyst [ˈænəlist] – n. someone who is skilled at analyzing data

ancestor [ˈænsistə] – n. someone from whom you are descended (but usually more remote than a grandparent)

ancient [ˈeinʃənt] – n. a very old person

angel [ˈeindʒəl] – n. spiritual being attendant upon God

anger [ˈæŋgə] – n. a strong emotion; a feeling that is oriented toward some real or supposed grievance

angle [ˈæŋgl] – v. to incline or bend from a vertical position

angrily  – adv. with anger: he angrily denied the accusation

angry [ˈæŋgri] – adj. (of the elements) as if showing violent anger: angry clouds on the horizon

animal [ˈæniməl] – n. a living organism characterized by voluntary movement

ankle [ˈæŋkl] – n. a gliding joint between the distal ends of the tibia and fibula and the proximal end of the talus

anniversary [.æniˈvə:səri] – n. the date on which an event occurred in some previous year (or the celebration of it)

announce [əˈnauns] – v. give the names of: He announced the winners of the spelling bee

announcement [əˈnaunsmənt] – n. a formal public statement: the government made an announcement about changes in the drug war

annoy [əˈnɔi] – v. cause annoyance in; disturb, especially by minor irritations

annual [ˈænjuəl] – n. (botany) a plant that completes its entire life cycle within the space of a year

annually [ˈænjuəli] – adv. without missing a year: they travel to China annually

anonymous [əˈnɔniməs] – adj. having no known name or identity or known source: anonymous authors

answer [ˈɑ:nsə] – v. react verbally: She didn’t want to answer

ant [ænt] – n. social insect living in organized colonies; characteristically the males and fertile queen have wings during breeding season; wingless sterile females are the workers

antibody [ˈænti.bɔdi] – n. any of a large variety of proteins normally present in the body or produced in response to an antigen which it neutralizes, thus producing an immune response

anticipate [ænˈtisipeit] – v. regard something as probable or likely

anticipation [æn.tisiˈpeiʃən] – n. an expectation

anxiety [æŋˈzaiəti] – n. a vague unpleasant emotion that is experienced in anticipation of some (usually ill-defined) misfortune

anxious [ˈæŋkʃəs] – adj. eagerly desirous: anxious to see the new show at the museum

anyway [ˈeniwei] – adv. used to indicate that a statement explains or supports a previous statement: I don’t know what happened to it; anyway, it’s gone

anywhere [ˈeniwɛə] – adv. at or in or to any place: you can find this food anywhere

apart [əˈpɑ:t] – adv. separated or at a distance in place or position or time: These towns are many miles apart

apartment [əˈpɑ:tmənt] – n. a suite of rooms usually on one floor of an apartment house

apologise  – v. defend, explain, clear away, or make excuses for by reasoning

apology [əˈpɔlədʒi] – n. an expression of regret at having caused trouble for someone: he wrote a letter of apology to the hostess

apparatus [.æpəˈreitəs] – n. equipment designed to serve a specific function

apparent [əˈpærənt] – adj. clearly revealed to the mind or the senses or judgment: the effects of the drought are apparent to anyone who sees the parched fields

apparently [əˈpærəntli] – adv. from appearances alone: irrigation often produces bumper crops from apparently desert land

appeal [əˈpi:l] – v. take a court case to a higher court for review: He was found guilty but appealed immediately

appear [əˈpiə] – v. give a certain impression or have a certain outward aspect: This appears to be a very difficult problem

appearance [əˈpiərəns] – n. outward or visible aspect of a person or thing

appendix [əˈpendiks] – n. a vestigial process that extends from the lower end of the cecum and that resembles a small pouch

appetite [ˈæpitait] – n. a feeling of craving something: an appetite for life

apple [ˈæpl] – n. fruit with red or yellow or green skin and sweet to tart crisp whitish flesh

applicable [ˈæplikəbl] – adj. capable of being applied; having relevance: gave applicable examples to support her argument

applicant [ˈæplikənt] – n. a person who requests or seeks something such as assistance or employment or admission

application [.æpliˈkeiʃən] – n. the act of bringing something to bear; using it for a particular purpose: he advocated the application of statistics to the problem

applied [əˈplaid] – adj. concerned with concrete problems or data rather than with fundamental principles: applied physics

apply [əˈplai] – v. put into service; make work or employ for a particular purpose or for its inherent or natural purpose: I apply this rule to get good results

appoint [əˈpɔint] – v. create and charge with a task or function

appointment [əˈpɔintmənt] – n. the act of putting a person into a non-elective position: the appointment had to be approved by the whole committee

appraisal [əˈpreizəl] – n. the classification of someone or something with respect to its worth

appreciate [əˈpri:ʃieit] – v. recognize with gratitude; be grateful for

appreciation [ə.pri:ʃiˈeiʃən] – n. understanding of the nature or meaning or quality or magnitude of something

approach [əˈprəutʃ] – n. ideas or actions intended to deal with a problem or situation: his approach to every problem is to draw up a list of pros and cons

appropriately  – adv. in an appropriate manner: he was appropriately dressed

approval [əˈpru:vəl] – n. a feeling of liking something or someone good: although she fussed at them, she secretly viewed all her children with approval

approve [əˈpru:v] – v. give sanction to: I approve of his educational policies

approved  – adj. established by authority; given authoritative approval: a list of approved candidates

approximately [əˈprɔksimitli] – adv. (of quantities) imprecise but fairly close to correct: lasted approximately an hour

aquarium [əˈkweəriəm] – n. a tank or pool or bowl filled with water for keeping live fish and underwater animals

arbitrary [ˈɑ:bitrəri] – adj. based on or subject to individual discretion or preference or sometimes impulse or caprice: an arbitrary decision

arc [ɑ:k] – n. electrical conduction through a gas in an applied electric field

arch [ɑ:tʃ] – n. a curved shape in the vertical plane that spans an opening

archaeological  – adj. related to or dealing with or devoted to archaeology: an archaeological dig

archbishop [ˈa:tʃˈbiʃəp] – n. a bishop of highest rank

architect [ˈɑ:kitekt] – n. someone who creates plans to be used in making something (such as buildings)

architectural [.ɑ:kiˈtektʃərəl] – adj. of or pertaining to the art and science of architecture: architectural history

architecture [ˈɑ:kitektʃə] – n. the discipline dealing with the principles of design and construction and ornamentation of fine buildings: architecture and eloquence are mixed arts whose end is sometimes beauty and sometimes use

archive  – n. a depository containing historical records and documents

area [ˈɛəriə] – n. a subject of study: it was his area of specialization

arena [əˈri:nə] – n. a particular environment or walk of life

argue [ˈɑ:gju:] – v. have an argument about something

argument [ˈɑ:gjumənt] – n. a fact or assertion offered as evidence that something is true: it was a strong argument that his hypothesis was true

arise [əˈraiz] – v. come into existence; take on form or shape

arm [ɑ:m] – n. any instrument or instrumentality used in fighting or hunting

armchair [ˈɑ:m.tʃɛə] – n. chair with a support on each side for arms

armed  – adj. having arms or arms as specified; used especially in combination: the many-armed goddess Shiva

army [ˈɑ:mi] – n. a large number of people united for some specific purpose

around [əˈraund] – adv. in the area or vicinity: hanging around

arouse [əˈrauz] – v. call forth (emotions, feelings, and responses): arouse pity

arrange [əˈreindʒ] – v. put into a proper or systematic order: arrange the books on the shelves in chronological order

arrangement [əˈreindʒmənt] – n. an orderly grouping (of things or persons) considered as a unit; the result of arranging: a flower arrangement

array [əˈrei] – n. an impressive display: it was a bewildering array of books

arrest [əˈrest] – v. take into custody

arrival [əˈraivəl] – n. accomplishment of an objective

arrive [əˈraiv] – v. succeed in a big way; get to the top: After he published his book, he had arrived

arrow [ˈærəu] – n. a mark to indicate a direction or relation

art [ɑ:t] – n. the creation of beautiful or significant things: art does not need to be innovative to be good

article [ˈɑ:tikl] – n. nonfictional prose forming an independent part of a publication

articulate [ɑ:ˈtikjuleit] – v. provide with a joint

artificial [.ɑ:tiˈfiʃəl] – adj. contrived by art rather than nature: artificial flowers

artist [ˈɑ:tist] – n. a person whose creative work shows sensitivity and imagination

artistic [ɑ:ˈtistik] – adj. satisfying aesthetic standards and sensibilities: artistic workmanship

as [æz] – adv. to the same degree (often followed by `as’): birds were singing and the child sang as sweetly

ascertain [.æsəˈtein] – v. establish after a calculation, investigation, experiment, survey, or study

ash [æʃ] – n. the residue that remains when something is burned

ashamed [əˈʃeimd] – adj. feeling shame or guilt or embarrassment or remorse: are you ashamed for having lied?

aside [əˈsaid] – adv. on or to one side: step aside

ask [ɑ:sk] – v. inquire about: I asked about their special today

asleep [əˈsli:p] – adj. in a state of sleep: were all asleep when the phone rang

aspect [ˈæspekt] – n. a distinct feature or element in a problem

aspiration [.æspəˈreiʃən] – n. a will to succeed

assault [əˈsɔ:lt] – n. close fighting during the culmination of a military attack

assemble [əˈsembl] – v. create by putting components or members together

assembly [əˈsembli] – n. a group of machine parts that fit together to form a self-contained unit

assert [əˈsə:t] – v. state categorically

assertion [əˈsə:ʃən] – n. a declaration that is made emphatically (as if no supporting evidence were necessary)

assess [əˈses] – v. evaluate or estimate the nature, quality, ability, extent, or significance of

assessment [əˈsesmənt] – n. the classification of someone or something with respect to its worth

asset [ˈæset] – n. a useful or valuable quality

assign [əˈsain] – v. give out: We were assigned new uniforms

assignment [əˈsainmənt] – n. the instrument by which a claim or right or interest or property is transferred from one person to another

assist [əˈsist] – v. work for or be a servant to: Is a salesperson assisting you?

assistance [əˈsistəns] – n. the activity of contributing to the fulfillment of a need or furtherance of an effort or purpose: could not walk without assistance

assistant [əˈsistənt] – n. a person who contributes to the fulfillment of a need or furtherance of an effort or purpose: my invaluable assistant

associate [əˈsəuʃieit] – n. a person who joins with others in some activity or endeavor: he had to consult his associate before continuing

association [ə.səusiˈeiʃən] – n. a formal organization of people or groups of people

assume [əˈsju:m] – v. take to be the case or to be true; accept without verification or proof: I assume his train was late

assumption [əˈsʌmpʃən] – n. a hypothesis that is taken for granted: any society is built upon certain assumptions

assurance [əˈʃuərəns] – n. freedom from doubt; belief in yourself and your abilities: his assurance in his superiority did not make him popular

assure [əˈʃuə] – v. make certain of

asylum [əˈsailəm] – n. a shelter from danger or hardship

athlete [ˈæθli:t] – n. a person trained to compete in sports

atmosphere [ˈætməsfiə] – n. a particular environment or surrounding influence: there was an atmosphere of excitement

atom [ˈætəm] – n. (physics and chemistry) the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element

atomic [əˈtɔmik] – adj. of or relating to or comprising atoms: atomic structure

attach [əˈtætʃ] – v. create social or emotional ties

attachment [əˈtætʃmənt] – n. a feeling of affection for a person or an institution

attack [əˈtæk] – n. (military) an offensive against an enemy (using weapons): the attack began at dawn

attacker  – n. someone who attacks

attain [əˈtein] – v. to gain with effort

attainment [əˈteinmənt] – n. the act of achieving an aim: the attainment of independence

attempt [əˈtempt] – n. earnest and conscientious activity intended to do or accomplish something

attend [əˈtend] – v. be present at (meetings, church services, university), etc.: She attends class regularly

attendance [əˈtendəns] – n. the act of being present (at a meeting or event etc.)

attention [əˈtenʃən] – n. the process whereby a person concentrates on some features of the environment to the (relative) exclusion of others

attitude [ˈætitju:d] – n. a complex mental state involving beliefs and feelings and values and dispositions to act in certain ways: he had the attitude that work was fun

attract [əˈtrækt] – v. direct toward itself or oneself by means of some psychological power or physical attributes: Her good looks attract the stares of many men

attraction [əˈtrækʃən] – n. an entertainment that is offered to the public

attractive [əˈtræktiv] – adj. pleasing to the eye or mind especially through beauty or charm: a remarkably attractive young man

auction [ˈɔ:kʃən] – n. the public sale of something to the highest bidder

audience [ˈɔ:diəns] – n. a gathering of spectators or listeners at a (usually public) performance: the audience applauded

audit [ˈɔ:dit] – n. an inspection of the accounting procedures and records by a trained accountant or CPA

auditor [ˈɔ:ditə] – n. someone who listens attentively

aunt [ɑ:nt] – n. the sister of your father or mother; the wife of your uncle

author [ˈɔ:θə] – n. writes (books or stories or articles or the like) professionally (for pay)

authorise  – v. grant authorization or clearance for

authority [əˈθɔ:riti] – n. the power or right to give orders or make decisions: he has the authority to issue warrants

automatic [.ɔ:təˈmætik] – adj. operating with minimal human intervention; independent of external control: automatic transmission

automatically  – adv. in a reflex manner: he answered automatically

autonomous [ɔ:ˈtɔnəməs] – adj. (of political bodies) not controlled by outside forces: an autonomous judiciary

autonomy [ɔ:ˈtɔnəmi] – n. immunity from arbitrary exercise of authority: political independence

autumn [ˈɔ:təm] – n. the season when the leaves fall from the trees

availability [ə.veiləˈbiliti] – n. the quality of being at hand when needed

available [əˈveiləbl] – adj. obtainable or accessible and ready for use or service: kept a fire extinguisher available

avenue [ˈævinju:] – n. a line of approach: they explored every avenue they could think of

average [ˈævəridʒ] – adj. lacking special distinction, rank, or status; commonly encountered: average people

aviation [.eiviˈeiʃən] – n. the aggregation of a country’s military aircraft

avoid [əˈvɔid] – v. stay clear from; keep away from; keep out of the way of someone or something: Her former friends now avoid her

await [əˈweit] – v. look forward to the probable occurrence of

awake [əˈweik] – adj. not in a state of sleep; completely conscious: lay awake thinking about his new job

award [əˈwɔ:d] – n. a grant made by a law court: he criticized the awarding of compensation by the court

aware [əˈwɛə] – adj. (sometimes followed by `of’) having or showing knowledge or understanding or realization or perception: was aware of his opponent’s hostility

awareness [əˈwɛənəs] – n. having knowledge of: he had no awareness of his mistakes

away [əˈwei] – adv. from a particular thing or place or position (`forth’ is obsolete): ran away from the lion

awful [ˈɔ:ful] – adj. exceptionally bad or displeasing: an awful voice

awkward [ˈɔ:kwəd] – adj. causing inconvenience: they arrived at an awkward time

axis [ˈæksis] – n. a straight line through a body or figure that satisfies certain conditions

baby [ˈbeibi] – n. a very young child (birth to 1 year) who has not yet begun to walk or talk: the baby began to cry again

back [bæk] – v. be behind; approve of: I backed Kennedy in 1960

background [ˈbækgraund] – n. a person’s social heritage: previous experience or training: he is a lawyer with a sports background

backing [ˈbækiŋ] – n. the act of providing approval and support: his vigorous backing of the conservatives got him in trouble with progressives

backwards  – adv. at or to or toward the back or rear

bacon [ˈbeikən] – n. back and sides of a hog salted and dried or smoked; usually sliced thin and fried

bacteria [bækˈtiəriə] – n. (microbiology) single-celled or noncellular spherical or spiral or rod-shaped organisms lacking chlorophyll that reproduce by fission; important as pathogens and for biochemical properties; taxonomy is difficult; often considered to be plants

bad [bæd] – adj. having undesirable or negative qualities: a bad report card

badly [ˈbædli] – adv. to a severe or serious degree: fingers so badly frozen they had to be amputated

bag [bæg] – n. a flexible container with a single opening: he stuffed his laundry into a large bag

bail [beil] – v. release after a security has been paid

bake [beik] – v. cook and make edible by putting in a hot oven: bake the potatoes

balance [ˈbæləns] – n. a state of equilibrium

balanced [ˈbælənst] – adj. being in a state of proper equilibrium: the carefully balanced seesaw

balcony [ˈbælkəni] – n. an upper floor projecting from the rear over the main floor in an auditorium

ball [bɔ:l] – n. round object that is hit or thrown or kicked in games: the ball travelled 90 mph on his serve

ballet [ˈbælei] – n. a theatrical representation of a story that is performed to music by trained dancers

balloon [bəˈlu:n] – n. large tough nonrigid bag filled with gas or heated air

ballot [ˈbælət] – n. a document listing the alternatives that is used in voting

ban [bæn] – n. a decree that prohibits something

banana [bəˈnɑ:nə] – n. elongated crescent-shaped yellow fruit with soft sweet flesh

band [bænd] – n. an unofficial association of people or groups

bang [bæŋ] – v. strike violently

bank [bæŋk] – n. sloping land (especially the slope beside a body of water): they pulled the canoe up on the bank

banker [ˈbæŋkə] – n. the person in charge of the bank in a gambling game

banking [ˈbæŋkiŋ] – n. transacting business with a bank; depositing or withdrawing funds or requesting a loan etc.

bankruptcy [ˈbæŋkrəptsi] – n. a state of complete lack of some abstract property: spiritual bankruptcy

banner [ˈbænə] – n. long strip of cloth or paper used for decoration or advertising

bar [bɑ:] – n. a room or establishment where alcoholic drinks are served over a counter: he drowned his sorrows in whiskey at the bar

bare [bɛə] – adj. completely unclothed: bare bodies

barely [ˈbɛəli] – adv. only a very short time before: they could barely hear the speaker

bargain [ˈbɑ:gin] – n. an agreement between parties (usually arrived at after discussion) fixing obligations of each: he made a bargain with the devil

barn [bɑ:n] – n. an outlying farm building for storing grain or animal feed and housing farm animals

barrel [ˈbærəl] – n. a tube through which a bullet travels when a gun is fired

barrier [ˈbæriə] – n. a structure or object that impedes free movement

base [beis] – n. installation from which a military force initiates operations: the attack wiped out our forward bases

basement [ˈbeismənt] – n. the lowermost portion of a structure partly or wholly below ground level; often used for storage

basic [ˈbeisik] – adj. reduced to the simplest and most significant form possible without loss of generality: a basic story line

basically [ˈbeisikəli] – adv. in essence; at bottom or by one’s (or its) very nature: He is basically dishonest

basin [ˈbeisn] – n. a bowl-shaped vessel; usually used for holding food or liquids: she mixed the dough in a large basin

basis [ˈbeisis] – n. a relation that provides the foundation for something: he worked on an interim basis

basket [ˈbɑ:skit] – n. a container that is usually woven and has handles

bass [beis] – n. the lowest part of the musical range

bastard [ˈbæstəd] – n. insulting terms of address for people who are stupid or irritating or ridiculous

bat [bæt] – n. (baseball) a turn trying to get a hit: he was at bat when it happened

batch [bætʃ] – n. all the loaves of bread baked at the same time

bath [bɑ:θ] – n. a relatively large open container that you fill with water and use to wash the body

bathroom [ˈbæθrum] – n. a room or building equipped with one or more toilets

battery [ˈbætəri] – n. group of guns or missile launchers operated together at one place

battle [ˈbætl] – n. a hostile meeting of opposing military forces in the course of a war: Grant won a decisive victory in the battle of Chickamauga

bay [bei] – n. an indentation of a shoreline larger than a cove but smaller than a gulf

beach [bi:tʃ] – n. an area of sand sloping down to the water of a sea or lake

beam [bi:m] – n. a signal transmitted along a narrow path; guides airplane pilots in darkness or bad weather

bean [bi:n] – n. any of various edible seeds of plants of the family Leguminosae used for food

bear [bɛə] – v. have: bear a resemblance

beard [biəd] – n. the hair growing on the lower part of a man’s face

bearing [ˈbɛəriŋ] – n. relevant relation or interconnection: those issues have no bearing on our situation

beast [bi:st] – n. a living organism characterized by voluntary movement

beat [bi:t] – v. come out better in a competition, race, or conflict: Agassi beat Becker in the tennis championship

beautiful [ˈbju:təfəl] – adj. delighting the senses or exciting intellectual or emotional admiration: a beautiful child

beautifully  – adv. in a beautiful manner: her face was beautifully made up

beauty [ˈbju:ti] – n. the qualities that give pleasure to the senses

become [biˈkʌm] – v. enter or assume a certain state or condition

bed [bed] – n. a piece of furniture that provides a place to sleep: he sat on the edge of the bed

bedroom [ˈbedrum, ru:m] – n. a room used primarily for sleeping

bee [bi:] – n. any of numerous hairy-bodied insects including social and solitary species

beef [bi:f] – n. cattle that are reared for their meat

beer [biə] – n. a general name for alcoholic beverages made by fermenting a cereal (or mixture of cereals) flavored with hops

before [biˈfɔ:] – adv. earlier in time; previously: I had known her before

beg [beg] – v. call upon in supplication; entreat: I beg you to stop!

begin [biˈgin] – v. take the first step or steps in carrying out an action

beginning [biˈginiŋ] – n. the event consisting of the start of something: the beginning of the war

behalf [biˈhɑ:f] – n. as the agent of or on someone’s part (usually expressed as: on behalf of

behave [biˈheiv] – v. behave well or properly: The children must learn to behave

behaviour  – n. the action or reaction of something (as a machine or substance) under specified circumstances

behind [biˈhaind] – adv. in or to or toward the rear: he followed behind

being [ˈbi:iŋ] – n. the state or fact of existing: a point of view gradually coming into being

belief [biˈli:f] – n. any cognitive content held as true

believe [biˈli:v] – v. accept as true; take to be true: I believed his report

bell [bel] – n. a hollow device made of metal that makes a ringing sound when struck

belly [ˈbeli] – n. the region of the body of a vertebrate between the thorax and the pelvis

belong [biˈlɔŋ] – v. be owned by; be in the possession of: This book belongs to me

below [biˈləu] – adv. at a later place: see below

belt [belt] – n. a band to tie or buckle around the body (usually at the waist)

bench [bentʃ] – n. a long seat for more than one person

bend [bend] – n. a circular segment of a curve: a bend in the road

beneficial [.beniˈfiʃəl] – adj. promoting or enhancing well-being: an arms limitation agreement beneficial to all countries

beneficiary [.beniˈfiʃəri] – n. the semantic role of the intended recipient who benefits from the happening denoted by the verb in the clause

benefit [ˈbenifit] – n. financial assistance in time of need

besides [biˈsaidz] – adv. making an additional point; anyway: I don’t want to go to a restaurant; besides, we can’t afford it

best [best] – n. the supreme effort one can make: they did their best

bet [bet] – v. stake on the outcome of an issue: I bet $100 on that new horse

betray [biˈtrei] – v. reveal unintentionally: Her smile betrayed her true feelings

better [ˈbetə] – n. something superior in quality or condition or effect: a change for the better

beyond [biˈjɔnd] – adv. farther along in space or time or degree: through the valley and beyond

bias [ˈbaiəs] – n. a partiality that prevents objective consideration of an issue or situation

Bible [ˈbaibl] – n. the sacred writings of the Christian religions

bicycle [ˈbaisikl] – n. a wheeled vehicle that has two wheels and is moved by foot pedals

bid [bid] – v. propose a payment

big [big] – adj. above average in size or number or quantity or magnitude or extent: set out for the big city

bike [baik] – n. a motor vehicle with two wheels and a strong frame

bile [bail] – n. a digestive juice secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder; aids in the digestion of fats

bill [bil] – n. a statute in draft before it becomes law: they held a public hearing on the bill

bin [bin] – n. a container; usually has a lid

bind [baind] – v. stick to firmly

binding [ˈbaindiŋ] – n. the capacity to attract and hold something

biography [baiˈɔgrəfi] – n. an account of the series of events making up a person’s life

biological  – adj. of parents and children; related by blood: biological child

biology [baiˈɔlədʒi] – n. the science that studies living organisms

bird [bə:d] – n. warm-blooded egg-laying vertebrates characterized by feathers and forelimbs modified as wings

birth [bə:θ] – n. the time when something begins (especially life): they divorced after the birth of the child

birthday [ˈbə:θdei] – n. an anniversary of the day on which a person was born (or the celebration of it)

biscuit [ˈbiskit] – n. small round bread leavened with baking-powder or soda

bishop [ˈbiʃəp] – n. port wine mulled with oranges and cloves

bit [bit] – n. a small piece or quantity of something: a bit of paper

bitch  – n. an unpleasant difficulty: this problem is a real bitch

bite [bait] – n. a small amount of solid food; a mouthful

bitter [ˈbitə] – adj. marked by strong resentment or cynicism: bitter about the divorce

bitterly [ˈbitəli] – adv. indicating something hard to accept: he was bitterly disappointed

bizarre [biˈzɑ:] – adj. conspicuously or grossly unconventional or unusual: restaurants of bizarre design–one like a hat, another like a rabbit

black [blæk] – adj. of or belonging to a racial group having dark skin especially of sub-Saharan African origin: a great people–a black people–…injected new meaning and dignity into the veins of civilization

blade [bleid] – n. especially a leaf of grass or the broad portion of a leaf as distinct from the petiole

blame [bleim] – v. harass with constant criticism

blank [blæŋk] – n. a piece of material ready to be made into something

blanket [ˈblæŋkit] – n. bedding that keeps a person warm in bed

blast [blɑ:st] – v. make a strident sound: She tended to blast when speaking into a microphone

bleak [bli:k] – adj. offering little or no hope: prospects were bleak

bleed [bli:d] – v. lose blood from one’s body

bless [bles] – v. give a benediction to: The dying man blessed his son

blind [blaind] – n. people who have severe visual impairments, considered as a group: he spent hours reading to the blind

blink [bliŋk] – v. briefly shut the eyes: The TV announcer never seems to blink

block [blɔk] – v. render unsuitable for passage: block the way

bloke  – n. a boy or man: he’s a good bloke

blonde [blɔnd] – n. a person with fair skin and hair

blood [blʌd] – n. temperament or disposition: a person of hot blood

bloody [ˈblʌdi] – adj. informal intensifiers: a bloody fool

blow [bləu] – v. exhale hard: blow on the soup to cool it down

blue [blu:] – adj. of the color intermediate between green and violet; having a color similar to that of a clear unclouded sky: October’s bright blue weather

board [bɔ:d] – n. a committee having supervisory powers: the board has seven members

boast [bəust] – v. show off

boat [bəut] – n. a small vessel for travel on water

bodily [ˈbɔdili] – adj. affecting or characteristic of the body as opposed to the mind or spirit: bodily needs

body [ˈbɔdi] – n. the entire structure of an organism (an animal, plant, or human being): he felt as if his whole body were on fire

boil [bɔil] – v. be agitated

boiler [ˈbɔilə] – n. sealed vessel where water is converted to steam

bold [bəuld] – adj. fearless and daring: bold settlers on some foreign shore

bolt [bəult] – n. a discharge of lightning accompanied by thunder

bomb [bɔm] – n. an explosive device fused to explode under specific conditions

bomber [ˈbɔmə] – n. a person who plants bombs

bond [bɔnd] – n. an electrical force linking atoms

bone [bəun] – n. rigid connective tissue that makes up the skeleton of vertebrates

bonus [ˈbəunəs] – n. anything that tends to arouse

book [buk] – n. physical objects consisting of a number of pages bound together: he used a large book as a doorstop

booking [ˈbukiŋ] – n. employment for performers or performing groups that lasts for a limited period of time: the play had bookings throughout the summer

booklet [ˈbuklit] – n. a small book usually having a paper cover

boom [bu:m] – n. a deep prolonged loud noise

boost [bu:st] – v. increase

boot [bu:t] – n. footwear that covers the whole foot and lower leg

border [ˈbɔ:də] – n. a line that indicates a boundary

bored  – adj. tired of the world: bored with life

boring [ˈbɔ:riŋ] – n. the act of drilling

borough [ˈbʌrə] – n. one of the administrative divisions of a large city

borrow [ˈbɔrəu] – v. get temporarily: May I borrow your lawn mower?

boss [bɔs] – n. a person who exercises control over workers

both [bəuθ] – adj. (used with count nouns) two considered together; the two: both girls are pretty

bother [ˈbɔðə] – v. take the trouble to do something; concern oneself: Don’t bother, please

bottle [ˈbɔtl] – n. a vessel fitted with a flexible teat and filled with milk or formula; used as a substitute for breast feeding infants and very young children

bottom [ˈbɔtəm] – n. the lower side of anything

bounce [bauns] – v. spring back; spring away from an impact: The rubber ball bounced

boundary [ˈbaundri] – n. the line or plane indicating the limit or extent of something

bourgeois [buəˈʒwɑ:] – adj. (according to Marxist thought) being of the property-owning class and exploitive of the working class

bow [bəu,bau] – n. a knot with two loops and loose ends; used to tie shoelaces

bowel [ˈbauəl] – n. the part of the alimentary canal between the stomach and the anus

bowl [bəul] – n. a round vessel that is open at the top; used chiefly for holding food or liquids

bowler [ˈbəulər] – n. a cricketer who delivers the ball to the batsman in cricket

box [bɔks] – n. a (usually rectangular) container; may have a lid: he rummaged through a box of spare parts

boxing [ˈbɔksiŋ] – n. fighting with the fists

boy [bɔi] – n. a youthful male person: the baby was a boy

boyfriend  – n. a man who is the lover of a girl or young woman: if I’d known he was her boyfriend I wouldn’t have asked

bracket [ˈbrækit] – n. a category falling within certain defined limits

brain [brein] – n. mental ability: he’s got plenty of brains but no common sense

brake [breik] – n. a restraint used to slow or stop a vehicle

branch [brɑ:ntʃ] – n. a division of some larger or more complex organization: a branch of Congress

brand [brænd] – n. a name given to a product or service

brandy [ˈbrændi] – n. distilled from wine or fermented fruit juice

brass [brɑ:s] – n. an alloy of copper and zinc

brave [breiv] – adj. possessing or displaying courage; able to face and deal with danger or fear without flinching: Familiarity with danger makes a brave man braver but less daring

breach [bri:tʃ] – n. a failure to perform some promised act or obligation

bread [bred] – n. food made from dough of flour or meal and usually raised with yeast or baking powder and then baked

break [breik] – v. terminate: break a lucky streak

breakdown [ˈbreikdaun] – n. the act of disrupting an established order so it fails to continue: his warning came after the breakdown of talks in London

breakfast [ˈbrekfəst] – v. eat an early morning meal: We breakfast at seven

breast [brest] – n. the front of the trunk from the neck to the abdomen: he beat his breast in anger

breath [breθ] – n. the air that is inhaled and exhaled in respiration: his sour breath offended her

breathe [bri:ð] – v. draw air into, and expel out of, the lungs: I can breathe better when the air is clean

breed [bri:d] – v. call forth

breeze [bri:z] – n. a slight wind (usually refreshing): the breeze was cooled by the lake

brewery  – n. a plant where beer is brewed by fermentation

brick [brik] – n. rectangular block of clay baked by the sun or in a kiln; used as a building or paving material

bride [braid] – n. a woman who has recently been married

bridge [bridʒ] – n. a structure that allows people or vehicles to cross an obstacle such as a river or canal or railway etc.

brief [bri:f] – adj. of short duration or distance: a brief stay in the country

briefly [ˈbri:fli] – adv. for a short time: she visited him briefly

brigade [briˈgeid] – n. army unit smaller than a division

bright [brait] – adj. emitting or reflecting light readily or in large amounts: the sun was bright and hot

brilliant [ˈbriljənt] – adj. of surpassing excellence: a brilliant performance

bring [briŋ] – v. take something or somebody with oneself somewhere: This brings me to the main point

broad [brɔ:d] – adj. having great (or a certain) extent from one side to the other: a river two miles broad

broadcast [ˈbrɔ:dkɑ:st] – v. sow over a wide area, especially by hand: broadcast seeds

broadly  – adv. without regard to specific details or exceptions: he interprets the law broadly

brochure [brəuˈʃjuə] – n. a small book usually having a paper cover

broken [ˈbrəukən] – adj. physically and forcibly separated into pieces or cracked or split: a broken mirror

broker [ˈbrəukə] – n. a businessman who buys or sells for another in exchange for a commission

bronze [brɔnz] – v. get a tan, from wind or sun

brother [ˈbrʌðə] – n. a male with the same parents as someone else: my brother still lives with our parents

brow [brau] – n. the part of the face above the eyes

brown [braun] – n. an orange of low brightness and saturation

brush [brʌʃ] – n. a dense growth of bushes

bubble [ˈbʌbl] – v. flow in an irregular current with a bubbling noise

bucket [ˈbʌkit] – n. a roughly cylindrical vessel that is open at the top

budget [ˈbʌdʒit] – n. a sum of money allocated for a particular purpose: the laboratory runs on a budget of a million a year

build [bild] – v. make by combining materials and parts

builder [ˈbildə] – n. a substance added to soaps or detergents to increase their cleansing action

building [ˈbildiŋ] – n. a structure that has a roof and walls and stands more or less permanently in one place: there was a three-story building on the corner

bulb [bʌlb] – n. a modified bud consisting of a thickened globular underground stem serving as a reproductive structure

bulk [bʌlk] – n. the property resulting from being or relating to the greater in number of two parts; the main part: the bulk of the work is finished

bull [bul] – n. uncastrated adult male of domestic cattle

bullet [ˈbulit] – n. a projectile that is fired from a gun

bulletin [ˈbulitin] – n. a brief report (especially an official statement issued for immediate publication or broadcast)

bump [bʌmp] – v. knock against with force or violence: My car bumped into the tree

bunch [bʌntʃ] – n. a grouping of a number of similar things: a bunch of trees

bundle [ˈbʌndl] – v. gather or cause to gather into a cluster

burden [ˈbə:dn] – n. an onerous or difficult concern: the burden of responsibility

bureau [ˈbjuərəu] – n. an administrative unit of government

bureaucracy [bjuəˈrɔkrəsi] – n. nonelective government officials

bureaucratic [bjuə.rəuˈkrætik] – adj. of or relating to or resembling a bureaucrat or bureaucracy: his bureaucratic behavior annoyed his colleagues

burial [ˈberiəl] – n. the ritual placing of a corpse in a grave

burn [bə:n] – v. destroy by fire: They burned the house and his diaries

burning [ˈbə:niŋ] – n. pain that feels hot as if it were on fire

burst [bə:st] – v. come open suddenly and violently, as if from internal pressure: The bubble burst

bury [ˈberi] – v. cover from sight

bus [bʌs] – n. a vehicle carrying many passengers; used for public transport: he always rode the bus to work

bush [buʃ] – n. a low woody perennial plant usually having several major stems

business [ˈbiznis] – n. a commercial or industrial enterprise and the people who constitute it: he bought his brother’s business

businessman  – n. a person engaged in commercial or industrial business (especially an owner or executive)

busy [ˈbizi] – adj. actively or fully engaged or occupied: busy with her work

butter [ˈbʌtə] – n. an edible emulsion of fat globules made by churning milk or cream; for cooking and table use

butterfly [ˈbʌtəflai] – v. cut and spread open, as in preparation for cooking

button [ˈbʌtn] – n. an electrical switch operated by pressing: the elevator was operated by push buttons

buy [bai] – v. obtain by purchase; acquire by means of a financial transaction: She buys for the big department store

buyer [ˈbaiə] – n. a person who buys

by [bai] – adv. in reserve; not for immediate use: put something by for her old age

cab [kæb] – n. a compartment at the front of a motor vehicle or locomotive where driver sits

cabin [ˈkæbin] – n. small room on a ship or boat where people sleep

cabinet [ˈkæbinit] – n. a piece of furniture resembling a cupboard with doors and shelves and drawers; for storage or display

cable [ˈkeibl] – n. a telegram sent abroad

cafe [kəˈfei] – n. a small restaurant where drinks and snacks are sold

cage [keidʒ] – n. an enclosure made or wire or metal bars in which birds or animals can be kept

cake [keik] – n. a block of solid substance (such as soap or wax)

calcium [ˈkælsiəm] – n. a white metallic element that burns with a brilliant light; the fifth most abundant element in the earth’s crust; an important component of most plants and animals

calculate [ˈkælkjuleit] – v. judge to be probable

calculation [.kælkjuˈleiʃən] – n. problem solving that involves numbers or quantities

calendar [ˈkælində] – n. a system of timekeeping that defines the beginning and length and divisions of the year

calf [kɑ:f] – n. the muscular back part of the shank

call [kɔ:l] – v. assign a specified (usually proper) proper name to

calm [kɑ:m] – v. make steady

calorie [ˈkæləri] – n. a unit of heat equal to the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water by one degree at one atmosphere pressure; used by nutritionists to characterize the energy-producing potential in food

camera [ˈkæmərə] – n. equipment for taking photographs (usually consisting of a lightproof box with a lens at one end and light-sensitive film at the other)

camp [kæmp] – n. temporary living quarters specially built by the army for soldiers: wherever he went in the camp the men were grumbling

campaign [kæmˈpein] – n. a race between candidates for elective office: I managed his campaign for governor

can [kæn] – n. airtight sealed metal container for food or drink or paint etc.

canal [kəˈnæl] – n. a bodily passage or tube lined with epithelial cells and conveying a secretion or other substance: the alimentary canal

cancel [ˈkænsl] – v. postpone indefinitely or annul something that was scheduled: cancel the dinner party

cancer [ˈkænsə] – n. (astrology) a person who is born while the sun is in Cancer

candidate [ˈkændidit] – n. a politician who is running for public office

candle [ˈkændl] – n. stick of wax with a wick in the middle

canvas [ˈkænvəs] – n. a heavy, closely woven fabric (used for clothing or chairs or sails or tents)

cap [kæp] – n. a tight-fitting headdress

capability [.keipəˈbiləti] – n. the susceptibility of something to a particular treatment: the capability of a metal to be fused

capable [ˈkeipəbl] – adj. possibly accepting or permitting: a passage capable of misinterpretation

capacity [kəˈpæsiti] – n. the susceptibility of something to a particular treatment

capital [ˈkæpitl] – n. assets available for use in the production of further assets

capitalism [ˈkæpitəlizəm] – n. an economic system based on private ownership of capital

capitalist [ˈkæpitəlist] – n. a person who invests capital in a business (especially a large business)

captain [ˈkæptin] – n. an officer holding a rank below a major but above a lieutenant

capture [ˈkæptʃə] – v. succeed in representing or expressing something intangible: capture the essence of Spring

car [kɑ:] – n. a motor vehicle with four wheels; usually propelled by an internal combustion engine: he needs a car to get to work

caravan [ˈkærəvæn] – n. a procession (of wagons or mules or camels) traveling together in single file: we were part of a caravan of almost a thousand camels

carbon [ˈkɑ:bən] – n. a copy made with carbon paper

card [kɑ:d] – n. one of a set of small pieces of stiff paper marked in various ways and used for playing games or for telling fortunes: he collected cards and traded them with the other boys

care [kɛə] – n. the work of providing treatment for or attending to someone or something: no medical care was required

career [kəˈriə] – n. the particular occupation for which you are trained

careful [ˈkɛəfəl] – adj. cautiously attentive: careful of her feelings

carefully  – adv. taking care or paying attention: they watched carefully

cargo [ˈkɑ:gəu] – n. goods carried by a large vehicle

carpet [ˈkɑ:pit] – n. floor covering consisting of a piece of thick heavy fabric (usually with nap or pile)

carriage [ˈkæridʒ] – n. a railcar where passengers ride

carrier [ˈkæriə] – n. a self-propelled wheeled vehicle designed specifically to carry something: refrigerated carriers have revolutionized the grocery business

carrot [ˈkærət] – n. orange root; important source of carotene

carry [ˈkæri] – v. move while supporting, either in a vehicle or in one’s hands or on one’s body: You must carry your camping gear

cart [kɑ:t] – n. a heavy open wagon usually having two wheels and drawn by an animal

carve [kɑ:v] – v. engrave or cut by chipping away at a surface: carve one’s name into the bark

case [keis] – n. an occurrence of something: it was a case of bad judgment

cash [kæʃ] – n. money in the form of bills or coins: there is a desperate shortage of hard cash

cassette [kəˈset] – n. a container that holds a magnetic tape used for recording or playing sound or video

cast [kɑ:st] – v. put or send forth: cast a spell

castle [ˈkɑ:sl] – n. a large and stately mansion

casual [ˈkæʒjuəl] – adj. marked by blithe unconcern: an ability to interest casual students

casualty [ˈkæʒjuəlti] – n. someone injured or killed or captured or missing in a military engagement

cat [kæt] – n. an informal term for a youth or man

catalogue [ˈkætəlɔg] – n. a complete list of things; usually arranged systematically

catch [kætʃ] – v. perceive with the senses quickly, suddenly, or momentarily: ears open to catch every sound

category [ˈkætigəri] – n. a collection of things sharing a common attribute

cater [ˈkeitə] – v. give what is desired or needed, especially support, food or sustenance

cathedral [kəˈθi:drəl] – n. any large and important church

cattle [ˈkætl] – n. domesticated bovine animals as a group regardless of sex or age: so many head of cattle

causal [ˈkɔ:zəl] – adj. involving or constituting a cause; causing: a causal relationship between scarcity and higher prices

cause [kɔ:z] – n. events that provide the generative force that is the origin of something: they are trying to determine the cause of the crash

caution [ˈkɔ:ʃən] – n. a warning against certain acts

cautious [ˈkɔ:ʃəs] – adj. showing careful forethought: reserved and cautious; never making swift decisions

cave [keiv] – n. a geological formation consisting of an underground enclosure with access from the surface of the ground or from the sea

cease [si:s] – v. put an end to a state or an activity

ceiling [ˈsi:liŋ] – n. the overhead upper surface of a covered space: he hated painting the ceiling

celebrate [ˈselibreit] – v. behave as expected during of holidays or rites: celebrate Christmas

celebration [.seliˈbreiʃən] – n. a joyful occasion for special festivities to mark some happy event

cell [sel] – n. any small compartment: the cells of a honeycomb

cellar [ˈselə] – n. the lowermost portion of a structure partly or wholly below ground level; often used for storage

cemetery [ˈsemitri] – n. a tract of land used for burials

census [ˈsensəs] – n. a periodic count of the population

central [ˈsentrəl] – adj. serving as an essential component: the central cause of the problem

centre [ˈsentə] – n. an area that is approximately central within some larger region

century [ˈsentʃuri] – n. a period of 100 years

cereal [ˈsiəriəl] – n. grass whose starchy grains are used as food: wheat; rice; rye; oats; maize; buckwheat; millet

ceremony [ˈseriməni] – n. a formal event performed on a special occasion: a ceremony commemorating Pearl Harbor

certain [ˈsə:tn] – adj. definite but not specified or identified: set aside a certain sum each week

certainly [ˈsə:tənli] – adv. definitely or positively (`sure’ is sometimes used informally for `surely’): she certainly is a hard worker

certainty [ˈsə:tnti] – n. something that is certain: his victory is a certainty

certificate [səˈtifikit] – n. a document attesting to the truth of certain stated facts

chain [tʃein] – n. a series of things depending on each other as if linked together: the chain of command

chair [tʃɛə] – n. a seat for one person, with a support for the back: he put his coat over the back of the chair and sat down

chairman [ˈtʃɛəmən] – n. the officer who presides at the meetings of an organization

chalk [tʃɔ:k] – n. a soft whitish calcite

challenge [ˈtʃælindʒ] – n. a demanding or stimulating situation: they reacted irrationally to the challenge of Russian power

chamber [ˈtʃeimbə] – n. a natural or artificial enclosed space

champagne [ʃæmˈpein] – n. a white sparkling wine either produced in Champagne or resembling that produced there

champion [ˈtʃæmpjən] – n. someone who has won first place in a competition

championship [ˈtʃæmpjənʃip] – n. a competition at which a champion is chosen

chance [tʃɑ:ns] – n. a possibility due to a favorable combination of circumstances: now is your chance

chancellor [ˈtʃɑ:nsələ] – n. the British cabinet minister responsible for finance

change [tʃeindʒ] – n. an event that occurs when something passes from one state or phase to another: the change was intended to increase sales

changing  – adj. marked by continuous change or effective action

channel [ˈtʃænl] – n. a path over which electrical signals can pass: a channel is typically what you rent from a telephone company

chaos [ˈkeiɔs] – n. a state of extreme confusion and disorder

chap [tʃæp] – n. a boy or man: that chap is your host

chapel [ˈtʃæpəl] – n. a place of worship that has its own altar

chapter [ˈtʃæptə] – n. a subdivision of a written work; usually numbered and titled: he read a chapter every night before falling asleep

character [ˈkæriktə] – n. an imaginary person represented in a work of fiction (play or film or story): she is the main character in the novel

characterise  – v. describe or portray the character or the qualities or peculiarities of

characteristic [.kæriktəˈristik] – n. a prominent attribute or aspect of something: generosity is one of his best characteristics

characterize [ˈkæriktəraiz] – v. be characteristic of: What characterizes a Venetian painting?

charge [tʃɑ:dʒ] – v. to make a rush at or sudden attack upon, as in battle

charity [ˈtʃæriti] – n. a foundation created to promote the public good (not for assistance to any particular individuals)

charm [tʃɑ:m] – n. attractiveness that interests or pleases or stimulates

chart [tʃɑ:t] – v. plan in detail: Bush is charting a course to destroy Saddam Hussein

charter [ˈtʃɑ:tə] – v. hold under a lease or rental agreement; of goods and services

chase [tʃeis] – v. go after with the intent to catch: The policeman chased the mugger down the alley

chat [tʃæt] – n. an informal conversation

cheap [tʃi:p] – adj. relatively low in price or charging low prices: it would have been cheap at twice the price

check [tʃek] – v. examine so as to determine accuracy, quality, or condition: check the brakes

cheek [tʃi:k] – n. either side of the face below the eyes

cheer [tʃiə] – v. give encouragement to

cheerful [ˈtʃiəfəl] – adj. pleasantly (even unrealistically) optimistic

cheese [tʃi:z] – n. a solid food prepared from the pressed curd of milk

chemical [ˈkemikəl] – adj. of or made from or using substances produced by or used in reactions involving atomic or molecular changes: chemical fertilizer

chemist [ˈkemist] – n. a health professional trained in the art of preparing and dispensing drugs

chemistry [ˈkemistri] – n. the chemical composition and properties of a substance or object: the chemistry of soil

cheque  – n. a written order directing a bank to pay money

chest [tʃest] – n. the part of the human torso between the neck and the diaphragm or the corresponding part in other vertebrates

chew [tʃu:] – n. biting and grinding food in your mouth so it becomes soft enough to swallow

chicken [ˈtʃikin] – n. a domestic fowl bred for flesh or eggs; believed to have been developed from the red jungle fowl

chief [tʃi:f] – n. a person who is in charge

child [tʃaild] – n. a young person of either sex: she writes books for children

childhood [ˈtʃaildhud] – n. the state of a child between infancy and adolescence

chimney [ˈtʃimni] – n. a glass flue surrounding the wick of an oil lamp

chin [tʃin] – n. the protruding part of the lower jaw

chip [tʃip] – n. a small fragment of something broken off from the whole

chocolate [ˈtʃɔkəlit] – n. a beverage made from cocoa powder and milk and sugar; usually drunk hot

choice [tʃɔis] – n. the act of choosing or selecting: your choice of colors was unfortunate

choir [ˈkwaiə] – n. a family of similar musical instrument playing together

choke [tʃəuk] – v. breathe with great difficulty, as when experiencing a strong emotion: She choked with emotion when she spoke about her deceased husband

choose [tʃu:z] – v. select as an alternative over another: I always choose the fish over the meat courses in this restaurant

chop [tʃɔp] – v. cut into pieces: chop meat

chord [kɔ:d] – n. a straight line connecting two points on a curve

chorus [ˈkɔ:rəs] – n. any utterance produced simultaneously by a group: a chorus of boos

chosen  – n. the name for Korea as a Japanese province (1910-1945)

chronic [ˈkrɔnik] – adj. being long-lasting and recurrent or characterized by long suffering: chronic indigestion

church [tʃə:tʃ] – n. one of the groups of Christians who have their own beliefs and forms of worship

cigarette [sigəˈret] – n. finely ground tobacco wrapped in paper; for smoking

cinema [ˈsinimə] – n. a medium that disseminates moving pictures: this story would be good cinema

circle [ˈsə:kl] – n. an unofficial association of people or groups

circuit [ˈsə:kit] – n. an electrical device that provides a path for electrical current to flow

circular [ˈsə:kjulə] – adj. describing a circle; moving in a circle: the circular motion of the wheel

circulate [ˈsə:kjuleit] – v. become widely known and passed on

circulation [.sə:kjuˈleiʃən] – n. the dissemination of copies of periodicals (as newspapers or magazines)

circumstance [ˈsə:kəmstəns] – n. a condition that accompanies or influences some event or activity

cite [sait] – v. make reference to

citizen [ˈsitizn] – n. a native or naturalized member of a state or other political community

citizenship [ˈsitizɚnʃip] – n. conduct as a citizen: award for good citizenship

city [ˈsiti] – n. a large and densely populated urban area; may include several independent administrative districts: Ancient Troy was a great city

civic [ˈsivik] – adj. of or relating or belonging to a city: civic center

civil [ˈsivil] – adj. applying to ordinary citizens as contrasted with the military: civil authorities

civilian [siˈviljən] – n. a nonmilitary citizen

civilization [.sivilaiˈzeiʃən] – n. the social process whereby societies achieve an advanced stage of development and organization

claim [kleim] – n. an assertion of a right (as to money or property): his claim asked for damages

clarify [ˈklærifai] – v. make clear and (more) comprehensible: clarify the mystery surrounding her death

clarity [ˈklæriti] – n. free from obscurity and easy to understand; the comprehensibility of clear expression

clash [klæʃ] – n. a loud resonant repeating noise

class [klɑ:s] – n. a collection of things sharing a common attribute: there are two classes of detergents

classic [ˈklæsik] – adj. of recognized authority or excellence: classical methods of navigation

classical [ˈklæsikəl] – adj. of or relating to the most highly developed stage of an earlier civilisation and its culture

classification [.klæsifiˈkeiʃən] – n. the act of distributing things into classes or categories of the same type

classify [ˈklæsifai] – v. declare unavailable, as for security reasons

classroom [ˈklɑ:srum] – n. a room in a school where lessons take place

clause [klɔ:z] – n. (grammar) an expression including a subject and predicate but not constituting a complete sentence

clay [klei] – n. a very fine-grained soil that is plastic when moist but hard when fired

clean [kli:n] – adj. free of restrictions or qualifications: a clean bill of health

cleaner  – n. the operator of dry-cleaning establishment

clear [kliə] – v. rid of obstructions

clearance [ˈkliərəns] – n. vertical space available to allow easy passage under something

clearing  – n. a tract of land with few or no trees in the middle of a wooded area

clearly [ˈkliəli] – adv. without doubt or question: they were clearly lost

clergy [ˈklə:dʒi] – n. in Christianity, clergymen collectively (as distinguished from the laity)

clerical  – adj. of or relating to the clergy: clerical collar

clerk [klɑ:k] – n. a salesperson in a store

clever [ˈklevə] – adj. showing self-interest and shrewdness in dealing with others: too clever to be sound

client [ˈklaiənt] – n. a person who seeks the advice of a lawyer

cliff [klif] – n. a steep high face of rock: he stood on a high cliff overlooking the town

climate [ˈklaimit] – n. the weather in some location averaged over some long period of time: the dank climate of southern Wales

climb [klaim] – v. go upward with gradual or continuous progress: Did you ever climb up the hill behind your house?

climber  – n. someone seeking social prominence by obsequious behavior

cling [kliŋ] – v. come or be in close contact with; stick or hold together and resist separation: The dress clings to her body

clinic [ˈklinik] – n. a medical establishment run by a group of medical specialists

clinical [ˈklinikəl] – adj. scientifically detached; unemotional: he spoke in the clipped clinical monotones typical of police testimony

clock [klɔk] – n. a timepiece that shows the time of day

close [kləus,kləuz] – v. move so that an opening or passage is obstructed; make shut

closed [kləuzd] – adj. not open or affording passage or access: the many closed streets made travel difficult

closely [ˈkləuzli] – adv. in an attentive manner

closure [ˈkləuʒə] – n. a rule for limiting or ending debate in a deliberative body

cloth [klɔθ] – n. artifact made by weaving or felting or knitting or crocheting natural or synthetic fibers: woven cloth originated in Mesopotamia around 5000 BC

clothes [kləuðz] – n. clothing in general: he always bought his clothes at the same store

clothing [ˈkləuðiŋ] – n. a covering designed to be worn on a person’s body

cloud [klaud] – v. make less visible or unclear: The stars are obscured by the clouds

club [klʌb] – n. a team of professional baseball players who play and travel together: each club played six home games with teams in its own division

clue [klu:] – n. a slight indication

cluster [ˈklʌstə] – n. a grouping of a number of similar things: a cluster of admirers

clutch [klʌtʃ] – n. the act of grasping

coach [kəutʃ] – n. (sports) someone in charge of training an athlete or a team

coal [kəul] – n. fossil fuel consisting of carbonized vegetable matter deposited in the Carboniferous period

coalition [.kəuəˈliʃən] – n. an organization of people (or countries) involved in a pact or treaty

coast [kəust] – n. the shore of a sea or ocean

coastal [ˈkəustl] – adj. located on or near or bordering on a coast: coastal marshes

coat [kəut] – n. a thin layer covering something: a second coat of paint

code [kəud] – n. a set of rules or principles or laws (especially written ones)

coffee [ˈkɔfi] – n. a medium brown to dark-brown color

coffin [ˈkɔfin] – n. box in which a corpse is buried or cremated

cognitive [ˈkɔgnitiv] – adj. of or being or relating to or involving cognition: cognitive psychology

coherent [kəuˈhiərənt] – adj. marked by an orderly, logical, and aesthetically consistent relation of parts: a coherent argument

coin [kɔin] – v. make up: coin phrases or words

coincide [.kəuinˈsaid] – v. go with, fall together

coincidence [kəuˈinsidəns] – n. an event that might have been arranged although it was really accidental

cold [kəuld] – adj. having lost freshness through passage of time: a cold trail

collaboration [kə.læbəˈreiʃən] – n. act of working jointly: they worked either in collaboration or independently

collapse [kəˈlæps] – v. break down, literally or metaphorically: The wall collapsed

collar [ˈkɔlə] – n. a band that fits around the neck and is usually folded over

colleague [ˈkɔli:g] – n. an associate that one works with

collect [ˈkɔlekt,kəˈlekt] – v. get or gather together

collection [kəˈlekʃən] – n. several things grouped together or considered as a whole

collective [kəˈlektiv] – adj. done by or characteristic of individuals acting together: the collective mind

collector [kəˈlektə] – n. a person who is employed to collect payments (as for rent or taxes)

college [ˈkɔlidʒ] – n. an institution of higher education created to educate and grant degrees; often a part of a university

colon [ˈkəulən] – n. the basic unit of money in El Salvador; equal to 100 centavos

colonel [ˈkə:nl] – n. a commissioned military officer in the United States Army or Air Force or Marines who ranks above a lieutenant colonel and below a brigadier general

colonial [kəˈləunjəl] – adj. of animals who live in colonies, such as ants

colony [ˈkɔləni] – n. a group of organisms of the same type living or growing together

colour  – n. a race with skin pigmentation different from the white race (especially Blacks)

colourful  – adj. striking in variety and interest

column [ˈkɔləm] – n. a line of units following one after another

combat [ˈkɑ:mbæt] – n. an engagement fought between two military forces

combination [.kɔmbiˈneiʃən] – n. a coordinated sequence of chess moves

combine [kəmˈbain] – v. put or add together: combine resources

combined  – adj. made or joined or united into one

come [kʌm] – v. move toward, travel toward something or somebody or approach something or somebody: come down here!

comedy [ˈkɔmidi] – n. light and humorous drama with a happy ending

comfort [ˈkʌmfət] – n. a state of being relaxed and feeling no pain: he is a man who enjoys his comfort

comfortable [ˈkʌmfətəbl] – adj. providing or experiencing physical well-being or relief (`comfy’ is informal): comfortable clothes

comfortably  – adv. in physical comfort: she could have been lying comfortably in bed getting the same relief

coming  – n. the act of drawing spatially closer to something

command [kəˈmɑ:nd] – n. an authoritative direction or instruction to do something

commander [kəˈmɑ:ndə] – n. someone in an official position of authority who can command or control others

commence [kəˈmens] – v. take the first step or steps in carrying out an action

comment [ˈkɔment] – n. a statement that expresses a personal opinion or belief or adds information: from time to time she contributed a personal comment on his account

commentary [ˈkɔməntəri] – n. a written explanation or criticism or illustration that is added to a book or other textual material

commentator [ˈkɔmenteitə] – n. a writer who reports and analyzes events of the day

commerce [ˈkɔmə:s] – n. transactions (sales and purchases) having the objective of supplying commodities (goods and services)

commercial [kəˈmə:ʃəl] – adj. of the kind or quality used in commerce; average or inferior: commercial grade of beef

commission [kəˈmiʃən] – n. a special group delegated to consider some matter

commissioner [kəˈmiʃənə] – n. a government administrator

commit [kəˈmit] – v. perform an act, usually with a negative connotation

commitment [kəˈmitmənt] – n. the trait of sincere and steadfast fixity of purpose: a man of energy and commitment

committee [kəˈmiti] – n. a special group delegated to consider some matter: a committee is a group that keeps minutes and loses hours

commodity [kəˈmɔditi] – n. articles of commerce

common [ˈkɔmən] – adj. belonging to or participated in by a community as a whole; public: for the common good

commonly [ˈkɔmənli] – adv. under normal conditions

commons  – n. a piece of open land for recreational use in an urban area

commonwealth [ˈkɔmənwelθ] – n. a politically organized body of people under a single government

communicate [kəˈmju:nikeit] – v. transmit information: Please communicate this message to all employees

communication [kə.mju:niˈkeiʃən] – n. something that is communicated by or to or between people or groups

communism [ˈkɔmjunizəm] – n. a form of socialism that abolishes private ownership

communist [ˈkɔmjunist] – n. a socialist who advocates communism

community [kəˈmju:niti] – n. a group of people living in a particular local area: the team is drawn from all parts of the community

compact [kəmˈpækt] – v. compress into a wad

companion [kəmˈpænjən] – n. a traveler who accompanies you

company [ˈkʌmpəni] – n. an institution created to conduct business: he started the company in his garage

comparable [ˈkɔmpərəbl] – adj. conforming in every respect

comparative [kəmˈpærətiv] – adj. estimated by comparison; not absolute or complete

comparatively [kəmˈpærətivli] – adv. in a relative manner; by comparison to something else

compare [kəmˈpɛə] – v. examine and note the similarities or differences of: John compared his haircut to his friend’s

comparison [kəmˈpærisn] – n. the act of examining resemblances: they made a comparison of noise levels

compartment [kəmˈpɑ:tmənt] – n. a space into which an area is subdivided

compatible [kəmˈpætəbl] – adj. able to exist and perform in harmonious or agreeable combination: a compatible married couple

compel [kəmˈpel] – v. force somebody to do something: We compel all students to fill out this form

compensate [ˈkɔmpenseit] – v. adjust for

compensation [.kɔmpenˈseiʃən] – n. something (such as money) given or received as payment or reparation (as for a service or loss or injury)

compete [kəmˈpi:t] – v. compete for something; engage in a contest; measure oneself against others

competence [ˈkɔmpitəns] – n. the quality of being adequately or well qualified physically and intellectually

competent [ˈkɔmpitənt] – adj. properly or sufficiently qualified or capable or efficient: a competent typist

competition [.kɔmpiˈtiʃən] – n. an occasion on which a winner is selected from among two or more contestants

competitive [kəmˈpetitiv] – adj. subscribing to capitalistic competition

competitor [kəmˈpetitə] – n. the contestant you hope to defeat

compile [kəmˈpail] – v. get or gather together

complain [kəmˈplein] – v. make a formal accusation; bring a formal charge: The plaintiff’s lawyer complained that he defendant had physically abused his client

complaint [kəmˈpleint] – n. (formerly) a loud cry (or repeated cries) of pain or rage or sorrow

complement [ˈkɔmplimənt] – n. a complete number or quantity: a full complement

complementary [kɔmpləˈmentəri] – adj. of words or propositions so related that each is the negation of the other: `male’ and `female’ are complementary terms

complete [kəmˈpli:t] – v. come or bring to a finish or an end: She completed the requirements for her Master’s Degree

completely [kəmˈpli:tli] – adv. so as to be complete; with everything necessary: he had filled out the form completely

completion [kəmˈpli:ʃ(ə)n] – n. (American football) a successful forward pass in football

complex [ˈkɔmpleks] – n. a compound described in terms of the central atom to which other atoms are bound or coordinated

complexity [kəmˈpleksiti] – n. the quality of being intricate and compounded: he enjoyed the complexity of modern computers

compliance [kəmˈplaiəns] – n. acting according to certain accepted standards

complicate [ˈkɔmplikeit] – v. make more complex, intricate, or richer

complicated [ˈkɔmplikeitid] – adj. difficult to analyze or understand: a complicated problem

complication [.kɔmpliˈkeiʃən] – n. a situation or condition that is complex or confused: her coming was a serious complication

comply [kəmˈplai] – v. act in accordance with someone’s rules, commands, or wishes: You must comply or else!

component [kəmˈpəunənt] – n. an abstract part of something: jealousy was a component of his character

compose [kəmˈpəuz] – v. form the substance of: Greed and ambition composed his personality

composer [kɔmˈpəuzə] – n. someone who composes music as a profession

composition [.kɔmpəˈziʃən] – n. the spatial property resulting from the arrangement of parts in relation to each other and to the whole: harmonious composition is essential in a serious work of art

compound [ˈkɔmpaund,kɔmˈpaund] – v. make more intense, stronger, or more marked

comprehensive [.kɔmpriˈhensiv] – adj. including all or everything: comprehensive coverage

comprise [kəmˈpraiz] – v. include or contain; have as a component: A totally new idea is comprised in this paper

compromise [ˈkɔmprəmaiz] – v. settle by concession

compulsory [kəmˈpʌlsəri] – adj. required by rule: in most schools physical education is compulsory

compute [kəmˈpju:t] – v. make a mathematical calculation or computation

computer [kəmˈpju:tə] – n. a machine for performing calculations automatically

computing  – n. the procedure of calculating; determining something by mathematical or logical methods

conceal [kənˈsi:l] – v. prevent from being seen or discovered

concede [kənˈsi:d] – v. admit (to a wrongdoing)

conceive [kənˈsi:v] – v. have the idea for: He conceived of a robot that would help paralyzed patients

concentrate [ˈkɔnsentreit] – v. make denser, stronger, or purer: concentrate juice

concentration [.kɔnsenˈtreiʃən] – n. the strength of a solution; number of molecules of a substance in a given volume

concept [ˈkɔnsept] – n. an abstract or general idea inferred or derived from specific instances

conception [kənˈsepʃən] – n. an abstract or general idea inferred or derived from specific instances

conceptual [kənˈseptʃuəl, -tjuəl] – adj. being or characterized by concepts or their formation: conceptual discussions

concern [kənˈsə:n] – n. something that interests you because it is important or affects you: the safety of the ship is the captain’s concern

concert [ˈkɔnsət] – v. contrive (a plan) by mutual agreement

concession [kənˈseʃən] – n. a contract granting the right to operate a subsidiary business: he got the beer concession at the ball park

conclude [kənˈklu:d] – v. bring to a close: The committee concluded the meeting

conclusion [kənˈklu:ʒən] – n. a position or opinion or judgment reached after consideration: his conclusion took the evidence into account

concrete [ˈkɔnkri:t] – v. cover with cement: concrete the walls

condemn [kənˈdem] – v. express strong disapproval of: We condemn the racism in South Africa

condition [kənˈdiʃən] – n. a state at a particular time: a condition (or state) of disrepair

conduct [kənˈdʌkt] – v. direct the course of; manage or control: You cannot conduct business like this

conductor [kənˈdʌktə] – n. the person who leads a musical group

confer [kənˈfə:] – v. present: The university conferred a degree on its most famous former student, who never graduated

conference [ˈkɔnfərəns] – n. a prearranged meeting for consultation or exchange of information or discussion (especially one with a formal agenda)

confess [kənˈfes] – v. admit (to a wrongdoing): She confessed that she had taken the money

confession [kənˈfeʃən] – n. an admission of misdeeds or faults

confidence [ˈkɔnfidəns] – n. freedom from doubt; belief in yourself and your abilities: after that failure he lost his confidence

confident [ˈkɔnfidənt] – adj. persuaded of; very sure: was confident he would win

confidential [.kɑ:nfiˈdenʃəl] – adj. (of information) given in confidence or in secret: this arrangement must be kept confidential

configuration [kən.figjuˈreiʃən] – n. an arrangement of parts or elements: the outcome depends on the configuration of influences at the time

confine [kənˈfain] – v. place limits on (extent or access)

confirm [kənˈfə:m] – v. establish or strengthen as with new evidence or facts: his story confirmed my doubts

confirmation [.kɔnfəˈmeiʃən] – n. additional proof that something that was believed (some fact or hypothesis or theory) is correct: fossils provided further confirmation of the evolutionary theory

conflict [ˈkɔnflikt] – n. an open clash between two opposing groups (or individuals): the harder the conflict the more glorious the triumph

conform [kənˈfɔ:m] – v. be similar, be in line with

confront [kənˈfrʌnt] – v. oppose, as in hostility or a competition: You must confront your opponent

confrontation [.kɔnfrʌnˈteiʃən] – n. a bold challenge

confuse [kənˈfju:z] – v. mistake one thing for another

confusion [kənˈfju:ʒən] – n. disorder resulting from a failure to behave predictably: the army retreated in confusion

congratulate [kənˈgrætju.leit] – v. say something to someone that expresses praise

congregation [.kɔŋgriˈgeiʃən] – n. a group of people who adhere to a common faith and habitually attend a given church

congress [ˈkɔŋgres] – n. the legislature of the United States government

conjunction [kənˈdʒʌŋkʃən] – n. the temporal property of two things happening at the same time

connect [kəˈnekt] – v. be or become joined or united or linked: The two streets connect to become a highway

connection [kəˈnekʃən] – n. a relation between things or events (as in the case of one causing the other or sharing features with it): there was a connection between eating that pickle and having that nightmare

conscience [ˈkɔnʃəns] – n. motivation deriving logically from ethical or moral principles that govern a person’s thoughts and actions

conscious [ˈkɔnʃəs] – adj. intentionally conceived: a conscious effort to speak more slowly

consciousness [ˈkɔnʃəsnəs] – n. an alert cognitive state in which you are aware of yourself and your situation: he lost consciousness

consensus [kənˈsensəs] – n. agreement in the judgment or opinion reached by a group as a whole: the lack of consensus reflected differences in theoretical positions

consent [kənˈsent] – n. permission to do something: he indicated his consent

consequence [ˈkɔnsikwəns] – n. a phenomenon that follows and is caused by some previous phenomenon: his decision had depressing consequences for business

consequently [ˈkɔnsikwəntli] – adv. (sentence connectors) because of the reason given: consequently, he didn’t do it

conservation [.kɔnsə:ˈveiʃən] – n. an occurrence of improvement by virtue of preventing loss or injury or other change

conservative [kənˈsə:vətiv] – adj. resistant to change

consider [kənˈsidə] – v. deem to be: I consider her to be shallow

considerable [kənˈsidərəbl] – adj. large or relatively large in number or amount or extent or degree: a considerable quantity

considerably [kənˈsidərəbəli] – adv. to a great extent or degree: painting the room white made it seem considerably (or substantially) larger

consideration [kənsidəˈreiʃən] – n. the process of giving careful thought to something

consist [kənˈsist] – v. originate (in)

consistency [kənˈsistənsi] – n. the property of holding together and retaining its shape: when the dough has enough consistency it is ready to bake

consistent [kənˈsistənt] – adj. capable of being reproduced

consistently [kənˈsistəntli] – adv. in a systematic or consistent manner

consolidate [kənˈsɔlideit] – v. unite into one: The companies consolidated

consortium [kənˈsɔ:tjəm] – n. an association of companies for some definite purpose

conspiracy [kənˈspirəsi] – n. a secret agreement between two or more people to perform an unlawful act

constable [ˈkʌnstəbl] – n. a lawman with less authority and jurisdiction than a sheriff

constant [ˈkɔnstənt] – adj. unvarying in nature: maintained a constant temperature

constantly [ˈkɔnstəntli] – adv. without variation or change, in every case: constantly kind and gracious

constituency [kənˈstitjuənsi] – n. the body of voters who elect a representative for their area

constituent [kənˈstitjuənt] – n. a member of a constituency; a citizen who is represented in a government by officials for whom he or she votes: needs continued support by constituents to be re-elected

constitute [ˈkɔnstitju:t] – v. form or compose: These constitute my entire belonging

constitution [.kɔnstiˈtju:ʃən] – n. law determining the fundamental political principles of a government

constitutional [.kɔnstiˈtju:ʃənəl] – adj. of benefit to or intended to benefit your physical makeup: constitutional walk

constrain [kənˈstrein] – v. hold back

constraint [kənˈstreint] – n. a device that retards something’s motion

construct [ˈkɔnstrʌkt,kənˈstrʌkt] – v. make by combining materials and parts: Some eccentric constructed an electric brassiere warmer

construction [kənˈstrʌkʃən] – n. a group of words that form a constituent of a sentence and are considered as a single unit: I concluded from his awkward constructions that he was a foreigner

constructive  – adj. emphasizing what is laudable or hopeful or to the good: constructive criticism

consult [kənˈsʌlt] – v. get or ask advice from: They had to consult before arriving at a decision

consultant [kənˈsʌltənt] – n. an expert who gives advice

consultation [.kɔnsəlˈteiʃən] – n. a conference (usually with someone important): he had a consultation with the judge

consume [kənˈsju:m] – v. eat immoderately

consumer [kənˈsju:mə] – n. a person who uses goods or services

consumption [kənˈsʌmpʃən] – n. the process of taking food into the body through the mouth (as by eating)

contact [ˈkɔntækt] – n. close interaction: they kept in daily contact

contain [kənˈtein] – v. lessen the intensity of; temper; hold in restraint; hold or keep within limits

container [kənˈteinə] – n. any object that can be used to hold things (especially a large metal boxlike object of standardized dimensions that can be loaded from one form of transport to another)

contemplate [ˈkɔntem.pleit] – v. look at thoughtfully; observe deep in thought: contemplate one’s navel

contemporary [kənˈtempərəri] – adj. characteristic of the present: contemporary trends in design

contempt [kənˈtempt] – n. lack of respect accompanied by a feeling of intense dislike: he was held in contempt

contend [kənˈtend] – v. maintain or assert: He contended that Communism had no future

content [ˈkɔntent,kənˈtent] – n. everything that is included in a collection and that is held or included in something: he emptied the contents of his pockets

contest [ˈkɔntest,kənˈtest] – n. a struggle between rivals

context [ˈkɔntekst] – n. discourse that surrounds a language unit and helps to determine its interpretation

continent [ˈkɔntinənt] – n. one of the large landmasses of the earth: there are seven continents

continental [.kɔntiˈnentl] – adj. of or pertaining to or typical of Europe

continually  – adv. seemingly without interruption: complained continually that there wasn’t enough money

continuation [kən.tinjuˈeiʃən] – n. a part added to a book or play that continues and extends it

continue [kənˈtinju:] – v. keep or maintain in unaltered condition; cause to remain or last: continue the family tradition

continued  – adj. without stop or interruption: to insure the continued success of the war

continuing  – adj. remaining in force or being carried on without letup: the act provided a continuing annual appropriation

continuity [.kɔntiˈnju:iti] – n. uninterrupted connection or union

continuous [kənˈtinjuəs] – adj. of a function or curve; extending without break or irregularity

continuously [kənˈtinjʊəsli] – adv. at every point: The function is continuously differentiable

contraction [kənˈtrækʃən] – n. (physiology) a shortening or tensing of a part or organ (especially of a muscle or muscle fiber)

contractor [kənˈtræktə(r)] – n. the bridge player in contract bridge who wins the bidding and can declare which suit is to be trumps

contractual [kənˈtræktjuəl] – adj. relating to or part of a binding legal agreement: contractual obligations

contradiction [.kɔntrəˈdikʃən] – n. opposition between two conflicting forces or ideas

contrary [ˈkɔntrəri] – adj. very opposed in nature or character or purpose: acts contrary to our code of ethics

contrast [ˈkɔntræst,kənˈtræst] – n. the opposition or dissimilarity of things that are compared: in contrast to

contribute [kənˈtribju:t] – v. bestow a quality on

contribution [.kɔntriˈbju:ʃən] – n. the part played by a person in bringing about a result: I am proud of my contribution in advancing the project

control [kənˈtrəul] – n. power to direct or determine: under control

controlled  – adj. restrained or managed or kept within certain bounds: controlled emotions

controller [kənˈtrəulə] – n. someone who maintains and audits business accounts

controversial [.kɔntrəˈvə:ʃəl] – adj. marked by or capable of arousing controversy: the issue of the death penalty is highly controversial

controversy [ˈkɔntrəvə:si] – n. a contentious speech act; a dispute where there is strong disagreement

convenience [kənˈvi:njəns] – n. the state of being suitable or opportune: chairs arranged for his own convenience

convenient [kənˈvi:njənt] – adj. suited to your comfort or purpose or needs: a convenient excuse for not going

convention [kənˈvenʃən] – n. a large formal assembly: political convention

conventional [kənˈvenʃənl] – adj. following accepted customs and proprieties: conventional wisdom

conversation [.kɔnvəˈseiʃən] – n. the use of speech for informal exchange of views or ideas or information etc.

conversely [kənˈvə:sli] – adv. with the terms of the relation reversed: conversely, not all women are mothers

conversion [kənˈvə:ʃən] – n. an event that results in a transformation

convert [ˈkɔnvə:t,kənˈvə:t] – v. change from one system to another or to a new plan or policy: We converted from 220 to 110 Volt

convey [kənˈvei] – v. make known; pass on, of information: She conveyed the message to me

convict [ˈkɔnvikt,kənˈvikt] – n. a person serving a sentence in a jail or prison

conviction [kənˈvikʃən] – n. an unshakable belief in something without need for proof or evidence

convince [kənˈvins] – v. make (someone) agree, understand, or realize the truth or validity of something: He had finally convinced several customers of the advantages of his product

convincing [kənˈvinsiŋ] – adj. causing one to believe the truth of something: a convincing story

cook [kuk] – v. prepare a hot meal: My husband doesn’t cook

cooking  – n. the act of preparing something (as food) by the application of heat: cooking can be a great art

cool [ku:l] – adj. marked by calm self-control (especially in trying circumstances); unemotional: play it cool

cooperation [kəu.ɔpəˈreiʃən] – n. joint operation or action: their cooperation with us was essential for the success of our mission

coordinate [kəuˈɔ:dneit] – v. bring order and organization to

cop [kɔp] – v. take by theft

cope [kəup] – n. brick that is laid sideways at the top of a wall

copper [ˈkɔpə] – n. uncomplimentary terms for a policeman

copy [ˈkɔpi] – n. a thing made to be similar or identical to another thing: she made a copy of the designer dress

copyright [ˈkɔpirait] – n. a document granting exclusive right to publish and sell literary or musical or artistic work

cord [kɔ:d] – n. a line made of twisted fibers or threads: the bundle was tied with a cord

core [kɔ:] – n. a small group of indispensable persons or things: five periodicals make up the core of their publishing program

corn [kɔ:n] – n. a hard thickening of the skin (especially on the top or sides of the toes) caused by the pressure of ill-fitting shoes

corner [ˈkɔ:nə] – n. a place off to the side of an area: he tripled to the rightfield corner

corporate [ˈkɔ:pərit] – adj. possessing or existing in bodily form: `corporate’ is an archaic term

corps [kɔ:] – n. an army unit usually consisting of two or more divisions and their support

corpse [kɔ:ps] – n. the dead body of a human being: the end of the police search was the discovery of a corpse

correct [kəˈrekt] – v. make reparations or amends for

correction [kəˈrekʃən] – n. the act of offering an improvement to replace a mistake; setting right

correctly [kəˈrektli] – adv. in an accurate manner: the flower had been correctly depicted by his son

correlation [, kɔrəˈleiʃən] – n. a reciprocal relation between two or more things

correspond [.kɔrisˈpɔnd] – v. be compatible, similar or consistent; coincide in their characteristics

correspondence [.kɔriˈspɔndəns] – n. communication by the exchange of letters

correspondent [.kɔriˈspɔndənt] – n. someone who communicates by means of letters

corresponding [.kɔriˈspɔndiŋ] – adj. accompanying: all rights carry with them corresponding responsibilities

corridor [ˈkɔridɔ:] – n. an enclosed passageway; rooms usually open onto it

corruption [kəˈrʌpʃən] – n. lack of integrity or honesty (especially susceptibility to bribery); use of a position of trust for dishonest gain

cost [kɔst] – n. the total spent for goods or services including money and time and labor

costly [ˈkɔstli] – adj. entailing great loss or sacrifice

costume [ˈkɔstju:m] – n. the attire worn in a play or at a fancy dress ball: he won the prize for best costume

cottage [ˈkɔtidʒ] – n. a small house with a single story

cotton [ˈkɔtn] – n. erect bushy mallow plant or small tree bearing bolls containing seeds with many long hairy fibers

cough [kɔf] – v. exhale abruptly, as when one has a chest cold or congestion: The smoker coughs all day

council [ˈkaunsil] – n. a body serving in an administrative capacity: student council

councillor  – n. a member of a council

counsel [ˈkaunsəl] – n. a lawyer who pleads cases in court

counselling  – n. something that provides direction or advice as to a decision or course of action

counsellor  – n. someone who has supervisory duties at a summer camp

count  – v. determine the number or amount of: Can you count the books on your shelf?

counter [ˈkauntə] – n. table consisting of a horizontal surface over which business is transacted

counterpart [ˈkauntəpɑ:t] – n. a person or thing having the same function or characteristics as another

country [ˈkʌntri] – n. a politically organized body of people under a single government: the country’s largest manufacturer

countryside [ˈkʌntriˈsaid] – n. rural regions

county [ˈkaunti] – n. (United Kingdom) a region created by territorial division for the purpose of local government: the county has a population of 12,345 people

coup [ku:] – n. a sudden and decisive change of government illegally or by force

couple [ˈkʌpl] – n. a pair who associate with one another: the engaged couple

courage [ˈkʌridʒ] – n. a quality of spirit that enables you to face danger or pain without showing fear

course [kɔ:s] – n. education imparted in a series of lessons or meetings: he took a course in basket weaving

court [kɔ:t] – n. an assembly (including one or more judges) to conduct judicial business

courtesy [ˈkə:tisi] – n. a courteous or respectful or considerate remark

courtyard [ˈkɔ:tˈjɑ:d] – n. an area wholly or partly surrounded by walls or buildings

cousin [ˈkʌzn] – n. the child of your aunt or uncle

covenant [ˈkʌvənənt] – n. a signed written agreement between two or more parties (nations) to perform some action

cover [ˈkʌvə] – v. span an interval of distance, space or time: The period covered the turn of the century

coverage [ˈkʌvəridʒ] – n. the total amount and type of insurance carried

cow [kau] – n. female of domestic cattle:: `moo-cow’ is a child’s term

crack [kræk] – v. make a very sharp explosive sound: His gun cracked

craft [krɑ:ft] – n. the skilled practice of a practical occupation

craftsman [ˈkrɑ:ftsmən] – n. a professional whose work is consistently of high quality: as an actor he was a consummate craftsman

crash [kræʃ] – v. fall or come down violently: The branch crashed down on my car

crawl [krɔ:l] – v. move slowly; in the case of people or animals with the body near the ground: The crocodile was crawling along the riverbed

crazy [ˈkreizi] – adj. affected with madness or insanity

cream [kri:m] – v. beat thoroughly and conclusively in a competition or fight

create [kriˈeit] – v. make or cause to be or to become: create a furor

creation [kriˈeiʃən] – n. an artifact that has been brought into existence by someone

creative [kriˈeitiv] – adj. promoting construction or creation: creative work

creature [ˈkri:tʃə] – n. a living organism characterized by voluntary movement

credibility  – n. the quality of being believable or trustworthy

credit [ˈkredit] – n. approval: he was given credit for his work

creditor [ˈkreditə] – n. a person to whom money is owed by a debtor; someone to whom an obligation exists

creed [kri:d] – n. any system of principles or beliefs

creep [kri:p] – n. someone unpleasantly strange or eccentric

crew [kru:] – n. an organized group of workmen

cricket [ˈkrikit] – n. leaping insect; male makes chirping noises by rubbing the forewings together

crime [kraim] – n. an evil act not necessarily punishable by law: crimes of the heart

criminal [ˈkriminəl] – adj. bringing or deserving severe rebuke or censure: a criminal waste of talent

crisis [ˈkraisis] – n. an unstable situation of extreme danger or difficulty: they went bankrupt during the economic crisis

criterion [kraiˈtiəriən] – n. a basis for comparison; a reference point against which other things can be evaluated

critic [ˈkritik] – n. a person who is professionally engaged in the analysis and interpretation of works of art

critical [ˈkritikəl] – adj. marked by a tendency to find and call attention to errors and flaws: a critical attitude

criticise  – v. act as a critic

criticism [ˈkriti.sizəm] – n. disapproval expressed by pointing out faults or shortcomings: the senator received severe criticism from his opponent

criticize [ˈkritisaiz] – v. act as a critic: Those who criticize others often are not perfect, either

critique [kriˈti:k] – n. a serious examination and judgment of something

crop [krɔp] – n. the yield from plants in a single growing season

cross [krɔs] – v. meet at a point

crossing [ˈkrɔsiŋ] – n. a shallow area in a stream that can be forded

crouch [ˈkrautʃ] – v. bend one’s back forward from the waist on down: he crouched down

crowd [kraud] – v. fill or occupy to the point of overflowing: The students crowded the auditorium

crown [kraun] – n. the Crown (or the reigning monarch) as the symbol of the power and authority of a monarchy

crucial [ˈkru:ʃəl] – adj. of extreme importance; vital to the resolution of a crisis: a crucial moment in his career

crude [kru:d] – adj. not carefully or expertly made: managed to make a crude splint

cruel [ˈkru:əl] – adj. (of persons or their actions) able or disposed to inflict pain or suffering: cruel tortures

cruelty [ˈkru:əlti] – n. feelings of extreme heartlessness

crush [krʌʃ] – v. come down on or keep down by unjust use of one’s authority

cry [krai] – v. shed tears because of sadness, rage, or pain

crystal [ˈkristl] – n. a solid formed by the solidification of a chemical and having a highly regular atomic structure

cult [kʌlt] – n. followers of an exclusive system of religious beliefs and practices

cultivate [ˈkʌltiveit] – v. foster the growth of

cultural [ˈkʌltʃər(ə)l] – adj. of or relating to the arts and manners that a group favors: cultural events

culture [ˈkʌltʃə] – n. a particular society at a particular time and place

cup [kʌp] – n. a small open container usually used for drinking; usually has a handle: he put the cup back in the saucer

cupboard [ˈkʌbəd] – n. a small room (or recess) or cabinet used for storage space

cure [kjuə] – v. prepare by drying, salting, or chemical processing in order to preserve: cure meats

curiosity [.kjuəriˈɔsiti] – n. a state in which you want to learn more about something

curious [ˈkjuəriəs] – adj. beyond or deviating from the usual or expected: a curious hybrid accent

curiously  – adv. in a manner differing from the usual or expected: had a curiously husky voice

curl [kə:l] – v. wind around something in coils or loops

currency [ˈkʌrənsi] – n. the metal or paper medium of exchange that is presently used

current [ˈkʌrənt] – n. a flow of electricity through a conductor: the current was measured in amperes

currently [ˈkʌrəntli] – adv. at this time or period; now: currently they live in Connecticut

curriculum [kəˈrikjuləm] – n. an integrated course of academic studies

curtain [ˈkə:tn] – n. hanging cloth used as a blind (especially for a window)

curve [kə:v] – n. the trace of a point whose direction of motion changes

cushion [ˈkuʃən] – n. a mechanical damper; absorbs energy of sudden impulses

custody [ˈkʌstədi] – n. a state of being confined (usually for a short time): he is in the custody of police

custom [ˈkʌstəm] – n. accepted or habitual practice

customer [ˈkʌstəmə] – n. someone who pays for goods or services

cut [kʌt] – v. separate with or as if with an instrument

cutting [ˈkʌtiŋ] – n. the activity of selecting the scenes to be shown and putting them together to create a film

cycle [ˈsaikl] – n. an interval during which a recurring sequence of events occurs: the never-ending cycle of the seasons

cylinder [ˈsilində] – n. a surface generated by rotating a parallel line around a fixed line

daily [ˈdeili] – adj. of or belonging to or occurring every day: daily routine

dairy [ˈdɛəri] – n. a farm where dairy products are produced

damage [ˈdæmidʒ] – n. the occurrence of a change for the worse

damaging  – adj. (sometimes followed by `to’) causing harm or injury: damaging to career and reputation

damn [dæm] – adj. used as expletives: oh, damn (or goddamn)!

damp [dæmp] – v. deaden (a sound or noise), especially by wrapping

dance [dɑ:ns] – n. an artistic form of nonverbal communication

dancer [ˈdɑ:nsə] – n. a person who participates in a social gathering arranged for dancing (as a ball)

dancing  – n. taking a series of rhythmical steps (and movements) in time to music

danger [ˈdeindʒə] – n. the condition of being susceptible to harm or injury: you are in no danger

dangerous [ˈdeindʒərəs] – adj. causing fear or anxiety by threatening great harm: a dangerous operation

dare [dɛə] – v. take upon oneself; act presumptuously, without permission: How dare you call my lawyer?

dark [dɑ:k] – adj. devoid of or deficient in light or brightness; shadowed or black: sitting in a dark corner

darkness [ˈdɑ:knis] – n. absence of light or illumination

darling [ˈdɑ:liŋ] – n. a special loved one

dash [dæʃ] – n. distinctive and stylish elegance: he wooed her with the confident dash of a cavalry officer

data [ˈdeitə] – n. a collection of facts from which conclusions may be drawn: statistical data

database [ˈdeitə.beis] – n. an organized body of related information

date [deit] – n. the specified day of the month: what is the date today?

daughter [ˈdɔ:tə] – n. a female human offspring: her daughter cared for her in her old age

dawn [dɔ:n] – n. the earliest period: the dawn of civilization

day [dei] – n. time for Earth to make a complete rotation on its axis: two days later they left

daylight [ˈdeilait] – n. the time after sunrise and before sunset while it is light outside

dead [ded] – adj. no longer having or seeming to have or expecting to have life: the nerve is dead

deadline [ˈdedlain] – n. the point in time at which something must be completed

deadly [ˈdedli] – adj. causing or capable of causing death: a deadly enemy

deaf [def] – adj. (usually followed by `to’) unwilling or refusing to pay heed: deaf to her warnings

deal [di:l] – v. act on verbally or in some form of artistic expression: This book deals with incest

dealer [ˈdi:lə] – n. someone who purchases and maintains an inventory of goods to be sold

dealing [ˈdi:liŋ] – n. method or manner of conduct in relation to others: honest dealing

dear [diə] – adj. with or in a close or intimate relationship: my sisters and brothers are near and dear

death [deθ] – n. the event of dying or departure from life: her death came as a terrible shock

debate [diˈbeit] – v. argue with one another: We debated the question of abortion

debt [det] – n. the state of owing something (especially money): he is badly in debt

debtor [ˈdetə] – n. a person who owes a creditor; someone who has the obligation of paying a debt

debut [ˈdeibju:] – v. present for the first time to the public: The band debuts a new song or two each month

decade [ˈdekeid] – n. a period of 10 years

decay [diˈkei] – n. the process of gradually becoming inferior

decent [ˈdi:snt] – adj. socially or conventionally correct; refined or virtuous: from a decent family

decide [diˈsaid] – v. bring to an end; settle conclusively: The case was decided

decision [diˈsiʒən] – n. the act of making up your mind about something: the burden of decision was his

decisive [diˈsaisiv] – adj. determining or having the power to determine an outcome: cast the decisive vote

deck [dek] – n. any of various platforms built into a vessel

declaration [.dekləˈreiʃən] – n. a statement that is emphatic and explicit (spoken or written)

declare [diˈklɛə] – v. state emphatically and authoritatively: He declared that he needed more money to carry out the task he was charged with

decline [diˈklain] – v. grow worse

decorate [ˈdekəreit] – v. make more attractive by adding ornament, colour, etc.

decoration [.dekəˈreiʃən] – n. something used to beautify

decorative [ˈdekərətiv] – adj. serving an esthetic rather than a useful purpose: the buildings were utilitarian rather than decorative

decrease [ˈdi:kri:s,di:ˈkri:s] – n. a change downward: there was a decrease in his temperature as the fever subsided

decree [diˈkri:] – v. decide with authority: The King decreed that all firstborn males should be killed

dedicate [ˈdedikeit] – v. give entirely to a specific person, activity, or cause

deed [di:d] – n. something that people do or cause to happen

deem [di:m] – v. keep in mind or convey as a conviction or view

deep [di:p] – adj. marked by depth of thinking: deep thoughts

deeply [ˈdi:pli] – adv. to a great depth psychologically: They felt the loss deeply

deer [diə] – n. distinguished from Bovidae by the male’s having solid deciduous antlers

default [diˈfɔ:lt] – n. loss due to not showing up: he lost the game by default

defeat [diˈfi:t] – n. an unsuccessful ending to a struggle or contest: it was a narrow defeat

defect [diˈfekt] – n. an imperfection in a bodily system: visual defects

defence  – n. (psychiatry) an unconscious process that tries to reduce the anxiety associated with instinctive desires

defend [diˈfend] – v. be on the defensive; act against an attack

defendant [diˈfendənt] – n. a person or institution against whom an action is brought in a court of law; the person being sued or accused

defender  – n. a person who cares for persons or property

defensive [diˈfensiv] – adj. attempting to justify or defend in speech or writing

deficiency [diˈfiʃənsi] – n. the state of needing something that is absent or unavailable: water is the critical deficiency in desert regions

deficit [ˈdefisit] – n. the property of being an amount by which something is less than expected or required: new blood vessels bud out from the already dilated vascular bed to make up the nutritional deficit

define [diˈfain] – v. determine the essential quality of

definite [ˈdefinit] – adj. known for certain: it is definite that they have won

definitely [ˈdefinitli] – adv. without question and beyond doubt

definition [.defiˈniʃən] – n. a concise explanation of the meaning of a word or phrase or symbol

defy [diˈfai] – v. resist or confront with resistance

degree [diˈgri:] – n. a position on a scale of intensity or amount or quality: it is all a matter of degree

delay [diˈlei] – v. act later than planned, scheduled, or required: Don’t delay your application to graduate school or else it won’t be considered

delegate [ˈdeligeit,ˈdeligit] – v. transfer power to someone

delegation [.deliˈgeiʃən] – n. authorizing subordinates to make certain decisions

delete [diˈli:t] – v. remove or make invisible: Please delete my name from your list

deliberate [diˈlibərit] – v. think about carefully; weigh

deliberately [diˈlibərətli] – adv. with intention; in an intentional manner

delicate [ˈdelikit] – adj. exquisitely fine and subtle and pleasing; susceptible to injury: a delicate violin passage

delicious [diˈliʃəs] – adj. greatly pleasing or entertaining: a delicious joke

delight [diˈlait] – v. give pleasure to or be pleasing to

delightful [diˈlaitful] – adj. greatly pleasing or entertaining: a delightful surprise

deliver [diˈlivə] – v. to surrender someone or something to another: the guard delivered the criminal to the police

delivery [diˈlivəri] – n. the event of giving birth: she had a difficult delivery

demand [diˈmɑ:nd] – v. request urgently and forcefully: The victim’s family is demanding compensation

democracy [diˈmɔkrəsi] – n. the political orientation of those who favor government by the people or by their elected representatives

democrat [ˈdeməkræt] – n. a member of the Democratic Party

democratic [.deməˈkrætik] – adj. belong to or relating to the Democratic Party

demolish [diˈmɔliʃ] – v. destroy completely: the wrecking ball demolished the building

demonstrate [ˈdemənstreit] – v. give an exhibition of to an interested audience

demonstration [.demənsˈtreiʃən] – n. a show or display; the act of presenting something to sight or view: he gave the customer a demonstration

demonstrator [ˈdemənstreitə] – n. someone who demonstrates an article to a prospective buyer

denial [diˈnaiəl] – n. the act of refusing to comply (as with a request): it resulted in a complete denial of his privileges

denounce [diˈnauns] – v. speak out against: He denounced the Nazis

dense [dens] – adj. having high relative density or specific gravity: dense as lead

density [ˈdensiti] – n. the amount per unit size

dentist [ˈdentist] – n. a person qualified to practice dentistry

deny [diˈnai] – v. refuse to accept or believe

depart [diˈpɑ:t] – v. move away from a place into another direction: The train departs at noon

department [diˈpɑ:tmənt] – n. a specialized division of a large organization: you’ll find it in the hardware department

departmental  – adj. of or relating to a department: departmental policy

departure [diˈpɑ:tʃə] – n. a variation that deviates from the standard or norm

depend [diˈpend] – v. be contingent upon (something that is elided): That depends

dependence [diˈpendəns] – n. the state of relying on or being controlled by someone or something else

dependency  – n. the state of relying on or being controlled by someone or something else

dependent [diˈpendənt] – adj. relying on or requiring a person or thing for support, supply, or what is needed: dependent children

depict [diˈpikt] – v. show in, or as in, a picture: This scene depicts country life

deploy [diˈplɔi] – v. place troops or weapons in battle formation

deposit [diˈpɔzit] – n. the phenomenon of sediment or gravel accumulating

depot [ˈdepəu; ˈdi:-] – n. station where transport vehicles load or unload passengers or goods

depression [diˈpreʃən] – n. a mental state characterized by a pessimistic sense of inadequacy and a despondent lack of activity

deprivation [.depriˈveiʃən] – n. a state of extreme poverty

deprive [diˈpraiv] – v. take away possessions from someone

depth [depθ] – n. the extent downward or backward or inward: the depth of the water

deputy [ˈdepjuti] – n. someone authorized to exercise the powers of sheriff in emergencies

derive [diˈraiv] – v. reason by deduction; establish by deduction

descend [diˈsend] – v. move downward and lower, but not necessarily all the way

descent [diˈsent] – n. a movement downward

describe [diˈskraib] – v. to give an account or representation of in words: Discreet Italian police described it in a manner typically continental

description [diˈskripʃən] – n. a statement that represents something in words

desert [ˈdezət,diˈzə:t] – v. leave someone who needs or counts on you; leave in the lurch: The mother deserted her children

deserve [diˈzə:v] – v. be worthy or deserving: You deserve a promotion after all the hard work you have done

design [diˈzain] – n. the act of working out the form of something (as by making a sketch or outline or plan): he contributed to the design of a new instrument

designate [ˈdezigneit] – v. assign a name or title to

designer [diˈzainə] – n. someone who creates plans to be used in making something (such as buildings)

desirable [diˈzaiərəbl] – adj. worth having or seeking or achieving: a desirable job

desire [diˈzaiə] – n. the feeling that accompanies an unsatisfied state

desired  – adj. wanted intensely: it produced the desired effect

desk [desk] – n. a piece of furniture with a writing surface and usually drawers or other compartments

desktop  – n. (computer science) the area of the screen in graphical user interfaces against which icons and windows appear

despair [diˈspɛə] – n. a state in which all hope is lost or absent: in the depths of despair

desperate [ˈdespərit] – adj. arising from or marked by despair or loss of hope: a desperate cry for help

desperately [ˈdespəritli] – adv. with great urgency: the soil desperately needed potash

destination [.destiˈneiʃən] – n. the place designated as the end (as of a race or journey): he was nearly exhausted as their destination came into view

destiny [ˈdestini] – n. an event (or a course of events) that will inevitably happen in the future

destroy [disˈtrɔi] – v. do away with, cause the destruction or undoing of: The fire destroyed the house

destruction [diˈstrʌkʃən] – n. the termination of something by causing so much damage to it that it cannot be repaired or no longer exists

detail [ˈdi:teil] – n. an isolated fact that is considered separately from the whole: several of the details are similar

detain [diˈtein] – v. deprive of freedom; take into confinement

detect [diˈtekt] – v. discover or determine the existence, presence, or fact of: She detected high levels of lead in her drinking water

detection [diˈtekʃən] – n. the perception that something has occurred or some state exists: early detection can often lead to a cure

detective [diˈtektiv] – n. a police officer who investigates crimes

detector  – n. rectifier that extracts modulation from a radio carrier wave

detention  – n. a state of being confined (usually for a short time): his detention was politically motivated

deter [diˈtə:] – v. try to prevent; show opposition to

deteriorate [diˈtiəriəreit] – v. become worse or disintegrate: His mind deteriorated

determination [di.tə:miˈneiʃən] – n. the quality of being determined to do or achieve something; firmness of purpose: his determination showed in his every movement

determine [diˈtə:min] – v. establish after a calculation, investigation, experiment, survey, or study

determined [diˈtə:mind] – adj. characterized by great determination: a struggle against a determined enemy

develop [diˈveləp] – v. make something new, such as a product or a mental or artistic creation: Her company developed a new kind of building material that withstands all kinds of weather

developer  – n. photographic equipment consisting of a chemical solution for developing film

developing [diˈveləpiŋ] – n. processing a photosensitive material in order to make an image visible

development [diˈveləpmənt] – n. act of improving by expanding or enlarging or refining: he congratulated them on their development of a plan to meet the emergency

deviation [.di:viˈeiʃən] – n. the difference between an observed value and the expected value of a variable or function

device [diˈvais] – n. an instrumentality invented for a particular purpose: the device is small enough to wear on your wrist

devil [ˈdevl] – n. (Judeo-Christian and Islamic religions) chief spirit of evil and adversary of God; tempter of mankind; master of Hell

devise [diˈvaiz] – v. come up with (an idea, plan, explanation, theory, or principle) after a mental effort

devote [diˈvəut] – v. give entirely to a specific person, activity, or cause

devoted [diˈvəutid] – adj. (followed by `to’) dedicated exclusively to a purpose or use: large sums devoted to the care of the poor

diagnose [ˈdaiəgnəuz] – v. subject to a medical analysis

diagnosis [.daiəgˈnəusis] – n. identifying the nature or cause of some phenomenon

diagram [ˈdaiəgræm] – n. a drawing intended to explain how something works; a drawing showing the relation between the parts

dialogue [ˈdaiəlɔg] – n. a conversation between two persons

diameter [daiˈæmitə] – n. the length of a straight line passing through the center of a circle and connecting two points on the circumference

diamond [ˈdaiəmənd] – n. very hard native crystalline carbon valued as a gem

diary [ˈdaiəri] – n. a daily written record of (usually personal) experiences and observations

dictate [ˈdikteit,dikˈteit] – v. issue commands or orders for

dictionary [ˈdikʃəneri] – n. a reference book containing an alphabetical list of words with information about them

die [dai] – v. suffer or face the pain of death: Martyrs may die every day for their faith

diet [ˈdaiət] – n. a prescribed selection of foods

differ [ˈdifə] – v. be different: These two tests differ in only one respect

difference [ˈdifərəns] – n. the quality of being unlike or dissimilar: there are many differences between jazz and rock

different [ˈdifərənt] – adj. unlike in nature or quality or form or degree: took different approaches to the problem

differential [.difəˈrenʃəl] – n. a quality that differentiates between similar things

differentiate [.difəˈrenʃi.eit] – v. be a distinctive feature, attribute, or trait; sometimes in a very positive sense

differentiation  – n. the mathematical process of obtaining the derivative of a function

differently [ˈdifrentli] – adv. in another and different manner: very soon you will know differently

difficult [ˈdifikəlt] – adj. not easy; requiring great physical or mental effort to accomplish or comprehend or endure: a difficult task

difficulty [ˈdifikəlti] – n. an effort that is inconvenient: had difficulty walking

dig [dig] – v. turn up, loosen, or remove earth

digital [ˈdidʒitəl] – adj. displaying numbers rather than scale positions: digital clock

dignity [ˈdigniti] – n. the quality of being worthy of esteem or respect: it was beneath his dignity to cheat

dilemma [diˈlemə] – n. state of uncertainty or perplexity especially as requiring a choice between equally unfavorable options

dimension [diˈmenʃən] – n. the magnitude of something in a particular direction (especially length or width or height)

diminish [diˈminiʃ] – v. decrease in size, extent, or range

dine [dain] – v. give dinner to; host for dinner

dining  – n. the act of eating dinner

dinner [ˈdinə] – n. the main meal of the day served in the evening or at midday: dinner will be at 8

dioxide [daiˈɔksaid] – n. an oxide containing two atoms of oxygen in the molecule

dip [dip] – v. immerse briefly into a liquid so as to wet, coat, or saturate: dip the garment into the cleaning solution

diplomat [ˈdipləmæt] – n. an official engaged in international negotiations

diplomatic [.dipləˈmætik] – adj. using or marked by tact in dealing with sensitive matters or people: the hostess averted a confrontation with a diplomatic chenage of subject

direct [diˈrekt] – v. command with authority: He directed the children to do their homework

direction [diˈrekʃən] – n. a line leading to a place or point: he looked the other direction

directive [diˈrektiv, daiˈrektiv] – n. a pronouncement encouraging or banning some activity: the boss loves to send us directives

directly [diˈrektli, daiˈrektli] – adv. without deviation: the path leads directly to the lake

director [diˈrektə, daiˈrektə] – n. someone who controls resources and expenditures

directory [diˈrektəri] – n. an alphabetical list of names and addresses

dirt [də:t] – n. the state of being covered with unclean things

dirty [ˈdə:ti] – adj. (of behavior or especially language) characterized by obscenity or indecency: dirty words

disability [.disəˈbiliti] – n. the condition of being unable to perform as a consequence of physical or mental unfitness: reading disability

disabled [disˈeib(ə)ld] – n. people collectively who are crippled or otherwise physically handicapped: technology to help the elderly and the disabled

disadvantage [.disədˈvæntidʒ] – n. the quality of having an inferior or less favorable position

disagree [.disəˈgri:] – v. be of different opinions: She disagrees with her husband on many questions

disagreement [disəˈgri:mənt] – n. a conflict of people’s opinions or actions or characters

disappear [.disəˈpiə] – v. get lost, as without warning or explanation: He disappeared without a trace

disappoint [.disəˈpɔint] – v. fail to meet the hopes or expectations of

disappointment [.disəˈpɔintmənt] – n. a feeling of dissatisfaction that results when your expectations are not realized: his hopes were so high he was doomed to disappointment

disaster [diˈzɑ:stə] – n. a state of extreme (usually irremediable) ruin and misfortune: his policies were a disaster

disastrous [diˈzɑ:strəs] – adj. (of events) having extremely unfortunate or dire consequences; bringing ruin: the battle was a disastrous end to a disastrous campaign

disc [disk] – n. something with a round shape resembling a flat circular plate

discard [ˈdiskɑ:d,disˈkɑ:d] – n. (cards) the act of throwing out a useless card or of failing to follow suit

discharge [disˈtʃɑ:dʒ] – v. complete or carry out: discharge one’s duties

disciplinary [ˈdisiplinəri] – adj. relating to a specific field of academic study: economics in its modern disciplinary sense

discipline [ˈdisiplin] – n. a branch of knowledge: in what discipline is his doctorate?

disclose [disˈkləuz] – v. make known to the public information that was previously known only to a few people or that was meant to be kept a secret: The auction house would not disclose the price at which the van Gogh had sold

disclosure  – n. the speech act of making something evident

disco [ˈdiskəu] – n. a public dance hall for dancing to recorded popular music

discourage [disˈkʌridʒ] – v. try to prevent; show opposition to: We should discourage this practice among our youth

discourse [disˈkɔ:s, ˈdiskɔ:s] – n. extended verbal expression in speech or writing

discover [disˈkʌvə] – v. get to know or become aware of, usually accidentally

discovery [disˈkʌvəri] – n. something that is discovered

discretion [diˈskreʃən] – n. freedom to act or judge on one’s own

discrimination [di.skrimiˈneiʃən] – n. unfair treatment of a person or group on the basis of prejudice

discuss [diˈskʌs] – v. to consider or examine in speech or writing: The class discussed Dante’s `Inferno’

discussion [diˈskʌʃən] – n. an extended communication (often interactive) dealing with some particular topic: the book contains an excellent discussion of modal logic

disease [diˈzi:z] – n. an impairment of health or a condition of abnormal functioning

disguise [disˈgaiz] – n. an outward semblance that misrepresents the true nature of something: the theatrical notion of disguise is always associated with catastrophe in his stories

dish [diʃ] – n. a particular item of prepared food: she prepared a special dish for dinner

disk [disk] – n. something with a round shape resembling a flat circular plate: the moon’s disk hung in a cloudless sky

dislike [disˈlaik] – n. an inclination to withhold approval from some person or group

dismiss [disˈmis] – v. bar from attention or consideration: She dismissed his advances

dismissal [disˈmisəl] – n. a judgment disposing of the matter without a trial

disorder [disˈɔ:də] – n. a physical condition in which there is a disturbance of normal functioning: the doctor prescribed some medicine for the disorder

disperse [disˈpə:s] – v. distribute loosely

display [diˈsplei] – n. something intended to communicate a particular impression: made a display of strength

disposal [diˈspəuzəl] – n. the power to use something or someone: used all the resources at his disposal

dispose [diˈspəuz] – v. give, sell, or transfer to another: She disposed of her parents’ possessions

disposition [.dispəˈziʃən] – n. your usual mood: he has a happy disposition

dispute [diˈspju:t] – n. a disagreement or argument about something important: he had a dispute with his wife

disrupt [disˈrʌpt] – v. make a break in

disruption  – n. an act of delaying or interrupting the continuity

dissolve [diˈzɔlv] – v. become weaker

distance [ˈdistəns] – n. the property created by the space between two objects or points

distant [ˈdistənt] – adj. far apart in relevance or relationship or kinship: a distant cousin

distinct [diˈstiŋkt] – adj. (often followed by `from’) not alike; different in nature or quality: plants of several distinct types

distinction [diˈstiŋkʃən] – n. high status importance owing to marked superiority

distinctive [disˈtiŋktiv] – adj. capable of being classified

distinctly [diˈstiŋktli] – adv. in a distinct and distinguishable manner: the subtleties of this distinctly British occasion

distinguish [diˈstiŋgwiʃ] – v. mark as different: We distinguish several kinds of maple

distort [disˈtɔ:t] – v. make false by mutilation or addition; as of a message or story

distortion [disˈtɔ:ʃən] – n. a change for the worse

distract [diˈstrækt] – v. draw someone’s attention away from something: The thief distracted the bystanders

distress [diˈstres] – n. psychological suffering: the death of his wife caused him great distress

distribute [diˈstribjut] – v. administer or bestow, as in small portions

distributed  – adj. spread out or scattered about or divided up

distribution [.distriˈbju:ʃən] – n. (statistics) an arrangement of values of a variable showing their observed or theoretical frequency of occurrence

distributor [disˈtribjutə] – n. someone who markets merchandise

district [ˈdistrikt] – n. a region marked off for administrative or other purposes

disturb [disˈtə:b] – v. move deeply

disturbance [disˈtə:bəns] – n. activity that is a malfunction, intrusion, or interruption: he looked around for the source of the disturbance

dive [daiv] – n. a headlong plunge into water

diverse [daiˈvə:s] – adj. many and different: a person of diverse talents

diversity [daiˈvə:siti] – n. noticeable heterogeneity: a diversity of possibilities

divert [daiˈvə:t] – v. turn aside; turn away from

divide [diˈvaid] – v. separate into parts or portions: divide the cake into three equal parts

dividend [ˈdividend] – n. that part of the earnings of a corporation that is distributed to its shareholders; usually paid quarterly

divine [diˈvain] – adj. emanating from God: divine judgment

division [diˈviʒən] – n. an army unit large enough to sustain combat: two infantry divisions were held in reserve

divorce [diˈvɔ:s] – v. part; cease or break association with

do [du:] – v. engage in: do research

dock [dɔk] – n. an enclosure in a court of law where the defendant sits during the trial

doctor [ˈdɔktə] – n. a licensed medical practitioner: I felt so bad I went to see my doctor

doctrine [ˈdɔktrin] – n. a belief (or system of beliefs) accepted as authoritative by some group or school

documentation [.dɔkjumenˈteiʃən] – n. program listings or technical manuals describing the operation and use of programs

dog [dɔg] – n. a dull unattractive unpleasant girl or woman: she’s a real dog

doll [dɔl] – n. a small replica of a person; used as a toy

dollar [ˈdɔlə] – n. the basic monetary unit in many countries; equal to 100 cents

dolphin [ˈdɔlfin] – n. large slender food and game fish widely distributed in warm seas (especially around Hawaii)

domain [dəˈmein] – n. a particular environment or walk of life

dome [dəum] – n. informal terms for a human head

domestic [dəˈmestik] – adj. of concern to or concerning the internal affairs of a nation: domestic issues such as tax rate and highway construction

dominance [ˈdɔminəns] – n. superior development of one side of the body

dominant [ˈdɔminənt] – adj. exercising influence or control: television plays a dominant role in molding public opinion

dominate [ˈdɔmineit] – v. be larger in number, quantity, power, status or importance: Hispanics predominate in this neighborhood

domination [ˈdɔmiˈneiʃən] – n. power to dominate or defeat

donate [ˈdəuneit] – v. give to a charity or good cause: I donated blood to the Red Cross for the victims of the earthquake

donation [dəuˈneiʃən] – n. a voluntary gift (as of money or service or ideas) made to some worthwhile cause

donor [ˈdəunə] – n. person who makes a gift of property

door [dɔ:] – n. a swinging or sliding barrier that will close the entrance to a room or building or vehicle: he knocked on the door

doorway [ˈdɔ:wei] – n. the entrance (the space in a wall) through which you enter or leave a room or building; the space that a door can close: he stuck his head in the doorway

dose [dəus] – n. a measured portion of medicine taken at any one time

dot [dɔt] – n. a very small circular shape: draw lines between the dots

double [ˈdʌbl] – adj. having more than one decidedly dissimilar aspects or qualities: a double (or dual) role for an actor

doubt [daut] – n. the state of being unsure of something

doubtful [ˈdautfəl] – adj. fraught with uncertainty or doubt: they were doubtful that the cord would hold

doubtless [ˈdautlis] – adv. without doubt; certainly

down [daun] – adj. being or moving lower in position or less in some value: lay face down

downstairs [.daunˈstɛəz] – adj. on or of lower floors of a building: the downstairs (or downstair) phone

dozen [ˈdʌzn] – n. the cardinal number that is the sum of eleven and one

draft [dræft] – n. a current of air (usually coming into a chimney or room or vehicle)

drag [dræg] – v. pull, as against a resistance: He dragged the big suitcase behind him

dragon [ˈdrægən] – n. a creature of Teutonic mythology; usually represented as breathing fire and having a reptilian body and sometimes wings

drain [drein] – n. emptying something accomplished by allowing liquid to run out of it

drainage [ˈdreinidʒ] – n. emptying something accomplished by allowing liquid to run out of it

drama [ˈdrɑ:mə] – n. an episode that is turbulent or highly emotional

dramatic [drəˈmætik] – adj. sensational in appearance or thrilling in effect: a dramatic sunset

dramatically [drəˈmætikəli] – adv. in a very impressive manner: your performance will improve dramatically

draw [drɔ:] – v. cause to move by pulling: draw a wagon

drawer [ˈdrɔ:ə] – n. a boxlike container in a piece of furniture; made so as to slide in and out

drawing [ˈdrɔ:iŋ] – n. a representation of forms or objects on a surface by means of lines: drawings of abstract forms

dreadful [ˈdredful] – adj. exceptionally bad or displeasing: dreadful manners

dream [dri:m] – n. a series of mental images and emotions occurring during sleep: I had a dream about you last night

dress [dres] – v. put on clothes: we had to dress quickly

drift [drift] – v. be in motion due to some air or water current: the boat drifted on the lake

drill [dril] – v. make a hole, especially with a pointed power or hand tool: don’t drill here, there’s a gas pipe

drink [driŋk] – n. a single serving of a beverage: I asked for a hot drink

drive [draiv] – v. operate or control a vehicle: drive a car or bus

driver [ˈdraivə] – n. the operator of a motor vehicle

driving  – n. the act of controlling and steering the movement of a vehicle or animal

drop [drɔp] – v. let fall to the ground: Don’t drop the dishes

drown [draun] – v. cover completely or make imperceptible: I was drowned in work

drug [drʌg] – n. a substance that is used as a medicine or narcotic

drum [drʌm] – n. a musical percussion instrument; usually consists of a hollow cylinder with a membrane stretched across each end

drunk [drʌŋk] – n. a chronic drinker

dry [drai] – adj. free from liquid or moisture; lacking natural or normal moisture or depleted of water; or no longer wet: dry land

dual [ˈdju:əl] – adj. consisting of or involving two parts or components usually in pairs: dual controls for pilot and copilot

duck [dʌk] – n. small wild or domesticated web-footed broad-billed swimming bird usually having a depressed body and short legs

due [dju:] – adj. owed and payable immediately or on demand: payment is due

duke [dju:k] – n. a British peer of the highest rank

dull [dʌl] – adj. lacking in liveliness or animation: he was so dull at parties

duly [ˈdju:li] – adv. at the proper time: she was duly apprised of the raise

dump [dʌmp] – v. throw away as refuse: No dumping in these woods!

duration [djuˈreiʃən] – n. the period of time during which something continues

dust [dʌst] – v. distribute loosely

duty [ˈdju:ti] – n. the social force that binds you to the courses of action demanded by that force: we must instill a sense of duty in our children

dwelling [ˈdweliŋ] – n. housing that someone is living in: he built a modest dwelling near the pond

dynamic [daiˈnæmik] – adj. characterized by action or forcefulness or force of personality: a dynamic market

eager [ˈi:gə] – n. a high wave (often dangerous) caused by tidal flow (as by colliding tidal currents or in a narrow estuary)

eagle [ˈi:gl] – n. any of various large keen-sighted diurnal birds of prey noted for their broad wings and strong soaring flight

ear [iə] – n. attention to what is said: he tried to get her ear

earl [ə:l] – n. a British peer ranking below a marquess and above a viscount

early [ˈə:li] – adj. at or near the beginning of a period of time or course of events or before the usual or expected time: early morning

earn [ə:n] – v. acquire or deserve by one’s efforts or actions

earth [ə:θ] – n. the 3rd planet from the sun; the planet we live on

ease [i:z] – n. freedom from difficulty or hardship or effort: he rose through the ranks with apparent ease

easily [ˈi:zili] – adv. without question: easily the best book she’s written

east [i:st] – n. the cardinal compass point that is at 90 degrees

eastern [ˈi:stən] – adj. lying toward or situated in the east: the eastern end of the island

easy [ˈi:zi] – adj. posing no difficulty; requiring little effort: an easy job

eat [i:t] – v. take in solid food: She was eating a banana

echo [ˈekəu] – n. (Greek mythology) a nymph who was spurned by Narcissus and pined away until only her voice remained

economic [.i:kəˈnɔmik] – adj. of or relating to an economy, the system of production and management of material wealth: economic growth

economically [i:kəˈnɔmikəli] – adv. with respect to the economic system: economically the country is worse off

economics [.i:kəˈnɔmiks] – n. the branch of social science that deals with the production and distribution and consumption of goods and services and their management

economist  – n. an expert in the science of economics

economy [iˈkɔnəmi] – n. the system of production and distribution and consumption

edge [edʒ] – n. the boundary of a surface

edit [ˈedit] – v. prepare for publication or presentation by correcting, revising, or adapting: she edited the letters of the politician so as to omit the most personal passages

edition [iˈdiʃən] – n. the form in which a text (especially a printed book) is published

editor [ˈeditə] – n. (computer science) a program designed to perform such editorial functions as rearrangement or modification or deletion of data

educate [ˈedjukeit] – v. create by training and teaching

education [.edjukeiʃn] – n. knowledge acquired by learning and instruction: it was clear that he had a very broad education

educational [.edju(:)ˈkeiʃənl] – adj. providing knowledge: an educational film

effect [iˈfekt] – n. a phenomenon that follows and is caused by some previous phenomenon: the magnetic effect was greater when the rod was lengthwise

effective [iˈfektiv] – adj. producing or capable of producing an intended result or having a striking effect: an air-cooled motor was more effective than a witch’s broomstick for rapid long-distance transportation

effectively [iˈfektivli] – adv. in actuality or reality or fact: she is effectively his wife

effectiveness [iˈfektivnis] – n. capacity to produce strong physiological or chemical effects

efficiency [iˈfiʃənsi] – n. the ratio of the output to the input of any system

efficient [iˈfiʃənt] – adj. being effective without wasting time or effort or expense: an efficient production manager

efficiently  – adv. with efficiency; in an efficient manner: he functions efficiently

effort [ˈefət] – n. earnest and conscientious activity intended to do or accomplish something: made an effort to cover all the reading material

egg [eg] – n. oval reproductive body of a fowl (especially a hen) used as food

ego [ˈi:gəu] – n. an inflated feeling of pride in your superiority to others

either [ˈi:ðə] – adv. after a negative statement used as an intensive meaning something like `likewise’ or `also’: he isn’t stupid, but he isn’t exactly a genius either

elaborate [iˈlæbəreit] – v. add details, as to an account or idea; clarify the meaning of and discourse in a learned way, usually in writing: She elaborated on the main ideas in her dissertation

elbow [ˈelbəu] – n. hinge joint between the forearm and upper arm and the corresponding joint in the forelimb of a quadruped

elder [ˈeldə] – n. a person who is older than you are

elderly [ˈeldəli] – n. people who are old collectively

elect [iˈlekt] – v. choose: I elected to have my funds deposited automatically

election [iˈlekʃən] – n. the act of selecting someone or something; the exercise of deliberate choice: her election of medicine as a profession

electoral  – adj. relating to or composed of electors: electoral college

electorate [iˈlektərit] – n. the body of enfranchised citizens; those qualified to vote

electric [iˈlektrik] – adj. (of a situation) exceptionally tense: an atmosphere electric with suspicion

electrical [iˈlektrikəl] – adj. using or providing or producing or transmitting or operated by electricity: electrical appliances

electricity [.ilekˈtrisiti] – n. energy made available by the flow of electric charge through a conductor: they built a car that runs on electricity

electron [iˈlektrɔn] – n. an elementary particle with negative charge

electronic [ilekˈtrɔnik] – adj. of or concerned with electrons: electronic energy

electronics [ilekˈtrɔniks] – n. the branch of physics that deals with the emission and effects of electrons and with the use of electronic devices

elegant [ˈeligənt] – adj. refined and tasteful in appearance or behavior or style: elegant handwriting

element [ˈelimənt] – n. an abstract part of something: the grammatical elements of a sentence

elephant [ˈelifənt] – n. five-toed pachyderm

eligible [ˈelidʒəbl] – adj. qualified for or allowed or worthy of being chosen: eligible to run for office

eliminate [iˈlimineit] – v. terminate, end, or take out: Let’s eliminate the course on Akkadian hieroglyphics

elite [eiˈli:t] – n. a group or class of persons enjoying superior intellectual or social or economic status

elsewhere [ˈelsˈwɛə] – adv. in or to another place: he went elsewhere

embark [imˈbɑ:k] – v. go on board

embarrassment [imˈbærəsmənt] – n. the shame you feel when your inadequacy or guilt is made public

embassy [ˈembəsi] – n. a diplomatic building where ambassadors live or work

embody [imˈbɔdi] – v. represent in bodily form

embrace [imˈbreis] – n. the act of clasping another person in the arms (as in greeting or affection)

embryo [ˈembriəu] – n. (botany) a minute rudimentary plant contained within a seed or an archegonium

emerge [iˈmə:dʒ] – v. come out into view, as from concealment: Suddenly, the proprietor emerged from his office

emergence [iˈmə:dʒəns] – n. the gradual beginning or coming forth: figurines presage the emergence of sculpture in Greece

emergency [iˈmə:dʒənsi] – n. a sudden unforeseen crisis (usually involving danger) that requires immediate action: he never knew what to do in an emergency

emission [iˈmiʃən] – n. the act of emitting; causing to flow forth

emotion [iˈməuʃən] – n. any strong feeling

emotional [iˈməuʃənl] – adj. of more than usual emotion: his behavior was highly emotional

emperor [ˈempərə] – n. the male ruler of an empire

emphasis [ˈemfəsis] – n. special importance or significance: the red light gave the central figure increased emphasis

emphasise  – v. give extra weight to (a communication)

emphasize [ˈemfəsaiz] – v. to stress, single out as important: Dr. Jones emphasizes exercise in addition to a change in diet

empire [ˈempaiə] – n. a group of countries under a single authority: the British created a great empire

empirical [emˈpirikəl] – adj. derived from experiment and observation rather than theory: an empirical basis for an ethical theory

employ [imˈplɔi] – v. engage or hire for work: How many people has she employed?

employee [.emplɔiˈi:] – n. a worker who is hired to perform a job

employer [imˈplɔiə] – n. a person or firm that employs workers

employment [imˈplɔimənt] – n. the occupation for which you are paid: he is looking for employment

empty [ˈempti] – v. remove

enable [iˈneibl] – v. render capable or able for some task: This skill will enable you to find a job on Wall Street

enclose [inˈkləuz] – v. close in: darkness enclosed him

encompass [inˈkʌmpəs] – v. include in scope; include as part of something broader; have as one’s sphere or territory: This group encompasses a wide range of people from different backgrounds

encounter [inˈkauntə] – v. come together

encourage [inˈkʌridʒ] – v. contribute to the progress or growth of

encouragement [inˈkʌridʒmənt] – n. the expression of approval and support

encouraging  – adj. giving courage or confidence or hope: encouraging advances in medical research

end [end] – n. either extremity of something that has length: the end of the pier

ending [ˈendiŋ] – n. the point in time at which something ends: the ending of warranty period

endless [ˈendlis] – adj. tiresomely long; seemingly without end: endless debates

endorse [inˈdɔ:s] – v. be behind; approve of

endure [inˈdjuə] – v. put up with something or somebody unpleasant: The new secretary had to endure a lot of unprofessional remarks

enemy [ˈenimi] – n. an opposing military force: the enemy attacked at dawn

energy [ˈenədʒi] – n. forceful exertion: he plays tennis with great energy

enforce [inˈfɔ:s] – v. ensure observance of laws and rules

enforcement  – n. the act of enforcing; ensuring observance of or obedience to

engage [inˈgeidʒ] – v. carry out or participate in an activity; be involved in: They engaged in a discussion

engagement [inˈgeidʒmənt] – n. a hostile meeting of opposing military forces in the course of a war: he lost his romantic ideas about war when he got into a real engagement

engine [ˈendʒin] – n. motor that converts thermal energy to mechanical work

engineer [.endʒiˈniə] – n. a person who uses scientific knowledge to solve practical problems

enhance [inˈhɑ:ns] – v. increase: This will enhance your enjoyment

enhanced  – adj. increased or intensified in value or beauty or quality: her enhanced beauty was the result of a good night’s sleep rather than makeup

enjoy [inˈdʒɔi] – v. have benefit from: enjoy privileges

enjoyable [inˈdʒɔiəb(ə)l] – adj. affording satisfaction or pleasure: the company was enjoyable

enjoyment [inˈdʒɔimənt] – n. the pleasure felt when having a good time

enormous [iˈnɔ:məs] – adj. extraordinarily large in size or extent or amount or power or degree: an enormous boulder

enormously  – adv. extremely: he was enormously popular

enough [iˈnʌf] – adj. sufficient for the purpose: enough food

enquire [inˈkwaiər] – v. inquire about

enquiry [inˈkwaiəri] – n. an instance of questioning

ensure [inˈʃuə] – v. make certain of: This nest egg will ensure a nice retirement for us

entail [inˈteil] – v. have as a logical consequence

enter [ˈentə] – v. to come or go into: the boat entered an area of shallow marshes

enterprise [ˈentəpraiz] – n. a purposeful or industrious undertaking (especially one that requires effort or boldness): he had doubts about the whole enterprise

entertain [.entəˈtein] – v. take into consideration, have in view: He entertained the notion of moving to South America

entertainment [.entəˈteinmənt] – n. an activity that is diverting and that holds the attention

enthusiasm [inˈθju:ziæzəm] – n. a feeling of excitement

enthusiast  – n. a person having a strong liking for something

enthusiastic [in.θju:ziˈæstik] – adj. having or showing great excitement and interest: enthusiastic crowds filled the streets

entire [inˈtaiə] – adj. constituting the full quantity or extent; complete: an entire town devastated by an earthquake

entirely [inˈtaiəli] – adv. without any others being included or involved: was entirely to blame

entitle [inˈtaitl] – v. give the right to: The Freedom of Information Act entitles you to request your FBI file

entitlement  – n. right granted by law or contract (especially a right to benefits): entitlements make up the major part of the federal budget

entity [ˈentiti] – n. that which is perceived or known or inferred to have its own distinct existence (living or nonliving)

entrance [ˈentrəns,inˈtrɑ:ns] – n. something that provides access (to get in or get out): they waited at the entrance to the garden

entry [ˈentri] – n. an item inserted in a written record

envelope [ˈenviləup] – n. a flat (usually rectangular) container for a letter, thin package, etc.

environment [inˈvaiərənmənt] – n. the totality of surrounding conditions: he longed for the comfortable environment of his living room

environmental [in.vaiərənˈmentl] – adj. of or relating to the external conditions or surroundings: environmental factors

envisage [inˈvizidʒ] – v. form a mental image of something that is not present or that is not the case

enzyme [ˈenzaim] – n. any of several complex proteins that are produced by cells and act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions

episode [ˈepisəud] – n. a happening that is distinctive in a series of related events

equal [ˈi:kwəl] – v. be identical or equivalent to: One dollar equals 1,000 rubles these days!

equality [i:ˈkwɔliti] – n. the quality of being the same in quantity or measure or value or status

equally [ˈi:kwəli] – adv. to the same degree (often followed by `as’): they were equally beautiful

equation [iˈkweiʃən] – n. a state of being essentially equal or equivalent; equally balanced

equilibrium [.i:kwiˈlibriəm] – n. a stable situation in which forces cancel one another

equip [iˈkwip] – v. provide with (something) usually for a specific purpose: The expedition was equipped with proper clothing, food, and other necessities

equipment [iˈkwipmənt] – n. an instrumentality needed for an undertaking or to perform a service

equity [ˈekwiti] – n. the difference between the market value of a property and the claims held against it

equivalent [iˈkwivələnt] – n. a person or thing equal to another in value or measure or force or effect or significance etc: send two dollars or the equivalent in stamps

era [ˈiərə] – n. a period marked by distinctive character or reckoned from a fixed point or event

erect [iˈrekt] – v. cause to rise up

erosion [iˈrəuʒən] – n. (geology) the mechanical process of wearing or grinding something down (as by particles washing over it)

error [ˈerə] – n. a wrong action attributable to bad judgment or ignorance or inattention: she was quick to point out my errors

escape [isˈkeip] – n. an inclination to retreat from unpleasant realities through diversion or fantasy: romantic novels were her escape from the stress of daily life

especially [isˈpeʃəli] – adv. to a distinctly greater extent or degree than is common: an especially (or specially) cautious approach to the danger

essay [ˈesei,eˈsei] – n. an analytic or interpretive literary composition

essence [ˈesns] – n. the choicest or most essential or most vital part of some idea or experience

essential [iˈsenʃəl] – adj. absolutely necessary; vitally necessary: essential tools and materials

essentially [iˈsenʃəli] – adv. in essence; at bottom or by one’s (or its) very nature: the argument was essentially a technical one

establish [iˈstæbliʃ] – v. set up or found

establishment [isˈtæbliʃmənt] – n. an organization founded and united for a specific purpose

estate [isˈteit] – n. everything you own; all of your assets (whether real property or personal property) and liabilities

estimate [ˈestimeit] – n. an approximate calculation of quantity or degree or worth: an estimate of what it would cost

eternal [iˈtə:nəl] – adj. continuing forever or indefinitely: eternal truths

ethical  – adj. conforming to accepted standards of social or professional behavior: an ethical lawyer

ethics [ˈeθiks] – n. motivation based on ideas of right and wrong

ethnic [ˈeθnik] – adj. denoting or deriving from or distinctive of the ways of living built up by a group of people: influenced by ethnic and cultural ties

evaluate [iˈvæljueit] – v. form a critical opinion of: How do you evaluate this grant proposal?

evaluation [i.væljuˈeiʃən] – n. act of ascertaining or fixing the value or worth of

even [ˈi:vən] – adj. divisible by two

evening [ˈi:vniŋ] – n. the latter part of the day (the period of decreasing daylight from late afternoon until nightfall): he enjoyed the evening light across the lake

event [iˈvent] – n. something that happens at a given place and time

eventual [iˈventjuəl] – adj. expected to follow in the indefinite future from causes already operating: hope of eventual (or ultimate) rescue

eventually [iˈventjuəli] – adv. after an unspecified period of time or an especially long delay

ever [ˈevə] – adv. at any time: did you ever smoke?

everyday [ˈevriˈdei] – adj. found in the ordinary course of events: a placid everyday scene

everywhere [ˈevriwɛə] – adv. to or in any or all places: You find fast food stores everywhere

evidence [ˈevidəns] – n. your basis for belief or disbelief; knowledge on which to base belief: the evidence that smoking causes lung cancer is very compelling

evident [ˈevidənt] – adj. clearly revealed to the mind or the senses or judgment: evident hostility

evidently [ˈevidəntli] – adv. unmistakably (`plain’ is often used informally for `plainly’): she was in bed and evidently in great pain

evil [ˈi:vl] – n. morally objectionable behavior

evoke [iˈvəuk] – v. call forth (emotions, feelings, and responses): evoke sympathy

evolution [.i:vəˈlu:ʃən] – n. a process in which something passes by degrees to a different stage (especially a more advanced or mature stage): the evolution of Greek civilization

evolutionary [.i:vəˈlu:ʃənəri] – adj. of or relating to or produced by evolution: evolutionary biology

evolve [iˈvɔlv] – v. work out

exact [igˈzækt] – v. claim as due or just

exactly [igˈzæktli] – adv. just as it should be

exaggerate [igˈzædʒəreit] – v. to enlarge beyond bounds or the truth: tended to romanticize and exaggerate this `gracious Old South’ imagery

exam [igˈzæm] – n. a set of questions or exercises evaluating skill or knowledge

examination [ig.zæmiˈneiʃən] – n. a set of questions or exercises evaluating skill or knowledge

examine [igˈzæmin] – v. consider in detail and subject to an analysis in order to discover essential features or meaning

example [igˈzɑ:mpl] – n. an item of information that is typical of a class or group: this patient provides a typical example of the syndrome

excavation [.ekskəˈveiʃən] – n. the act of digging: there’s an interesting excavation going on near Princeton

exceed [ikˈsi:d] – v. be greater in scope or size than some standard: Their loyalty exceeds their national bonds

excellent [ˈeksələnt] – adj. very good;of the highest quality: made an excellent speech

exception [ikˈsepʃən] – n. a deliberate act of omission: with the exception of the children, everyone was told the news

exceptional [ikˈsepʃənl] – adj. far beyond what is usual in magnitude or degree: an exceptional memory

exceptionally [ikˈsepʃənəli] – adv. to an exceptional degree: it worked exceptionally well

excess [ikˈses] – n. a quantity much larger than is needed

excessive [ikˈsesiv] – adj. beyond normal limits: excessive charges

exchange [iksˈtʃeindʒ] – n. chemical process in which one atom or ion or group changes places with another

excite [ikˈsait] – v. arouse or elicit a feeling

excited [ikˈsaitid] – adj. (of persons) excessively affected by emotion

excitement [ikˈsaitmənt] – n. the feeling of lively and cheerful joy: he could hardly conceal his excitement when she agreed

exciting [ikˈsaitiŋ] – adj. stimulating interest and discussion: an exciting novel

exclaim [iksˈkleim] – v. utter aloud; often with surprise, horror, or joy: `I won!’ he exclaimed

exclude [iksˈklu:d] – v. prevent from being included or considered or accepted: The bad results were excluded from the report

exclusion [iksˈklu:ʒən] – n. the state of being excommunicated

exclusive [iksˈklu:siv] – adj. not divided or shared with others: they have exclusive use of the machine

exclusively [ikˈsklu:sivli] – adv. without any others being included or involved: he works for Mr. Smith exclusively

excuse [iksˈkju:z] – v. grant exemption or release to: Please excuse me from this class

execute [ˈeksikju:t] – v. kill as a means of socially sanctioned punishment: In some states, criminals are executed

execution [.eksiˈkju:ʃən] – n. putting a condemned person to death

executive [igˈzekjutiv] – n. a person responsible for the administration of a business

exemption [igˈzempʃən] – n. immunity from an obligation or duty

exercise [ˈeksəsaiz] – n. the act of using

exert [igˈzə:t] – v. put to use: exert one’s power or influence

exhaust [igˈzɔ:st] – v. wear out completely: This kind of work exhausts me

exhibit [igˈzibit] – v. show an attribute, property, knowledge, or skill: he exhibits a great talent

exhibition [.eksiˈbiʃən] – n. a collection of things (goods or works of art etc.) for public display

exile [ˈeksail] – n. a person who is voluntarily absent from home or country

exist [igˈzist] – v. support oneself: he could barely exist on such a low wage

existence [igˈzistəns] – n. everything that exists anywhere: the biggest tree in existence

existing [igˈzistiŋ] – adj. having existence or being or actuality: much of the beluga caviar existing in the world is found in the Soviet Union and Iran

exit [ˈeksit] – n. an opening that permits escape or release

exotic [egˈzɔtik] – adj. being or from or characteristic of another place or part of the world: exotic plants in a greenhouse

expand [iksˈpænd] – v. extend in one or more directions: The dough expands

expansion [iksˈpænʃən] – n. the act of increasing (something) in size or volume or quantity or scope

expect [iksˈpekt] – v. regard something as probable or likely: The meteorologists are expecting rain for tomorrow

expectation [.ekspekˈteiʃən] – n. belief about (or mental picture of) the future

expected  – adj. considered likely or probable to happen or arrive: prepared for the expected attack

expedition [.ekspiˈdiʃən] – n. a military campaign designed to achieve a specific objective in a foreign country

expel [iksˈpel] – v. force to leave or move out: He was expelled from his native country

expenditure [iksˈpenditʃə] – n. money paid out; an amount spent

expense [iksˈpens] – n. a detriment or sacrifice: at the expense of

expensive [iksˈpensiv] – adj. high in price or charging high prices: expensive clothes

experience [iksˈpiəriəns] – v. go or live through

experienced [ikˈspiəriənst] – adj. having experience; having knowledge or skill from observation or participation

experiment [iksˈperimənt] – n. the act of conducting a controlled test or investigation

experimental [iks.periˈmentl] – adj. relying on observation or experiment: experimental results that supported the hypothesis

expert [ˈekspə:t] – adj. having or showing knowledge and skill and aptitude: an expert job

expertise [.ekspə:ˈti:z] – n. skillfulness by virtue of possessing special knowledge

explain [iksˈplein] – v. make plain and comprehensible: He explained the laws of physics to his students

explanation [.ekspləˈneiʃən] – n. a statement that makes something comprehensible by describing the relevant structure or operation or circumstances etc.: the explanation was very simple

explicit [iksˈplisit] – adj. precisely and clearly expressed or readily observable; leaving nothing to implication: explicit instructions

explicitly [ikˈsplisitli] – adv. in an explicit manner: in his foreword Professor Clark puts it explicitly

explode [iksˈpləud] – v. cause to burst with a violent release of energy: We exploded the nuclear bomb

exploitation [.eksplɔiˈteiʃən] – n. the act of making some area of land or water more profitable or productive or useful: the exploitation of copper deposits

exploration [.eksplɔ:ˈreiʃən] – n. to travel for the purpose of discovery

explore [iksˈplɔ:] – v. inquire into

explosion [iksˈpləuʒən] – n. a violent release of energy caused by a chemical or nuclear reaction

export [ˈekspɔ:t,eksˈpɔ:t] – v. sell or transfer abroad: we export less than we import and have a negative trade balance

expose [ikˈspəuz] – v. to show, make visible or apparent

exposure [iksˈpəuʒə] – n. vulnerability to the elements; to the action of heat or cold or wind or rain: exposure to the weather

express [iksˈpres] – v. articulate; either verbally or with a cry, shout, or noise: She expressed her anger

expression [iksˈpreʃən] – n. the feelings expressed on a person’s face: a sad expression

extend [iksˈtend] – v. span an interval of distance, space or time: The war extended over five years

extension [iksˈtenʃən] – n. a mutually agreed delay in the date set for the completion of a job or payment of a debt: they applied for an extension of the loan

extensive [iksˈtensiv] – adj. broad in scope or content

extensively [ikˈstensivli] – adv. in a widespread way: oxidation ponds are extensively used for sewage treatment in the Midwest

extent [iksˈtent] – n. the distance or area or volume over which something extends: the vast extent of the desert

external [eksˈtə:nl] – adj. happening or arising or located outside or beyond some limits or especially surface: the external auditory canal

extra [ˈekstrə] – n. a minor actor in crowd scenes

extract [ˈekstrækt,iksˈtrækt] – v. remove, usually with some force or effort; also used in an abstract sense: extract a bad tooth

extraordinary [iksˈtrɔ:dnri] – adj. beyond what is ordinary or usual; highly unusual or exceptional or remarkable: extraordinary authority

extreme [iksˈtri:m] – adj. of the greatest possible degree or extent or intensity: extreme cold

extremely [iksˈtri:mli] – adv. to a high degree or extent; favorably or with much respect: extremely interesting

eye [ai] – n. the organ of sight

eyebrow [ˈaibrau] – n. the arch of hair above each eye

fabric [ˈfæbrik] – n. artifact made by weaving or felting or knitting or crocheting natural or synthetic fibers: the fabric in the curtains was light and semitransparent

facade [fəˈsɑ:d] – n. a showy misrepresentation intended to conceal something unpleasant

face [feis] – n. the front of the human head from the forehead to the chin and ear to ear: he washed his face

facilitate [fəˈsiliteit] – v. make easier: you could facilitate the process by sharing your knowledge

facility [fəˈsiliti] – n. a building or place that provides a particular service or is used for a particular industry: the assembly plant is an enormous facility

fact [fækt] – n. a piece of information about circumstances that exist or events that have occurred: first you must collect all the facts of the case

faction [ˈfækʃən] – n. a clique (often secret) that seeks power usually through intrigue

factor [ˈfæktə] – n. anything that contributes causally to a result: a number of factors determined the outcome

factory [ˈfæktəri] – n. a plant consisting of one or more buildings with facilities for manufacturing

faculty [ˈfækəlti] – n. one of the inherent cognitive or perceptual powers of the mind

fade [feid] – v. become less clearly visible or distinguishable; disappear gradually or seemingly: The scene begins to fade

fail [feil] – v. be unsuccessful: Where do today’s public schools fail?

failure [ˈfeiljə] – n. an event that does not accomplish its intended purpose: the surprise party was a complete failure

faint [feint] – adj. deficient in magnitude; barely perceptible; lacking clarity or brightness or loudness etc: a faint outline

fair [fɛə] – adj. free from favoritism or self-interest or bias or deception; conforming with established standards or rules: a fair referee

fairly [ˈfɛəli] – adv. to a moderately sufficient extent or degree: he is fairly clever with computers

fairy [ˈfɛəri] – n. a small being, human in form, playful and having magical powers

faith [feiθ] – n. a strong belief in a supernatural power or powers that control human destiny: he lost his faith but not his morality

faithful [ˈfeiθfəl] – adj. steadfast in affection or allegiance: years of faithful service

fall [fɔ:l] – v. move downward and lower, but not necessarily all the way: The barometer is falling

false  [fɔ:ls] – adj. not in accordance with the fact or reality or actuality: gave false testimony under oath

fame [feim] – n. the state or quality of being widely honored and acclaimed

familiar [fəˈmiljə] – adj. well known or easily recognized: a familiar figure

family [ˈfæmili] – n. a social unit living together: he moved his family to Virginia

famous [ˈfeiməs] – adj. widely known and esteemed: a famous actor

fan [fæn] – v. strike out (a batter), (of a pitcher)

fancy [ˈfænsi] – n. something many people believe that is false

fantastic [fænˈtæstik] – adj. ludicrously odd: fantastic Halloween costumes

fantasy [ˈfæntəsi] – n. imagination unrestricted by reality: a schoolgirl fantasy

far [fɑ:] – adv. to a considerable degree; very much: a far far better thing that I do

fare [fɛə] – n. an agenda of things to do

farm [fɑ:m] – v. collect fees or profits

farmer [ˈfɑ:mə] – n. United States civil rights leader who in 1942 founded the Congress of Racial Equality (born in 1920)

farming [ˈfɑ:miŋ] – n. the practice of cultivating the land or raising stock

fascinate [ˈfæsineit] – v. cause to be interested or curious

fascinating [ˈfæsineitiŋ] – adj. capable of arousing and holding the attention: a fascinating story

fashion [ˈfæʃən] – n. how something is done or how it happens: in an abrasive fashion

fashionable [ˈfæʃənəbl] – adj. having elegance or taste or refinement in manners or dress

fast [fɑ:st] – adj. acting or moving or capable of acting or moving quickly: fast film

fat [fæt] – adj. having an (over)abundance of flesh: he hadn’t remembered how fat she was

fatal [ˈfeitl] – adj. bringing death

fate [feit] – n. an event (or a course of events) that will inevitably happen in the future

father [ˈfɑ:ðə] – n. the founder of a family: keep the faith of our forefathers

fault [fɔ:lt] – n. a wrong action attributable to bad judgment or ignorance or inattention: I could understand his English in spite of his grammatical faults

favour  – n. an inclination to approve

favourable  – adj. encouraging or approving or pleasing

favourite  – n. a competitor thought likely to win

fax [fæks] – n. duplicator that transmits the copy by wire or radio

fear [fiə] – v. be afraid or scared of; be frightened of: I fear the winters in Moscow

feasible [ˈfi:zəbl] – adj. capable of being done with means at hand and circumstances as they are

feast [fi:st] – n. a ceremonial dinner party for many people

feather [ˈfeðə] – v. join tongue and groove, in carpentry

feature [fi:tʃə] – n. a prominent attribute or aspect of something: the map showed roads and other features

federal [ˈfedərəl] – adj. national; especially in reference to the government of the United States as distinct from that of its member units: federal courts

federation [.fedəˈreiʃən] – n. an organization formed by merging several groups or parties

fee [fi:] – n. an interest in land capable of being inherited

feed [fi:d] – v. provide as food

feedback [ˈfi:dbæk] – n. the process in which part of the output of a system is returned to its input in order to regulate its further output

feel [fi:l] – v. undergo an emotional sensation or be in a particular state of mind

fellow [ˈfeləu] – n. a boy or man: there’s a fellow at the door

female [ˈfi:meil] – adj. being the sex (of plant or animal) that produces fertilizable gametes (ova) from which offspring develop: a female heir

feminine [ˈfeminin] – adj. associated with women and not with men: feminine intuition

feminist [ˈfeminist] – n. a supporter of feminism

fence [fens] – v. receive stolen goods

ferry [ˈferi] – v. transport from one place to another

fertility [fə:ˈtiliti] – n. the ratio of live births in an area to the population of that area; expressed per 1000 population per year

festival [ˈfestəvəl] – n. a day or period of time set aside for feasting and celebration

fetch [fetʃ] – v. go or come after and bring or take back: The dog fetched the hat

fever [ˈfi:və] – n. a rise in the temperature of the body; frequently a symptom of infection

few [fju:] – n. a small elite group: it was designed for the discriminating few

fibre  – n. a slender and greatly elongated substance capable of being spun into yarn

fiction [ˈfikʃən] – n. a literary work based on the imagination and not necessarily on fact

field [fi:ld] – n. a piece of land cleared of trees and usually enclosed: he planted a field of wheat

fierce [fiəs] – adj. marked by extreme and violent energy: fierce fighting

fiercely  – adv. in an emotionally fierce manner: she was fiercely proud of her children

fig [fig] – n. a diagram or picture illustrating textual material

fight [fait] – n. a hostile meeting of opposing military forces in the course of a war

fighter [ˈfaitə] – n. a high-speed military or naval airplane designed to destroy enemy aircraft in the air

figure [ˈfigə] – n. a diagram or picture illustrating textual material

file [fail] – v. record in a public office or in a court of law: file for divorce

fill [fil] – v. make full, also in a metaphorical sense: fill a container

film [film] – n. a form of entertainment that enacts a story by sound and a sequence of images giving the illusion of continuous movement: the film was shot on location

filter [ˈfiltə] – v. pass through

final [ˈfainl] – adj. occurring at or forming an end or termination: the final chapter

finally [ˈfainəli] – adv. after an unspecified period of time or an especially long delay

finance [faiˈnæns] – n. the commercial activity of providing funds and capital

financial [faiˈnænʃəl] – adj. involving financial matters

financially  – adv. from a financial point of view: this was financially unattractive

find [faind] – v. come upon, as if by accident; meet with: We find this idea in Plato

fine [fain] – adj. being satisfactory or in satisfactory condition: everything’s fine

finger [ˈfiŋgə] – v. examine by touch: The customer fingered the sweater

finish [ˈfiniʃ] – n. a decorative texture or appearance of a surface (or the substance that gives it that appearance): the boat had a metallic finish

fire [ˈfaiə] – n. the event of something burning (often destructive): they lost everything in the fire

firm [fə:m] – adj. not soft or yielding to pressure: a firm mattress

firmly [ˈfɜ:mli] – adv. with resolute determination: we firmly believed it

first [fə:st] – n. the time at which something is supposed to begin

firstly  – adv. before anything else

fiscal [ˈfiskəl] – adj. involving financial matters: fiscal responsibility

fish [fiʃ] – n. any of various mostly cold-blooded aquatic vertebrates usually having scales and breathing through gills: the shark is a large fish

fisherman [ˈfiʃəmən] – n. someone whose occupation is catching fish

fishing [ˈfiʃiŋ] – n. the occupation of catching fish for a living

fist [fist] – n. a hand with the fingers clenched in the palm (as for hitting)

fit [fit] – v. be agreeable or acceptable to

fitness [ˈfitnis] – n. the quality of being suitable: they had to prove their fitness for the position

fitting [ˈfitiŋ] – n. making or becoming suitable; adjusting to circumstances

fix [fiks] – v. restore by replacing a part or putting together what is torn or broken

fixture [ˈfikstʃə] – n. an object firmly fixed in place (especially in a household)

flag [flæg] – n. emblem usually consisting of a rectangular piece of cloth of distinctive design

flame [fleim] – v. shine with a sudden light

flash [flæʃ] – n. a sudden intense burst of radiant energy

flat [flæt] – adj. having a surface without slope, tilt in which no part is higher or lower than another: a flat desk

flavour  – n. the general atmosphere of a place or situation and the effect that it has on people

flee [fli:] – v. run away quickly

fleet [fli:t] – n. group of aircraft operating together under the same ownership

flesh [fleʃ] – n. the soft tissue of the body of a vertebrate: mainly muscle tissue and fat

flexibility [.fleksəˈbiliti] – n. the quality of being adaptable or variable: he enjoyed the flexibility of his working arrangement

flexible [ˈfleksəbl] – adj. capable of being changed: flexible schedules

flick [flik] – v. flash intermittently: The lights flicked on and off

flight [flait] – n. an instance of traveling by air

fling [fliŋ] – v. throw with force or recklessness: fling the frisbee

float [fləut] – v. be in motion due to some air or water current

flock [flɔk] – n. a church congregation guided by a pastor

flood [flʌd] – n. an overwhelming number or amount: a flood of requests

floor [flɔ:] – n. the inside lower horizontal surface (as of a room, hallway, tent, or other structure): they needed rugs to cover the bare floors

flour [flauə] – n. fine powdery foodstuff obtained by grinding and sifting the meal of a cereal grain

flourish [ˈflʌriʃ] – n. a showy gesture: she entered with a great flourish

flow [fləu] – n. the motion characteristic of fluids (liquids or gases)

flower [ˈflauə] – n. a plant cultivated for its blooms or blossoms

fluctuation [.flʌktjuˈeiʃən] – n. a wave motion: the fluctuations of the sea

fluid [ˈflu:id] – adj. subject to change; variable: a fluid situation fraught with uncertainty

flush [flʌʃ] – n. the period of greatest prosperity or productivity

fly [flai] – v. travel through the air; be airborne: Man cannot fly

focus [ˈfəukəs] – n. the concentration of attention or energy on something: the focus of activity shifted to molecular biology

fog [fɔg] – n. droplets of water vapor suspended in the air near the ground

fold [fəuld] – n. a group of people who adhere to a common faith and habitually attend a given church

folk [fəuk] – n. people in general (often used in the plural): they’re just country folk

follow [ˈfɔləu] – v. to travel behind, go after, come after: The ducklings followed their mother around the pond

follower [ˈfɔləuə] – n. a person who accepts the leadership of another

following [ˈfɔləuiŋ] – adj. about to be mentioned or specified: the following items

fond [fɔnd] – adj. having or displaying warmth or affection: a fond embrace

food [fu:d] – n. any substance that can be metabolized by an animal to give energy and build tissue

fool [fu:l] – v. spend frivolously and unwisely

foolish [ˈfu:liʃ] – adj. devoid of good sense or judgment: foolish remarks

foot [fut] – n. the part of the leg of a human being below the ankle joint: armored from head to foot

football [ˈfutbɔ:l] – n. any of various games played with a ball (round or oval) in which two teams try to kick or carry or propel the ball into each other’s goal

footstep [ˈfutstep] – n. the sound of a step of someone walking: he heard footsteps on the porch

forbid [fəˈbid] – v. command against: I forbid you to call me late at night

force [fɔ:s] – n. a powerful effect or influence: the force of his eloquence easily persuaded them

forecast [ˈfɔ:kɑ:st] – v. predict in advance

forehead [ˈfɔ:hed] – n. the part of the face above the eyes

foreign [ˈfɔrin] – adj. of concern to or concerning the affairs of other nations (other than your own): foreign trade

foreigner [ˈfɔ:rinə] – n. someone who is excluded from or is not a member of a group

forest [ˈfɔrist] – n. the trees and other plants in a large densely wooded area

forestry [ˈfɔristri] – n. the science of planting and caring for forests and the management of growing timber

forever [fəˈrevə] – adv. for a limitless time: no one can live forever

forge [fɔ:dʒ] – v. create by hammering: forge a pair of tongues

forget [fəˈget] – v. dismiss from the mind; stop remembering

forgive [fəˈgiv] – v. absolve from payment: I forgive you your debt

fork [fɔ:k] – n. the act of branching out or dividing into branches

form [fɔ:m] – n. the phonological or orthographic sound or appearance of a word that can be used to describe or identify something: the inflected forms of a word can be represented by a stem and a list of inflections to be attached

formal [ˈfɔ:məl] – adj. characteristic of or befitting a person in authority: formal duties

formally  – adv. with official authorization: the club will be formally recognized

format [ˈfɔ:mæt] – v. determine the arrangement of (data) for storage and display (in computer science)

formation [fɔ:ˈmeiʃən] – n. an arrangement of people or things acting as a unit: a defensive formation

formerly [ˈfɔ:məli] – adv. at a previous time

formidable [ˈfɔ:midəbl] – adj. extremely impressive in strength or excellence: a formidable opponent

formula [ˈfɔ:mjulə] – n. a group of symbols that make a mathematical statement

formulate [ˈfɔ:mjuleit] – v. elaborate, as of theories and hypotheses

formulation [.fɔ:mjuˈleiʃən] – n. inventing or contriving an idea or explanation and formulating it mentally

forth [fɔ:θ] – adv. forward in time or order or degree: from that time forth

forthcoming [.fɔ:θˈkʌmiŋ] – adj. at ease in talking to others

fortnight [ˈfɔ:tnait] – n. a period of fourteen consecutive days: most major tennis tournaments last a fortnight

fortunate [ˈfɔ:tʃənit] – adj. supremely favored

fortunately [ˈfɔ:tʃənətli] – adv. by good fortune: fortunately the weather was good

fortune [ˈfɔ:tʃən] – n. an unknown and unpredictable phenomenon that causes an event to result one way rather than another

forum [ˈfɔ:rəm] – n. a public facility to meet for open discussion

forward [ˈfɔ:wəd] – adv. at or to or toward the front: he faced forward

forwards  – adv. at or to or toward the front

fossil [ˈfɔsl] – n. someone whose style is out of fashion

foster [ˈfɔstə] – v. promote the growth of

found [faund] – v. set up or lay the groundwork for

foundation [faunˈdeiʃən] – n. the basis on which something is grounded: there is little foundation for his objections

founder [ˈfaundə] – v. fail utterly; collapse: The project foundered

fountain [ˈfauntin] – n. a structure from which an artificially produced jet of water arises

fox [fɔks] – n. alert carnivorous mammal with pointed muzzle and ears and a bushy tail; most are predators that do not hunt in packs

fraction [ˈfrækʃən] – n. a small part or item forming a piece of a whole

fragile [ˈfrædʒail] – adj. easily broken or damaged or destroyed: fragile porcelain plates

fragment [ˈfrægmənt] – n. a piece broken off or cut off of something else: a fragment of rock

frame [freim] – n. a single one of a series of still transparent pictures forming a cinema, television or video film

framework [ˈfreimwə:k] – n. a hypothetical description of a complex entity or process

franchise [ˈfræn.tʃaiz] – n. an authorization to sell a company’s goods or services in a particular place

frankly [ˈfræŋkli] – adv. (used as intensives reflecting the speaker’s attitude) it is sincerely the case that: frankly, my dear, I don’t give a damn

fraud [frɔ:d] – n. intentional deception resulting in injury to another person

free [fri:] – v. relieve from

freedom [ˈfri:dəm] – n. immunity from an obligation or duty

freely [ˈfri:li] – adv. in a free manner: the painting featured freely brushed strokes

freeze [fri:z] – v. stop moving or become immobilized

freight [freit] – n. goods carried by a large vehicle

frequency [ˈfri:kwənsi] – n. the number of occurrences within a given time period: the frequency of modulation was 40 cycles per second

frequent [ˈfri:kwənt] – v. do one’s shopping at; do business with; be a customer or client of

frequently [ˈfri:kwəntli] – adv. many times at short intervals

fresh [freʃ] – adj. recently made, produced, or harvested: fresh bread

fridge [fridʒ] – n. a refrigerator in which the coolant is pumped around by an electric motor

friend [frend] – n. a person you know well and regard with affection and trust: he was my best friend at the university

friendly [ˈfrendli] – adj. inclined to help or support; not antagonistic or hostile: a government friendly to our interests

friendship [ˈfrendʃip] – n. the state of being friends (or friendly)

frighten [ˈfraitən] – v. cause fear in: The stranger who hangs around the building frightens me

fringe [frindʒ] – n. the outside boundary or surface of something

frog [frɔg] – n. any of various tailless stout-bodied amphibians with long hind limbs for leaping; semiaquatic and terrestrial species

front [frʌnt] – n. the side that is forward or prominent

frontier [ˈfrʌntjə] – n. a wilderness at the edge of a settled area of a country: the individualism of the frontier in Andrew Jackson’s day

frown [fraun] – n. a facial expression of dislike or displeasure

frozen  – adj. turned into ice; affected by freezing or by long and severe cold: the frozen North

fruit [fru:t] – n. the ripened reproductive body of a seed plant

frustrate [frʌsˈtreit] – v. hinder or prevent (the efforts, plans, or desires) of: What ultimately frustrated every challenger was Ruth’s amazing September surge

frustration [frʌsˈtreiʃən] – n. the feeling that accompanies an experience of being thwarted in attaining your goals

fuck [fʌk] – n. slang for sexual intercourse

fuel [ˈfjuəl] – v. provide with a combustible substance that provides energy: fuel aircraft, ships, and cars

fulfil  – v. put in effect

full [ful] – adj. containing as much or as many as is possible or normal: a full glass

full-time  – adj. for the entire time appropriate to an activity: a full-time job

fully [ˈfuli] – adv. sufficiently; more than adequately: the evidence amply (or fully) confirms our suspicions

fun [fʌn] – n. activities that are enjoyable or amusing: I do it for the fun of it

function [ˈfʌŋkʃən] – n. what something is used for: the function of an auger is to bore holes

functional [ˈfʌŋkʃənl] – adj. involving or affecting function rather than physiology: functional deafness

fund [fʌnd] – v. convert (short-term floating debt) into long-term debt that bears fixed interest and is represented by bonds

fundamental [.fʌndəˈmentl] – adj. serving as an essential component: an example that was fundamental to the argument

fundamentally  – adv. in essence; at bottom or by one’s (or its) very nature

funding [ˈfʌndiŋ] – n. financial resources provided to make some project possible

funeral [ˈfju:nərəl] – n. a ceremony at which a dead person is buried or cremated: hundreds of people attended his funeral

funny [ˈfʌni] – adj. arousing or provoking laughter: funny stories that made everybody laugh

fur [fə:] – n. the dressed hairy coat of a mammal

furious [ˈfjuəriəs] – adj. marked by extreme and violent energy: a furious battle

furnish [ˈfə:niʃ] – v. give something useful or necessary to

furniture [ˈfə:nitʃə] – n. furnishings that make a room or other area ready for occupancy: they had too much furniture for the small apartment

further [ˈfə:ðə] – v. promote the growth of

furthermore [ˈfə:ðəˈmɔ:] – adv. in addition: computer chess games are getting cheaper all the time; furthermore, their quality is improving

fury [ˈfjuəri] – n. a feeling of intense anger: hell hath no fury like a woman scorned

fusion [ˈfju:ʒən] – n. an occurrence that involves the production of a union

fuss [fʌs] – n. an excited state of agitation

future [ˈfju:tʃə] – adj. yet to be or coming: some future historian will evaluate him

gain [gein] – v. obtain

galaxy [ˈgæləksi] – n. a splendid assemblage (especially of famous people)

gall [gɔ:l] – n. an open sore on the back of a horse caused by ill-fitting or badly adjusted saddle

gallery [ˈgæləri] – n. spectators at a golf or tennis match

gallon [ˈgælən] – n. United States liquid unit equal to 4 quarts or 3.785 liters

game [geim] – n. a contest with rules to determine a winner: you need four people to play this game

gang [gæŋ] – n. an association of criminals: police tried to break up the gang

gap [gæp] – n. a conspicuous disparity or difference as between two figures: gap between income and outgo

garage [ˈgærɑ:ʒ] – n. an outbuilding (or part of a building) for housing automobiles

garden [ˈgɑ:dn] – n. a plot of ground where plants are cultivated

gardener [ˈgɑ:dnə] – n. someone employed to work in a garden

garlic [ˈgɑ:lik] – n. bulbous herb of southern Europe widely naturalized; bulb breaks up into separate strong-flavored cloves

garment [ˈgɑ:mənt] – n. an article of clothing: garments of the finest silk

gas [gæs] – n. a volatile flammable mixture of hydrocarbons (hexane and heptane and octane etc.) derived from petroleum; used mainly as a fuel in internal-combustion engines

gasp [gɑ:sp] – n. a short labored intake of breath with the mouth open: she gave a gasp and fainted

gastric [ˈgæstrik] – adj. relating to or involving the stomach: gastric ulcer

gate [geit] – n. a movable barrier in a fence or wall

gather [ˈgæðə] – v. assemble or get together: gather some stones

gay [gei] – adj. bright and pleasant; promoting a feeling of cheer: a gay sunny room

gaze [geiz] – n. a long fixed look: he fixed his paternal gaze on me

gear [giə] – n. a toothed wheel that engages another toothed mechanism in order to change the speed or direction of transmitted motion

gender [ˈdʒendə] – n. the properties that distinguish organisms on the basis of their reproductive roles

gene [dʒi:n] – n. (genetics) a segment of DNA that is involved in producing a polypeptide chain; it can include regions preceding and following the coding DNA as well as introns between the exons; it is considered a unit of heredity: genes were formerly called factors

general [ˈdʒenərəl] – adj. applying to all or most members of a category or group: the general public

generally [ˈdʒenərəli] – adv. usually; as a rule

generate [ˈdʒenəreit] – v. bring into existence: The new manager generated a lot of problems

generation [.dʒenəˈreiʃən] – n. all the people living at the same time or of approximately the same age

generous [ˈdʒenərəs] – adj. willing to give and share unstintingly: a generous donation

genetic [dʒiˈnetik] – adj. occurring among members of a family usually by heredity: genetically transmitted features

genius [ˈdʒi:njəs] – n. someone who has exceptional intellectual ability and originality: Mozart was a child genius

gentle [ˈdʒentl] – adj. soft and mild; not harsh or stern or severe: a gentle reprimand

gentleman [ˈdʒentlmən] – n. a man of refinement

gently [ˈdʒentli] – adv. in a gradual manner: a gently sloping terrain

genuine [ˈdʒenjuin] – adj. not fake or counterfeit: a genuine Picasso

genuinely  – adv. in accordance with truth or fact or reality: a genuinely open society

geographical  – adj. determined by geography

geography [dʒiˈɔgrəfi] – n. study of the earth’s surface; includes people’s responses to topography and climate and soil and vegetation

geological  – adj. of or relating to or based on geology: geological formations

gesture [ˈdʒestʃə] – n. motion of hands or body to emphasize or help to express a thought or feeling

get [get] – v. come into the possession of something concrete or abstract

ghost [gəust] – n. a mental representation of some haunting experience: he looked like he had seen a ghost

giant [ˈdʒaiənt] – n. any creature of exceptional size

gift [gift] – n. something acquired without compensation

gig [gig] – n. long and light rowing boat; especially for racing

girl [gə:l] – n. a young woman

girlfriend  – n. any female friend: Mary and her girlfriend organized the party

give [giv] – v. cause to have, in the abstract sense or physical sense

given [ˈgiv(ə)n] – adj. acknowledged as a supposition: given the engine’s condition, it is a wonder that it started

glad [glæd] – adj. showing or causing joy and pleasure; especially made happy: glad you are here

glance [glɑ:ns] – v. hit at an angle

glare [glɛə] – n. a light within the field of vision that is brighter than the brightness to which the eyes are adapted: a glare of sunlight

glass [glɑ:s] – n. a brittle transparent solid with irregular atomic structure

glimpse [glimps] – n. a quick look

global [ˈgləubəl] – adj. involving the entire earth; not limited or provincial in scope: global war

gloom [glu:m] – n. a state of partial or total darkness: he struck a match to dispel the gloom

glorious [ˈglɔ:riəs] – adj. characterized by grandeur: a glorious work of art

glory [ˈglɔ:ri] – n. a state of high honor: he valued glory above life itself

glove [glʌv] – n. the handwear used by fielders in playing baseball

glow [gləu] – n. an alert and refreshed state

go [gəu] – v. follow a procedure or take a course: We should go farther in this matter

goal [gəul] – n. the place designated as the end (as of a race or journey)

goalkeeper  – n. the soccer or hockey player assigned to protect the goal

goat [gəut] – n. any of numerous agile ruminants related to sheep but having a beard and straight horns

gold [gəuld] – n. a deep yellow color: he admired the gold of her hair

golden [ˈgəuldən] – adj. marked by peace and prosperity: a golden era

golf [gɔlf] – n. a game played on a large open course with 9 or 18 holes; the object is use as few strokes as possible in playing all the holes

good [gud] – adj. having desirable or positive qualities especially those suitable for a thing specified: good news from the hospital

goodness [ˈgudnis] – n. that which is pleasing or valuable or useful

gospel [ˈgɔspəl] – n. the four books in the New Testament (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John) that tell the story of Christ’s life and teachings

gossip [ˈgɔsip] – n. light informal conversation for social occasions

gothic  – adj. characteristic of the style of type commonly used for printing German

govern [ˈgʌvən] – v. bring into conformity with rules or principles or usage; impose regulations

government [ˈgʌvənmənt] – n. the act of governing; exercising authority: he had considerable experience of government

governor [ˈgʌvənə] – n. a control that maintains a steady speed in a machine (as by controlling the supply of fuel)

gown [gaun] – n. a woman’s dress, usually with a close-fitting bodice and a long flared skirt, often worn on formal occasions

grab [græb] – v. take hold of so as to seize or restrain or stop the motion of

grace [greis] – n. (Christian theology) a state of sanctification by God; the state of one who is under such divine influence: the conception of grace developed alongside the conception of sin

grade [greid] – n. a body of students who are taught together

gradual [ˈgrædjuəl] – adj. proceeding in small stages: a gradual increase in prices

gradually [ˈgrædjʊəli] – adv. in a gradual manner: the snake moved gradually toward its victim

graduate [ˈgrædjueit] – v. receive an academic degree upon completion of one’s studies: She graduated in 1990

grain [grein] – n. a relatively small granular particle of a substance: a grain of sand

grammar [ˈgræmə] – n. the branch of linguistics that deals with syntax and morphology (and sometimes also deals with semantics)

grammatical [grəˈmætikəl] – adj. conforming to the rules of grammar or usage accepted by native speakers: spoke in grammatical sentences

grand [grænd] – adj. of behavior that is impressive and ambitious in scale or scope: in the grand manner

grandfather [ˈgrænd.fɑ:ðə] – n. the father of your father or mother

grandmother [ˈgrænd.mʌðə] – n. the mother of your father or mother

grant [grɑ:nt] – n. any monetary aid

graph [græf,grɑ:f] – n. a visual representation of the relations between certain quantities plotted with reference to a set of axes

graphics [ˈgræfiks] – n. the drawings and photographs in the layout of a book

grasp [grɑ:sp] – n. understanding of the nature or meaning or quality or magnitude of something: he has a good grasp of accounting practices

grass [grɑ:s] – n. German writer of novels and poetry and plays (born 1927)

grateful [ˈgreitfəl] – adj. affording comfort or pleasure: the grateful warmth of the fire

grave [greiv] – n. death of a person: he went to his grave without forgiving me

gravel [ˈgrævəl] – v. cause annoyance in; disturb, especially by minor irritations

gravity [ˈgræviti] – n. a manner that is serious and solemn

great [greit] – adj. relatively large in size or number or extent; larger than others of its kind: a great juicy steak

greatly [ˈgreitli] – adv. to an extraordinary extent or degree: he improved greatly

green [gri:n] – n. a piece of open land for recreational use in an urban area

greenhouse [ˈgri:nhaus] – n. a building with glass walls and roof; for the cultivation and exhibition of plants under controlled conditions

greet [gri:t] – v. react to in a certain way: The President was greeted with catcalls

grey [grei] – n. United States writer of western adventure novels (1875-1939)

grid [grid] – n. a pattern of regularly spaced horizontal and vertical lines

grief [gri:f] – n. intense sorrow caused by loss of a loved one (especially by death)

grim [grim] – adj. not to be placated or appeased or moved by entreaty: grim determination

grin [grin] – n. a facial expression characterized by turning up the corners of the mouth; usually shows pleasure or amusement

grind [graind] – v. work hard

grip [grip] – n. the appendage to an object that is designed to be held in order to use or move it: it was an old briefcase but it still had a good grip

groan [grəun] – n. an utterance expressing pain or disapproval

gross [grəus] – adj. before any deductions: gross income

ground [graund] – v. fix firmly and stably

group [gru:p] – n. any number of entities (members) considered as a unit

grow [grəu] – v. become larger, greater, or bigger; expand or gain

growth [grəuθ] – n. a progression from simpler to more complex forms: the growth of culture

guarantee [.gærənˈti:] – v. give surety or assume responsibility

guard [gɑ:d] – n. a person who keeps watch over something or someone

guardian [ˈgɑ:djən] – n. a person who cares for persons or property

guerrilla [gəˈrilə] – n. a member of an irregular armed force that fights a stronger force by sabotage and harassment

guess [ges] – v. expect, believe, or suppose: I guess she is angry at me for standing her up

guest [gest] – n. a visitor to whom hospitality is extended

guidance [ˈgaidəns] – n. something that provides direction or advice as to a decision or course of action

guide [gaid] – n. someone employed to conduct others

guideline [ˈgaidlain] – n. a light line that is used in lettering to help align the letters

guild [gild] – n. a formal association of people with similar interests

guilt [gilt] – n. the state of having committed an offense

guilty [ˈgilti] – adj. responsible for or chargeable with a reprehensible act: guilty of murder

guitar [giˈtɑ:] – n. a stringed instrument usually having six strings; played by strumming or plucking

gun [gʌn] – n. a weapon that discharges a missile at high velocity (especially from a metal tube or barrel)

gut [gʌt] – n. the part of the alimentary canal between the stomach and the anus

guy [gai] – n. an informal term for a youth or man: a nice guy

habit [ˈhæbit] – n. an established custom: it was their habit to dine at 7 every evening

habitat [ˈhæbitæt] – n. the type of environment in which an organism or group normally lives or occurs: a marine habitat

hair [hɛə] – n. a very small distance or space: they escaped by a hair’s-breadth

half [hɑ:f] – adj. consisting of one of two equivalent parts in value or quantity: a half chicken

halfway [ˈhɑ:fˈwei] – adj. equally distant from the extremes

hall [hɔ:l] – n. an interior passage or corridor onto which rooms open: the elevators were at the end of the hall

halt [hɔ:lt] – v. cause to stop: halt the presses

ham [hæm] – n. meat cut from the thigh of a hog (usually smoked)

hammer [ˈhæmə] – n. the part of a gunlock that strikes the percussion cap when the trigger is pulled

hand [hænd] – n. the (prehensile) extremity of the superior limb: he had the hands of a surgeon

handful [ˈhændful] – n. a small number or amount: only a handful of responses were received

handicap [ˈhændikæp] – n. the condition of being unable to perform as a consequence of physical or mental unfitness

handicapped [ˈhændikæpt] – adj. incapable of functioning as a consequence of injury or illness

handle [ˈhændl] – v. be in charge of, act on, or dispose of: This blender can’t handle nuts

handling [ˈhændliŋ] – n. manual (or mechanical) carrying or moving or delivering or working with something

handsome [ˈhænsəm] – adj. pleasing in appearance especially by reason of conformity to ideals of form and proportion: very pretty but not so extraordinarily handsome

handy [ˈhændi] – adj. easy to reach: found a handy spot for the can opener

hang [hæŋ] – v. let drop or droop

happen [ˈhæpən] – v. come to pass: What is happening?

happily [ˈhæpili] – adv. in a joyous manner: they shouted happily

happiness [ˈhæpinis] – n. state of well-being characterized by emotions ranging from contentment to intense joy

happy [ˈhæpi] – adj. enjoying or showing or marked by joy or pleasure: a happy smile

harbour  – v. secretly shelter (as of fugitives or criminals)

hard [hɑ:d] – adj. not easy; requiring great physical or mental effort to accomplish or comprehend or endure: why is it so hard for you to keep a secret?

hardly [ˈhɑ:dli] – adv. only a very short time before: we hardly knew them

hardship [ˈhɑ:dʃip] – n. a state of misfortune or affliction: a life of hardship

hardware [ˈhɑ:dwɛə] – n. major items of military weaponry (as tanks or missile)

harm [hɑ:m] – n. any physical damage to the body caused by violence or accident or fracture etc.

harmful [ˈhɑ:mfəl] – adj. causing or capable of causing harm: too much sun is harmful to the skin

harmony [ˈhɑ:məni] – n. compatibility in opinion and action

harsh [hɑ:ʃ] – adj. unpleasantly stern: wild and harsh country full of hot sand and cactus

harvest [ˈhɑ:vist] – n. the yield from plants in a single growing season

hastily  – adv. in a hurried or hasty manner: hastily, he scanned the headlines

hat [hæt] – n. an informal term for a person’s role: he took off his politician’s hat and talked frankly

hate [heit] – n. the emotion of intense dislike; a feeling of dislike so strong that it demands action

hatred [ˈheitrid] – n. the emotion of intense dislike; a feeling of dislike so strong that it demands action

haul [hɔ:l] – n. the quantity that was caught

haunt [hɔ:nt] – v. follow stealthily or recur constantly and spontaneously to: the ghost of her mother haunted her

have [hæv] – v. go through (mental or physical states or experiences): have a feeling

hay [hei] – n. grass mowed and cured for use as fodder

hazard [ˈhæzəd] – n. a source of danger; a possibility of incurring loss or misfortune: drinking alcohol is a health hazard

head [hed] – n. a single domestic animal: 200 head of cattle

heading [ˈhediŋ] – n. a line of text serving to indicate what the passage below it is about: the heading seemed to have little to do with the text

headline [ˈhedlain] – n. the heading or caption of a newspaper article

headmaster [ˈhedˈmɑ:stə] – n. presiding officer of a school

headquarters [ˈhedˈkwɔ:təz] – n. (usually plural) the office that serves as the administrative center of an enterprise: many companies have their headquarters in New York

heal [hi:l] – v. provide a cure for, make healthy again: The quack pretended to heal patients but never managed to

health [helθ] – n. the general condition of body and mind: his delicate health

healthy [ˈhelθi] – adj. financially secure and functioning well: a healthy economy

heap [hi:p] – n. (often followed by `of’) a large number or amount or extent

hear [hiə] – v. get to know or become aware of, usually accidentally

heart [hɑ:t] – n. the locus of feelings and intuitions: in your heart you know it is true

heat [hi:t] – n. a form of energy that is transferred by a difference in temperature

heating [ˈhi:tiŋ] – n. the process of becoming warmer; a rising temperature

heaven [ˈhevn] – n. any place of complete bliss and delight and peace

heavily [ˈhevili] – adv. to a considerable degree: he relied heavily on others’ data

heavy [ˈhevi] – adj. of comparatively great physical weight or density: a heavy load

hectare [ˈhektɑ:] – n. (abbreviated `ha’) a unit of surface area equal to 100 ares (or 10,000 square meters)

hedge [hedʒ] – v. avoid or try to avoid fulfilling, answering, or performing (duties, questions, or issues)

heel [hi:l] – n. the back part of the human foot

height [hait] – n. the vertical dimension of extension; distance from the base of something to the top

heir [ɛə] – n. a person who inherits some title or office

helicopter [ˈhelikɔptə] – n. an aircraft without wings that obtains its lift from the rotation of overhead blades

hell [hel] – n. any place of pain and turmoil: the hell of battle

helmet [ˈhelmit] – n. armor plate that protects the head

help [help] – v. improve the condition of: These pills will help the patient

helpful [ˈhelpfəl] – adj. providing assistance or serving a useful function

helpless [ˈhelplis] – adj. lacking in or deprived of strength or power: lying ill and helpless

hemisphere [ˈhemisfiə] – n. half of the terrestrial globe

hen [hen] – n. adult female chicken

hence [hens] – adv. (used to introduce a logical conclusion) from that fact or reason or as a result: the eggs were fresh and hence satisfactory

herb [hə:b] – n. a plant lacking a permanent woody stem; many are flowering garden plants or potherbs; some having medicinal properties; some are pests

herd [hə:d] – n. a group of wild mammals of one species that remain together: antelope or elephants or seals or whales or zebra

here [hiə] – adv. in this circumstance or respect or on this point or detail: what do we have here?

heritage [ˈheritidʒ] – n. practices that are handed down from the past by tradition: a heritage of freedom

hero [ˈhiərəu] – n. the principal character in a play or movie or novel or poem

heroin [ˈherəuin] – n. a narcotic that is considered a hard drug; a highly addictive morphine derivative; intravenous injection provides the fastest and most intense rush

hesitate [ˈheziteit] – v. pause or hold back in uncertainty or unwillingness: Authorities hesitate to quote exact figures

hidden  – adj. not accessible to view: concealed (or hidden) damage

hide [haid] – v. prevent from being seen or discovered: Muslim women hide their faces

hierarchy [ˈhaiərɑ:ki] – n. a series of ordered groupings of people or things within a system: put honesty first in her hierarchy of values

high [hai] – n. a lofty level or position or degree: summer temperatures reached an all-time high

highlight [ˈhailait] – n. the most interesting or memorable part: the highlight of the tour was our visit to the Vatican

highly [ˈhaili] – adv. at a high rate or wage: highly paid workers

highway [ˈhaiwei] – n. a major road for any form of motor transport

hill [hil] – n. a local and well-defined elevation of the land: they loved to roam the hills of West Virginia

hint [hint] – n. an indirect suggestion

hip [hip] – n. either side of the body below the waist and above the thigh

hire [ˈhaiə] – v. hold under a lease or rental agreement; of goods and services

historian [hisˈtɔ:riən] – n. a person who is an authority on history and who studies it and writes about it

historic [hisˈtɔ:rik] – adj. belonging to the past; of what is important or famous in the past: historic victories

historical [hisˈtɔ:rikəl] – adj. having once lived or existed or taken place in the real world as distinct from being legendary: the historical Jesus

historically  – adv. with respect to history: this is historically interesting

history [ˈhistəri] – n. the aggregate of past events: a critical time in the school’s history

hit [hit] – v. cause to move by striking: hit a ball

hitherto [ˈhiðəˈtu:] – adv. used in negative statement to describe a situation that has existed up to this point or up to the present time

hobby [ˈhɔbi] – n. an auxiliary activity

hold [həuld] – v. keep in a certain state, position, or activity; e.g.,: hold in place

holder [ˈhəuldə] – n. a person who holds something

holding [ˈhəuldiŋ] – n. the act of retaining something

hole [həul] – n. an opening into or through something

holiday [ˈhɔlədi] – n. leisure time away from work devoted to rest or pleasure: we took a short holiday in Puerto Rico

holly  – n. any tree or shrub of the genus Ilex having red berries and shiny evergreen leaves with prickly edges

holy [ˈhəuli] – n. a sacred place of pilgrimage

home [həum] – n. where you live at a particular time: deliver the package to my home

homeless [ˈhəumlis] – n. someone unfortunate without housing: a homeless was found murdered in Central Park

homework [ˈhəumwə:k] – n. preparatory school work done outside school (especially at home)

homosexual  – adj. sexually attracted to members of your own sex

honest [ˈɔnist] – adj. not disposed to cheat or defraud; not deceptive or fraudulent: honest lawyers

honestly  – adv. (used as intensives reflecting the speaker’s attitude) it is sincerely the case that: honestly, I don’t believe it

honey [ˈhʌni] – n. a sweet yellow liquid produced by bees

honour  – n. a tangible symbol signifying approval or distinction

honourable  – adj. worthy of being honored; entitled to honor and respect

hook [huk] – v. rip off; ask an unreasonable price

hope [həup] – n. the general feeling that some desire will be fulfilled: in spite of his troubles he never gave up hope

hopefully [ˈhəʊpfʊli] – adv. it is hoped: hopefully the weather will be fine on Sunday

horizon [həˈraizn] – n. the line at which the sky and Earth appear to meet

horizontal [.hɔriˈzɔntl] – adj. parallel to or in the plane of the horizon or a base line: a horizontal surface

horn [hɔ:n] – n. a noisemaker (as at parties or games) that makes a loud noise when you blow through it

horrible [ˈhɔrəbl] – adj. provoking horror: war is beyond all words horrible

horror [ˈhɔrə] – n. intense and profound fear

horse [hɔ:s] – n. solid-hoofed herbivorous quadruped domesticated since prehistoric times

hospital [ˈhɔspitl] – n. a health facility where patients receive treatment

hospitality [.hɔspiˈtæliti] – n. kindness in welcoming guests or strangers

host [həust] – n. a vast multitude

hostage [ˈhɔstidʒ] – n. a prisoner who is held by one party to insure that another party will meet specified terms

hostile [ˈhɔstail] – adj. characterized by enmity or ill will: a hostile nation

hostility [hɔsˈtiliti] – n. a state of deep-seated ill-will

hot [hɔt] – adj. characterized by violent and forceful activity or movement; very intense: the fighting became hot and heavy

hotel [həuˈtel] – n. a building where travelers can pay for lodging and meals and other services

hour [auə] – n. a period of time equal to 1/24th of a day: the job will take more than an hour

house [haus] – n. a dwelling that serves as living quarters for one or more families: he has a house on Cape Cod

household [ˈhaushəuld] – n. a social unit living together: It was a good Christian household

housewife [ˈhauswaif] – n. a wife who manages a household while her husband earns the family income

housing [ˈhauziŋ] – n. a protective cover designed to contain or support a mechanical component

hover [ˈhʌvə] – v. be undecided about something; waver between conflicting positions or courses of action

however [hauˈevə] – adv. despite anything to the contrary (usually following a concession): although I’m a little afraid, however I’d like to try it

hug [hʌg] – v. squeeze (someone) tightly in your arms, usually with fondness: He hugged her close to him

huge [hju:dʒ] – adj. unusually great in size or amount or degree or especially extent or scope: huge government spending

human [ˈhju:mən] – adj. relating to a person: the experiment was conducted on 6 monkeys and 2 human subjects

humanity [hju:ˈmæniti] – n. the quality of being human

humble [ˈhʌmbl] – adj. low or inferior in station or quality: a humble cottage

humour  – n. a characteristic (habitual or relatively temporary) state of feeling

hunger [ˈhʌŋgə] – v. feel the need to eat

hungry [ˈhʌŋgri] – adj. (usually followed by `for’) extremely desirous: hungry for recognition

hunt [hʌnt] – n. Englishman and Pre-Raphaelite painter (1827-1910)

hunter [ˈhʌntə] – n. a person who searches for something: a treasure hunter

hunting  – n. the pursuit and killing or capture of wild animals regarded as a sport

hurry [ˈhʌri] – n. overly eager speed (and possible carelessness)

hurt [hə:t] – v. be the source of pain

husband [ˈhʌzbənd] – n. a married man; a woman’s partner in marriage

hut [hʌt] – n. temporary military shelter

hydrogen [ˈhaidridʒən] – n. a nonmetallic univalent element that is normally a colorless and odorless highly flammable diatomic gas; the simplest and lightest and most abundant element in the universe

hypothesis [haiˈpɔθisis] – n. a proposal intended to explain certain facts or observations

ice [ais] – n. water frozen in the solid state: Americans like ice in their drinks

idea [aiˈdiə] – n. the content of cognition; the main thing you are thinking about: it was not a good idea

ideal [aiˈdiəl] – adj. constituting or existing only in the form of an idea or mental image or conception: a poem or essay may be typical of its period in idea or ideal content

ideally  – adv. in an ideal manner: ideally, this will remove all problems

identical [aiˈdentikəl] – adj. exactly alike; incapable of being perceived as different: rows of identical houses

identification [ai.dentifiˈkeiʃən] – n. evidence of identity; something that identifies a person or thing

identify [aiˈdentifai] – v. recognize as being; establish the identity of someone or something

identity [aiˈdentiti] – n. the distinct personality of an individual regarded as a persisting entity: you can lose your identity when you join the army

ideological [.aidiəˈlɔdʒikəl] – adj. of or pertaining to or characteristic of an orientation that characterizes the thinking of a group or nation

ideology [.aidiˈɔlədʒi] – n. an orientation that characterizes the thinking of a group or nation

ignorance [ˈignərəns] – n. the lack of knowledge or education

ignore [igˈnɔ:] – v. refuse to acknowledge

ill [il] – adj. affected by an impairment of normal physical or mental function: ill from the monotony of his suffering

illegal [iˈli:gəl] – adj. prohibited by law or by official or accepted rules: an illegal chess move

illness [ˈilnis] – n. impairment of normal physiological function affecting part or all of an organism

illuminate [iˈlju:mineit] – v. make lighter or brighter

illusion [iˈlu:ʒən] – n. an erroneous mental representation

illustrate [ˈiləstreit] – v. clarify by giving an example of

illustration [i.ləsˈtreiʃən] – n. artwork that helps make something clear or attractive

image [ˈimidʒ] – n. an iconic mental representation: her imagination forced images upon her too awful to contemplate

imagination [i.mædʒiˈneiʃən] – n. the formation of a mental image of something that is not perceived as real and is not present to the senses: popular imagination created a world of demons

imaginative [iˈmædʒinətiv] – adj. (used of persons or artifacts) marked by independence and creativity in thought or action: an imaginative use of material

imagine [iˈmædʒin] – v. expect, believe, or suppose: I imagine she earned a lot of money with her new novel

immediate [iˈmi:djət] – adj. of the present time and place: the immediate revisions

immediately [iˈmi:djətli] – adv. without delay or hesitation; with no time intervening: he answered immediately

immense [iˈmens] – adj. unusually great in size or amount or degree or especially extent or scope: the Los Angeles aqueduct winds like an immense snake along the base of the mountains

immigrant [ˈimigrənt] – n. a person who comes to a country where they were not born in order to settle there

immigration [.imiˈgreiʃən] – n. migration into a place (especially migration to a country of which you are not a native in order to settle there)

imminent [ˈiminənt] – adj. close in time; about to occur: in imminent danger

immune [iˈmju:n] – adj. secure against: immune from taxation as long as he resided in Bermuda

impact [ˈimpækt,imˈpækt] – n. the striking of one body against another

imperial [imˈpiəriəl] – adj. relating to or associated with an empire: imperial colony

implementation [.implimenˈteiʃən] – n. the act of accomplishing some aim or executing some order: the agency was created for the implementation of the policy

implication [.impliˈkeiʃən] – n. something that is inferred (deduced or entailed or implied): his resignation had political implications

implicit [imˈplisit] – adj. being without doubt or reserve: implicit trust

imply [imˈplai] – v. express or state indirectly

import [ˈimpɔ:t,imˈpɔ:t] – n. commodities (goods or services) bought from a foreign country

importance [imˈpɔ:təns] – n. a prominent status: a person of importance

important [imˈpɔ:tənt] – adj. of great significance or value: important people

importantly  – adv. in an important way: for centuries jellies have figured importantly among English desserts, particularly upon festive occasion

impose [imˈpəuz] – v. compel to behave in a certain way: Social relations impose courtesy

impossible [imˈpɔsəbl] – adj. not capable of occurring or being accomplished or dealt with: an impossible dream

impress [imˈpres] – v. have an emotional or cognitive impact upon: This child impressed me as unusually mature

impression [imˈpreʃən] – n. a vague idea in which some confidence is placed: his impression of her was favorable

impressive [imˈpresiv] – adj. producing a strong effect: gave an impressive performance as Othello

imprison [imˈprizn] – v. lock up or confine, in or as in a jail: The suspects were imprisoned without trial

imprisonment [imˈprizənmənt] – n. putting someone in prison or in jail as lawful punishment

improve [imˈpru:v] – v. to make better: The editor improved the manuscript with his changes

improved  – adj. made more desirable or valuable or profitable; especially made ready for use or marketing: new houses are springing up on an improved tract of land near the river

improvement [imˈpru:vmənt] – n. a change for the better; progress in development

impulse [ˈimpʌls] – n. an instinctive motive: profound religious impulses

in [in] – n. a unit of length equal to one twelfth of a foot

inability [.inəˈbiliti] – n. lack of ability (especially mental ability) to do something

inadequate [inˈædikwit] – adj. lacking the requisite qualities or resources to meet a task: inadequate training

inappropriate [.inəˈprəupriit] – adj. not suitable for a particular occasion etc: noise seems inappropriate at a time of sadness

incapable [inˈkeipəbl] – adj. (followed by `of’) lacking capacity or ability: incapable of carrying a tune

incentive [inˈsentiv] – n. a positive motivational influence

inch [intʃ] – n. a unit of length equal to one twelfth of a foot

incidence [ˈinsidəns] – n. the relative frequency of occurrence of something

incident [ˈinsidənt] – n. a single distinct event

incidentally [.insiˈdentəli] – adv. introducing a different topic; in point of fact: incidentally, I won’t go to the party

inclined [inˈklaind] – adj. (often followed by `to’) having a preference, disposition, or tendency: wasn’t inclined to believe the excuse

include [inˈklu:d] – v. have as a part, be made up out of: The list includes the names of many famous writers

inclusion [inˈklu:ʒən] – n. the relation of comprising something: he admired the inclusion of so many ideas in such a short work

income [ˈin.kʌm] – n. the financial gain (earned or unearned) accruing over a given period of time

incorporate [inˈkɔ:pəreit] – v. make into a whole or make part of a whole: She incorporated his suggestions into her proposal

increase [ˈinkri:s,inˈkri:s] – n. a quantity that is added

increased  – adj. made greater in size or amount or degree

increasing [inˈkri:siŋ] – adj. becoming greater or larger: increasing prices

increasingly [inˈkri:siŋli] – adv. advancing in amount or intensity: she became increasingly depressed

incredible [inˈkredəbl] – adj. beyond belief or understanding: at incredible speed

incredibly  – adv. not easy to believe: behind you the coastal hills plunge to the incredibly blue sea backed by the Turkish mountains

incur [inˈkə:] – v. make oneself subject to; bring upon oneself; become liable to: People who smoke incur a great danger to their health

indeed [inˈdi:d] – adv. in truth (often tends to intensify): they said the car would break down and indeed it did

independence [.indiˈpendəns] – n. freedom from control or influence of another or others

independent [.indiˈpendənt] – adj. free from external control and constraint: an independent mind

independently [indiˈpendəntli] – adv. on your own; without outside help: the children worked on the project independently

index [ˈindeks] – n. a numerical scale used to compare variables with one another or with some reference number

indicate [ˈindikeit] – v. be a signal for or a symptom of: These symptoms indicate a serious illness

indication [.indiˈkeiʃən] – n. the act of indicating or pointing out by name

indicator [ˈindikeitə] – n. a signal for attracting attention

indigenous [inˈdidʒənəs] – adj. originating where it is found: the Ainu are indigenous to the northernmost islands of Japan

indirect [.indiˈrekt] – adj. having intervening factors or persons or influences: reflection from the ceiling provided a soft indirect light

indirectly [.indiˈrektli] – adv. not in a forthright manner: he answered very indirectly

individual [.indiˈvidjuəl] – adj. being or characteristic of a single thing or person: individual drops of rain

individually  – adv. apart from others: taken individually, the rooms were, in fact, square

indoor [ˈindɔ:] – adj. located, suited for, or taking place within a building: indoor activities for a rainy day

induce [inˈdju:s] – v. cause to arise: induce a crisis

indulge [inˈdʌldʒ] – v. give free rein to: The writer indulged in metaphorical language

industrial [inˈdʌstriəl] – adj. having highly developed industries: the industrial revolution

industry [ˈindəstri] – n. the people or companies engaged in a particular kind of commercial enterprise: each industry has its own trade publications

inequality  – n. lack of equality: the growing inequality between rich and poor

inevitable [inˈevitəbl] – adj. incapable of being avoided or prevented: the inevitable result

inevitably [inˈevitəbli] – adv. in such a manner as could not be otherwise

infant [ˈinfənt] – n. a very young child (birth to 1 year) who has not yet begun to walk or talk

infect [inˈfekt] – v. communicate a disease to: Your children have infected you with this head cold

infection [inˈfekʃən] – n. the pathological state resulting from the invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms

infinite [ˈinfinit] – adj. having no limits or boundaries in time or space or extent or magnitude: the infinite ingenuity of man

inflation [inˈfleiʃən] – n. a general and progressive increase in prices: in inflation everything gets more valuable except money

inflict [inˈflikt] – v. impose something unpleasant

influence [ˈinfluəns] – n. a power to affect persons or events especially power based on prestige etc: used her parents’ influence to get the job

influential [.influˈenʃəl] – adj. having or exercising influence or power: an influential newspaper

inform [inˈfɔ:m] – v. impart knowledge of some fact, state or affairs, or event to: I informed him of his rights

informal [inˈfɔ:məl] – adj. not formal: conservative people unaccustomed to informal dress

information [.infəˈmeiʃən] – n. a message received and understood

infrastructure [ˈinfrəˈstrʌktʃə] – n. the basic structure or features of a system or organization

ingredient [inˈgri:diənt] – n. a component of a mixture or compound

inhabitant [inˈhæbitənt] – n. a person who inhabits a particular place

inherent [inˈhiərənt] – adj. existing as an essential constituent or characteristic

inherit [inˈherit] – v. obtain from someone after their death: I inherited a castle from my French grandparents

inheritance [inˈheritəns] – n. hereditary succession to a title or an office or property

inhibit [inˈhibit] – v. to put down by force or authority

inhibition  – n. (psychology) the conscious exclusion of unacceptable thoughts or desires

initial [iˈniʃəl] – n. the first letter of a word (especially a person’s name): he refused to put the initials FRS after his name

initially [iˈniʃəli] – adv. at the beginning

initiate [iˈniʃieit] – v. bring into being: He initiated a new program

initiative [iˈniʃətiv] – n. readiness to embark on bold new ventures

inject [inˈdʒekt] – v. to introduce (a new aspect or element): He injected new life into the performance

injection [inˈdʒekʃən] – n. the forceful insertion of a substance under pressure

injunction [inˈdʒʌŋkʃən] – n. a formal command or admonition

injure [ˈindʒə] – v. hurt the feelings of

injured  – adj. harmed: injured soldiers

injury [ˈindʒəri] – n. any physical damage to the body caused by violence or accident or fracture etc.

inland [ˈinlənd] – adj. situated away from an area’s coast or border

inn [in] – n. a hotel providing overnight lodging for travelers

inner [ˈinə] – adj. located inward: Beethoven’s manuscript looks like a bloody record of a tremendous inner battle

innocence [ˈinəsns] – n. the state of being unsullied by sin or moral wrong; lacking a knowledge of evil

innocent [ˈinəsnt] – adj. free from evil or guilt: an innocent child

innovation [.inəuˈveiʃən] – n. a creation (a new device or process) resulting from study and experimentation

innovative [ˈinəʊveitiv] – adj. ahead of the times: is British industry innovative enough?

input [ˈinput] – n. signal going into an electronic system

inquest  – n. an inquiry into the cause of an unexpected death

inquiry [inˈkwaiəri] – n. a search for knowledge

insect [ˈinsekt] – n. small air-breathing arthropod

insert [inˈsə:t] – n. a folded section placed between the leaves of another publication

inside [ˈinˈsaid] – adj. relating to or being on the side closer to the center or within a defined space: he reached into his inside jacket pocket

insider [inˈsaidə(r)] – n. an officer of a corporation or others who have access to private information about the corporation’s operations

insight [ˈinsait] – n. clear or deep perception of a situation

insist [inˈsist] – v. be emphatic or resolute and refuse to budge: I must insist!

insistence [inˈsistəns] – n. continual and persistent demands

inspect [inˈspekt] – v. look over carefully: Please inspect your father’s will carefully

inspection [inˈspekʃən] – n. a formal or official examination: we had to wait for the inspection before we could use the elevator

inspector [inˈspektə] – n. a high ranking police officer

inspiration [.inspəˈreiʃən] – n. arousal of the mind to special unusual activity or creativity

inspire [inˈspair] – v. heighten or intensify

instal  – v. set up for use: install the washer and dryer

install [inˈstɔ:l] – v. set up for use: install the washer and dryer

installation [.instəˈleiʃən] – n. a building or place that provides a particular service or is used for a particular industry

instance [ˈinstəns] – n. an occurrence of something: another instance occurred yesterday

instant [ˈinstənt] – adj. occurring with no delay: relief was instantaneous

instantly [ˈinstəntli] – adv. without delay or hesitation; with no time intervening

instead [inˈsted] – adv. in place of, or as an alternative to: Felix became a herpetologist instead

instinct [ˈinstiŋkt] – n. inborn pattern of behavior often responsive to specific stimuli: the spawning instinct in salmon

institute [ˈinstitju:t] – v. set up or lay the groundwork for

institution [.instiˈtju:ʃən] – n. an organization founded and united for a specific purpose

institutional  – adj. organized as or forming an institution: institutional religion

instruct [inˈstrʌkt] – v. impart skills or knowledge to: He instructed me in building a boat

instruction [inˈstrʌkʃən] – n. a message describing how something is to be done

instructor [inˈstrʌktə] – n. a person whose occupation is teaching

instrument [ˈinstrumənt] – n. a device that requires skill for proper use

instrumental [.instruˈmentl] – adj. serving or acting as a means or aid: instrumental in solving the crime

insufficient [.insəˈfiʃənt] – adj. of a quantity not able to fulfill a need or requirement: insufficient funds

insurance [inˈʃuərəns] – n. protection against future loss

insure [inˈʃuə] – v. be careful or certain to do something; make certain of something

intact [inˈtækt] – adj. constituting the undiminished entirety; lacking nothing essential especially not damaged: fought to keep the union intact

intake [ˈinteik] – n. an opening through which fluid is admitted to a tube or container

integral [ˈintigrəl] – adj. existing as an essential constituent or characteristic

integrate [ˈintigreit] – v. make into a whole or make part of a whole

integrated [ˈintigreitid] – adj. formed or united into a whole

integration [.intiˈgreiʃən] – n. the action of incorporating a racial or religious group into a community

integrity [inˈtegriti] – n. an undivided or unbroken completeness or totality with nothing wanting: the integrity of the nervous system is required for normal development

intellectual [.intilˈektʃuəl] – adj. of or associated with or requiring the use of the mind: intellectual problems

intelligence [inˈtelidʒəns] – n. the ability to comprehend; to understand and profit from experience

intelligent [inˈtelidʒənt] – adj. having the capacity for thought and reason especially to a high degree: is there intelligent life in the universe?

intend [inˈtend] – v. have in mind as a purpose

intense [inˈtens] – adj. possessing or displaying a distinctive feature to a heightened degree: intense heat

intensify [inˈtensifai] – v. make more intense, stronger, or more marked

intensity [inˈtensiti] – n. the amount of energy transmitted (as by acoustic or electromagnetic radiation): he adjusted the intensity of the sound

intensive [inˈtensiv] – adj. tending to give force or emphasis: an intensive adverb

intent [inˈtent] – n. the intended meaning of a communication

intention [inˈtenʃən] – n. (usually plural) the goal with respect to a marriage proposal: his intentions are entirely honorable

interaction [.intəˈrækʃən] – n. a mutual or reciprocal action; interacting

interactive [.intərˈæktiv] – adj. used especially of drugs or muscles that work together so the total effect is greater than the sum of the two (or more)

intercourse [ˈintəkɔ:s] – n. communication between individuals

interest [ˈintərist] – n. a sense of concern with and curiosity about someone or something: an interest in music

interested [ˈintəristid] – adj. involved in or affected by or having a claim to or share in: the interested parties met to discuss the business

interesting [ˈintəristiŋ] – adj. arousing or holding the attention

interface [ˈintəfeis] – n. (chemistry) a surface forming a common boundary between two things (two objects or liquids or chemical phases)

interfere [.intəˈfiə] – v. come between so as to be hindrance or obstacle: Your talking interferes with my work!

interference [.intəˈfiərəns] – n. a policy of intervening in the affairs of other countries

interim [ˈintərim] – n. the time between one event, process, or period and another

interior [inˈtiəriə] – adj. situated within or suitable for inside a building: an interior scene

intermediate [.intəˈmi:diət] – adj. lying between two extremes in time or space or state: going from sitting to standing without intermediate pushes with the hands

internal [inˈtə:nəl] – adj. happening or arising or located within some limits or especially surface: internal organs

international [.intəˈnæʃənəl] – adj. concerning or belonging to all or at least two or more nations: international affairs

interpret [inˈtə:prit] – v. make sense of; assign a meaning to: How do you interpret his behavior?

interpretation [in.tə:priˈteiʃən] – n. a mental representation of the meaning or significance of something

interrupt [.intəˈrʌpt] – v. make a break in: We interrupt the program for the following messages

interval [ˈintəvəl] – n. a definite length of time marked off by two instants

intervene [.intəˈvi:n] – v. get involved, so as to alter or hinder an action, or through force or threat of force: Why did the U.S. not intervene earlier in WW II?

intervention [.intə(:)ˈvenʃən] – n. a policy of intervening in the affairs of other countries

interview [ˈintəvju:] – v. discuss formally with (somebody) for the purpose of an evaluation: We interviewed the job candidates

intimate [ˈintimeit,ˈintimit] – adj. marked by close acquaintance, association, or familiarity: intimate friend

introduce [.intrəˈdju:s] – v. cause to come to know personally: introduce the new neighbors to the community

introduction [.intrəˈdʌkʃən] – n. the act of beginning something new

invade [inˈveid] – v. march aggressively into another’s territory by military force for the purposes of conquest and occupation: Hitler invaded Poland on September 1, 1939

invaluable [inˈvæljuəbl] – adj. having incalculable monetary, intellectual, or spiritual worth

invariably [inˈveəriəb(ə)li] – adv. without variation or change, in every case

invasion [inˈveiʒən] – n. any entry into an area not previously occupied: an invasion of tourists

invent [inˈvent] – v. come up with (an idea, plan, explanation, theory, or principle) after a mental effort

invention [inˈvenʃən] – n. the creation of something in the mind

invest [inˈvest] – v. give qualities or abilities to

investigate [inˈvestigeit] – v. conduct an inquiry or investigation of: The district attorney’s office investigated reports of possible irregularities

investigation [in.vestiˈgeiʃən] – n. an inquiry into unfamiliar or questionable activities

investigator [inˈvestigeitə] – n. a scientist who devotes himself to doing research

investment [inˈvestmənt] – n. money that is invested with an expectation of profit

investor [inˈvestə] – n. someone who commits capital in order to gain financial returns

invisible [inˈvizəbl] – adj. impossible or nearly impossible to see; imperceptible by the eye: the invisible man

invitation [.inviˈteiʃən] – n. a request (spoken or written) to participate or be present or take part in something: an invitation to lunch

invite [inˈvait] – v. increase the likelihood of: invite criticism

invoke [inˈvəuk] – v. summon into action or bring into existence, often as if by magic

involve [inˈvɔlv] – v. connect closely and often incriminatingly

involved [inˈvɔlvd] – adj. connected by participation or association or use: we accomplished nothing, simply because of the large number of people involved

involvement [inˈvɔlvmənt] – n. the act of sharing in the activities of a group

ion [ˈaiən] – n. a particle that is electrically charged (positive or negative); an atom or molecule or group that has lost or gained one or more electrons

iron [ˈaiən] – n. a golf club that has a relatively narrow metal head

ironically [aiˈrɔnikəli] – adv. contrary to plan or expectation: ironically, he ended up losing money under his own plan

irony [ˈaiərəni] – n. witty language used to convey insults or scorn: irony is wasted on the stupid

irrelevant [iˈrelivənt] – adj. having no bearing on or connection with the subject at issue: an irrelevant comment

irrespective [.iriˈspektiv] – adv. in spite of everything; without regard to drawbacks

island [ˈailənd] – n. a land mass (smaller than a continent) that is surrounded by water

isolated [ˈaisəleitid] – adj. not close together in time: isolated instances of rebellion

isolation [.aisəuˈleiʃən] – n. a state of separation between persons or groups

issue [ˈiʃju:] – n. an important question that is in dispute and must be settled: the issue could be settled by requiring public education for everyone

item [ˈaitəm] – n. a distinct part that can be specified separately in a group of things that could be enumerated on a list: he noticed an item in the New York Times

ivory [ˈaivəri] – n. a shade of white the color of bleached bones

jacket [ˈdʒækit] – n. a short coat

jail [dʒeil] – n. a correctional institution used to detain persons who are in the lawful custody of the government (either accused persons awaiting trial or convicted persons serving a sentence)

jam [dʒæm] – v. press tightly together or cram

jar [dʒɑ:] – v. be incompatible; be or come into conflict

jaw [dʒɔ:] – v. talk socially without exchanging too much information

jazz [dʒæz] – n. empty rhetoric or insincere or exaggerated talk: don’t give me any of that jazz

jealous [ˈdʒeləs] – adj. showing extreme cupidity; painfully desirous of another’s advantages: jealous of his success and covetous of his possessions

jerk [dʒə:k] – n. a dull stupid fatuous person

jet [dʒet] – n. the occurrence of a sudden discharge (as of liquid)

Jew [dʒu:] – n. a person belonging to the worldwide group claiming descent from Jacob (or converted to it) and connected by cultural or religious ties

jewel [ˈdʒu:əl] – v. adorn or decorate with precious stones: jeweled dresses

jewellery  – n. an adornment (as a bracelet or ring or necklace) made of precious metals and set with gems (or imitation gems)

job [dʒɔb] – n. the principal activity in your life that you do to earn money

jockey [ˈdʒɔki] – v. defeat someone through trickery or deceit

join [dʒɔin] – v. become part of; become a member of a group or organization: He joined the Communist Party as a young man

joint [dʒɔint] – n. (anatomy) the point of connection between two bones or elements of a skeleton (especially if it allows motion)

jointly  – adv. in collaboration or cooperation: this paper was written jointly

joke [dʒəuk] – n. a humorous anecdote or remark intended to provoke laughter: he told a very funny joke

journal [ˈdʒə:nl] – n. a daily written record of (usually personal) experiences and observations

journalist [ˈdʒə:nəlist] – n. a writer for newspapers and magazines

journey [ˈdʒə:ni] – v. travel upon or across

joy [dʒɔi] – n. the emotion of great happiness

judge [dʒʌdʒ] – v. determine the result of (a competition)

judgement  – n. the legal document stating the reasons for a judicial decision

judgment [ˈdʒʌdʒmənt] – n. the act of judging or assessing a person or situation or event: they criticized my judgment of the contestants

judicial [dʒu:ˈdiʃəl] – adj. decreed by or proceeding from a court of justice: a judicial decision

juice [dʒu:s] – n. the liquid part that can be extracted from plant or animal tissue by squeezing or cooking

jump [dʒʌmp] – v. move forward by leaps and bounds: Can you jump over the fence?

junction [ˈdʒʌŋkʃən] – n. the place where two or more things come together

jungle [ˈdʒʌŋgl] – n. a location marked by an intense competition and struggle for survival

junior [ˈdʒu:njə] – n. term of address for a disrespectful and annoying male: look here, junior, it’s none of your business

jurisdiction [.dʒuərisˈdikʃən] – n. (law) the right and power to interpret and apply the law: courts having jurisdiction in this district

jury [ˈdʒuəri] – n. a body of citizens sworn to give a true verdict according to the evidence presented in a court of law

just [dʒʌst] – adv. and nothing more: just a scratch

justice [ˈdʒʌstis] – n. judgment involved in the determination of rights and the assignment of rewards and punishments

justification [dʒʌstifiˈkeiʃ(ə)n] – n. something (such as a fact or circumstance) that shows an action to be reasonable or necessary: he considered misrule a justification for revolution

justified  – adj. having words so spaced that lines have straight even margins

justify [ˈdʒʌstifai] – v. show to be reasonable or provide adequate ground for

keen [ki:n] – adj. having or demonstrating ability to recognize or draw fine distinctions

keep [ki:p] – v. continue a certain state, condition, or activity

keeper [ˈki:pə] – n. someone in charge of other people: am I my brother’s keeper?

kettle [ˈketl] – n. a metal pot for stewing or boiling; usually has a lid

key [ki:] – n. metal device shaped in such a way that when it is inserted into the appropriate lock the lock’s mechanism can be rotated

keyboard [ˈki:bɔ:d] – n. device consisting of a set of keys on a piano or organ or typewriter or typesetting machine or computer or the like

kick [kik] – v. drive or propel with the foot

kid [kid] – n. a young person of either sex: they’re just kids

kidney [ˈkidni] – n. either of two bean-shaped excretory organs that filter wastes (especially urea) from the blood and excrete them and water in urine: urine passes out of the kidney through ureters to the bladder

kill [kil] – v. cause to die; put to death, usually intentionally or knowingly: This man killed several people when he tried to rob a bank

killer [ˈkilə] – n. someone who causes the death of a person or animal

killing [ˈkiliŋ] – n. an event that causes someone to die

kilometre  – n. a metric unit of length equal to 1000 meters (or 0.621371 miles)

kind [kaind] – adj. having or showing a tender and considerate and helpful nature; used especially of persons and their behavior: kind to sick patients

kindly [ˈkaindli] – adj. showing or motivated by sympathy and understanding and generosity: kindly criticism

king [kiŋ] – n. a competitor who holds a preeminent position

kingdom [ˈkiŋdəm] – n. a domain in which something is dominant: the untroubled kingdom of reason

kiss [kis] – n. the act of caressing with the lips (or an instance thereof)

kit [kit] – n. a case for containing a set of articles

kitchen [ˈkitʃin] – n. a room equipped for preparing meals

kite [kait] – n. a bank check that has been fraudulently altered to increase its face value

knee [ni:] – n. hinge joint in the human leg connecting the tibia and fibula with the femur and protected in front by the patella

kneel [ni:l] – n. supporting yourself on your knees

knife [naif] – n. edge tool used as a cutting instrument; has a pointed blade with a sharp edge and a handle

knight [nait] – n. a chessman shaped to resemble the head of a horse; can move two squares horizontally and one vertically (or vice versa)

knit [nit] – n. needlework created by interlacing yarn in a series of connected loops using straight eyeless needles or by machine

knitting  – n. needlework created by interlacing yarn in a series of connected loops using straight eyeless needles or by machine

knock [nɔk] – v. deliver a sharp blow or push :: He knocked the glass clear across the room

knot [nɔt] – n. a tight cluster of people or things: a small knot of women listened to his sermon

know [nəu] – v. be aware of the truth of something; have a belief or faith in something; regard as true beyond any doubt: I know that I left the key on the table

knowledge [ˈnɔlidʒ] – n. the psychological result of perception and learning and reasoning

known [nəun] – adj. apprehended with certainty: a known quantity

lab [læb] – n. a workplace for the conduct of scientific research

label [ˈleibl] – v. pronounce judgment on: They labeled him unfit to work here

laboratory [ˈlæbrətɔ:ri] – n. a workplace for the conduct of scientific research

labour  – n. concluding state of pregnancy; from the onset of contractions to the birth of a child

labourer  – n. someone who works with their hands; someone engaged in manual labor

lace [leis] – v. spin,wind, or twist together

lack [læk] – n. the state of needing something that is absent or unavailable: there is a serious lack of insight into the problem

lacking  – adj. inadequate in amount or degree: lacking in stamina

lad [læd] – n. a boy or man

ladder [ˈlædə] – n. steps consisting of two parallel members connected by rungs; for climbing up or down

lady [ˈleidi] – n. a polite name for any woman: a nice lady at the library helped me

lake [leik] – n. a purplish red pigment prepared from lac or cochineal

lamb [læm] – n. young sheep

lamp [læmp] – n. an artificial source of visible illumination

land [lænd] – n. territory over which rule or control is exercised: he made it the law of the land

landing [ˈlændiŋ] – n. an intermediate platform in a staircase

landlord [ˈlændlɔ:d] – n. a landowner who leases to others

landowner  – n. a holder or proprietor of land

landscape [ˈlændskeip] – n. an expanse of scenery that can be seen in a single view

lane [lein] – n. a narrow way or road

language [ˈlæŋgwidʒ] – n. a systematic means of communicating by the use of sounds or conventional symbols: he taught foreign languages

lap [læp] – n. the upper side of the thighs of a seated person: he picked up the little girl and plopped her down in his lap

large [lɑ:dʒ] – adj. above average in size or number or quantity or magnitude or extent: a large city

largely [ˈlɑ:dʒli] – adv. on a large scale: the sketch was so largely drawn that you could see it from the back row

large-scale  – adj. unusually large in scope: a large-scale attack on AIDS is needed

laser [ˈleizə] – n. an acronym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation; an optical device that produces an intense monochromatic beam of coherent light

last [lɑ:st] – adj. immediately past: last Thursday

late [leit] – adj. being or occurring at an advanced period of time or after a usual or expected time: late evening

lately [ˈleitli] – adv. in the recent past: lately the rules have been enforced

later [ˈleitə] – adv. happening at a time subsequent to a reference time: he’s going to the store but he’ll be back here later

Latin [ˈlætin] – adj. relating to people or countries speaking Romance languages: Latin America

laugh [lɑ:f] – v. produce laughter

laughter [ˈlɑ:ftə] – n. the activity of laughing; the manifestation of joy or mirth or scorn: he enjoyed the laughter of the crowd

launch [lɔ:ntʃ] – v. set up or found

law [lɔ:] – n. the collection of rules imposed by authority: civilization presupposes respect for the law

lawn [lɔ:n] – n. a field of cultivated and mowed grass

lawyer [ˈlɔ:jə] – n. a professional person authorized to practice law; conducts lawsuits or gives legal advice

lay [lei] – v. put in a horizontal position: lay the books on the table

layer [ˈleiə] – n. single thickness of usually some homogeneous substance

layout [ˈleiaut] – n. a plan or design of something that is laid out

lazy [ˈleizi] – adj. moving slowly and gently: up a lazy river

lead [led,li:d] – n. an advantage held by a competitor in a race: he took the lead at the last turn

leader [ˈli:də] – n. a person who rules or guides or inspires others

leadership [ˈli:dəʃip] – n. the activity of leading: his leadership inspired the team

leading [ˈli:diŋ] – adj. indicating the most important performer or role: the leading man

leaf [li:f] – n. the main organ of photosynthesis and transpiration in higher plants

leaflet [ˈli:flit] – n. a thin triangular flap of a heart valve

league [li:g] – n. an association of sports teams that organizes matches for its members

leak [li:k] – n. soft watery rot in fruits and vegetables caused by fungi

lean [li:n] – v. to incline or bend from a vertical position: She leaned over the banister

leap [li:p] – n. an abrupt transition: a successful leap from college to the major leagues

learn [lə:n] – v. gain knowledge or skills: She learned dancing from her sister

learner [ˈlə:nə] – n. works for an expert to learn a trade

learning [ˈlə:niŋ] – n. the cognitive process of acquiring skill or knowledge

lease [li:s] – v. let for money

least [li:st] – n. something that is of no importance: it is the least I can do

leather [ˈleðə] – n. an animal skin made smooth and flexible by removing the hair and then tanning

leave [li:v] – v. go away from a place: At what time does your train leave?

lecture [ˈlektʃə] – n. a speech that is open to the public: he attended a lecture on telecommunications

lecturer [ˈlektʃərə] – n. someone who lectures professionally

left [left] – n. those who support varying degrees of social or political or economic change designed to promote the public welfare

leg [leg] – n. one of the supports for a piece of furniture

legacy [ˈlegəsi] – n. (law) a gift of personal property by will

legal [ˈli:gəl] – adj. established by or founded upon law or official or accepted rules

legally  – adv. by law; conforming to the law

legend [ˈledʒənd] – n. a story about mythical or supernatural beings or events

legislation [.ledʒisˈleiʃən] – n. the act of making or enacting laws

legislative [ˈledʒislətiv] – adj. of or relating to or created by legislation: legislative proposal

legislature [ˈledʒisleitʃə] – n. persons who make or amend or repeal laws

legitimate [liˈdʒitimit] – adj. of marriages and offspring; recognized as lawful

leisure [ˈli:ʒə] – n. time available for ease and relaxation: his job left him little leisure

lemon [ˈlemən] – n. yellow oval fruit with juicy acidic flesh

lend [lend] – v. bestow a quality on: Her presence lends a certain cachet to the company

lender  – n. someone who lends money or gives credit in business matters

length [leŋθ] – n. the linear extent in space from one end to the other; the longest dimension of something that is fixed in place: the length of the table was 5 feet

lengthy [ˈleŋθi] – adj. relatively long in duration; tediously protracted: a lengthy visit from her mother-in-law

less [les] – adj. (comparative of `little’ usually used with mass nouns) a quantifier meaning not as great in amount or degree: of less importance

lesser  – adj. smaller in size or amount or value: the lesser powers of Europe

lesson [ˈlesn] – n. a unit of instruction: he took driving lessons

let [let] – v. actively cause something to happen: I let it be known that I was not interested

letter [ˈletə] – n. a written message addressed to a person or organization: mailed an indignant letter to the editor

level [ˈlevl] – n. a position on a scale of intensity or amount or quality: a high level of care is required

lexical [ˈleksikəl] – adj. of or relating to words: lexical decision task

liability [.laiəˈbiliti] – n. the state of being legally obliged and responsible

liable [ˈlaiəbl] – adj. at risk of or subject to experiencing something usually unpleasant: she is liable to forget

liaison [liˈeizən] – n. a usually secretive or illicit sexual relationship

liberal [ˈlibərəl] – adj. showing or characterized by broad-mindedness: a liberal newspaper

liberation [.libəˈreiʃən] – n. the attempt to achieve equal rights or status: she worked for women’s liberation

liberty [ˈlibəti] – n. immunity from arbitrary exercise of authority: political independence

librarian [laiˈbrɛəriən] – n. a professional person trained in library science and engaged in library services

library [ˈlaibrəri] – n. a room where books are kept: they had brandy in the library

licence [ˈlaisəns] – n. excessive freedom; lack of due restraint

license [ˈlaisns] – n. a legal document giving official permission to do something

lick [lik] – v. beat thoroughly and conclusively in a competition or fight: We licked the other team on Sunday!

lid [lid] – n. either of two folds of skin that can be moved to cover or open the eye: his lids would stay open no longer

lie [lai] – v. be located or situated somewhere; occupy a certain position

life [laif] – n. the experience of being alive; the course of human events and activities: he could no longer cope with the complexities of life

lifespan  – n. the period during which something is functional (as between birth and death)

lifestyle  – n. a manner of living that reflects the person’s values and attitudes

lifetime [ˈlaiftaim] – n. the period during which something is functional (as between birth and death)

lift [lift] – v. raise from a lower to a higher position

light [lait] – adj. of comparatively little physical weight or density: a light load

lighting [ˈlaitiŋ] – n. apparatus for supplying artificial light effects for the stage or a film

lightly [ˈlaitli] – adv. without good reason: one cannot say such things lightly

like [laik] – v. prefer or wish to do something: Would you like to come along to the movies?

likelihood [ˈlaiklihud] – n. the probability of a specified outcome

likely [ˈlaikli] – adj. has a good chance of being the case or of coming about: these services are likely to be available to us all before long

likewise [ˈlaikwaiz] – adv. in addition

limb [lim] – n. any of the main branches arising from the trunk or a bough of a tree

limestone [ˈlaimstəun] – n. a sedimentary rock consisting mainly of calcium that was deposited by the remains of marine animals

limit [ˈlimit] – n. the greatest possible degree of something: to the limit of his ability

limitation [.limiˈteiʃən] – n. the quality of being limited or restricted: it is a good plan but it has serious limitations

limited [ˈlimitid] – adj. small in range or scope: limited war

line [lain] – n. a formation of people or things one beside another: the line of soldiers advanced with their bayonets fixed

linear [ˈliniə] – adj. designating or involving an equation whose terms are of the first degree

linen [ˈlinin] – n. a fabric woven with fibers from the flax plant

linger [ˈliŋgə] – v. remain present although waning or gradually dying: Her perfume lingered on

linguistic [liŋˈgwistik] – adj. consisting of or related to language: linguistic behavior

link [liŋk] – n. a fastener that serves to join or connect: the walls are held together with metal links placed in the wet mortar during construction

lion [ˈlaiən] – n. large gregarious predatory feline of Africa and India having a tawny coat with a shaggy mane in the male

lip [lip] – n. either of two fleshy folds of tissue that surround the mouth and play a role in speaking

liquid [ˈlikwid] – adj. filled or brimming with tears: sorrow made the eyes of many grow liquid

list [list] – v. cause to lean to the side: Erosion listed the old tree

listen [ˈlisn] – v. hear with intention

listener [ˈlisənə] – n. someone who listens attentively

literacy [ˈlitərəsi] – n. the ability to read and write

literally [ˈlitərəli] – adv. (intensifier before a figurative expression) without exaggeration: our eyes were literally pinned to TV during the Gulf War

literary [ˈlitərəri] – adj. knowledgeable about literature: a literary style

literature [ˈlitərətʃə] – n. creative writing of recognized artistic value

litigation [.litiˈgeiʃən] – n. a legal proceeding in a court; a judicial contest to determine and enforce legal rights

litre  – n. a metric unit of capacity, formerly defined as the volume of one kilogram of pure water under standard conditions; now equal to 1,000 cubic centimeters (or approximately 1.75 pints)

little [ˈlitl] – adj. limited or below average in number or quantity or magnitude or extent: a little dining room

live [laiv,liv] – adj. actually being performed at the time of hearing or viewing: a live television program

lively [ˈlaivli] – adj. full of life and energy: a lively discussion

liver [ˈlivə] – n. a person who has a special life style: a high liver

living [ˈliviŋ] – adj. true to life; lifelike: the living image of her mother

load [ləud] – n. weight to be borne or conveyed

loan [ləun] – n. the temporary provision of money (usually at interest)

lobby [ˈlɔbi] – n. a large entrance or reception room or area

local [ˈləukəl] – adj. affecting only a restricted part or area of the body: local anesthesia

locality [ləuˈkæliti] – n. a surrounding or nearby region: it is a rugged locality

locally  – adv. to a restricted area of the body

locate [ləuˈkeit] – v. determine or indicate the place, site, or limits of, as if by an instrument or by a survey: Our sense of sight enables us to locate objects in space

location [ləuˈkeiʃən] – n. a point or extent in space

lock [lɔk] – v. keep engaged

locomotive [.ləukəˈməutiv] – n. a wheeled vehicle consisting of a self-propelled engine that is used to draw trains along railway tracks

lodge [lɔdʒ] – n. English physicist who studied electromagnetic radiation and was a pioneer of radiotelegraphy (1851-1940)

log [lɔg] – n. a segment of the trunk of a tree when stripped of branches

logic [ˈlɔdʒik] – n. the branch of philosophy that analyzes inference

logical [ˈlɔdʒikəl] – adj. capable of or reflecting the capability for correct and valid reasoning: a logical mind

lone  – adj. lacking companions or companionship: he was alone when we met him

lonely [ˈləunli] – adj. lacking companions or companionship: a lonely fisherman stood on a tuft of gravel

long [lɔŋ] – adj. primarily spatial sense; of relatively great or greater than average spatial extension or extension as specified: a long road

long-term  – adj. relating to or extending over a relatively long time: the long-term reconstruction of countries damaged by the war

look [luk] – v. perceive with attention; direct one’s gaze towards: She looked over the expanse of land

loop [lu:p] – n. fastener consisting of a metal ring for lining a small hole to permit the attachment of cords or lines

loose [lu:s] – adj. not compact or dense in structure or arrangement: loose gravel

lord [lɔ:d] – n. terms referring to the Judeo-Christian God

lordship  – n. a title used to address any British peer except a duke and extended to a bishop or a judge

lorry [ˈlɔri] – n. a large low horse-drawn wagon without sides

lose [lu:z] – v. fail to keep or to maintain; cease to have, either physically or in an abstract sense

loss [lɔs] – n. gradual decline in amount or activity: weight loss

lost [lɔst] – adj. no longer in your possession or control; unable to be found or recovered: a lost child

lot [lɔt] – n. a parcel of land having fixed boundaries: he bought a lot on the lake

loud [laud] – adj. characterized by or producing sound of great volume or intensity: a group of loud children

loudly  – adv. with relatively high volume: the band played loudly

lounge [laundʒ] – n. an upholstered seat for more than one person

love [lʌv] – n. a strong positive emotion of regard and affection: his love for his work

lovely [ˈlʌvli] – adj. appealing to the emotions as well as the eye

lover [ˈlʌvə] – n. an ardent follower and admirer

low [ləu] – adj. less than normal in degree or intensity or amount: low prices

lower [ˈləuə,ˈlauə] – v. cause to drop or sink

loyal [ˈlɔiəl] – adj. steadfast in allegiance or duty: loyal subjects

loyalty [ˈlɔiəlti] – n. feelings of allegiance

luck [lʌk] – n. an unknown and unpredictable phenomenon that causes an event to result one way rather than another: bad luck caused his downfall

lucky [ˈlʌki] – adj. occurring by chance: a lucky escape

lump [lʌmp] – n. a compact mass

lunch [lʌntʃ] – v. take the midday meal: At what time are you lunching?

lunchtime  – n. the customary or habitual hour for eating lunch: he observed a regular lunchtime

lung [lʌŋ] – n. either of two saclike respiratory organs in the chest of vertebrates; serves to remove carbon dioxide and provide oxygen to the blood

luxury [ˈlʌkʃəri] – n. something that is an indulgence rather than a necessity

machine [məˈʃi:n] – n. an efficient person: the boxer was a magnificent fighting machine

machinery [məˈʃi:nəri] – n. a system of means and activities whereby a social institution functions: the complex machinery of negotiation

mad [mæd] – adj. roused to anger: she gets mad when you wake her up so early

magazine [.mægəˈzi:n] – n. product consisting of a paperback periodic publication as a physical object: tripped over a pile of magazines

magic [ˈmædʒik] – n. any art that invokes supernatural powers

magical [ˈmædʒikəl] – adj. possessing or using or characteristic of or appropriate to supernatural powers: a magical spell

magistrate [ˈmædʒistreit] – n. a lay judge or civil authority who administers the law (especially one who conducts a court dealing with minor offenses)

magnetic [mægˈnetik] – adj. having the properties of a magnet; i.e. of attracting iron or steel: the hard disk is covered with a thin coat of magnetic material

magnificent [mægˈnifisnt] – adj. characterized by grandeur: magnificent cathedrals

magnitude [ˈmægnitju:d] – n. the property of relative size or extent (whether large or small): they tried to predict the magnitude of the explosion

maid [meid] – n. an unmarried girl (especially a virgin)

mail [meil] – n. the bags of letters and packages that are transported by the postal service

main [mein] – adj. most important element: the main doors were of solid glass

mainframe  – n. a large digital computer serving 100-400 users and occupying a special air-conditioned room

mainland [ˈmeinlənd] – n. the main land mass of a country or continent; as distinguished from an island or peninsula

mainly [ˈmeinli] – adv. for the most part: he is mainly interested in butterflies

mainstream [ˈmeinstri:m] – n. the prevailing current of thought: his thinking was in the American mainstream

maintain [meinˈtein] – v. keep in a certain state, position, or activity; e.g.,

maintenance [ˈmeintinəns] – n. activity involved in maintaining something in good working order

majesty [ˈmædʒisti] – n. impressiveness in scale or proportion

major [ˈmeidʒə] – adj. of greater importance or stature or rank: a major artist

majority [məˈdʒɔ:riti] – n. the property resulting from being or relating to the greater in number of two parts; the main part: the majority of his customers prefer it

make [meik] – v. engage in: make love, not war

maker [ˈmeikə] – n. terms referring to the Judeo-Christian God

make-up [ˈmeikʌp] – n. an event that is substituted for a previously cancelled event

making [ˈmeikiŋ] – n. the act that results in something coming to be: the making of measurements

male [meil] – n. a person who belongs to the sex that cannot have babies

mammal [ˈmæməl] – n. any warm-blooded vertebrate having the skin more or less covered with hair; young are born alive except for the small subclass of monotremes and nourished with milk

man [mæn] – n. someone who serves in the armed forces; a member of a military force

manage [ˈmænidʒ] – v. be successful; achieve a goal: I managed to carry the box upstairs

management [ˈmænidʒmənt] – n. those in charge of running a business

manager [ˈmænidʒə] – n. someone who controls resources and expenditures

managerial [.mænəˈdʒiəriəl] – adj. of or relating to the function or responsibility or activity of management

mandatory [ˈmændətəri] – n. the recipient of a mandate

manifest [ˈmænifest] – v. provide evidence for; stand as proof of; show by one’s behavior, attitude, or external attributes: The buildings in Rome manifest a high level of architectural sophistication

manifestation [.mænifesˈteiʃən] – n. a clear appearance: a manifestation of great emotion

manipulate [məˈnipjuleit] – v. influence or control shrewdly or deviously: He manipulated public opinion in his favor

manipulation [mə.nipjuˈleiʃən] – n. exerting shrewd or devious influence especially for one’s own advantage: his manipulation of his friends was scandalous

mankind [mænˈkaind] – n. all of the living human inhabitants of the earth: she always used `humankind’ because `mankind’ seemed to slight the women

manner [ˈmænə] – n. how something is done or how it happens: her dignified manner

manor [ˈmænə] – n. the landed estate of a lord (including the house on it)

manpower [ˈmæn.pauə] – n. the force of workers available

manual [ˈmænjuəl] – adj. of or relating to the hands: manual dexterity

manufacture [.mænjuˈfæktʃə] – v. put together out of artificial or natural components or parts: They manufacture small toys

manufacturer [.mænjuˈfæktʃərə] – n. someone who manufactures something

manufacturing  – n. the act of making something (a product) from raw materials: manufacturing is vital to Great Britain

manuscript [ˈmænjuskript] – n. the form of a literary work submitted for publication

map [mæp] – v. locate within a specific region of a chromosome in relation to known DNA or gene sequences: map the genes

marathon  – n. any long and arduous undertaking

marble [ˈmɑ:bl] – n. a hard crystalline metamorphic rock that takes a high polish; used for sculpture and as building material

march  – n. the month following February and preceding April

margin [ˈmɑ:dʒin] – n. the boundary line or the area immediately inside the boundary

marginal [ˈmɑ:dʒinəl] – adj. at or constituting a border or edge: the marginal strip of beach

marine [məˈri:n] – adj. of or relating to the sea: marine explorations

mark [mɑ:k] – n. a distinguishing symbol: the owner’s mark was on all the sheep

marked [mɑ:kt] – adj. singled out for notice or especially for a dire fate: a marked man

marker  – n. a distinguishing symbol

market [ˈmɑ:kit] – n. the world of commercial activity where goods and services are bought and sold: without competition there would be no market

marketing [ˈmɑ:kitiŋ] – n. the exchange of goods for an agreed sum of money

marriage [ˈmæridʒ] – n. two people who are married to each other: his second marriage was happier than the first

married [ˈmærid] – adj. joined in matrimony: a married man

marry [ˈmæri] – v. perform a marriage ceremony

marsh [mɑ:ʃ] – n. low-lying wet land with grassy vegetation; usually is a transition zone between land and water: thousands of acres of marshland

marvellous  – adj. extraordinarily good or great ; used especially as intensifiers

mask [mɑ:sk] – v. hide under a false appearance: He masked his disappointment

mass [mæs] – n. the property of a body that causes it to have weight in a gravitational field

massive [ˈmæsiv] – adj. imposing in size or bulk or solidity: massive oak doors

master [ˈmɑ:stə] – n. an artist of consummate skill: a master of the violin

match [mætʃ] – v. be compatible, similar or consistent; coincide in their characteristics: The suspect’s fingerprints don’t match those on the gun

mate [meit] – n. a fellow member of a team: it was his first start against his former teammates

material [məˈtiəriəl] – adj. concerned with worldly rather than spiritual interests: material possessions

mathematical [.mæθiˈmætikəl] – adj. relating to or having ability to think in or work with numbers: a mathematical whiz

mathematics [.mæθiˈmætiks] – n. a science (or group of related sciences) dealing with the logic of quantity and shape and arrangement

matrix [ˈmeitriks] – n. (geology) amass of fine-grained rock in which fossils, crystals, or gems are embedded

matter [ˈmætə] – n. a vaguely specified concern: several matters to attend to

mature [məˈtjuə] – v. develop and work out fully in one’s mind: I need to mature my thoughts

maturity [məˈtjuəriti] – n. the period of time in your life after your physical growth has stopped and you are fully developed

maximum [ˈmæksiməm] – n. the largest possible quantity

may [mei, me] – n. the month following April and preceding June

maybe [ˈmeibi] – adv. by chance

mayor [ˈmɛ] – n. the head of a city government

meadow [ˈmedəu] – n. a field where grass or alfalfa are grown to be made into hay

meal [mi:l] – n. any of the occasions for eating food that occur by custom or habit at more or less fixed times

mean [mi:n] – adj. approximating the statistical norm or average or expected value: the mean annual rainfall

meaning [ˈmi:niŋ] – n. the message that is intended or expressed or signified: what is the meaning of this sentence

meaningful [ˈmi:niŋfəl] – adj. having a meaning or purpose: a meaningful explanation

means [mi:nz] – n. how a result is obtained or an end is achieved: a means of control

meantime [ˈmi:nˈtaim] – n. the time between one event, process, or period and another

meanwhile [ˈmi:nˈwail] – adv. at the same time but in another place: meanwhile, back at the ranch…

measure [ˈmeʒə] – n. any maneuver made as part of progress toward a goal: the situation called for strong measures

measurement [ˈmeʒəmənt] – n. the act or process of assigning numbers to phenomena according to a rule: the measurements were carefully done

meat [mi:t] – n. the flesh of animals (including fishes and birds and snails) used as food

mechanical [miˈkænikəl] – adj. relating to or concerned with machinery or tools: mechanical arts

mechanism [ˈmekənizəm] – n. the atomic process that occurs during a chemical reaction: he determined unique mechanisms for the photochemical reactions

medal [ˈmedl] – n. an award for winning a championship or commemorating some other event

medical [ˈmedikəl] – adj. requiring or amenable to treatment by medicine especially as opposed to surgery: medical treatment

medicine [ˈmedisin] – n. the branches of medical science that deal with nonsurgical techniques

medieval [mediˈi:vəl] – adj. relating to or belonging to the Middle Ages

medium [ˈmi:diəm] – n. a means or instrumentality for storing or communicating information

meet [mi:t] – v. get together socially or for a specific purpose

melt [melt] – v. reduce or cause to be reduced from a solid to a liquid state, usually by heating: melt butter

member [ˈmembə] – n. anything that belongs to a set or class: snakes are members of the class Reptilia

membership [ˈmembəʃip] – n. the state of being a member

membrane [ˈmembrein] – n. a thin pliable sheet of material

memorable [ˈmemərəbl] – adj. worth remembering

memorandum [.meməˈrændəm] – n. a written proposal or reminder

memorial [miˈmɔ:riəl] – n. a recognition of meritorious service

memory [ˈmeməri] – n. the cognitive processes whereby past experience is remembered: he can do it from memory

mental [ˈmentl] – adj. involving the mind or an intellectual process: mental images of happy times

mentally  – adv. in your mind: he suffered mentally

mention [ˈmenʃən] – n. a remark that calls attention to something or someone: she made frequent mention of her promotion

menu [ˈmenju:] – n. a list of dishes available at a restaurant: the menu was in French

merchant [ˈmə:tʃənt] – n. a businessperson engaged in retail trade

mercy [ˈmə:si] – n. leniency and compassion shown toward offenders by a person or agency charged with administering justice: he threw himself on the mercy of the court

mere [miə] – adj. being nothing more than specified: a mere child

merely [ˈmiəli] – adv. and nothing more: I was merely asking

merge [mə:dʒ] – v. become one: the cells merge

merger [mə:dʒə] – n. an occurrence that involves the production of a union

merit [ˈmerit] – n. any admirable quality or attribute: work of great merit

mess [mes] – n. a state of confusion and disorderliness: the house was a mess

message [ˈmesidʒ] – n. a communication (usually brief) that is written or spoken or signaled: he sent a three-word message

metal [ˈmetl] – n. any of several chemical elements that are usually shiny solids that conduct heat or electricity and can be formed into sheets etc.

metaphor [ˈmetəfə] – n. a figure of speech in which an expression is used to refer to something that it does not literally denote in order to suggest a similarity

method [ˈmeθəd] – n. a way of doing something, especially a systematic way; implies an orderly logical arrangement (usually in steps)

methodology [meθəˈdɔlədʒi] – n. the branch of philosophy that analyzes the principles and procedures of inquiry in a particular discipline

metre  – n. the basic unit of length adopted under the Systeme International d’Unites (approximately 1.094 yards)

metropolitan [.metrəˈpɔlitən] – n. a person who lives in a metropolis

microphone [ˈmaikrəfəun] – n. device for converting sound waves into electrical energy

mid  – adj. used in combination to denote the middle: midmorning

middle [ˈmidl] – n. an area that is approximately central within some larger region

middle-class  – adj. occupying a socioeconomic position intermediate between those of the lower classes and the wealthy

midfield  – n. (sports) the middle part of a playing field (as in football or lacrosse)

midnight [ˈmidnait] – n. 12 o’clock at night; the middle of the night: young children should not be allowed to stay up until midnight

mighty [ˈmaiti] – adj. having or showing great strength or force or intensity: struck a mighty blow

migration [maiˈgreiʃən] – n. the movement of persons from one country or locality to another

mild [maild] – adj. moderate in type or degree or effect or force; far from extreme: a mild winter storm

mile [mail] – n. a unit of length equal to 1,760 yards or 5,280 feet; exactly 1609.344 meters

military [ˈmilitəri] – adj. of or relating to the study of the principles of warfare: military law

milk [milk] – n. a white nutritious liquid secreted by mammals and used as food by human beings

mill [mil] – n. a plant consisting of one or more buildings with facilities for manufacturing

mind [maind] – n. that which is responsible for one’s thoughts and feelings; the seat of the faculty of reason: his mind wandered

mine [main] – n. explosive device that explodes on contact; designed to destroy vehicles or ships or to kill or maim personnel

miner [ˈmainə] – n. laborer who works in a mine

mineral [ˈminərəl] – adj. composed of matter other than plant or animal: the inorganic mineral world

minimal [ˈminiməl] – adj. the least possible: needed to enforce minimal standards

minimise  – v. represent as less significant or important

minimum [ˈminiməm] – n. the smallest possible quantity

mining  – n. the act of extracting ores or coal etc from the earth

minister [ˈministə] – n. a person authorized to conduct religious worship: clergymen are usually called ministers in Protestant churches

ministerial  – adj. of or relating to a government minister or ministry: ministerial decree

ministry [ˈministri] – n. building where the business of a government department is transacted

minor [ˈmainə] – adj. of lesser importance or stature or rank: a minor poet

minority [maiˈnɔ:riti] – n. a group of people who differ racially or politically from a larger group of which it is a part

minute [ˈminit,maiˈnju:t] – n. a unit of time equal to 60 seconds or 1/60th of an hour: he ran a 4 minute mile

miracle [ˈmirəkl] – n. any amazing or wonderful occurrence

mirror [ˈmirə] – n. polished surface that forms images by reflecting light

miserable [ˈmizərəbl] – adj. deserving or inciting pity: miserable victims of war

misery [ˈmizəri] – n. a feeling of intense unhappiness: she was exhausted by her misery and grief

Miss [mis] – n. a form of address for an unmarried woman

missile [ˈmisail] – n. a rocket carrying a warhead of conventional or nuclear explosives; may be ballistic or directed by remote control

missing [ˈmisiŋ] – adj. not able to be found: missing in action

mission [ˈmiʃən] – n. an operation that is assigned by a higher headquarters: the planes were on a bombing mission

mist [mist] – v. make less visible or unclear

mistake [miˈsteik] – n. a wrong action attributable to bad judgment or ignorance or inattention: he made a bad mistake

mistress [ˈmistris] – n. an adulterous woman; a woman who has an ongoing extramarital sexual relationship with a man

mix [miks] – v. open (a place) to members of all races and ethnic groups

mixture [ˈmikstʃə] – n. any foodstuff made by combining different ingredients: he drank a mixture of beer and lemonade

moan [məun] – n. an utterance expressing pain or disapproval

mobile [ˈməubail] – adj. migratory: a restless mobile society

mobility [məuˈbiliti] – n. the quality of moving freely

mode [məud] – n. how something is done or how it happens: their nomadic mode of existence

model [ˈmɔdl] – n. a hypothetical description of a complex entity or process: the computer program was based on a model of the circulatory and respiratory systems

moderate [ˈmɔdəreit,ˈmɔdərit] – v. preside over: John moderated the discussion

modern [ˈmɔdən] – adj. relating to a recently developed fashion or style: their offices are in a modern skyscraper

modest [ˈmɔdist] – adj. marked by simplicity; having a humble opinion of yourself: a modest apartment

modification [.mɔdifiˈkeiʃən] – n. the act of making something different (as e.g. the size of a garment)

modify [ˈmɔdifai] – v. make less severe or harsh or extreme: please modify this letter to make it more polite

module [ˈmɔdju:l] – n. one of the inherent cognitive or perceptual powers of the mind

mole  – n. a spy who works against enemy espionage

molecular [məuˈlekjulə] – adj. relating to simple or elementary organization: proceed by more and more detailed analysis to the molecular facts of perception

molecule [ˈmɔlikju:l] – n. (physics and chemistry) the simplest structural unit of an element or compound

moment [ˈməumənt] – n. a particular point in time: the moment he arrived the party began

momentum [məuˈmentəm] – n. an impelling force or strength: the car’s momentum carried it off the road

monarch [ˈmɔnək] – n. a nation’s ruler or head of state usually by hereditary right

monarchy [ˈmɔnəki] – n. an autocracy governed by a monarch who usually inherits the authority

monastery [ˈmɔnəstri] – n. the residence of a religious community

monetary [ˈmʌnə.teri] – adj. relating to or involving money: monetary rewards

money [ˈmʌni] – n. the most common medium of exchange; functions as legal tender: we tried to collect the money he owed us

monitor [ˈmɔnitə] – n. someone who supervises (an examination)

monk [mʌŋk] – n. a male religious living in a cloister and devoting himself to contemplation and prayer and work

monkey [ˈmʌŋki] – n. any of various long-tailed primates (excluding the prosimians)

monopoly [məˈnɔpəli] – n. (economics) a market in which there are many buyers but only one seller: a monopoly on silver

monster [ˈmɔnstə] – n. an imaginary creature usually having various human and animal parts

month [mʌnθ] – n. one of the twelve divisions of the calendar year: he paid the bill last month

monthly [ˈmʌnθli] – n. a periodical that is published every month (or 12 issues per year)

monument [ˈmɔnjumənt] – n. a structure erected to commemorate persons or events

mood [mu:d] – n. a characteristic (habitual or relatively temporary) state of feeling

moon [mu:n] – n. the natural satellite of the Earth: men first stepped on the moon in 1969

moor [muə] – v. secure in or as if in a berth or dock

moral [ˈmɔrəl] – adj. psychological rather than physical or tangible in effect: a moral victory

morale [mɔˈrɑ:l] – n. a state of individual psychological well-being based upon a sense of confidence and usefulness and purpose

morality [məˈræliti] – n. concern with the distinction between good and evil or right and wrong; right or good conduct

more [mɔ:] – adj. (comparative of `much’ used with mass nouns) a quantifier meaning greater in size or amount or extent or degree: more land

moreover [mɔ:rˈəuvə] – adv. in addition: the cellar was dark; moreover, mice nested there

morning [ˈmɔ:niŋ] – n. the time period between dawn and noon: I spent the morning running errands

mortality  – n. the ratio of deaths in an area to the population of that area; expressed per 1000 per year

mortgage [ˈmɔ:gidʒ] – n. a conditional conveyance of property as security for the repayment of a loan

mosaic [mɔˈzeiik] – n. art consisting of a design made of small pieces of colored stone or glass

most [məust] – adv. used to form the superlative: the king cobra is the most dangerous snake

mostly [ˈməustli] – adv. in large part; mainly or chiefly

mother [ˈmʌðə] – n. a term of address for an elderly woman

motif [məuˈti:f] – n. a design or figure that consists of recurring shapes or colors, as in architecture or decoration

motion [ˈməuʃən] – n. the use of movements (especially of the hands) to communicate familiar or prearranged signals

motivate [ˈməutiveit] – v. give an incentive for action

motivation [.məutiˈveiʃən] – n. the condition of being motivated: his motivation was at a high level

motive [ˈməutiv] – n. a theme that is repeated or elaborated in a piece of music

motor [ˈməutə] – n. a nonspecific agent that imparts motion: happiness is the aim of all men and the motor of all action

motorist [ˈməutərist] – n. someone who drives (or travels in) an automobile

motorway [ˈməʊtəwei] – n. a broad highway designed for high-speed traffic

mould [məuld] – n. loose soil rich in organic matter

mount [maunt] – v. attach to a support: They mounted the aerator on a floating

mountain [ˈmauntin] – n. a land mass that projects well above its surroundings; higher than a hill

mouse [maus] – n. a swollen bruise caused by a blow to the eye

mouth [mauθ] – n. the opening through which food is taken in and vocalizations emerge: he stuffed his mouth with candy

move [mu:v] – v. change residence, affiliation, or place of employment: We moved from Idaho to Nebraska

movement [ˈmu:vmənt] – n. a change of position that does not entail a change of location: movement is a sign of life

movie [ˈmu:vi] – n. a form of entertainment that enacts a story by sound and a sequence of images giving the illusion of continuous movement: they went to a movie every Saturday night

moving  – adj. in motion: a constantly moving crowd

much [mʌtʃ] – adv. to a great degree or extent: she’s much better now

mud [mʌd] – n. water soaked soil; soft wet earth

mug [mʌg] – n. a person who is gullible and easy to take advantage of

multimedia  – n. transmission that combine media of communication (text and graphics and sound etc.)

multiple [ˈmʌltipl] – n. the product of a quantity by an integer: 36 is a multiple of 9

multiply [ˈmʌltiplai] – v. combine or increase by multiplication: He managed to multiply his profits

municipal [mju:ˈnisipəl] – adj. relating or belonging to or characteristic of a municipality: municipal government

murder [ˈmə:də] – v. kill intentionally and with premeditation: The mafia boss ordered his enemies murdered

murderer [ˈmə:dərə] – n. a criminal who commits homicide (who performs the unlawful premeditated killing of another human being)

murmur [ˈmə:mə] – n. a low continuous indistinct sound; often accompanied by movement of the lips without the production of articulate speech

muscle [ˈmʌsl] – n. one of the contractile organs of the body

museum [mju:ˈziəm] – n. a depository for collecting and displaying objects having scientific or historical or artistic value

mushroom [ˈmʌʃrum] – n. common name for an edible agaric (contrasting with the inedible toadstool)

music [ˈmju:zik] – n. any agreeable (pleasing and harmonious) sounds: he fell asleep to the music of the wind chimes

musical [ˈmju:zikəl] – adj. talented in or devoted to music: comes from a very musical family

musician [mju:ˈziʃən] – n. artist who composes or conducts music as a profession

mutation [mju:ˈteiʃən] – n. (biology) an organism that has characteristics resulting from chromosomal alteration

mutter [ˈmʌtə] – n. a low continuous indistinct sound; often accompanied by movement of the lips without the production of articulate speech

mutual [ˈmju:tʃuəl] – adj. common to or shared by two or more parties: the mutual interests of management and labor

mysterious [misˈtiəriəs] – adj. of an obscure nature: the new insurance policy is written without cryptic or mysterious terms

mystery [ˈmistəri] – n. something that baffles understanding and cannot be explained: how it got out is a mystery

myth [miθ] – n. a traditional story accepted as history; serves to explain the world view of a people

nail [neil] – v. take into custody

naked [ˈneikid] – adj. completely unclothed: naked from the waist up

name [neim] – v. charge with a function; charge to be: She was named Head of the Committee

namely [ˈneimli] – adv. as follows

narrative [ˈnærətiv] – adj. consisting of or characterized by the telling of a story: narrative poetry

narrow [ˈnærəu] – adj. not wide: a narrow bridge

nasty [ˈnɑ:sti] – adj. offensive or even (of persons) malicious: in a nasty mood

nation [ˈneiʃən] – n. a politically organized body of people under a single government: African nations

national [ˈnæʃənəl] – adj. limited to or in the interests of a particular nation: national interests

nationalism  – n. love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it: British nationalism was in the air and patriotic sentiments ran high

nationalist  – n. one who loves and defends his or her country

nationality [.næʃəˈnæliti] – n. the status of belonging to a particular nation by birth or naturalization

nationally  – adv. extending throughout an entire nation: nationally advertised

native [ˈneitiv] – adj. characteristic of or existing by virtue of geographic origin: the native North American sugar maple

natural [ˈnætʃərəl] – adj. existing in or produced by nature; not artificial or imitation: a natural pearl

naturally [ˈnætʃərəli] – adv. as might be expected: naturally, the lawyer sent us a huge bill

nature [ˈneitʃə] – n. the essential qualities or characteristics by which something is recognized: it is the nature of fire to burn

naval [ˈneivəl] – adj. connected with or belonging to or used in a navy: naval history

navy [ˈneivi] – n. an organization of military vessels belonging to a country and available for sea warfare

near [niə] – adj. not far distant in time or space or degree or circumstances: near neighbors

nearby [ˈniəbai] – adj. close at hand: the nearby towns

nearly [ˈniəli] – adv. (of actions or states) slightly short of or not quite accomplished; all but: he nearly fainted

neat [ni:t] – adj. clean or organized: her neat dress

neatly  – adv. with neatness: she put the slippers under the bed neatly

necessarily [ˈnesəserili] – adv. in an essential manner: such expenses are necessarily incurred

necessary [ˈnesə.səri] – adj. absolutely essential

necessity [niˈsesiti] – n. the condition of being essential or indispensable

neck [nek] – n. a narrow elongated projecting strip of land

need [ni:d] – n. a condition requiring relief: she satisfied his need for affection

needle [ˈni:dl] – n. the leaf of a conifer

negative [ˈnegətiv] – adj. expressing or consisting of a negation or refusal or denial

neglect [niˈglekt] – n. lack of attention and due care

negligence [ˈneglidʒəns] – n. failure to act with the prudence that a reasonable person would exercise under the same circumstances

negotiate [niˈgəuʃieit] – v. discuss the terms of an arrangement: They negotiated the sale of the house

negotiation [ni.gəuʃiˈeiʃən] – n. a discussion intended to produce an agreement: the buyout negotiation lasted several days

neighbour  – n. a person who lives (or is located) near another

neighbourhood  – n. a surrounding or nearby region

neither [ˈni:ðə] – adj. not either; not one or the other

nephew [ˈnefju:] – n. a son of your brother or sister

nerve [nə:v] – n. the courage to carry on

nervous [ˈnə:vəs] – adj. easily agitated: a nervous addict

nest [nest] – n. a structure in which animals lay eggs or give birth to their young

net [net] – n. the excess of revenues over outlays in a given period of time (including depreciation and other non-cash expenses)

network [ˈnetwə:k] – n. an interconnected system of things or people: he owned a network of shops

neutral [ˈnju:trəl] – adj. having no personal preference: a neutral observer

never [ˈnevə] – adv. not ever; at no time in the past or future: I have never been to China

nevertheless [.nevəðəˈles] – adv. despite anything to the contrary (usually following a concession): while we disliked each other, nevertheless we agreed

new [nju:] – adj. not of long duration; having just (or relatively recently) come into being or been made or acquired or discovered: a new law

newcomer  – n. any new participant in some activity

newly [ˈnju:li] – adv. very recently: they are newly married

news [nju:z] – n. information about recent and important events: they awaited news of the outcome

newspaper [ˈnju:z.peipə] – n. a daily or weekly publication on folded sheets; contains news and articles and advertisements: he read his newspaper at breakfast

next [ˈnekst] – adj. immediately following in time or order: next in line

nice [nais] – adj. pleasant or pleasing or agreeable in nature or appearance: what a nice fellow you are and we all thought you so nasty

nicely  – adv. in a nice way: a nicely painted house

night [nait] – n. the time after sunset and before sunrise while it is dark outside

nightmare [ˈnait.mɛə] – n. a situation resembling a terrifying dream

nitrogen [ˈnaitrədʒən] – n. a common nonmetallic element that is normally a colorless odorless tasteless inert diatomic gas; constitutes 78 percent of the atmosphere by volume; a constituent of all living tissues

no [nəu] – adv. referring to the degree to which a certain quality is present: he was no heavier than a child

noble [ˈnəubl] – adj. impressive in appearance: a noble tree

nod [nɔd] – v. lower and raise the head, as to indicate assent or agreement or confirmation: The teacher nodded when the student gave the right answer

node  – n. a connecting point at which several lines come together

noise [nɔiz] – n. sound of any kind (especially unintelligible or dissonant sound): he enjoyed the street noises

noisy [ˈnɔizi] – adj. full of or characterized by loud and nonmusical sounds: a noisy cafeteria

nominal [ˈnɔminəl] – adj. relating to or constituting or bearing or giving a name: the Russian system of nominal brevity

nominate [ˈnɔmineit] – v. propose as a candidate for some honor

nomination [nɔmiˈneiʃən] – n. the act of officially naming a candidate: the Republican nomination for Governor

nonetheless [.nʌnðəˈles] – adv. despite anything to the contrary (usually following a concession)

nonsense [ˈnɔnsens] – n. a message that seems to convey no meaning

norm [nɔ:m] – n. a standard or model or pattern regarded as typical: the current middle-class norm of two children per family

normal [ˈnɔ:məl] – adj. in accordance with scientific laws

normally [ˈnɔ:məli] – adv. under normal conditions

north [nɔ:θ] – n. the cardinal compass point that is at 0 or 360 degrees

northern [ˈnɔ:ðən] – adj. situated in or oriented toward the north: the northern suburbs

nose [nəuz] – n. the organ of smell and entrance to the respiratory tract; the prominent part of the face of man or other mammals: he has a cold in the nose

not [nɔt] – adv. negation of a word or group of words: he does not speak French

notable [ˈnəutəbl] – adj. worthy of notice

notably [ˈnəʊtbəli] – adv. especially; in particular: notably in the social sciences, the professors teach too much

note [nəut] – n. a brief written record: he made a note of the appointment

notebook [ˈnəutbuk] – n. a small compact portable computer

notice [ˈnəutis] – n. an announcement containing information about an event: you didn’t give me enough notice

noticeable [ˈnəutisəbl] – adj. capable or worthy of being perceived: noticeable shadows under her eyes

notify [ˈnəutifai] – v. inform (somebody) of something

notion [ˈnəuʃən] – n. a vague idea in which some confidence is placed

notorious [nəuˈtɔ:riəs] – adj. known widely and usually unfavorably: a notorious gangster

noun [naun] – n. a content word that can be used to refer to a person, place, thing, quality, or action

novel [ˈnɔvəl] – n. an extended fictional work in prose; usually in the form of a story

novelist [ˈnɔvəlist] – n. one who writes novels

now [nau] – adv. in the historical present; at this point in the narration of a series of past events: President Kennedy now calls in the National Guard

nowadays [ˈnauədeiz] – n. the period of time that is happening now; any continuous stretch of time including the moment of speech

nowhere [ˈnəuwɛə] – n. an insignificant place: he came out of nowhere

nuclear [ˈnju:kliə] – adj. (weapons) deriving destructive energy from the release of atomic energy: nuclear war

nucleus [ˈnju:kliəs] – n. a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction

nuisance [ˈnju:sns] – n. a bothersome annoying person

number [ˈnʌmbə] – n. the property possessed by a sum or total or indefinite quantity of units or individuals: he had a number of chores to do

numerous [ˈnju:mərəs] – adj. amounting to a large indefinite number: numerous times

nun [nʌn] – n. a woman religious

nurse [nə:s] – v. try to cure by special care of treatment, of an illness or injury: He nursed his cold with Chinese herbs

nursery [ˈnə:səri] – n. a child’s room for a baby

nursing  – n. the work of caring for the sick or injured or infirm

nut [nʌt] – n. usually large hard-shelled seed

oak [əuk] – n. a deciduous tree of the genus Quercus; has acorns and lobed leaves: great oaks grow from little acorns

obey [əˈbei] – v. be obedient to

object [əbˈdʒekt,ˈɔbdʒikt] – n. a tangible and visible entity; an entity that can cast a shadow: it was full of rackets, balls and other objects

objection [əbˈdʒekʃən] – n. the act of expressing earnest opposition or protest

objective [əbˈdʒektiv] – adj. undistorted by emotion or personal bias; based on observable phenomena: an objective appraisal

obligation [.ɔbliˈgeiʃən] – n. the social force that binds you to the courses of action demanded by that force: every right implies a responsibility; every opportunity, an obligation; every possession, a duty

oblige [əˈblaidʒ] – v. force somebody to do something

observation [.ɔbzəˈveiʃən] – n. the act of making and recording a measurement

observe [əbˈzə:v] – v. discover or determine the existence, presence, or fact of

observer [əbˈzə:və] – n. a person who becomes aware (of things or events) through the senses

obstacle [ˈɔbstəkl] – n. something immaterial that stands in the way and must be circumvented or surmounted: lack of imagination is an obstacle to one’s advancement

obtain [əbˈtein] – v. come into possession of: How did you obtain the visa?

obvious [ˈɔbviəs] – adj. easily perceived by the senses or grasped by the mind: obvious errors

obviously [ˈɔbviəsli] – adv. unmistakably (`plain’ is often used informally for `plainly’): the answer is obviously wrong

occasion [əˈkeiʒən] – n. an event that occurs at a critical time: it was needed only on special occasions

occasional [əˈkeiʒənəl] – adj. occurring from time to time: took an occasional glass of wine

occasionally [əˈkeiʒənəli] – adv. now and then or here and there: he was arrogant and occasionally callous

occupation [.ɔkjuˈpeiʃən] – n. the principal activity in your life that you do to earn money

occupational  – adj. of or relating to the activity or business for which you are trained: occupational hazard

occupy [ˈɔkjupai] – v. keep busy with

occur [əˈkə:] – v. come to pass: Nothing occurred that seemed important

occurrence [əˈkʌrəns] – n. an event that happens

ocean [ˈəuʃən] – n. a large body of water constituting a principal part of the hydrosphere

odd [ɔd] – adj. not divisible by two

odour  – n. the sensation that results when olfactory receptors in the nose are stimulated by particular chemicals in gaseous form

off [ɔ:f] – adj. not in operation or operational: the oven is off

offence [əˈfens] – n. the action of attacking an enemy

offend [əˈfend] – v. cause to feel resentment or indignation: Her tactless remark offended me

offender  – n. a person who transgresses moral or civil law

offensive [əˈfensiv] – adj. for the purpose of attack rather than defense: offensive weapons

offer [ˈɔ:fə] – v. make available or accessible, provide or furnish: The conference center offers a health spa

offering [ˈɔfəriŋ] – n. money contributed to a religious organization

office [ˈɔ:fis] – n. place of business where professional or clerical duties are performed: he rented an office in the new building

officer [ˈɔ:fis] – n. any person in the armed services who holds a position of authority or command: an officer is responsible for the lives of his men

official [əˈfiʃəl] – adj. of or relating to an office: official privileges

officially  – adv. with official authorization

offset [ˈɔf.set] – n. the time at which something is supposed to begin

offspring [ˈɔ:fspriŋ] – n. the immediate descendants of a person: she was the mother of many offspring

often [ˈɔ:fən] – adv. many times at short intervals: we often met over a cup of coffee

oil [ɔil] – n. a slippery or viscous liquid or liquefiable substance not miscible with water

okay [əʊˈkei] – n. an endorsement

old [əuld] – adj. (used especially of persons) having lived for a relatively long time or attained a specific age: his mother is very old

old-fashioned [ˈəuldˈfeʃənd] – adj. out of fashion

omission [əuˈmiʃən] – n. a mistake resulting from neglect

omit [əuˈmit] – v. leave undone or leave out

on [ɔn] – adj. (of events) planned or scheduled: the picnic is on, rain or shine

once [wʌns] – adv. as soon as: once we are home, we can rest

onion [ˈʌnjən] – n. bulbous plant having hollow leaves cultivated worldwide for its rounded edible bulb

only [ˈəunli] – adv. and nothing more: he was only a child

onwards  – adv. in a forward direction

open [ˈəupən] – adj. affording unobstructed entrance and exit; not shut or closed: an open door

opening [ˈəupəniŋ] – n. a ceremony accompanying the start of some enterprise

openly  – adv. in an open way: he openly flaunted his affection for his sister

opera [ˈɔpərə] – n. a drama set to music; consists of singing with orchestral accompaniment and an orchestral overture and interludes

operate [ˈɔpəreit] – v. direct or control; projects, businesses, etc.

operating  – adj. being in effect or operation: the company had several operating divisions

operation [.ɔpəˈreiʃən] – n. a business especially one run on a large scale: a large-scale farming operation

operational [.ɔpəˈreiʃənəl] – adj. pertaining to a process or series of actions for achieving a result: operational difficulties

operator [ˈɔpə.reitə] – n. an agent that operates some apparatus or machine: the operator of the switchboard

opinion [əˈpinjən] – n. a personal belief or judgment that is not founded on proof or certainty: my opinion differs from yours

opponent [əˈpəunənt] – n. a contestant that you are matched against

opportunity [.ɔpəˈtju:niti] – n. a possibility due to a favorable combination of circumstances: the holiday gave us the opportunity to visit Washington

oppose [əˈpəuz] – v. fight against or resist strongly: The senator said he would oppose the bill

opposed [əˈpəuzd] – adj. being in opposition or having an opponent: two bitterly opposed schools of thought

opposite [ˈɔpəzit] – adj. being directly across from each other; facing: And I on the opposite shore will be, ready to ride and spread the alarm

opposition [.ɔpəˈziʃən] – n. the relation between opposed entities

opt [ɔpt] – v. select as an alternative over another: She opted for the job on the East coast

optical [ˈɔptikəl] – adj. relating to or using sight: an optical illusion

optimism [ˈɔptimizəm] – n. a general disposition to expect the best in all things

optimistic [.ɔptiˈmistik] – adj. expecting the best in this best of all possible worlds: in an optimistic mood

option [ˈɔpʃən] – n. one of a number of things from which only one can be chosen: what option did I have?

optional [ˈɔpʃənl] – adj. possible but not necessary; left to personal choice

oral [ˈɔ:rəl] – adj. using speech rather than writing: an oral tradition

orange [ˈɔ:rindʒ] – n. a river in South Africa that flows generally westward to the Atlantic Ocean

orbit [ˈɔ:bit] – n. the (usually elliptical) path described by one celestial body in its revolution about another: he plotted the orbit of the moon

orchestra [ˈɔ:kistrə] – n. a musical organization consisting of a group of instrumentalists including string players

order [ˈɔ:də] – n. (often plural) a command given by a superior (e.g., a military or law enforcement officer) that must be obeyed: the British ships dropped anchor and waited for orders from London

ordinary [ˈɔ:dnri] – n. a judge of a probate court

organ [ˈɔ:gən] – n. a fully differentiated structural and functional unit in an animal that is specialized for some particular function

organic [ɔ:ˈgænik] – adj. relating or belonging to the class of chemical compounds having a carbon basis: hydrocarbons are organic compounds

organisation  – n. the persons (or committees or departments etc.) who make up a body for the purpose of administering something

organisational  – adj. of or relating to an organization

organise  – v. create (as an entity)

organiser  – n. someone who enlists workers to join a union

organism [ˈɔ:gənizəm] – n. a living thing that has (or can develop) the ability to act or function independently

organization [.ɔ:gənaiˈzeiʃən] – n. a group of people who work together

organizational [.ɔgənaiˈzeiʃənəl] – adj. of or relating to an organization: organizational structure

organize [ˈɔ:gənaiz] – v. create (as an entity)

orientation [.ɔ:rienˈteiʃən] – n. an integrated set of attitudes and beliefs

origin [ˈɔridʒin] – n. the place where something begins, where it springs into being: Jupiter was the origin of the radiation

original [əˈridʒənl] – adj. preceding all others in time or being as first made or performed: the original inhabitants of the Americas

originally [əˈridʒənəli] – adv. with reference to the origin or beginning

originate [əˈridʒineit] – v. come into existence; take on form or shape: A new religious movement originated in that country

orthodox [ˈɔ:θədɔks] – adj. of or pertaining to or characteristic of Judaism

other [ˈʌðə] – adj. not the same one or ones already mentioned or implied: today isn’t any other day

otherwise [ˈʌðəwaiz] – adv. in another and different manner: she thought otherwise

out [aut] – adj. not allowed to continue to bat or run: he was tagged out at second on a close play

outbreak [ˈautbreik] – n. a sudden violent spontaneous occurrence (usually of some undesirable condition): the outbreak of hostilities

outcome [ˈautkʌm] – n. something that results

outdoor [ˈautdɔ:] – adj. located, suited for, or taking place in the open air: outdoor clothes

outer [ˈautə] – adj. located outside: outer reality

outfit [ˈautfit] – n. any cohesive unit such as a military company

outlet [ˈautlet] – n. a place of business for retailing goods

outline [ˈautlain] – n. the line that appears to bound an object

outlook [ˈautluk] – n. a habitual or characteristic mental attitude that determines how you will interpret and respond to situations

output [ˈautput] – n. final product; the things produced

outset [ˈautset] – n. the time at which something is supposed to begin

outside [ˈautˈsaid] – adj. relating to or being on or near the outer side or limit: an outside margin

outsider [ˈ autˈsaidə] – n. someone who is excluded from or is not a member of a group

outstanding [autˈstændiŋ] – adj. distinguished from others in excellence: did outstanding work in human relations

oven [ˈʌvən] – n. kitchen appliance used for baking or roasting

over [ˈəuvə] – adv. at or to a point across intervening space etc.: come over and see us some time

overall [ˈəuvərɔ:l] – n. (usually plural) work clothing consisting of denim trousers (usually with a bib and shoulder straps)

overcome [.əuvəˈkʌm] – v. get on top of; deal with successfully

overlook [.əuvəˈluk] – v. look past, fail to notice

overnight [ˈəuvəˈnait] – adv. during or for the length of one night: the fish marinates overnight

overseas [ˈəuvəˈsi:z] – adj. in a foreign country: overseas markets

overtake [.əuvəˈteik] – v. travel past

overview  – n. a general summary of a subject: the treasurer gave a brief overview of the financial consequences

overwhelm [.əuvəˈwelm] – v. overcome, as with emotions or perceptual stimuli

owe [əu] – v. be obliged to pay or repay

owl [aul] – n. nocturnal bird of prey with hawk-like beak and claws and large head with front-facing eyes

own [əun] – adj. belonging to or on behalf of a specified person (especially yourself); preceded by a possessive: for your own use

owner [ˈəunə] – n. a person who owns something: they are searching for the owner of the car

ownership [ˈəunəʃip] – n. the act of having and controlling property

oxygen [ˈɔksidʒən] – n. a nonmetallic bivalent element that is normally a colorless odorless tasteless nonflammable diatomic gas; constitutes 21 percent of the atmosphere by volume; the most abundant element in the earth’s crust

ozone [ˈəuzəun] – n. a colorless gas (O3) soluble in alkalis and cold water; a strong oxidizing agent; can be produced by electric discharge in oxygen or by the action of ultraviolet radiation on oxygen in the stratosphere (where it acts as a screen for ultraviolet radiation)

pace [peis] – n. the rate of moving (especially walking or running)

pack [pæk] – v. arrange in a container: pack the books into the boxes

package [ˈpækidʒ] – n. a collection of things wrapped or boxed together

packet [ˈpækit] – n. a collection of things wrapped or boxed together

pad [pæd] – n. the large floating leaf of an aquatic plant (as the water lily)

page [peidʒ] – n. English industrialist who pioneered in the design and manufacture of aircraft (1885-1962)

paid  – adj. involving gainful employment in something often done as a hobby

pain [pein] – n. a symptom of some physical hurt or disorder: the patient developed severe pain and distension

painful [ˈpeinfəl] – adj. causing misery or pain or distress: the painful process of growing up

paint [peint] – n. makeup consisting of a pink or red powder applied to the cheeks

painter [ˈpeintə] – n. a worker who is employed to cover objects with paint

painting [ˈpeintiŋ] – n. creating a picture with paints: he studied painting and sculpture for many years

pair [pɛə] – v. bring two objects, ideas, or people together: The student was paired with a partner for collaboration on the project

pal [pæl] – n. a close friend who accompanies his buddies in their activities

palace [ˈpælis] – n. a large and stately mansion

pale [peil] – adj. very light colored; highly diluted with white: pale seagreen

palm [pɑ:m] – n. the inner surface of the hand from the wrist to the base of the fingers

pan [pæn] – n. cooking utensil consisting of a wide metal vessel

panel [ˈpænl] – n. sheet that forms a distinct (usually flat and rectangular) section or component of something

panic [ˈpænik] – n. an overwhelming feeling of fear and anxiety

papal  – adj. proceeding from or ordered by or subject to a pope or the papacy regarded as the successor of the Apostles: papal dispensation

paper [ˈpeipə] – n. a material made of cellulose pulp derived mainly from wood or rags or certain grasses

par [pɑ:] – n. (golf) the standard number of strokes set for each hole on a golf course, or for the entire course: a par-5 hole

parade [pəˈreid] – n. a ceremonial procession including people marching

paragraph [ˈpærəgrɑ:f] – n. one of several distinct subdivisions of a text intended to separate ideas; the beginning is usually marked by a new indented line

parallel [ˈpærəlel] – n. something having the property of being analogous to something else

parameter [pəˈræmitə] – n. a constant in the equation of a curve that can be varied to yield a family of similar curves

parcel [ˈpɑ:sl] – n. a wrapped container

pardon [ˈpɑ:dn] – n. the act of excusing a mistake or offense

parent [ˈpɛərənt] – n. an organism (plant or animal) from which younger ones are obtained

parental  – adj. designating the generation of organisms from which hybrid offspring are produced

parish [ˈpæriʃ] – n. a local church community

park [pɑ:k] – n. a large area of land preserved in its natural state as public property: there are laws that protect the wildlife in this park

parliament [ˈpɑ:ləmənt] – n. a legislative assembly in certain countries

parliamentary [.pɑ:ləˈmentəri] – adj. relating to or having the nature of a parliament: parliamentary reform

part [pɑ:t] – n. something determined in relation to something that includes it: he wanted to feel a part of something bigger than himself

partial [ˈpɑ:ʃəl] – adj. showing favoritism

partially [ˈpɑ:ʃəli] – adv. in part; in some degree; not wholly: He was partially paralyzed

participant [pɑ:ˈtisipənt] – n. someone who takes part in an activity

participate [pɑ:ˈtisipeit] – v. share in something

participation [pɑ:.tisiˈpeiʃən] – n. the act of sharing in the activities of a group

particle [ˈpɑ:tikl] – n. (nontechnical usage) a tiny piece of anything

particular [pəˈtikjulə] – adj. unique or specific to a person or thing or category: the particular demands of the job

particularly [pəˈtikjʊləli] – adv. to a distinctly greater extent or degree than is common: he was particularly fussy about spelling

partly [ˈpɑ:tli] – adv. in part; in some degree; not wholly: I felt partly to blame

partner [ˈpɑ:tnə] – n. an associate in an activity or endeavor or sphere of common interest: sexual partners

partnership [ˈpɑ:tnəʃip] – n. the members of a business venture created by contract

part-time  – adj. involving less than the standard or customary time for an activity: part-time employees

party [ˈpɑ:ti] – n. an organization to gain political power: in 1992 Perot tried to organize a third party at the national level

pass [pɑ:s] – v. go across or through: We passed the point where the police car had parked

passage [ˈpæsidʒ] – n. a section of text; particularly a section of medium length

passenger [ˈpæsindʒə] – n. a traveler riding in a vehicle (a boat or bus or car or plane or train etc) who is not operating it

passion [ˈpæʃən] – n. a strong feeling or emotion

passionate [ˈpæʃənit] – adj. having or expressing strong emotions

passive [ˈpæsiv] – adj. lacking in energy or will: Much benevolence of the passive order may be traced to a disinclination to inflict pain upon oneself

passport [ˈpɑ:s.pɔ:t] – n. a document issued by a country to a citizen allowing that person to travel abroad and re-enter the home country

past [pɑ:st] – n. the time that has elapsed: forget the past

pasture [ˈpæstʃ] – n. a field covered with grass or herbage and suitable for grazing by livestock

pat [pæt] – n. the sound made by a gentle blow

patch [pætʃ] – n. a small contrasting part of something: a patch of clouds

patent [ˈpætnt] – v. make open to sight or notice: His behavior has patented an embarrassing fact about him

path [pɑ:θ] – n. a course of conduct: the path of virtue

patience [ˈpeiʃəns] – n. good-natured tolerance of delay or incompetence

patient [ˈpeiʃənt] – n. a person who requires medical care: the number of emergency patients has grown rapidly

patrol [pəˈtrəul] – n. a detachment used for security or reconnaissance

patron [ˈpeitrən] – n. a regular customer

pattern [ˈpætən] – n. a perceptual structure: a visual pattern must include not only objects but the spaces between them

pause [pɔ:z] – n. a time interval during which there is a temporary cessation of something

pavement [ˈpeivmənt] – n. material used to pave an area

pay [pei] – v. give money, usually in exchange for goods or services

payable [ˈpeiəbl] – n. a liability account showing how much is owed for goods and services purchased on credit: the problem was to match receivables and payables in the same currency

payment [ˈpeimənt] – n. a sum of money paid or a claim discharged

peace [pi:s] – n. the state prevailing during the absence of war

peaceful [ˈpi:sfəl] – adj. not disturbed by strife or turmoil or war: a peaceful nation

peak [pi:k] – n. the most extreme possible amount or value: voltage peak

peasant [ˈpezənt] – n. a country person

peculiar [piˈkju:ljə] – adj. beyond or deviating from the usual or expected: the peculiar aromatic odor of cloves

pedestrian [piˈdestriən] – n. a person who travels by foot

peer [piə] – n. a person who is of equal standing with another in a group

pen [pen] – n. a writing implement with a point from which ink flows

penalty [ˈpenəlti] – n. the act of punishing

pencil [ˈpensl] – n. a thin cylindrical pointed writing implement; a rod of marking substance encased in wood

penetrate [ˈpenitreit] – v. pass into or through, often by overcoming resistance: The bullet penetrated her chest

penny [ˈpeni] – n. a fractional monetary unit of Ireland and the United Kingdom; equal to one hundredth of a pound

pension [ˈpenʃən] – n. a regular payment to a person that is intended to allow them to subsist without working

pensioner  – n. the beneficiary of a pension fund

people [ˈpi:pl] – n. (plural) any group of human beings (men or women or children) collectively: old people

pepper [ˈpepə] – n. sweet and hot varieties of fruits of plants of the genus Capsicum

perceive [pəˈsi:v] – v. to become aware of through the senses: I could perceive the ship coming over the horizon

perceived  – adj. detected by means of the senses: a perceived difference in temperature

percent [pəˈsent] – n. a proportion in relation to a whole (which is usually the amount per hundred)

percentage [pəˈsentidʒ] – n. a proportion in relation to a whole (which is usually the amount per hundred)

perception [pəˈsepʃən] – n. a way of conceiving something: Luther had a new perception of the Bible

perfect [ˈpə:fikt] – adj. being complete of its kind and without defect or blemish: a perfect circle

perfectly [ˈpɜ:fiktli] – adv. completely and without qualification; used informally as intensifiers: a perfectly idiotic idea

perform [pəˈfɔ:m] – v. get (something) done

performance [pəˈfɔ:məns] – n. a dramatic or musical entertainment: they listened to ten different performances

performer [pəˈfɔ:mə(r)] – n. an entertainer who performs a dramatic or musical work for an audience

perhaps [pəˈhæps] – adv. by chance: perhaps she will call tomorrow

period [ˈpiəriəd] – n. an amount of time: a time period of 30 years

permanent [ˈpə:mənənt] – adj. continuing or enduring without marked change in status or condition or place: permanent secretary to the president

permanently [ˈpɜ:məntli] – adv. for a long time without essential change: he is permanently disabled

permission [pəˈmiʃən] – n. approval to do something: he asked permission to leave

permit [ˈpə:mit,pəˈmit] – n. the act of giving a formal (usually written) authorization

persist [pəˈsist] – v. continue to exist

persistent [pəˈsistənt] – adj. never-ceasing

person [ˈpə:sn] – n. a human being: there was too much for one person to do

personal [ˈpə:sənl] – adj. particular to a given individual

personality [.pə:səˈnæliti] – n. a person of considerable prominence: she is a Hollywood personality

personally [ˈpə:sənəli] – adv. as yourself: speaking personally, I would not want to go

personnel [.pə:səˈnel] – n. group of people willing to obey orders

perspective [pəˈspektiv] – n. a way of regarding situations or topics etc.

persuade [pəˈsweid] – v. win approval or support for

pest [pest] – n. any epidemic disease with a high death rate

pet [pet] – n. a domesticated animal kept for companionship or amusement

petition [piˈtiʃən] – n. a formal message requesting something that is submitted to an authority

petrol [ˈpetrəl] – n. a volatile flammable mixture of hydrocarbons (hexane and heptane and octane etc.) derived from petroleum; used mainly as a fuel in internal-combustion engines

petty [ˈpeti] – adj. inferior in rank or status: petty officialdom

phase [feiz] – n. any distinct time period in a sequence of events

phenomenon [fəˈnɑ:minən] – n. any state or process known through the senses rather than by intuition or reasoning

philosopher [fiˈlɔsəfə] – n. a wise person who is calm and rational; someone who lives a life of reason with equanimity

philosophical [.filəˈsɔfikəl] – adj. characterized by the attitude of a philosopher; meeting trouble with level-headed detachment: philosophical resignation

philosophy [fiˈlɔsəfi] – n. a belief (or system of beliefs) accepted as authoritative by some group or school

phone [fəun] – n. electro-acoustic transducer for converting electric signals into sounds; it is held over or inserted into the ear: it was not the typing but the earphones that she disliked

photo [ˈfəutəu] – n. a representation of a person or scene in the form of a print or transparent slide; recorded by a camera on light-sensitive material

photograph [ˈfəutəgrɑ:f, -græf] – n. a representation of a person or scene in the form of a print or transparent slide; recorded by a camera on light-sensitive material

photographer [fəˈtɔgrəfə] – n. someone who takes photographs professionally

photographic  – adj. representing people or nature with the exactness and fidelity of a photograph

photography [fəˈtɔgrəfi] – n. the process of producing images of objects on photosensitive surfaces

phrase [freiz] – n. an expression consisting of one or more words forming a grammatical constituent of a sentence

physical [ˈfizikəl] – adj. involving the body as distinguished from the mind or spirit: physical exercise

physically [ˈfizik(ə)li] – adv. in accord with physical laws: it is physically impossible

physician [fiˈziʃən] – n. a licensed medical practitioner

physics [ˈfiziks] – n. the science of matter and energy and their interactions: his favorite subject was physics

piano [piˈænəu,piˈɑ:nəu] – n. a keyboard instrument that is played by depressing keys that cause hammers to strike tuned strings and produce sounds

pick [pik] – v. select carefully from a group: She finally picked her successor

picture [ˈpiktʃə] – n. a visual representation (of an object or scene or person or abstraction) produced on a surface: they showed us the pictures of their wedding

pie [pai] – n. dish baked in pastry-lined pan often with a pastry top

piece [pi:s] – n. a separate part of a whole: an important piece of the evidence

pier [piə] – n. (architecture) a vertical supporting structure (as a portion of wall between two doors or windows)

pig [pig] – n. domestic swine

pigeon [ˈpidʒin] – n. wild and domesticated birds having a heavy body and short legs

pile [pail] – n. a collection of objects laid on top of each other

pill [pil] – n. something that resembles a tablet of medicine in shape or size

pillar [ˈpilə] – n. a fundamental principle or practice: science eroded the pillars of superstition

pillow [ˈpiləu] – n. a cushion to support the head of a sleeping person

pilot [ˈpailət] – n. someone who is licensed to operate an aircraft in flight

pin [pin] – n. when a wrestler’s shoulders are forced to the mat

pine [pain] – n. a coniferous tree

pink [piŋk] – n. a light shade of red

pint [paint] – n. a British imperial capacity measure (liquid or dry) equal to 4 gills or 568.26 cubic centimeters

pioneer [.paiəˈniə] – v. open up an area or prepare a way: She pioneered a graduate program for women students

pipe [paip] – n. a tube with a small bowl at one end; used for smoking tobacco

pit [pit] – n. a sizeable hole (usually in the ground): they dug a pit to bury the body

pitch  – v. throw or toss with a light motion

pity [ˈpiti] – n. a feeling of sympathy and sorrow for the misfortunes of others: the blind are too often objects of pity

place [pleis] – n. a point located with respect to surface features of some region: this is a nice place for a picnic

placement  – n. contact established between applicants and prospective employees: the agency provided placement services

plain [plein] – adj. clearly revealed to the mind or the senses or judgment: made his meaning plain

plaintiff [ˈpleintif] – n. a person who brings an action in a court of law

plan [plæn] – v. have the will and intention to carry out some action: He plans to be in graduate school next year

plane [plein] – n. an aircraft that has a fixed wing and is powered by propellers or jets: the flight was delayed due to trouble with the airplane

planet [ˈplænit] – n. a person who follows or serves another

planned  – adj. designed or carried out according to a plan: the planned outlays for new equipment

planner  – n. a notebook for recording appointments and things to be done, etc.

planning  – n. an act of formulating a program for a definite course of action: the planning was more fun than the trip itself

plant [plɑ:nt] – v. fix or set securely or deeply: He planted a knee in the back of his opponent

plasma [ˈplæzmə] – n. a green slightly translucent variety of chalcedony used as a gemstone

plaster [ˈplɑ:stə] – v. apply a heavy coat to

plastic [ˈplæstik] – adj. capable of being molded or modeled (especially of earth or clay or other soft material): plastic substances such as wax or clay

plate [pleit] – n. a sheet of metal or wood or glass or plastic

platform [ˈplætfɔ:m] – n. a raised horizontal surface: the speaker mounted the platform

plausible [ˈplɔ:zəbl] – adj. apparently reasonable and valid, and truthful: a plausible excuse

play [plei] – v. participate in games or sport: We played hockey all afternoon

player [ˈpleiə] – n. a person who participates in or is skilled at some game

plea [pli:] – n. a humble request for help from someone in authority

plead [pli:d] – v. appeal or request earnestly: I pleaded with him to stop

pleasant [ˈpleznt] – adj. (of persons) having pleasing manners or behavior: I didn’t enjoy it and probably wasn’t a pleasant person to be around

please [pli:z] – v. be the will of or have the will (to): he could do many things if he pleased

pleased [pli:zd] – adj. feeling pleasurable satisfaction over something by which you measures your self-worth

pleasure [ˈpleʒə] – n. a fundamental feeling that is hard to define but that people desire to experience: he was tingling with pleasure

pledge [pledʒ] – v. promise solemnly and formally: I pledge that I will honor my wife

plot [plɔt] – n. a secret scheme to do something (especially something underhand or illegal): they concocted a plot to discredit the governor

plug [plʌg] – n. blockage consisting of an object designed to fill a hole tightly

plunge [plʌndʒ] – v. thrust or throw into

pocket [ˈpɔkit] – n. a small pouch inside a garment for carrying small articles

poem [ˈpəuim] – n. a composition written in metrical feet forming rhythmical lines

poet [ˈpəuit] – n. a writer of poems (the term is usually reserved for writers of good poetry)

poetry [ˈpəuitri] – n. literature in metrical form

point [pɔint] – n. a geometric element that has position but no extension: a point is defined by its coordinates

poison [ˈpɔizn] – n. any substance that causes injury or illness or death of a living organism

pole [pəul] – n. a long (usually round) rod of wood or metal or plastic

police [pəˈli:s] – v. maintain the security of by carrying out a patrol

policeman [pəˈli:smən] – n. a member of a police force

policy [ˈpɔlisi] – n. a plan of action adopted by an individual or social group: it was a policy of retribution

polish [ˈpɔliʃ] – n. the property of being smooth and shiny

polite [pəˈlait] – adj. showing regard for others in manners, speech, behavior, etc.

political [pəˈlitikəl] – adj. of or relating to your views about social relationships involving authority or power: political opinions

politically  – adv. with regard to social relationships involving authority: politically correct clothing

politician [.pɔliˈtiʃən] – n. a leader engaged in civil administration

politics [ˈpɔlitiks] – n. social relations involving intrigue to gain authority or power: office politics is often counterproductive

poll [pəul] – n. an inquiry into public opinion conducted by interviewing a random sample of people

pollution [pəˈlu:ʃən] – n. the state of being polluted

polymer [ˈpɔlimə] – n. a naturally occurring or synthetic compound consisting of large molecules made up of a linked series of repeated simple monomers

polytechnic [pɔliˈteknik] – n. a technical school offering instruction in many industrial arts and applied sciences

pond [pɔnd] – n. a small lake: the pond was too small for sailing

pony [ˈpəuni] – n. a range horse of the western United States

pool [pu:l] – n. an excavation that is (usually) filled with water

poor [puə] – adj. deserving or inciting pity: Oh, you poor thing

poorly  – adj. somewhat ill or prone to illness: feeling poorly

pop [pɔp] – v. bulge outward: His eyes popped

pope [pu:p] – n. the head of the Roman Catholic Church

popular [ˈpɔpjulə] – adj. regarded with great favor, approval, or affection especially by the general public: a popular tourist attraction

popularity [.pɔpjuˈlæriti] – n. the quality of being widely admired or accepted or sought after: his charm soon won him affection and popularity

population [.pɔpjuˈleiʃən] – n. the people who inhabit a territory or state: the population seemed to be well fed and clothed

port [pɔ:t] – v. put or turn on the left side, of a ship: port the helm

portable [ˈpɔ:təbl] – adj. of a motor designed to be attached to the outside of a boat’s hull: a portable outboard motor

porter [ˈpɔ:tə] – n. a person employed to carry luggage and supplies

portfolio [pɔ:tˈfəuliəu] – n. a large, flat, thin case for carrying loose papers or drawings or maps; usually leather: he remembered her because she was carrying a large portfolio

portion [ˈpɔ:ʃən] – n. something determined in relation to something that includes it: I read a portion of the manuscript

portrait [ˈpɔ:trit] – n. a word picture of a person’s appearance and character

portray [pɔ:ˈtrei] – v. make a portrait of: Goya wanted to portray his mistress, the Duchess of Alba

pose [pəuz] – v. introduce: This poses an interesting question

position [pəˈziʃən] – n. the particular portion of space occupied by something

positive [ˈpɔzitiv] – adj. characterized by or displaying affirmation or acceptance or certainty etc.: a positive attitude

positively [ˈpɔzətivli] – adv. extremely: it was positively monumental

possess [pəˈzes] – v. have as an attribute, knowledge, or skill: he possesses great knowledge about the Middle East

possession [pəˈzeʃən] – n. the act of having and controlling property

possibility [.pɔsəˈbiliti] – n. a future prospect or potential

possible [ˈpɔsəbl] – n. something that can be done: politics is the art of the possible

possibly [ˈpɔsəbli] – adv. by chance: we may possibly run into them at the concert

post [pəust] – v. affix in a public place or for public notice: post a warning

postcard [ˈpəust.kɑ:d] – n. a card for sending messages by post without an envelope

poster [ˈpəustə] – n. someone who pastes up bills or placards on walls or billboards

postpone [pəustˈpəun] – v. hold back to a later time: let’s postpone the exam

pot [pɔt] – n. metal or earthenware cooking vessel that is usually round and deep; often has a handle and lid

potato [pəˈteitəu] – n. an edible tuber native to South America; a staple food of Ireland

potential [pəˈtenʃəl] – n. the inherent capacity for coming into being

potentially  – adv. with a possibility of becoming actual: he is potentially dangerous

pottery [ˈpɔtəri] – n. ceramic ware made from clay and baked in a kiln

pound [paund] – n. 16 ounces avoirdupois: he got a hernia when he tried to lift 100 pounds

pour [pɔ:] – v. cause to run: pour water over the floor

poverty [ˈpɔvəti] – n. the state of having little or no money and few or no material possessions

powder [ˈpaudə] – n. a solid substance in the form of tiny loose particles; a solid that has been pulverized

power [ˈpauə] – n. possession of controlling influence: the deterrent power of nuclear weapons

powerful [ˈpauəfəl] – adj. strong enough to knock down or overwhelm

practical [ˈpræktikəl] – adj. concerned with actual use or practice: he is a very practical person

practically [ˈpræktikəli] – adv. almost; nearly: practically the first thing I saw when I got off the train

practice [ˈpræktis] – n. a customary way of operation or behavior: it is their practice to give annual raises

practise  – v. engage in a rehearsal (of)

practitioner [prækˈtiʃənə] – n. someone who practices a learned profession

praise [preiz] – n. an expression of approval and commendation: he always appreciated praise for his work

pray [prei] – v. call upon in supplication; entreat

prayer [prɛə] – n. the act of communicating with a deity (especially as a petition or in adoration or contrition or thanksgiving): the priest sank to his knees in prayer

preach [pri:tʃ] – v. deliver a sermon: The minister is not preaching this Sunday

precaution [priˈkɔ:ʃən] – n. the trait of practicing caution in advance

precede [pri:ˈsi:d] – v. be earlier in time; go back further: Stone tools precede bronze tools

precedent [ˈpresidənt] – n. an example that is used to justify similar occurrences at a later time

precious [ˈpreʃəs] – adj. characterized by feeling or showing fond affection for: children are precious

precise [priˈsais] – adj. sharply exact or accurate or delimited: a precise mind

precisely [priˈsaisli] – adv. in a precise manner: she always expressed herself precisely

precision [priˈsiʒən] – n. the quality of being reproducible in amount or performance: note the meticulous precision of his measurements

predator [ˈpredətə] – n. someone who attacks in search of booty

predecessor [ˈpri:disesə] – n. one who precedes you in time (as in holding a position or office)

predict [priˈdikt] – v. indicate by signs

predictable [priˈdiktəbəl] – adj. capable of being foretold

prediction [priˈdikʃən] – n. a statement made about the future

predominantly [priˈdɔminəntli] – adv. much greater in number or influence: the patients are predominantly indigenous

prefer [priˈfə:] – v. like better; value more highly: Some people prefer camping to staying in hotels

preference [ˈprefərəns] – n. a strong liking: my own preference is for good literature

preferred  – adj. more desirable than another: Danny’s preferred name is `Dan’

pregnancy [ˈpregnənsi] – n. the state of being pregnant; the period from conception to birth when a woman carries a developing fetus in her uterus

pregnant [ˈpregnənt] – adj. carrying developing offspring within the body or being about to produce new life

prejudice [ˈpredʒudis] – v. influence (somebody’s) opinion in advance

preliminary [priˈliminəri] – n. a minor match preceding the main event

premature [.preməˈtʃuə] – adj. born after a gestation period of less than the normal time: a premature infant

premier [ˈpremjə] – n. the person who holds the position of head of the government in the United Kingdom

premise [ˈpremis] – v. set forth beforehand, often as an explanation: He premised these remarks so that his readers might understand

premium [ˈpri:miəm] – n. payment for insurance

preoccupation [pri(:).ɔkjuˈpeiʃən] – n. the mental state of being preoccupied by something

preparation [.prepəˈreiʃən] – n. the activity of putting or setting in order in advance of some act or purpose: preparations for the ceremony had begun

prepare [priˈpɛə] – v. make ready or suitable or equip in advance for a particular purpose or for some use, event, etc: prepare for war

prescribe [prisˈkraib] – v. issue commands or orders for

prescription [prisˈkripʃən] – n. a drug that is available only with written instructions from a doctor or dentist to a pharmacist: he told the doctor that he had been taking his prescription regularly

presence [ˈprezns] – n. the immediate proximity of someone or something: she blushed in his presence

present [ˈpreznt,priˈzent] – v. give an exhibition of to an interested audience

presentation [.prezenˈteiʃən] – n. a show or display; the act of presenting something to sight or view: the presentation of new data

presently [ˈprezntli] – adv. in the near future: she will arrive presently

preservation [.prezə(:)ˈveiʃən] – n. the activity of protecting something from loss or danger

preserve [priˈzə:v] – v. keep or maintain in unaltered condition; cause to remain or last: preserve the peace in the family

presidency [ˈprezidənsi] – n. the office and function of president: Andrew Jackson expanded the power of the presidency beyond what was customary before his time

president [ˈprezidənt] – n. an executive officer of a firm or corporation

presidential [.preziˈdenʃəl] – adj. befitting a president: criticized the candidate for not looking presidential

press [pres] – v. force or impel in an indicated direction

pressure [ˈpreʃə] – n. the force applied to a unit area of surface; measured in pascals (SI unit) or in dynes (cgs unit): the compressed gas exerts an increased pressure

prestige [presˈti:ʒ] – n. a high standing achieved through success or influence or wealth etc.: he wanted to achieve power and prestige

presumably [priˈzju:məbli] – adv. by reasonable assumption: presumably, he missed the train

presume [priˈzju:m] – v. take to be the case or to be true; accept without verification or proof

pretend [priˈtend] – v. make believe with the intent to deceive

pretty [ˈpriti] – adj. pleasing by delicacy or grace; not imposing: pretty girl

prevail [priˈveil] – v. be larger in number, quantity, power, status or importance

prevalence [ˈprevələns] – n. the quality of prevailing generally; being widespread: he was surprised by the prevalence of optimism about the future

prevent [priˈvent] – v. keep from happening or arising; make impossible

prevention [priˈvenʃən] – n. the act of preventing: money was allocated to study the cause and prevention of influenza

previous [ˈpri:vjəs] – adj. just preceding something else in time or order: the previous owner

previously [ˈpri:vju:sli] – adv. at an earlier time or formerly: she had previously lived in Chicago

prey [prei] – n. animal hunted or caught for food

price [prais] – n. the property of having material worth (often indicated by the amount of money something would bring if sold): he puts a high price on his services

pride [praid] – n. a feeling of self-respect and personal worth

priest [pri:st] – n. a person who performs religious duties and ceremonies in a non-Christian religion

primarily [praiˈmərili] – adv. for the most part

primary [ˈpraiməri] – adj. of first rank or importance or value; direct and immediate rather than secondary: primary goals

prime [praim] – adj. first in rank or degree: the prime minister

primitive [ˈprimitiv] – adj. belonging to an early stage of technical development; characterized by simplicity and (often) crudeness: primitive movies of the 1890s

prince [prins] – n. a male member of a royal family other than the sovereign (especially the son of a sovereign)

princess [ˈprinˈses] – n. a female member of a royal family other than the queen (especially the daughter of a sovereign)

principal [ˈprinsəpəl] – n. the original amount of a debt on which interest is calculated

principally [ˈprinsipli] – adv. for the most part

principle [ˈprinsəpl] – n. a basic generalization that is accepted as true and that can be used as a basis for reasoning or conduct: their principles of composition characterized all their works

print [print] – n. a visible indication made on a surface: paw prints were everywhere

printer [ˈprintə] – n. (computer science) an output device that prints the results of data processing

printing [ˈprintiŋ] – n. the business of producing printed material for sale or distribution

prior [ˈpraiə] – adj. earlier in time

priority [praiˈɔriti] – n. status established in order of importance or urgency: national independence takes priority over class struggle

prison [ˈprizn] – n. a correctional institution where persons are confined while on trial or for punishment

prisoner [ˈprizənə] – n. a person who is confined; especially a prisoner of war

privacy [ˈpraivəsi] – n. the quality of being secluded from the presence or view of others

private [ˈpraivit] – adj. confined to particular persons or groups or providing privacy: a private place

privately  – adv. by a private person or interest: a privately financed campaign

privatisation  – n. changing something from state to private ownership or control

privatization  – n. changing something from state to private ownership or control

privilege [ˈprivilidʒ] – n. a special advantage or immunity or benefit not enjoyed by all

privileged [ˈprivilidʒd] – adj. not subject to usual rules or penalties: a privileged statement

prize [praiz] – n. something given for victory or superiority in a contest or competition or for winning a lottery: the prize was a free trip to Europe

probability [.prɔbəˈbiliti] – n. the quality of being probable; a probable event or the most probable event: for a while mutiny seemed a probability

probable [ˈprɔbəbl] – adj. likely but not certain to be or become true or real: he foresaw a probable loss

probably [ˈprɔbəbli] – adv. with considerable certainty; without much doubt: He is probably out of the country

probe [prəub] – n. an inquiry into unfamiliar or questionable activities: there was a congressional probe into the scandal

problem [ˈprɔbləm] – n. a state of difficulty that needs to be resolved: she and her husband are having problems

procedure [prəˈsi:dʒə] – n. a particular course of action intended to achieve a result: the procedure of obtaining a driver’s license

proceed [prəˈsi:d] – v. continue talking

process [ˈprɑ:ses] – v. deal with in a routine way: process a loan

procession [prəˈseʃən, prəu-] – n. (theology) the origination of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost: the doctrine of the procession of the Holy Spirit from the Father and the Son

processor [ˈprəusesə] – n. someone who processes things (foods or photographs or applicants etc.)

proclaim [prəˈkleim] – v. declare formally; declare someone to be something; of titles: He was proclaimed King

produce [prəˈdju:s] – v. bring forth or yield: The tree would not produce fruit

producer [prəˈdju:sə] – n. someone who manufactures something

product [ˈprɔdəkt] – n. commodities offered for sale: that store offers a variety of products

production [prəˈdʌkʃən] – n. a presentation for the stage or screen or radio or television: have you seen the new production of Hamlet?

productive [prəˈdʌktiv] – adj. having the ability to produce or originate

productivity [.prɔdʌkˈtiviti] – n. (economics) the ratio of the quantity and quality of units produced to the labor per unit of time

profession [prəˈfeʃən] – n. the body of people in a learned occupation: the news spread rapidly through the medical profession

professional [prəˈfeʃənəl] – adj. of or relating to or suitable as a profession: professional organizations

professor [prəˈfesə] – n. someone who is a member of the faculty at a college or university

profile [ˈprəufail] – n. an analysis (often in graphical form) representing the extent to which something exhibits various characteristics: a biochemical profile of blood

profit [ˈprɔfit] – n. the excess of revenues over outlays in a given period of time (including depreciation and other non-cash expenses)

profitability  – n. the quality of affording gain or benefit or profit

profitable [ˈprɔfitəbl] – adj. yielding material gain or profit: profitable speculation on the stock market

profound [prəˈfaund] – adj. showing intellectual penetration or emotional depth: the differences are profound

program [ˈprəugræm] – n. a series of steps to be carried out or goals to be accomplished

programme  – n. an announcement of the events that will occur as part of a theatrical or sporting event

programming [ˈprəugræmiŋ] – n. setting an order and time for planned events

progress [prəuˈgres] – n. gradual improvement or growth or development: great progress in the arts

progressive [prəˈgresiv] – adj. favoring or promoting reform (often by government action)

prohibit [prəˈhibit] – v. command against

project [prəˈdʒekt] – v. communicate vividly: He projected his feelings

projection [prəˈdʒekʃən] – n. a prediction made by extrapolating from past observations

prominent [ˈprɔminənt] – adj. having a quality that thrusts itself into attention: a new theory is the most prominent feature of the book

promise [ˈprɔmis] – v. make a prediction about; tell in advance

promote [prəˈməut] – v. contribute to the progress or growth of

promoter [prəˈməutə] – n. someone who is an active supporter and advocate

promotion [prəˈməuʃən] – n. a message issued in behalf of some product or cause or idea or person or institution

prompt [prɔmpt] – v. give an incentive for action

promptly [ˈprɔmptli] – adv. with little or no delay: the rescue squad arrived promptly

prone [prəun] – adj. having a tendency (to); often used in combination: a child prone to mischief

pronounce [prəˈnauns] – v. speak, pronounce, or utter in a certain way: She pronounces French words in a funny way

proof [pru:f] – n. any factual evidence that helps to establish the truth of something: if you have any proof for what you say, now is the time to produce it

prop [prɔp] – n. a support placed beneath or against something to keep it from shaking or falling

propaganda [,prɔpəˈgændə] – n. information that is spread for the purpose of promoting some cause

proper [ˈprɔpə] – adj. having all the qualities typical of the thing specified: wanted a proper dinner; not just a snack

properly [ˈprɔpəli] – adv. in the right manner: please do your job properly!

property [ˈprɔpəti] – n. something owned; any tangible or intangible possession that is owned by someone: that hat is my property

proportion [prəˈpɔ:ʃən] – n. the quotient obtained when the magnitude of a part is divided by the magnitude of the whole

proportional [prəˈpɔ:ʃənl] – adj. properly related in size or degree or other measurable characteristics; usually followed by `to’: the punishment ought to be proportional to the crime

proposal [prəˈpəuzəl] – n. an offer of marriage

propose [prəˈpəuz] – v. present for consideration, examination, criticism, etc.: He proposed a new plan for dealing with terrorism

proposition [.prɔpəˈziʃən] – n. (logic) a statement that affirms or denies something and is either true or false

proprietor [prəˈpraiətə] – n. (law) someone who owns (is legal possessor of) a business

prosecute [ˈprɔsikju:t] – v. bring a criminal action against (in a trial): The State of California prosecuted O.J. Simpson

prosecution [.prɔsiˈkju:ʃən] – n. the institution and conduct of legal proceedings against a defendant for criminal behavior

prospect [ˈprɔspekt] – n. the possibility of future success: his prospects as a writer are excellent

prospective [prəˈspektiv] – adj. of or concerned with or related to the future: prospective earnings

prosperity [prɔsˈperiti] – n. an economic state of growth with rising profits and full employment

protect [prəˈtekt] – v. shield from danger, injury, destruction, or damage: Weatherbeater protects your roof from the rain

protection [prəˈtekʃən] – n. a covering that is intend to protect from damage or injury: they had no protection from the fallout

protective [prəˈtektiv] – adj. showing care: a protective mother

protein [ˈprəuti:n] – n. any of a large group of nitrogenous organic compounds that are essential constituents of living cells; consist of polymers of amino acids; essential in the diet of animals for growth and for repair of tissues; can be obtained from meat and eggs and milk and legumes: a diet high in protein

protest [ˈprəutest,prəˈtest] – n. a formal and solemn declaration of objection: they finished the game under protest to the league president

protocol [ˈprɔtəkɔl] – n. (computer science) rules determining the format and transmission of data

proud [praud] – adj. feeling self-respect or pleasure in something by which you measure your self-worth; or being a reason for pride: proud parents

prove [pru:v] – v. be shown or be found to be: She proved to be right

provide [prəˈvaid] – v. give something useful or necessary to: We provided the room with an electrical heater

provider  – n. someone whose business is to supply a particular service or commodity

province [ˈprɔvins] – n. the territory occupied by one of the constituent administrative districts of a nation

provincial [prəˈvinʃəl] – n. a country person

provision [prəˈviʒən] – n. a stipulated condition: he accepted subject to one provision

provisional [prəˈviʒənl] – adj. under terms not final or fully worked out or agreed upon: a provisional government

provoke [prəˈvəuk] – v. call forth (emotions, feelings, and responses)

psychiatric [.saikiˈætrik] – adj. relating to or used in or engaged in the practice of psychiatry: psychiatric disorder

psychological [.saikəˈlɔdʒikəl] – adj. mental or emotional as opposed to physical in nature: give psychological support

psychologist [saiˈkɔlədʒist] – n. a scientist trained in psychology

psychology [saiˈkɔlədʒi] – n. the science of mental life

pub [pʌb] – n. tavern consisting of a building with a bar and public rooms; often provides light meals

public [ˈpʌblik] – n. people in general considered as a whole: he is a hero in the eyes of the public

publication [.pʌbliˈkeiʃən] – n. a copy of a printed work offered for distribution

publicity [pʌbˈlisiti] – n. a message issued in behalf of some product or cause or idea or person or institution

publicly [ˈpʌblikli] – adv. by the public or the people generally: publicly provided medical care

publish [ˈpʌbliʃ] – v. put into print: The newspaper published the news of the royal couple’s divorce

publisher [ˈpʌbliʃə(r)] – n. a person engaged in publishing periodicals or books or music

publishing  – n. the business of issuing printed matter for sale or distribution

pudding [ˈpudiŋ] – n. any of various soft thick unsweetened baked dishes: corn pudding

pull [pul] – v. direct toward itself or oneself by means of some psychological power or physical attributes: The ad pulled in many potential customers

pulse [pʌls] – n. (electronics) a sharp transient wave in the normal electrical state (or a series of such transients)

pump [pʌmp] – v. deliver forth: pump bullets into the dummy

punch [pʌntʃ] – n. (boxing) a blow with the fist

punish [ˈpʌniʃ] – v. impose a penalty on; inflict punishment on: we had to punish the dog for soiling the floor again

punishment [ˈpʌniʃmənt] – n. the act of punishing

pupil [ˈpju:pl] – n. a learner who is enrolled in an educational institution

purchase [ˈpə:tʃəs] – n. the acquisition of something for payment: they closed the purchase with a handshake

purchaser [ˈpə:tʃəsə] – n. a person who buys

pure [pjuə] – adj. free of extraneous elements of any kind: pure air and water

purely [ˈpjʊəli] – adv. restricted to something

purple [ˈpə:pl] – adj. of a color intermediate between red and blue

purpose [ˈpə:pəs] – n. an anticipated outcome that is intended or that guides your planned actions

pursue [pəˈsju:] – v. carry out or participate in an activity; be involved in: She pursued many activities

pursuit [pəˈsju:t] – n. a search for an alternative that meets cognitive criteria: the pursuit of love

push [puʃ] – v. move with force,: He pushed the table into a corner

put [put] – v. cause to be in a certain state; cause to be in a certain relation: That song put me in awful good humor

puzzle [ˈpʌzl] – n. a particularly baffling problem that is said to have a correct solution: he loved to solve chessmate puzzles

qualification [.kwɔlifiˈkeiʃən] – n. an attribute that must be met or complied with and that fits a person for something: her qualifications for the job are excellent

qualified [ˈkwɔlifaid] – adj. meeting the proper standards and requirements and training for an office or position or task: many qualified applicants for the job

qualify [ˈkwɔlifai] – v. prove capable or fit; meet requirements

quality [ˈkwɔliti] – n. an essential and distinguishing attribute of something or someone: the quality of mercy is not strained

quantitative [ˈkwɔntitətiv] – adj. relating to the measurement of quantity: quantitative studies

quantity [ˈkwɔntiti] – n. an adequate or large amount: he had a quantity of ammunition

quantum [ˈkwɑntəm] – n. (physics) the smallest discrete quantity of some physical property that a system can possess (according to quantum theory)

quarry [ˈkwɔri] – n. a surface excavation for extracting stone or slate: a British term for `quarry’ is `stone pit’

quarter [ˈkwɔ:tə] – n. one of four equal parts: a quarter of a pound

queen [ˈkwi:n] – n. the only fertile female in a colony of social insects such as bees and ants and termites; its function is to lay eggs

query [ˈkwiəri] – n. an instance of questioning

quest [kwest] – v. make a search (for): Things that die with their eyes open and questing

question [ˈkwestʃən] – n. the subject matter at issue: the question of disease merits serious discussion

questionnaire [.kwestʃənˈɛ] – n. a form containing a set of questions; submitted to people to gain statistical information

queue [kju:] – n. a line of people or vehicles waiting for something

quick [kwik] – adj. accomplished rapidly and without delay: was quick to make friends

quickly [ˈkwikli] – adv. with rapid movements: he works quickly

quid  – n. the basic unit of money in Great Britain and Northern Ireland; equal to 100 pence

quiet [ˈkwaiət] – adj. characterized by an absence or near absence of agitation or activity: a quiet life

quietly [ˈkwaiətli] – adv. with low volume: she spoke quietly to the child

quit [kwit] – v. put an end to a state or an activity

quite [kwait] – adv. to a degree (not used with a negative): quite tasty

quota [ˈkwəutə] – n. a prescribed number: all the salesmen met their quota for the month

quotation [kwəuˈteiʃən] – n. a short note recognizing a source of information or of a quoted passage

quote [kwəut] – v. repeat a passage from: He quoted the Bible to her

rabbit [ˈræbit] – n. any of various burrowing animals of the family Leporidae having long ears and short tails; some domesticated and raised for pets or food

race [reis] – n. any competition: the race for the presidency

racial [ˈreiʃəl] – adj. of or related to genetically distinguished groups of people: racial groups

racism  – n. discriminatory or abusive behavior towards members of another race

rack [ræk] – v. stretch to the limits: rack one’s brains

radiation [.reidiˈeiʃən] – n. the act of spreading outward from a central source

radical [ˈrædikəl,ˈrædikl] – n. (chemistry) two or more atoms bound together as a single unit and forming part of a molecule

radio [ˈreidiəu] – n. medium for communication

rage [reidʒ] – n. a feeling of intense anger: his face turned red with rage

raid [reid] – v. search without warning, make a sudden surprise attack on: The police raided the crack house

rail [reil] – v. complain bitterly

railway [ˈreilwei] – n. a line of track providing a runway for wheels

rain [rein] – n. water falling in drops from vapor condensed in the atmosphere

raise [reiz] – v. cause to be heard or known; express or utter: raise a shout

raised  – adj. located or moved above the surround or above the normal position: a raised design

rally [ˈræli] – n. a large gathering of people intended to arouse enthusiasm

ram  – n. (astrology) a person who is born while the sun is in Aries

random [ˈrændəm] – adj. lacking any definite plan or order or purpose; governed by or depending on chance: a random choice

range [reindʒ] – n. an area in which something acts or operates or has power or control:: the range of a supersonic jet

rank [ræŋk] – n. a row or line of people (especially soldiers or police) standing abreast of one another: the entrance was guarded by ranks of policemen

rape [reip] – n. the act of despoiling a country in warfare

rapid [ˈræpid] – adj. done or occurring in a brief period of time: a rapid rise through the ranks

rapidly [ˈræpidli] – adv. with rapid movements

rare [rɛə] – adj. not widely known; especially valued for its uncommonness: a rare word

rarely [ˈrɛəli] – adv. not often: we rarely met

rat [ræt] – v. desert one’s party or group of friends, for example, for one’s personal advantage

rate [reit] – n. a magnitude or frequency relative to a time unit: they traveled at a rate of 55 miles per hour

rather [ˈrɑ:ðə] – adv. on the contrary: rather than disappoint the children, he did two quick tricks before he left

rating [ˈreitiŋ] – n. an appraisal of the value of something

ratio [ˈreiʃiəu] – n. the relative magnitudes of two quantities (usually expressed as a quotient)

rational [ˈræʃənəl] – adj. consistent with or based on or using reason: rational behavior

raw [rɔ:] – adj. (used especially of commodities) being unprocessed or manufactured using only simple or minimal processes: raw wool

ray [rei] – n. a column of light (as from a beacon)

reach [ri:tʃ] – v. move forward or upward in order to touch; also in a metaphorical sense: Government reaches out to the people

react [riˈækt] – v. act against or in opposition to: She reacts negatively to everything I say

reaction [riˈækʃən] – n. (chemistry) a process in which one or more substances are changed into others: there was a chemical reaction of the lime with the ground water

reactor [ri(:)ˈæktə] – n. an electrical device used to introduce reactance into a circuit

read [red,ri:d] – v. have or contain a certain wording or form: The passage reads as follows

reader [ˈri:də] – n. someone who contracts to receive and pay for a service or a certain number of issues of a publication

readily [ˈredili] – adv. without much difficulty: these snakes can be identified readily

reading [ˈri:diŋ] – n. the cognitive process of understanding a written linguistic message: his main reading was detective stories

ready [ˈredi] – adj. completely prepared or in condition for immediate action or use or progress: get ready

real [ˈri:əl] – adj. being or occurring in fact or actuality; having verified existence; not illusory: real objects

realise  – v. earn on some commercial or business transaction; earn as salary or wages

realism [ˈriəlizəm, ˈri:-] – n. the attribute of accepting the facts of life and favoring practicality and literal truth

realistic [riəˈlistik] – adj. aware or expressing awareness of things as they really are: a realistic description

reality [riˈæləti] – n. all of your experiences that determine how things appear to you: for them demons were as much a part of reality as trees were

realize [ˈriəlaiz] – v. be fully aware or cognizant of

really [ˈriəli] – adv. in fact (used as intensifiers or sentence modifiers): really, you shouldn’t have done it

realm [relm] – n. a domain in which something is dominant: the rise of the realm of cotton in the south

rear [riə] – n. the back of a military formation or procession: infantrymen were in the rear

reason [ˈri:zn] – n. a rational motive for a belief or action: the reason that war was declared

reasonable [ˈri:znəbl] – adj. not excessive or extreme: reasonable prices

reasonably [ˈri:zənəbli] – adv. to a moderately sufficient extent or degree: the shoes are priced reasonably

reasoning  – n. thinking that is coherent and logical

reassure [.ri:əˈʃuə] – v. give or restore confidence in; cause to feel sure or certain: I reassured him that we were safe

rebel [ˈrebl,riˈbel] – n. someone who exhibits great independence in thought and action

rebellion [riˈbeljən] – n. refusal to accept some authority or code or convention: each generation must have its own rebellion

rebuild [ri:ˈbild] – v. build again: The house was rebuild after it was hit by a bomb

recall [riˈkɔ:l] – v. go back to something earlier

receipt [riˈsi:t] – n. an acknowledgment (usually tangible) that payment has been made

receive [riˈsi:v] – v. get something; come into possession of: receive payment

receiver [riˈsi:və] – n. set that receives radio or tv signals

recent [ˈri:snt] – adj. new: recent graduates

recently [ˈri:səntli] – adv. in the recent past: he was in Paris recently

reception [riˈsepʃən] – n. the manner in which something is greeted: she did not expect the cold reception she received from her superiors

receptor [riˈseptə] – n. an organ having nerve endings (in the skin or viscera or eye or ear or nose or mouth) that respond to stimulation

recession [riˈseʃən] – n. a small concavity

recipe [ˈresipi] – n. directions for making something

recipient [riˈsipiənt] – n. a person who receives something

reckon [ˈrekən] – v. expect, believe, or suppose

recognise  – v. show approval or appreciation of

recognition [.rekəgˈniʃən] – n. the process of recognizing something or someone by remembering: a politician whose recall of names was as remarkable as his recognition of faces

recognize [ˈrekəgnaiz] – v. accept (someone) to be what is claimed or accept his power and authority: We do not recognize your gods

recommend [.rekəˈmend] – v. push for something: The travel agent recommended strongly that we not travel on Thanksgiving Day

recommendation [.rekəmenˈdeiʃən] – n. something that recommends (or expresses commendation of) a person or thing as worthy or desirable

reconcile [ˈrekənsail] – v. make (one thing) compatible with (another)

reconstruction [ˈri:kənˈstrʌkʃən] – n. the activity of constructing something again

record [ˈrekɔ:d,riˈkɔ:d] – n. the number of wins versus losses and ties a team has had: at 9-0 they have the best record in their league

recorder [riˈkɔ:də] – n. someone responsible for keeping records

recording  – n. the act of making a record (especially an audio record): she watched the recording from a sound-proof booth

recover [riˈkʌvə] – v. get over an illness or shock

recovery [riˈkʌvəri] – n. return to an original state: the recovery of the forest after the fire was surprisingly rapid

recreation [.rekriˈeiʃən] – n. an activity that diverts or amuses or stimulates: for recreation he wrote poetry and solved crossword puzzles

recruit [riˈkru:t] – v. register formally as a participant or member: The party recruited many new members

recruitment [riˈkru:tmənt] – n. the act of getting recruits; enlisting people for the army (or for a job or a cause etc.)

recycle [ri:ˈsaikl] – v. cause to repeat a cycle

red [red] – n. emotionally charged terms used to refer to extreme radicals or revolutionaries

reduce [riˈdju:s] – v. make less complex: reduce a problem to a single question

reduced  – adj. made less in size or amount or degree

reduction [riˈdʌkʃən] – n. the act of decreasing or reducing something

redundancy [riˈdʌndənsi] – n. repetition of messages to reduce the probability of errors in transmission

redundant [riˈdʌndənt] – adj. more than is needed, desired, or required: yet another book on heraldry might be thought redundant

refer [riˈfə:] – v. be relevant to: There were lots of questions referring to her talk

referee [.refəˈri:] – n. (sports) the chief official (as in boxing or American football) who is expected to ensure fair play

reference [ˈrefrəns] – n. a remark that calls attention to something or someone: the speaker made several references to his wife

referendum [.refəˈrendəm] – n. a legislative act is referred for final approval to a popular vote by the electorate

referral  – n. a recommendation to consult the (professional) person or group to whom one has been referred: the insurance company says that you need a written referral from your physician before seeing a specialist

reflect [riˈflekt] – v. manifest or bring back: This action reflects his true beliefs

reflection [riˈflekʃən] – n. a calm, lengthy, intent consideration

reform [riˈfɔ:rm] – v. make changes for improvement in order to remove abuse and injustices: reform a political system

reformer [riˈfɔ:mə] – n. an apparatus that reforms the molecular structure of hydrocarbons to produce richer fuel: a catalytic reformer

refuge [ˈrefju:dʒ] – n. a safe place

refugee [.refjuˈdʒi:] – n. an exile who flees for safety

refusal [riˈfju:zəl] – n. a message refusing to accept something that is offered

refuse [ˈrefju:s,riˈfju:z] – v. show unwillingness towards

regain  – v. get or find back; recover the use of: She regained control of herself

regard [riˈgɑ:d] – n. (usually preceded by `in’) a detail or point

regardless [riˈgɑ:dlis] – adj. (usually followed by `of’) without due thought or consideration: crushing the blooms with regardless tread

regime [reiˈʒi:m] – n. the organization that is the governing authority of a political unit

regiment [ˈredʒimənt] – v. subject to rigid discipline, order, and systematization: regiment one’s children

region [ˈri:dʒən] – n. the extended spatial location of something: the farming regions of France

regional [ˈri:dʒənl] – adj. related or limited to a particular region: a regional dialect

register [ˈredʒistə] – v. record in writing; enter into a book of names or events or transactions

registration [.redʒisˈtreiʃən] – n. the act of enrolling

regret [riˈgret] – v. feel remorse for; feel sorry for; be contrite about

regular [ˈregjulə] – adj. in accordance with fixed order or procedure or principle: his regular calls on his customers

regularly [ˈregjʊləli] – adv. having a regular form: regularly shaped objects

regulate [ˈregju.leit,ˈregjuleit] – v. fix or adjust the time, amount, degree, or rate of: regulate the temperature

regulation [.regjuˈleiʃən] – n. an authoritative rule

regulatory [ˈregjulətəri] – adj. restricting according to rules or principles: a regulatory gene

rehabilitation [ˈri:(h)ə.biliˈteiʃən] – n. the restoration of someone to a useful place in society

rehearsal [riˈhə:sl] – n. a practice session in preparation for a public performance (as of a play or speech or concert): he missed too many rehearsals

reign [rein] – n. a period during which something or somebody is dominant or powerful: he was helpless under the reign of his egotism

reinforce [.ri:inˈfɔ:s] – v. make stronger: he reinforced the concrete

reject [riˈdʒekt] – v. refuse to accept or acknowledge: I reject the idea of starting a war

rejection [riˈdʒekʃən] – n. the state of being rejected

relate [riˈleit] – v. make a logical or causal connection: I cannot relate these events at all

related [riˈleitid] – adj. being connected either logically or causally or by shared characteristics: painting and the related arts

relation [riˈleiʃən] – n. an abstraction belonging to or characteristic of two entities or parts together

relationship [riˈleiʃənʃip] – n. a state of connectedness between people (especially an emotional connection): he didn’t want his wife to know of the relationship

relative [ˈrelətiv] – n. a person related by blood or marriage: police are searching for relatives of the deceased

relatively [ˈrelətivli] – adv. in a relative manner; by comparison to something else: the situation is relatively calm now

relax [riˈlæks] – v. become less tense, rest, or take one’s ease: He relaxed in the hot tub

relaxation [.ri:lækˈseiʃən] – n. (physiology) the gradual lengthening of inactive muscle or muscle fibers

release [riˈli:s] – n. merchandise issued for sale or public showing (especially a record or film): a new release from the London Symphony Orchestra

relevance [ˈrelivəns] – n. the relation of something to the matter at hand

relevant [ˈrelivənt] – adj. having a bearing on or connection with the subject at issue: the scientist corresponds with colleagues in order to learn about matters relevant to her own research

reliable [riˈlaiəbl] – adj. worthy of being depended on: a reliable sourcSFLe of information

reliance [riˈlaiəns] – n. certainty based on past experience: he wrote the paper with considerable reliance on the work of other scientists

relief [riˈli:f] – n. the feeling that comes when something burdensome is removed or reduced: as he heard the news he was suddenly flooded with relief

relieve [riˈli:v] – v. free someone temporarily from his or her obligations

religion [riˈlidʒən] – n. a strong belief in a supernatural power or powers that control human destiny

religious [riˈlidʒəs] – adj. having or showing belief in and reverence for a deity: a religious man

reluctance [riˈlʌktəns] – n. (physics) opposition to magnetic flux (analogous to electric resistance)

reluctant [riˈlʌktənt] – adj. unwillingness to do something contrary to your custom: a reluctant smile

reluctantly  – adv. with reluctance

rely [riˈlai] – v. have confidence or faith in

remain [riˈmein] – v. continue in a place, position, or situation: despite student protests, he remained Dean for another year

remainder [riˈmeində] – n. something left after other parts have been taken away: there was no remainder

remaining [riˈmeiniŋ] – adj. not used up: saved the remaining sandwiches for supper

remark [riˈmɑ:k] – n. a statement that expresses a personal opinion or belief or adds information

remarkable [riˈmɑ:kəbl] – adj. unusual or striking: a remarkable sight

remarkably [riˈmɑ:kəb(ə)li] – adv. in a signal manner

remedy [ˈremidi] – n. act of correcting an error or a fault or an evil

remember [riˈmembə] – v. recall knowledge from memory; have a recollection: I can’t remember saying any such thing

remind [riˈmaind] – v. put in the mind of someone

reminder [riˈmaində] – n. a message that helps you remember something: he ignored his wife’s reminders

remote [riˈməut] – adj. located far away spatially: remote stars

removal [riˈmu:vəl] – n. dismissal from office

remove [riˈmu:v] – v. dispose of

Renaissance  – n. the revival of learning and culture

render [ˈrendə] – v. cause to become: The shot rendered her immobile

renew [riˈnju:] – v. reestablish on a new, usually improved, basis or make new or like new: We renewed our friendship after a hiatus of twenty years

renewal [riˈnju:əl] – n. the conversion of wasteland into land suitable for use of habitation or cultivation

renewed  – adj. restored to a new condition: felt renewed strength

rent [rent] – n. a payment or series of payments made by the lessee to an owner for use of some property, facility, equipment, or service

repair [riˈpɛə] – v. make amends for; pay compensation for: One can never fully repair the suffering and losses of the Jews in the Third Reich

repay [riˈpei] – v. pay back

repayment [riˈpeimənt] – n. the act of returning money received previously

repeat [riˈpi:t] – v. to say, state, or perform again

repeatedly [riˈpi:tidli] – adv. several time: it must be washed repeatedly

repetition [.repiˈtiʃən] – n. an event that repeats

replace [riˈpleis] – v. take the place or move into the position of: Smith replaced Miller as CEO after Miller left

replacement [riˈpleismənt] – n. the act of furnishing an equivalent person or thing in the place of another

reply [riˈplai] – n. the speech act of continuing a conversational exchange: he growled his reply

report [riˈpɔ:t] – n. a written document describing the findings of some individual or group

reportedly  – adv. according to reports or other information: she was reportedly his mistress for many years

reporter [riˈpɔ:tə] – n. a person who investigates and reports or edits news stories

represent [.repriˈzent] – v. take the place of or be parallel or equivalent to

representation [.reprizenˈteiʃən] – n. a presentation to the mind in the form of an idea or image

representative [repriˈzentətiv] – n. an advocate who represents someone else’s policy or purpose

reproduce [.ri:prəˈdju:s] – v. make a copy or equivalent of: reproduce the painting

reproduction [.ri:prəˈdʌkʃən] – n. the process of generating offspring

republic [riˈpʌblik] – n. a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them

republican [riˈpʌblikən] – n. a member of the Republican Party

reputation [.repjuˈteiʃən] – n. the state of being held in high esteem and honor

request [riˈkwest] – v. express the need or desire for; ask for: She requested an extra bed in her room

require [riˈkwaiə] – v. consider obligatory; request and expect: We require our secretary to be on time

required  – adj. necessary for relief or supply

requirement [riˈkwaiəmənt] – n. anything indispensable: allow farmers to buy their requirements under favorable conditions

rescue [ˈreskju:] – v. free from harm or evil

research [riˈsə:tʃ] – n. systematic investigation to establish facts

researcher [ri:ˈsə:tʃə] – n. a scientist who devotes himself to doing research

resemble [riˈzembl] – v. appear like; be similar or bear a likeness to: She resembles her mother very much

resent [riˈzent] – v. feel bitter or indignant about: She resents being paid less than her co-workers

resentment [riˈzentmənt] – n. a feeling of deep and bitter anger and ill-will

reservation [.rezəˈveiʃən] – n. a statement that limits or restricts some claim: he recommended her without any reservations

reservoir [ˈrezəvwɑ:] – n. a large or extra supply of something: a reservoir of talent

residence [ˈrezidəns] – n. any address at which you dwell more than temporarily: a person can have several residences

resident [ˈrezidənt] – n. someone who lives at a particular place for a prolonged period or who was born there

residential [.reziˈdenʃəl] – adj. of or relating to or connected with residence: a residential requirement for the doctorate

residue [ˈrezidju:] – n. matter that remains after something has been removed

resign [riˈzain] – v. leave (a job, post, or position) voluntarily: The chairman resigned when he was found to have misappropriated funds

resignation [.rezigˈneiʃən] – n. acceptance of despair

resist [riˈzist] – v. elude, especially in a baffling way

resistance [riˈzistəns] – n. the action of opposing something that you disapprove or disagree with: he encountered a general feeling of resistance from many citizens

resolution [.rezəˈlu:ʃən] – n. a formal expression by a meeting; agreed to by a vote

resort [riˈzɔ:t] – n. a frequently visited place

resource [riˈsɔ:s] – n. available source of wealth; a new or reserve supply that can be drawn upon when needed

respect [riˈspekt] – n. (usually preceded by `in’) a detail or point: it differs in that respect

respectable [risˈpektəbl] – adj. characterized by socially or conventionally acceptable morals: a respectable woman

respective [riˈspektiv] – adj. considered individually: the respective club members

respectively [riˈspektivli] – adv. in the order given: the brothers were called Felix and Max, respectively

respond [riˈspɔnd] – v. react verbally

respondent [riˈspɔndənt] – n. someone who responds

response [riˈspɔns] – n. a result: this situation developed in response to events in Africa

responsibility [ri.spɔnsəˈbiliti] – n. the social force that binds you to the courses of action demanded by that force: every right implies a responsibility; every opportunity, an obligation; every possession, a duty

responsible [riˈspɔnsəbl] – adj. being the agent or cause: determined who was the responsible party

rest [rest] – v. take a short break from one’s activities in order to relax

restaurant [ˈrestərɔnt] – n. a building where people go to eat

restoration [ˈrestəˈreiʃən] – n. the reign of Charles II in England; 1660-1685

restore [riˈstɔ:] – v. return to its original or usable and functioning condition: restore the forest to its original pristine condition

restrain [riˈstrein] – v. keep under control; keep in check

restraint [riˈstreint] – n. discipline in personal and social activities: he was a model of polite restraint

restrict [riˈstrikt] – v. place limits on (extent or access): restrict the use of this parking lot

restriction [risˈtrikʃən] – n. a principle that limits the extent of something: I am willing to accept certain restrictions on my movements

restrictive [risˈtriktiv] – adj. (of tariff) protective of national interests by restricting imports

result [riˈzʌlt] – n. a phenomenon that follows and is caused by some previous phenomenon

resume [riˈzju:m] – v. take up or begin anew: We resumed the negotiations

retail [ˈri:teil] – n. the selling of goods to consumers; usually in small quantities and not for resale

retailer [ˈri:teilə,riˈteilə] – n. a merchant who sells goods at retail

retain [riˈtein] – v. hold back within: This soil retains water

retention [riˈtenʃən] – n. the act of retaining something

retire [riˈtaiə] – v. withdraw from active participation: He retired from chess

retired  – adj. no longer active in your work or profession

retirement [riˈtaiəmənt] – n. withdrawal from your position or occupation

retreat [riˈtri:t] – n. (military) withdrawal of troops to a more favorable position to escape the enemy’s superior forces or after a defeat: the disorderly retreat of French troops

retrieve [riˈtri:v] – v. get or find back; recover the use of

return [riˈtə:n] – v. go or come back to place, condition, or activity where one has been before: return to your native land

reveal [riˈvi:l] – v. make visible

revelation [.revəˈleiʃən] – n. the speech act of making something evident

revenge [riˈvendʒ] – n. action taken in return for an injury or offense

revenue [ˈrevinju:] – n. the entire amount of income before any deductions are made

reverse [riˈvə:s] – n. a relation of direct opposition: we thought Sue was older than Bill but just the reverse was true

revert [riˈvə:t] – v. undergo reversion, as in a mutation

review [riˈvju:] – n. a new appraisal or evaluation

revise [riˈvaiz] – v. make revisions in: revise a thesis

revised  – adj. improved or brought up to date: a revised edition

revision [riˈviʒən] – n. the act of rewriting something

revival [riˈvaivəl] – n. bringing again into activity and prominence: the revival of trade

revive [riˈvaiv] – v. cause to regain consciousness: The doctors revived the comatose man

revolution [.revəˈlu:ʃən] – n. a drastic and far-reaching change in ways of thinking and behaving: the industrial revolution was also a cultural revolution

revolutionary [.revəˈlu:ʃənəri] – adj. markedly new or introducing radical change: a revolutionary discovery

reward [riˈwɔ:d] – n. a recompense for worthy acts or retribution for wrongdoing: virtue is its own reward

rhetoric [ˈretərik] – n. using language effectively to please or persuade

rhythm [ˈriðəm] – n. recurring at regular intervals

rib [rib] – n. a teasing remark

ribbon [ˈribən] – n. any long object resembling a thin line: a mere ribbon of land

rice [rais] – n. grains used as food either unpolished or more often polished

rich [ritʃ] – adj. having an abundant supply of desirable qualities or substances (especially natural resources): blessed with a land rich in minerals

rid [rid] – v. relieve from

ride [raid] – v. sit and travel on the back of animal, usually while controlling its motions: Did you ever ride a camel?

rider  – n. a clause that is appended to a legislative bill

ridge [ridʒ] – n. a long narrow natural elevation or striation

ridiculous [riˈdikjuləs] – adj. inspiring scornful pity

rifle [ˈraifl] – v. steal goods; take as spoils

right [rait] – adj. being or located on or directed toward the side of the body to the east when facing north: my right hand

rightly  – adv. with honesty: he was rightly considered the greatest singer of his time

rigid [ˈridʒid] – adj. incapable of or resistant to bending: a rigid strip of metal

ring [riŋ] – n. a toroidal shape: a ring of ships in the harbor

riot [ˈraiət] – n. a public act of violence by an unruly mob

rip [rip] – n. a dissolute man in fashionable society

rise [raiz] – v. move upward

rising  – adj. advancing or becoming higher or greater in degree or value or status: a rising trend

risk [risk] – n. a venture undertaken without regard to possible loss or injury: he saw the rewards but not the risks of crime

ritual [ˈritjuəl] – n. any customary observance or practice

rival [ˈraivəl] – v. be equal to in quality or ability: Nothing can rival cotton for durability

river [ˈrivə] – n. a large natural stream of water (larger than a creek): the river was navigable for 50 miles

road [rəud] – n. an open way (generally public) for travel or transportation

roar [rɔ:] – v. make a loud noise, as of wind, water, or vehicles: The water roared down the chute

rob [rɔb] – v. take something away by force or without the consent of the owner: The burglars robbed him of all his money

robbery [ˈrɔbəri] – n. larceny by threat of violence

rock [rɔk] – n. a lump or mass of hard consolidated mineral matter: he threw a rock at me

rocket [ˈrɔkit] – n. a jet engine containing its own propellant and driven by reaction propulsion

rod [rɔd] – n. a long thin implement made of metal or wood

role [rəul] – n. an actor’s portrayal of someone in a play

roll [rəul] – v. move along on or as if on wheels or a wheeled vehicle: The President’s convoy rolled past the crowds

romance [rəuˈmæns] – n. a relationship between two lovers

romantic [rəˈmæntik] – adj. belonging to or characteristic of Romanticism or the Romantic Movement in the arts: romantic poetry

roof [ru:f] – n. protective covering on top of a motor vehicle

room [ru:m] – n. an area within a building enclosed by walls and floor and ceiling: the rooms were very small but they had a nice view

root [ru:t] – n. the place where something begins, where it springs into being: communism’s Russian root

rope [rəup] – n. street names for flunitrazepan

rose [rəuz] – n. pinkish table wine from red grapes whose skins were removed after fermentation began

rotation [rəuˈteiʃən] – n. (mathematics) a transformation in which the coordinate axes are rotated by a fixed angle about the origin

rotten [ˈrɔtn] – adj. very bad

rough [rʌf] – adj. having or caused by an irregular surface: trees with rough bark

roughly [ˈrʌfli] – adv. (of quantities) imprecise but fairly close to correct: roughly $3,000

round [raund] – n. a charge of ammunition for a single shot

route [ru:t] – v. send documents or materials to appropriate destinations

routine [ru:ˈti:n] – n. an unvarying or habitual method or procedure

row [rəu,rau] – n. an arrangement of objects or people side by side in a line: a row of chairs

royal [ˈrɔiəl] – adj. of or relating to or indicative of or issued or performed by a king or queen or other monarch: the royal party

royalty [ˈrɔiəlti] – n. payment to the holder of a patent or copyright or resource for the right to use their property

rub [rʌb] – v. move over something with pressure: rub my hands

rubber [ˈrʌbə] – n. a waterproof overshoe that protects shoes from water or snow

rubbish [ˈrʌbiʃ] – n. worthless material that is to be disposed of

rude [ru:d] – adj. socially incorrect in behavior

rug [rʌg] – n. floor covering consisting of a piece of thick heavy fabric (usually with nap or pile)

rugby [ˈrʌgbi] – n. a form of football played with an oval ball

ruin [ˈruin] – n. an irrecoverable state of devastation and destruction: you have brought ruin on this entire family

rule [ru:l] – n. a principle or condition that customarily governs behavior: it was his rule to take a walk before breakfast

ruler [ˈru:lə] – n. a person who rules or commands

ruling [ˈru:liŋ] – n. the reason for a court’s judgment (as opposed to the decision itself)

rumour  – n. gossip (usually a mixture of truth and untruth) passed around by word of mouth

run [rʌn] – v. move fast by using one’s feet, with one foot off the ground at any given time: Don’t run–you’ll be out of breath

runner [ˈrʌnə(r)] – n. someone who imports or exports without paying duties

running [ˈrʌniŋ] – adj. (of fluids) moving or issuing in a stream: as mountain stream with freely running water

rural [ˈru:rəl] – adj. living in or characteristic of farming or country life: rural people

rush [rʌʃ] – n. the act of moving hurriedly and in a careless manner

sack [sæk] – n. a bag made of paper or plastic for holding customer’s purchases

sacred [ˈseikrid] – adj. concerned with religion or religious purposes: sacred texts

sacrifice [ˈsækrifais] – n. the act of losing or surrendering something as a penalty for a mistake or fault or failure to perform etc.

sad [sæd] – adj. experiencing or showing sorrow or unhappiness: feeling sad because his dog had died

sadly [ˈsædli] – adv. in an unfortunate way: sadly he died before he could see his grandchild

safe [seif] – adj. free from danger or the risk of harm: a safe trip

safely [ˈseifli] – adv. with safety; in a safe manner: we are safely out of there

safety [ˈseifti] – n. the state of being certain that adverse effects will not be caused by some agent under defined conditions: insure the safety of the children

sail [seil] – v. traverse or travel on (a body of water): We sailed the Atlantic

sailor [ˈseilə] – n. any member of a ship’s crew

saint [seint] – n. person of exceptional holiness

sake [seik] – n. a reason for wanting something done: for your sake

salad [ˈsæləd] – n. food mixtures either arranged on a plate or tossed and served with a moist dressing; usually consisting of or including greens

salary [ˈsæləri] – n. something that remunerates

sale [seil] – n. a particular instance of selling: he has just made his first sale

salmon [ˈsæmən] – n. a tributary of the Snake River in Idaho

salon [ˈsælɔn] – n. gallery where works of art can be displayed

salt [sɔ:lt] – n. a compound formed by replacing hydrogen in an acid by a metal (or a radical that acts like a metal)

salvation [sælˈveiʃən] – n. (theology) the act of delivering from sin or saving from evil

sample [ˈsæmpl] – n. a small part of something intended as representative of the whole

sanction [ˈsæŋkʃən] – n. formal and explicit approval

sanctuary [ˈsæŋktjuəri] – n. a consecrated place where sacred objects are kept

sand [sænd] – n. a loose material consisting of grains of rock or coral

sandwich [ˈsændwitʃ] – v. insert or squeeze tightly between two people or objects: She was sandwiched in her airplane seat between two fat men

satellite [ˈsætəlait] – n. man-made equipment that orbits around the earth or the moon

satisfaction [.sætisˈfækʃən] – n. the contentment one feels when one has fulfilled a desire, need, or expectation: the chef tasted the sauce with great satisfaction

satisfactory [.sætisˈfæktəri] – adj. meeting requirements: the step makes a satisfactory seat

satisfied  – adj. allayed

satisfy [ˈsætisfai] – v. meet the requirements or expectations of

sauce [sɔ:s] – v. dress (food) with a relish

sausage [ˈsɔ:sidʒ] – n. highly seasoned minced meat stuffed in casings

save [seiv] – v. to keep up and reserve for personal or special use: She saved the old family photographs in a drawer

saving [ˈseiviŋ] – n. an act of economizing; reduction in cost: there was a saving of 50 cents

say [sei] – v. express in words

scale [skeil] – n. an ordered reference standard: judging on a scale of 1 to 10

scan [skæn] – v. examine minutely or intensely: the surgeon scanned the X-ray

scandal [ˈskændl] – n. disgraceful gossip about the private lives of other people

scar [skɑ:] – n. a mark left (usually on the skin) by the healing of injured tissue

scarcely [ˈskɛəsli] – adv. only a very short time before: had scarcely rung the bell when the door flew open

scared [skeəd] – adj. made afraid: too shocked and scared to move

scatter [ˈskætə] – v. to cause to separate and go in different directions: She waved her hand and scattered the crowds

scenario [siˈnɑ:riəu] – n. an outline or synopsis of a play (or, by extension, of a literary work)

scene [si:n] – n. the place where some action occurs: the police returned to the scene of the crime

scent [sent] – n. a distinctive odor that is pleasant

schedule [ˈskedʒul] – n. a temporally organized plan for matters to be attended to

scheme [ski:m] – n. an elaborate and systematic plan of action

scholar [ˈskɔlə] – n. a learned person (especially in the humanities); someone who by long study has gained mastery in one or more disciplines

scholarship [ˈskɔləʃip] – n. financial aid provided to a student on the basis of academic merit

school [sku:l] – n. an educational institution: the school was founded in 1900

science [ˈsaiəns] – n. ability to produce solutions in some problem domain: the sweet science of pugilism

scientific [.saiənˈtifik] – adj. conforming with the principles or methods used in science: a scientific approach

scientist [ˈsaiəntist] – n. a person with advanced knowledge of one or more sciences

scope [skəup] – n. an area in which something acts or operates or has power or control:: within the scope of an investigation

score [skɔ:] – n. a number or letter indicating quality (especially of a student’s performance): what was your score on your homework?

scramble [ˈskræmbl] – v. to move hurriedly: The friend scrambled after them

scrap [skræp] – n. a small fragment of something broken off from the whole

scrape [skreip] – v. make by scraping: They scraped a letter into the stone

scratch [skrætʃ] – n. an abraded area where the skin is torn or worn off

scream [skri:m] – n. sharp piercing cry: her screaming attracted the neighbors

screen [skri:n] – n. a white or silvered surface where pictures can be projected for viewing

screw [skru:] – n. someone who guards prisoners

script [skript] – n. a written version of a play or other dramatic composition; used in preparing for a performance

scrutiny [ˈskru:tini] – n. the act of examining something closely (as for mistakes)

sculpture [ˈskʌlptʃə] – n. a three-dimensional work of plastic art

sea [si:] – n. anything apparently limitless in quantity or volume

seal [si:l] – n. a device incised to make an impression; used to secure a closing or to authenticate documents

search [sə:tʃ] – n. the activity of looking thoroughly in order to find something or someone

season [ˈsi:zn] – n. a period of the year marked by special events or activities in some field: he celebrated his 10th season with the ballet company

seasonal [ˈsi:zənl] – n. a worker who finds employment only in certain seasons

seat [si:t] – n. the fleshy part of the human body that you sit on

second [ˈsekənd] – n. 1/60 of a minute; the basic unit of time adopted under the Systeme International d’Unites

secondary [ˈsekənderi] – adj. inferior in rank or status

secondly [ˈsekəndli] – adv. in the second place

secret [ˈsi:krit] – adj. not open or public; kept private or not revealed: a secret formula

secretary [ˈsekrətri] – n. a person who is head of an administrative department of government

secretion [siˈkri:ʃən] – n. the organic process of synthesizing and releasing some substance

section [ˈsekʃən] – n. a self-contained part of a larger composition (written or musical): he always turns first to the business section

sector [ˈsektə] – n. a plane figure bounded by two radii and the included arc of a circle

secular [ˈsekjulə] – adj. of or relating to the doctrine that rejects religion and religious considerations

secure [siˈkjuə] – v. get by special effort

security [siˈkju:riti] – n. the state of being free from danger or injury: we support the armed services in the name of national security

sediment [ˈsedimənt] – n. matter that has been deposited by some natural process

see [si:] – v. perceive by sight or have the power to perceive by sight: You have to be a good observer to see all the details

seed [si:d] – v. distribute (players or teams) so that outstanding teams or players will not meet in the early rounds

seek [si:k] – v. try to get or reach: seek a position

seem [si:m] – v. give a certain impression or have a certain outward aspect: She seems to be sleeping

seemingly [ˈsi:miŋli] – adv. from appearances alone: the child is seemingly healthy but the doctor is concerned

segment [ˈsegmənt] – n. one of several parts or pieces that fit with others to constitute a whole object: finished the final segment of the road

seize [si:z] – v. take hold of; grab: The sales clerk quickly seized the money on the counter

seldom [ˈseldəm] – adv. not often

select [siˈlekt] – adj. of superior grade: select peaches

selection [siˈlekʃən] – n. an assortment of things from which a choice can be made: the store carried a large selection of shoes

selective [siˈlektiv] – adj. characterized by very careful or fastidious selection: the school was very selective in its admissions

self [self] – n. your consciousness of your own identity

sell [sel] – v. exchange or deliver for money or its equivalent: She sells her body to survive and support her drug habit

seller [ˈselə] – n. someone who promotes or exchanges goods or services for money

semantic  – adj. of or relating to meaning or the study of meaning: semantic analysis

seminar [ˈseminɑ:] – n. any meeting for an exchange of ideas

senate [ˈsenit] – n. assembly possessing high legislative powers

send [send] – v. to cause or order to be taken, directed, or transmitted to another place

senior [ˈsi:njə] – adj. older; higher in rank; longer in length of tenure or service: senior officer

sensation [senˈseiʃən] – n. an unelaborated elementary awareness of stimulation: a sensation of touch

sense [sens] – n. a general conscious awareness: a sense of security

sensible [ˈsensəbl] – adj. showing reason or sound judgment: a sensible choice

sensitive [ˈsensitiv] – adj. responsive to physical stimuli: a mimosa’s leaves are sensitive to touch

sensitivity [ˈsensiˈtiviti] – n. (physiology) responsiveness to external stimuli; the faculty of sensation: sensitivity to pain

sentence [ˈsentəns] – n. a string of words satisfying the grammatical rules of a language: he always spoke in grammatical sentences

sentiment [ˈsentimənt] – n. tender, romantic, or nostalgic feeling or emotion

separate [ˈsepəreit] – v. act as a barrier between; stand between

separately [ˈsepərətli] – adv. apart from others

separation [sepəˈreiʃən] – n. the state of lacking unity

sequence [ˈsi:kwəns] – n. serial arrangement in which things follow in logical order or a recurrent pattern: the sequence of names was alphabetical

sergeant [ˈsɑ:dʒənt] – n. any of several noncommissioned officer ranks in the Army or Air Force or Marines ranking above a corporal

series [ˈsiəri:z] – n. similar things placed in order or happening one after another: they were investigating a series of bank robberies

serious [ˈsiəriəs] – adj. concerned with work or important matters rather than play or trivialities: a serious student of history

seriously [ˈsiəriəsli] – adv. to a severe or serious degree: was seriously ill

serum [ˈsiərəm] – n. an amber, watery fluid, rich in proteins, that separates out when blood coagulates

servant [ˈsə:vənt] – n. in a subordinate position: the state cannot be a servant of the church

serve [sə:v] – v. contribute or conduce to: The scandal served to increase his popularity

server  – n. (court games) the player who serves to start a point

service [ˈsə:vis] – n. work done by one person or group that benefits another: budget separately for goods and services

session [ˈseʃən] – n. a meeting for execution of a group’s functions: it was the opening session of the legislature

set [set] – v. put into a certain place or abstract location

setting [ˈsetiŋ] – n. the context and environment in which something is set: the perfect setting for a ghost story

settle [ˈsetl] – v. take up residence and become established: The immigrants settled in the Midwest

settlement [ˈsetlmənt] – n. a community of people smaller than a town

severe [siˈviə] – adj. intensely or extremely bad or unpleasant in degree or quality: severe pain

severely [siˈviəli] – adv. with sternness; in a severe manner: peered severely over her glasses

sex [seks] – n. either of the two categories (male or female) into which most organisms are divided: the war between the sexes

sexual [ˈseksjuəl] – adj. having or involving sex: sexual reproduction

sexuality [.seksjuˈæliti] – n. the properties that distinguish organisms on the basis of their reproductive roles

sexually  – adv. by sexual means: reproduce sexually

shade [ʃeid] – n. relative darkness caused by light rays being intercepted by an opaque body: it is much cooler in the shade

shadow [ˈʃædəu] – n. an unilluminated area

shaft [ʃɑ:ft] – n. a line that forms the length of an arrow pointer

shake [ʃeik] – v. move or cause to move back and forth

shallow [ˈʃæləu] – adj. not deep or strong; not affecting one deeply: shallow breathing

shame [ʃeim] – v. surpass or beat by a wide margin

shape [ʃeip] – n. any spatial attributes (especially as defined by outline): he could barely make out their shapes

share [ʃɛə] – n. assets belonging to or due to or contributed by an individual person or group: he wanted his share in cash

shared  – adj. have in common; held or experienced in common: two shared valence electrons forming a bond between adjacent nuclei

shareholder [ˈʃɛə.həuldə] – n. someone who holds shares of stock in a corporation

sharp [ʃɑ:p] – adj. (of something seen or heard) clearly defined: a sharp photographic image

sharply [ˈʃɑ:pli] – adv. in an aggressive manner: she was being sharply questioned

shatter [ˈʃætə] – v. break into many pieces: The wine glass shattered

shed [ʃed] – v. get rid of: he shed his image as a pushy boss

sheep [ʃi:p] – n. woolly usually horned ruminant mammal related to the goat

sheer [ʃiə] – adj. complete and without restriction or qualification; sometimes used informally as intensifiers: got the job through sheer persistence

sheet [ʃi:t] – n. any broad thin expanse or surface: a sheet of ice

shelf [ʃelf] – n. a support that consists of a horizontal surface for holding objects

shell [ʃel] – n. the material that forms the hard outer covering of many animals

shelter [ˈʃeltə] – n. a structure that provides privacy and protection from danger

shield [ˈʃi:ld] – n. a protective covering or structure

shift [ʃift] – v. change place or direction

shilling [ˈʃiliŋ] – n. the basic unit of money in Uganda; equal to 100 cents

shine [ʃain] – v. be bright by reflecting or casting light

ship [ʃip] – v. transport commercially

shirt [ʃə:t] – n. a garment worn on the upper half of the body

shit [ʃit] – n. obscene terms for feces

shiver [ˈʃivə] – n. a reflex motion caused by cold or fear or excitement

shock [ʃɔk] – n. the feeling of distress and disbelief that you have when something bad happens accidentally: he was numb with shock

shoe [ʃu:] – n. (card games) a case from which playing cards are dealt one at a time

shoot [ʃu:t] – v. hit with a missile from a weapon

shop [ʃɔp] – v. give away information about somebody

shopping [ˈʃɔpiŋ] – n. searching for or buying goods or services: went shopping for a reliable plumber

shore [ʃɔ:] – v. support by placing against something solid or rigid: shore and buttress an old building

short [ʃɔ:t] – adj. primarily temporal sense; indicating or being or seeming to be limited in duration: a short life

shortage [ˈʃɔ:tidʒ] – n. the property of being an amount by which something is less than expected or required

shortly [ˈʃɔ:tli] – adv. in the near future: the book will appear shortly

short-term  – adj. relating to or extending over a limited period: a short-term lease

shot [ʃɔt] – n. the act of firing a projectile

shoulder [ˈʃəuldə] – n. the part of the body between the neck and the upper arm

shout [ʃaut] – v. utter in a loud voice; talk in a loud voice (usually denoting characteristic manner of speaking): My grandmother is hard of hearing–you’ll have to shout

show [ʃəu] – v. give an exhibition of to an interested audience: She shows her dogs frequently

shower [ˈʃauə] – n. a plumbing fixture that sprays water over you: they installed a shower in the bathroom

shrink [ʃriŋk] – v. wither, as with a loss of moisture

shrub [ʃrʌb] – n. a low woody perennial plant usually having several major stems

shrug [ʃrʌg] – n. a gesture involving the shoulders

shut [ʃʌt] – v. become closed

shy [ʃai] – adj. lacking self-confidence

sick [sik] – adj. feeling nausea; feeling about to vomit

sickness [ˈsiknis] – n. impairment of normal physiological function affecting part or all of an organism

side [said] – n. a place within a region identified relative to a center or reference location: they always sat on the right side of the church

sideways [ˈsaidweiz] – adv. from the side; obliquely: a picture lit sideways

siege [si:dʒ] – n. the action of an armed force that surrounds a fortified place and isolates it while continuing to attack

sigh [sai] – n. an utterance made by exhaling audibly

sight [sait] – n. an instance of visual perception: the sight of his wife brought him back to reality

sign [sain] – n. a public display of a message: he posted signs in all the shop windows

signal [ˈsignəl] – n. any nonverbal action or gesture that encodes a message: signals from the boat suddenly stopped

signature [ˈsignitʃə] – n. your name written in your own handwriting

significance [sigˈnifikəns] – n. a meaning that is not expressly stated but can be inferred: the significance of his remark became clear only later

significant [sigˈnifikənt] – adj. important in effect or meaning: a significant change in tax laws

significantly  – adv. in a significant manner: our budget will be significantly affected by these new cuts

silence [ˈsailəns] – n. the absence of sound: he needed silence in order to sleep

silent [ˈsailənt] – adj. marked by absence of sound: a silent house

silently  – adv. without speaking

silk [silk] – n. a fabric made from the fine threads produced by certain insect larvae

silly [ˈsili] – adj. ludicrous, foolish: a silly idea

silver [ˈsilvə] – n. a light shade of grey

similar [ˈsimilə] – adj. marked by correspondence or resemblance: similar food at similar prices

similarity [.simiˈlæriti] – n. the quality of being similar

similarly [ˈsimiləli] – adv. in like or similar manner: He was similarly affected

simple [ˈsimpl] – adj. having few parts; not complex or complicated or involved: a simple problem

simplicity [simˈplisiti] – n. a lack of penetration or subtlety: they took advantage of her simplicity

simply [ˈsimpli] – adv. and nothing more: it is simply a matter of time

simultaneously [saiməlˈteiniəsli] – adv. at the same instant: they spoke simultaneously

sin [sin] – n. estrangement from god

sincerely [sinˈsiəli] – adv. written formula for ending a letter

sing [siŋ] – v. produce tones with the voice: She was singing while she was cooking

singer [ˈsiŋə] – n. United States inventor of an improved chain-stitch sewing machine (1811-1875)

single [ˈsiŋgl] – adj. used of flowers having usually only one row or whorl of petals: single chrysanthemums resemble daisies and may have more than one row of petals

sink [siŋk] – v. fall or descend to a lower place or level

sip [sip] – n. a small drink

sir [sə:] – n. term of address for a man

sister [ˈsistə] – n. a female person who has the same parents as another person: my sister married a musician

sit [sit] – v. be seated

site [sait] – n. the piece of land on which something is located (or is to be located): a good site for the school

situate [ˈsitjueit] – v. determine or indicate the place, site, or limits of, as if by an instrument or by a survey

situation [.sitjuˈeiʃən] – n. the general state of things; the combination of circumstances at a given time: the present international situation is dangerous

size [saiz] – n. the property resulting from being one of a series of graduated measurements (as of clothing): he wears a size 13 shoe

skeleton [ˈskelitn] – n. something reduced to its minimal form: the battalion was a mere skeleton of its former self

sketch [sketʃ] – n. preliminary drawing for later elaboration

ski [ski:] – n. narrow wood or metal or plastic runners used in pairs for gliding over snow

skill [ˈskil] – n. an ability that has been acquired by training

skin [skin] – n. a natural protective body covering and site of the sense of touch: your skin is the largest organ of your body

skipper  – n. a student who fails to attend classes

skirt [skə:t] – n. cloth covering that forms the part of a garment below the waist

skull [skʌl] – n. the bony skeleton of the head of vertebrates

sky [skai] – n. the atmosphere and outer space as viewed from the earth

slab [slæb] – n. block consisting of a thick piece of something

slam [slæm] – n. winning all or all but one of the tricks in bridge

slap [slæp] – n. a blow from a flat object (as an open hand)

slave [sleiv] – n. a person who is owned by someone

sleep [sli:p] – n. a natural and periodic state of rest during which consciousness of the world is suspended: he didn’t get enough sleep last night

sleeping  – n. quiet and inactive restfulness

sleeve [sli:v] – n. the part of a garment that is attached at the armhole and that provides a cloth covering for the arm

slice [slais] – n. a share of something: a slice of the company’s revenue

slide [slaid] – n. a small flat rectangular piece of glass on which specimens can be mounted for microscopic study

slight [slait] – adj. (quantifier used with mass nouns) small in quantity or degree; not much or almost none or (with `a’) at least some: there’s slight chance that it will work

slightly [ˈslaitli] – adv. to a small degree or extent: the children argued because one slice of cake was slightly larger than the other

slim [slim] – adj. small in quantity: a slim chance of winning

slip [slip] – n. a socially awkward or tactless act

slogan [ˈsləugən] – n. a favorite saying of a sect or political group

slope [sləup] – n. an elevated geological formation: he climbed the steep slope

slot [slɔt] – n. a position in a grammatical linguistic construction in which a variety of alternative units are interchangeable: he developed a version of slot grammar

slow [sləu] – adj. not moving quickly; taking a comparatively long time: a slow walker

slowly [ˈsləʊli] – adv. in music

slump [slʌmp] – v. assume a drooping posture or carriage

small [smɔ:l] – adj. limited or below average in number or quantity or magnitude or extent: a small car

smart [smɑ:t] – adj. showing mental alertness and calculation and resourcefulness

smash [smæʃ] – v. hit hard: He smashed a 3-run homer

smell [smel] – n. the sensation that results when olfactory receptors in the nose are stimulated by particular chemicals in gaseous form: she loved the smell of roses

smile [smail] – v. change one’s facial expression by spreading the lips, often to signal pleasure

smoke [sməuk] – n. a cloud of fine particles suspended in a gas

smooth [smu:ð] – adj. having a surface free from roughness or bumps or ridges or irregularities: smooth skin

smoothly [ˈsmu:ðli] – adv. with no problems or difficulties: put the plans into effect quickly and smoothly

snake [sneik] – n. limbless scaly elongate reptile; some are venomous

snap [snæp] – n. the act of catching an object with the hands: the infielder’s snap and throw was a single motion

snatch [snætʃ] – n. a small fragment: overheard snatches of their conversation

sniff [snif] – v. perceive by inhaling through the nose: sniff the perfume

snow [snəu] – n. precipitation falling from clouds in the form of ice crystals

so [səu] – adv. to a very great extent or degree: the idea is so obvious

soak [səuk] – v. submerge in a liquid: I soaked in the hot tub for an hour

soap [səup] – n. a cleansing agent made from the salts of vegetable or animal fats

soar [sɔ:] – v. rise rapidly: the dollar soared against the yen

so-called  – adj. doubtful or suspect: these so-called experts are no help

soccer [ˈsɔkə] – n. a football game in which two teams of 11 players try to kick or head a ball into the opponents’ goal

social [ˈsəuʃəl] – adj. living together or enjoying life in communities or organized groups: a human being is a social animal

socialism [ˈsəuʃəlizəm] – n. a political theory advocating state ownership of industry

socialist [ˈsəuʃəlist] – n. a political advocate of socialism

socially  – adv. in a social manner: socially unpopular

society [səˈsaiəti] – n. a formal association of people with similar interests: they formed a small lunch society

sociological  – adj. of or relating to or determined by sociology: sociological studies

sociology [.səusiˈɔlədʒi] – n. the study and classification of human societies

sock [sɔk] – n. hosiery consisting of a cloth covering for the foot; worn inside the shoe; reaches to between the ankle and the knee

socket [ˈsɔkit] – n. a bony hollow into which a structure fits

sodium [ˈsəudjəm, -diəm] – n. a silvery soft waxy metallic element of the alkali metal group; occurs abundantly in natural compounds (especially in salt water); burns with a yellow flame and reacts violently in water; occurs in sea water and in the mineral halite (rock salt)

sofa [ˈsəufə] – n. an upholstered seat for more than one person

soft [sɔft] – adj. yielding readily to pressure or weight

soften [ˈsɔ(:)fn] – v. lessen in force or effect: soften a shock

softly [ˈsɔftli] – adv. with low volume: speak softly but carry a big stick

software [ˈsɔftwɛə] – n. (computer science) written programs or procedures or rules and associated documentation pertaining to the operation of a computer system and that are stored in read/write memory: the market for software is expected to expand

soil [sɔil] – n. the state of being covered with unclean things

solar [ˈsəulə] – adj. relating to or derived from the sun or utilizing the energies of the sun: solar eclipse

soldier [ˈsəuldʒə] – n. an enlisted man or woman who serves in an army: the soldiers stood at attention

sole [səul] – n. the underside of footwear or a golf club

solely [ˈsəu(l)li] – adv. without any others being included or involved: did it solely for money

solicitor [səˈlisitə] – n. a British lawyer who gives legal advice and prepares legal documents

solid [ˈsɔlid] – adj. characterized by good substantial quality: solid comfort

solidarity [.sɔliˈdæriti] – n. a union of interests or purposes or sympathies among members of a group

solo [ˈsəuləu] – n. any activity that is performed alone without assistance

solution [səˈlu:ʃən] – n. a statement that solves a problem or explains how to solve the problem: they were trying to find a peaceful solution

solve [sɔlv] – v. find the solution: solve an equation

solvent [ˈsɔlvənt] – n. a statement that solves a problem or explains how to solve the problem

somehow [ˈsʌmhau] – adv. for some unspecified reason: It doesn’t seem fair somehow

sometimes [ˈsʌmtaimz] – adv. on certain occasions or in certain cases but not always: sometimes she wished she were back in England

somewhat [ˈsʌmwɔt] – adv. to a small degree or extent: his arguments were somewhat self-contradictory

somewhere [ˈsʌmwɛə] – n. an indefinite or unknown location: they moved to somewhere in Spain

son [sʌn] – n. a male human offspring: their son became a famous judge

song [sɔŋ] – n. a short musical composition with words: a successful musical must have at least three good songs

soon [su:n] – adv. in the near future: the doctor will soon be here

sophisticated [səˈfistikeitid] – adj. having or appealing to those having worldly knowledge and refinement and savoir-faire: sophisticated young socialites

sore [sɔ:] – adj. hurting

sorry [ˈsɔri] – adj. bad; unfortunate: a sorry state of affairs

sort [sɔ:t] – n. an approximate definition or example: she wore a sort of magenta dress

soul [səul] – n. a human being

sound [saund] – adj. financially secure and safe: sound investments

soup [su:p] – n. liquid food especially of meat or fish or vegetable stock often containing pieces of solid food

source [sɔ:s] – n. the place where something begins, where it springs into being: Pittsburgh is the source of the Ohio River

south [sauθ] – n. the cardinal compass point that is at 180 degrees

southern [ˈsʌðən] – adj. situated in or oriented toward the south: a southern exposure

sovereignty [ˈsɔvrinti] – n. government free from external control

space [speis] – n. the unlimited expanse in which everything is located: they tested his ability to locate objects in space

spare [spɛə] – adj. thin and fit: the spare figure of a marathon runner

spatial [ˈspeiʃəl] – adj. pertaining to or involving or having the nature of space: the first dimension to concentrate on is the spatial one

speak [spi:k] – v. exchange thoughts; talk with

speaker [ˈspi:kə] – n. electro-acoustic transducer that converts electrical signals into sounds loud enough to be heard at a distance

special [ˈspeʃəl] – adj. unique or specific to a person or thing or category: the special features of a computer

specialise  – v. be specific about

specialist [ˈspeʃəlist] – n. an expert who is devoted to one occupation or branch of learning

specially [ˈspeʃəli] – adv. to a distinctly greater extent or degree than is common: an especially (or specially) cautious approach to the danger

species [ˈspi:ʃi:z] – n. (biology) taxonomic group whose members can interbreed

specific [spiˈsifik] – adj. stated explicitly or in detail: needed a specific amount

specifically [spiˈsifikəli] – adv. in distinction from others: a program specifically for teenagers

specification [.spesifiˈkeiʃən] – n. a detailed description of design criteria for a piece of work

specified [ˈspesifaid] – adj. clearly and explicitly stated: meals are at specified times

specify [ˈspesifai] – v. decide upon or fix definitely: specify the parameters

specimen [ˈspesimən] – n. an example regarded as typical of its class

spectacle [ˈspektəkl] – n. something or someone seen (especially a notable or unusual sight): the tragic spectacle of cripples trying to escape

spectacular [spekˈtækjulə] – adj. sensational in appearance or thrilling in effect: a spectacular display of northern lights

spectator [spekˈteitə] – n. a close observer; someone who looks at something (such as an exhibition of some kind): the spectators applauded the performance

spectrum [ˈspektrəm] – n. an ordered array of the components of an emission or wave

speculation [.spekjuˈleiʃən] – n. a message expressing an opinion based on incomplete evidence

speech [spi:tʃ] – n. the act of delivering a formal spoken communication to an audience

speed [spi:d] – n. distance travelled per unit time

spell [spel] – v. indicate or signify: I’m afraid this spells trouble!

spelling [ˈspeliŋ] – n. forming words with letters according to the principles underlying accepted usage

spend [spend] – v. pay out: spend money

sphere [sfiə] – n. a particular environment or walk of life: his social sphere is limited

spider [ˈspaidə] – n. a computer program that prowls the internet looking for publicly accessible resources that can be added to a database; the database can then be searched with a search engine

spill [spil] – v. cause or allow (a liquid substance) to run or flow from a container: spill the milk

spin [spin] – v. revolve quickly and repeatedly around one’s own axis

spine [spain] – n. any sharply pointed projection

spirit [ˈspirit] – n. the vital principle or animating force within living things

spiritual [ˈspiritjuəl] – adj. concerned with sacred matters or religion or the church: lords temporal and spiritual

spit [spit] – n. a narrow strip of land that juts out into the sea

spite [spait] – n. feeling a need to see others suffer

splendid [ˈsplendid] – adj. very good;of the highest quality

split [split] – n. extending the legs at right angles to the trunk (one in front and the other in back)

spoil [spɔil] – v. make a mess of, destroy or ruin

spoken  – adj. uttered through the medium of speech or characterized by speech; sometimes used in combination: a spoken message

spokesman [ˈspəuksmən] – n. a male spokesperson

sponsor [ˈspɔnsə] – v. assume responsibility for or leadership of: The senator announced that he would sponsor the health care plan

sponsorship [ˈspɔnsəʃip] – n. the act of sponsoring (either officially or financially)

spontaneous [spɔnˈteiniəs] – adj. happening or arising without apparent external cause: spontaneous laughter

spoon [spu:n] – n. a piece of cutlery with a shallow bowl-shaped container and a handle; used to stir or serve or take up food

sport [spɔ:t] – n. an active diversion requiring physical exertion and competition

spot [spɔt] – n. a short section or illustration (as between radio or tv programs or in a magazine) that is often used for advertising

spouse [spauz] – n. a person’s partner in marriage

spray [sprei] – n. a quantity of small objects flying through the air: a spray of bullets

spread [spred] – n. process or result of distributing or extending over a wide expanse of space

spring [spriŋ] – n. the season of growth: the emerging buds were a sure sign of spring

spy [spai] – v. catch sight of

squad [skwɔd] – n. a smallest army unit

squadron [ˈskwɔdrən] – n. a cavalry unit consisting of two or more troops and headquarters and supporting arms

square [skwɛə] – n. (geometry) a plane rectangle with four equal sides and four right angles; a four-sided regular polygon: you can compute the area of a square if you know the length of its sides

squeeze [skwi:z] – v. to compress with violence, out of natural shape or condition: squeeze a lemon

stab [stæb] – n. a sudden sharp feeling: she felt a stab of excitement

stability [stəˈbiliti] – n. the quality or attribute of being firm and steadfast

stable [ˈsteibl] – adj. firm and dependable; subject to little fluctuation: the economy is stable

stadium [ˈsteidiəm] – n. a large structure for open-air sports or entertainments

staff [stɑ:f] – n. personnel who assist their superior in carrying out an assigned task: the hospital has an excellent nursing staff

stag  – v. attend a dance or a party without a female companion

stage [steidʒ] – n. any distinct time period in a sequence of events: we are in a transitional stage in which many former ideas must be revised or rejected

stagger [ˈstægə] – v. walk as if unable to control one’s movements: The drunken man staggered into the room

stain [stein] – n. a soiled or discolored appearance: the wine left a dark stain

stair [stɛə] – n. support consisting of a place to rest the foot while ascending or descending a stairway

staircase [ˈstɛəkeis] – n. a way of access (upward and downward) consisting of a set of steps

stake [steik] – n. (law) a right or legal share of something; a financial involvement with something: a stake in the company’s future

stall [stɔ:l] – n. small area set off by walls for special use

stamp [stæmp] – n. the distinctive form in which a thing is made

stance [stɑ:ns, stæns] – n. a rationalized mental attitude

stand [stænd] – n. a support or foundation

standard [ˈstændəd] – n. a basis for comparison; a reference point against which other things can be evaluated: the schools comply with federal standards

standing [ˈstændiŋ] – adj. having a supporting base: a standing lamp

star [stɑ:] – n. someone who is dazzlingly skilled in any field

start [stɑ:t] – v. take the first step or steps in carrying out an action: Who will start?

startle [ˈstɑ:tl] – v. to stimulate to action: ..startled him awake

state [steit] – n. the territory occupied by one of the constituent administrative districts of a nation: his state is in the deep south

statement [ˈsteitmənt] – n. a fact or assertion offered as evidence that something is true

static [ˈstætik] – adj. not in physical motion

station [ˈsteiʃən] – n. a facility equipped with special equipment and personnel for a particular purpose: he started looking for a gas station

statistical [stəˈtistikəl] – adj. of or relating to statistics: statistical population

statistics [stəˈtistiks] – n. a branch of applied mathematics concerned with the collection and interpretation of quantitative data and the use of probability theory to estimate population parameters

statue [ˈstætju:] – n. a sculpture representing a human or animal

status [ˈsteitəs] – n. a state at a particular time: the current status of the arms negotiations

statute [ˈstætju:t] – n. an act passed by a legislative body

statutory [ˈstætʃutəri] – adj. prescribed or authorized by or punishable under a statute: statutory restrictions

stay [stei] – v. dwell: You can stay with me while you are in town

steadily [ˈstedili] – adv. in a steady manner: he could still walk steadily

steady [ˈstedi] – adj. not subject to change or variation especially in behavior: a steady beat

steal [sti:l] – v. take without the owner’s consent

steam [sti:m] – v. rise as vapor

steel [sti:l] – n. a cutting or thrusting weapon that has a long metal blade and a hilt with a hand guard

steep [sti:p] – adj. having a sharp inclination: the steep attic stairs

steer [stiə] – v. direct the course; determine the direction of travelling

stem [stem] – n. a slender or elongated structure that supports a plant or fungus or a plant part or plant organ

step [step] – n. any maneuver made as part of progress toward a goal: the police took steps to reduce crime

sterling [ˈstə:liŋ] – adj. highest in quality

steward [ˈstju:əd] – n. someone who manages property or other affairs for someone else

stick [stik] – v. put, fix, force, or implant: stick your thumb in the crack

sticky [ˈstiki] – adj. moist as with undried perspiration and with clothing sticking to the body: felt sticky and chilly at the same time

stiff [stif] – adj. not moving or operating freely: a stiff hinge

still [stil] – adj. not in physical motion

stimulate [ˈstimjuleit] – v. cause to do; cause to act in a specified manner

stimulation [.stimjuˈleiʃən] – n. the act of arousing an organism to action

stimulus [ˈstimjuləs] – n. any stimulating information or event; acts to arouse action

stir [stə:] – v. move an implement through: stir the soup

stitch [stitʃ] – n. a link or loop or knot made by an implement in knitting, crocheting, embroidery, or sewing

stock [stɔk] – n. the capital raised by a corporation through the issue of shares entitling holders to an ownership interest (equity): he owns a controlling share of the company’s stock

stocking [ˈstɔkiŋ] – n. close-fitting hosiery to cover the foot and leg; come in matched pairs (usually used in the plural)

stomach [ˈstʌmək] – n. an enlarged and muscular saclike organ of the alimentary canal; the principal organ of digestion

stone [stəun] – n. a lump or mass of hard consolidated mineral matter

stool [stu:l] – n. a simple seat without a back or arms

stop [stɔp] – n. the event of something ending: it came to a stop at the bottom of the hill

storage  – n. a depository for goods

store [stɔ:] – n. a mercantile establishment for the retail sale of goods or services

storm [stɔ:m] – v. behave violently, as if in state of a great anger

story [ˈstɔ:ri] – n. a piece of fiction that narrates a chain of related events

straight [streit] – adj. successive (without a break): sick for five straight days

straighten [ˈstreitn] – v. make straight

straightforward [streitˈfɔ:wəd] – adj. free from ambiguity: a straightforward set of instructions

strain [strein] – n. (physics) deformation of a physical body under the action of applied forces

strand [strænd] – n. line consisting of a complex of fibers or filaments that are twisted together to form a thread or a rope or a cable

strange [streindʒ] – adj. being definitely out of the ordinary and unexpected; slightly odd or even a bit weird: a strange exaltation that was indefinable

strangely  – adv. in a strange manner

stranger [ˈstreindʒə] – n. anyone who does not belong in the environment in which they are found

strap [stræp] – n. hanger consisting of a loop of leather suspended from the ceiling of a bus or train; passengers hold onto it

strategic [strəˈti:dʒik] – adj. highly important to or an integral part of a strategy or plan of action especially in war: a strategic chess move

strategy [ˈstrætidʒi] – n. an elaborate and systematic plan of action

straw [strɔ:] – n. plant fiber used e.g. for making baskets and hats or as fodder

stream [stri:m] – n. a natural body of running water flowing on or under the earth

street [stri:t] – n. a thoroughfare (usually including sidewalks) that is lined with buildings: they walked the streets of the small town

strength [streŋθ] – n. the property of being physically or mentally strong: fatigue sapped his strength

strengthen [ˈstreŋθən] – v. make strong or stronger: This exercise will strengthen your upper body

stress [stres] – n. (psychology) a state of mental or emotional strain or suspense: stress is a vasoconstrictor

stretch [stretʃ] – v. occupy a large, elongated area: The park stretched beneath the train line

strict [strikt] – adj. rigidly accurate; allowing no deviation from a standard: a strict vegetarian

strictly [ˈstriktli] – adv. in a stringent manner

stride [straid] – n. a step in walking or running

strike [straik] – v. deliver a sharp blow, as with the hand, fist, or weapon: the opponent refused to strike

striker  – n. a forward on a soccer team

striking [ˈstraikiŋ] – n. the physical coming together of two or more things

string [striŋ] – n. a lightweight cord

strip [strip] – v. take away possessions from someone: The Nazis stripped the Jews of all their assets

strive [straiv] – v. attempt by employing effort

stroke [strəuk] – n. the maximum movement available to a pivoted or reciprocating piece by a cam

stroll [strəul] – n. a leisurely walk (usually in some public place)

strong [strɔŋ] – adj. not faint or feeble: a strong odor of burning rubber

strongly [ˈstrɔŋli] – adv. in a powerful manner

structural [ˈstrʌktʃərəl] – adj. relating to or having or characterized by structure: structural engineer

structure [ˈstrʌktʃə] – n. the manner of construction of something and the arrangement of its parts: artists must study the structure of the human body

struggle [ˈstrʌgl] – v. make a strenuous or labored effort: She struggled for years to survive without welfare

student [ˈstju:dənt] – n. a learner who is enrolled in an educational institution

studio [ˈstju:diəu] – n. workplace for the teaching or practice of an art: she ran a dance studio

study [ˈstʌdi] – n. a detailed critical inspection

stuff [stʌf] – n. the tangible substance that goes into the makeup of a physical object: wheat is the stuff they use to make bread

stumble [ˈstʌmbl] – v. walk unsteadily: The drunk man stumbled about

stunning [ˈstʌniŋ] – adj. commanding attention: a stunning performance

stupid [ˈstju:pid] – adj. lacking or marked by lack of intellectual acuity

style [stail] – n. how something is done or how it happens: in the characteristic New York style

subject [ˈsʌbdʒekt] – n. something (a person or object or scene) selected by an artist or photographer for graphic representation: a moving picture of a train is more dramatic than a still picture of the same subject

subjective [səbˈdʒektiv] – adj. taking place within the mind and modified by individual bias: a subjective judgment

submission [səbˈmiʃən] – n. the act of submitting; usually surrendering power to another

submit [səbˈmit] – v. refer for judgment or consideration: The lawyers submitted the material to the court

subscription [səbˈskripʃən] – n. a payment for consecutive issues of a newspaper or magazine for a given period of time

subsequent [ˈsʌbsikwənt] – adj. following in time or order: subsequent developments

subsequently [ˈsʌbsikwəntli] – adv. happening at a time subsequent to a reference time: he apologized subsequently

subsidiary [səbˈsidjəri] – n. an assistant subject to the authority or control of another

subsidy [ˈsʌbsidi] – n. a grant paid by a government to an enterprise that benefits the public: a subsidy for research in artificial intelligence

substance [ˈsʌbstəns] – n. the real physical matter of which a person or thing consists: DNA is the substance of our genes

substantial [səbˈstænʃəl] – adj. fairly large: won by a substantial margin

substantially [səbˈstænʃ(ə)li] – adv. to a great extent or degree: painting the room white made it seem considerably (or substantially) larger

substantive [ˈsʌbstəntiv] – adj. having a firm basis in reality and being therefore important, meaningful, or considerable

substitute [ˈsʌbstitju:t] – n. a person or thing that takes or can take the place of another

subtle [ˈsʌtl] – adj. difficult to detect or grasp by the mind or analyze: his whole attitude had undergone a subtle change

suburb [ˈsʌbə:b] – n. a residential district located on the outskirts of a city

succeed [səkˈsi:d] – v. be the successor (of): Will Charles succeed to the throne?

success [səkˈses] – n. an event that accomplishes its intended purpose: let’s call heads a success and tails a failure

successful [səkˈsesfəl] – adj. having succeeded or being marked by a favorable outcome: a successful architect

successfully [səkˈsesfʊli] – adv. with success; in a successful manner: she performed the surgery successfully

succession [səkˈseʃən] – n. a following of one thing after another in time

successive [səkˈsesiv] – adj. in regular succession without gaps

successor [səkˈsesə] – n. a person who follows next in order: he was President Lincoln’s successor

suck [sʌk] – v. draw into the mouth by creating a practical vacuum in the mouth: suck the poison from the place where the snake bit

sudden [ˈsʌdn] – adj. happening without warning or in a short space of time: a sudden storm

suddenly [ˈsʌdənli] – adv. happening unexpectedly: suddenly she felt a sharp pain in her side

sue [su:] – n. French writer whose novels described the sordid side of city life (1804-1857)

suffer [ˈsʌfə] – v. undergo or be subjected to: He suffered the penalty

sufferer  – n. one who suffers for the sake of principle

suffering [ˈsʌfəriŋ] – n. a state of acute pain

sufficient [səˈfiʃənt] – adj. of a quantity that can fulfill a need or requirement but without being abundant: sufficient food

sufficiently [səˈfiʃəntli] – adv. to a sufficient degree: she was sufficiently fluent in Mandarin

sugar [ˈʃugə] – n. a white crystalline carbohydrate used as a sweetener and preservative

suggest [səˈdʒest] – v. make a proposal, declare a plan for something

suggestion [səˈdʒestʃən] – n. a proposal offered for acceptance or rejection: it was a suggestion we couldn’t refuse

suicide [ˈsu:ə.said] – n. the act of killing yourself: it is a crime to commit suicide

suit [sju:t] – n. a comprehensive term for any proceeding in a court of law whereby an individual seeks a legal remedy: the family brought suit against the landlord

suitable [ˈsju:təbl] – adj. meant or adapted for an occasion or use: a tractor suitable (or fit) for heavy duty

suitcase [ˈsu:tkeis] – n. a portable rectangular container for carrying clothes

suite [swi:t] – n. a musical composition of several movements only loosely connected

sulphur [ˈsʌlfə] – n. an abundant tasteless odorless multivalent nonmetallic element; best known in yellow crystals; occurs in many sulphide and sulphate minerals and even in native form (especially in volcanic regions)

sum [sʌm] – n. a quantity of money: he borrowed a large sum

summarise  – v. give a summary (of)

summary [ˈsʌməri] – adj. performed speedily and without formality: a summary execution

summer [ˈsʌmə] – n. the period of finest development, happiness, or beauty: the golden summer of his life

summit [ˈsʌmit] – n. the highest level or degree attainable; the highest stage of development: the summit of his ambition

summon [ˈsʌmən] – v. call in an official matter, such as to attend court

sun [sʌn] – n. the star that is the source of light and heat for the planets in the solar system: the sun contains 99.85% of the mass in the solar system

sunlight [ˈsʌnlait] – n. the rays of the sun

sunny [ˈsʌni] – adj. bright and pleasant; promoting a feeling of cheer: a gay sunny room

sunshine [ˈsʌnʃain] – n. the rays of the sun

super [ˈsu:pə] – adj. of the highest quality: a super party

superb [sjuˈpə:b] – adj. of surpassing excellence: a superb actor

superintendent [.sju:pərinˈtendənt] – n. a person who directs and manages an organization

superior [su:ˈpiəriə] – adj. of or characteristic of high rank or importance: a superior ruler

supermarket [ˈsju:pə.mɑ:kit] – n. a large self-service grocery store selling groceries and dairy products and household goods

supervise [ˈsju:pəvaiz] – v. watch and direct

supervision [.sju:pəˈviʒən] – n. management by overseeing the performance or operation of a person or group

supervisor [ˈsju:pəvaizə] – n. a program that controls the execution of other programs

supper [ˈsʌpə] – n. a light evening meal; served in early evening if dinner is at midday or served late in the evening at bedtime

supplement [ˈsʌpliment] – n. textual matter that is added onto a publication; usually at the end

supplementary [.sʌpliˈmentəri] – adj. functioning in a supporting capacity

supplier [səˈplaiə] – n. someone whose business is to supply a particular service or commodity

supply [səˈplai] – v. give something useful or necessary to

support [səˈpɔ:t] – n. aiding the cause or policy or interests of: the president no longer has the support of his own party

supporter [səˈpɔ:tə] – n. a person who backs a politician or a team etc.: all their supporters came out for the game

supporting  – adj. capable of bearing a structural load: a supporting wall

suppose [səˈpəuz] – v. express a supposition

supposed  – adj. required or under orders: I’m supposed to be there at ten

supposedly [səˈpəuzidli] – adv. believed or reputed to be the case

suppress [səˈpres] – v. to put down by force or authority: suppress a nascent uprising

supreme [sju:ˈpri:m] – adj. final or last in your life or progress: the supreme sacrifice

sure [ʃuə] – adj. exercising or taking care great enough to bring assurance: be sure to lock the doors

surely [ˈʃuəli] – adv. definitely or positively (`sure’ is sometimes used informally for `surely’): the results are surely encouraging

surface [ˈsə:fis] – n. the outer boundary of an artifact or a material layer constituting or resembling such a boundary: there is a special cleaner for these surfaces

surgeon [ˈsə:dʒən] – n. a physician who specializes in surgery

surgery [ˈsə:dʒəri] – n. the branch of medical science that treats disease or injury by operative procedures: he is professor of surgery at the Harvard Medical School

surplus [ˈsə:pləs] – n. a quantity much larger than is needed

surprise [səˈpraiz] – n. the astonishment you feel when something totally unexpected happens to you

surprised  – adj. taken unawares or suddenly and feeling wonder or astonishment: surprised by her student’s ingenuity

surprising [səˈpraiziŋ] – adj. causing surprise or wonder or amazement: the report shows a surprising lack of hard factual data

surprisingly  – adv. in an amazing manner; to everyone’s surprise

surrender [səˈrendə] – n. acceptance of despair

surround [səˈraund] – v. extend on all sides of simultaneously; encircle: The forest surrounds my property

survey [sə:ˈvei] – v. consider in a comprehensive way

surveyor [sə:ˈveiə] – n. an engineer who determines the boundaries and elevations of land or structures

survival [səˈvaivəl] – n. a natural process resulting in the evolution of organisms best adapted to the environment

survive [səˈvaiv] – v. continue to live through hardship or adversity: These superstitions survive in the backwaters of America

survivor [səˈvaivə] – n. one who lives through affliction: the survivors of the fire were taken to a hospital

suspect [səsˈpekt] – v. imagine to be the case or true or probable: I suspect he is a fugitive

suspend [səsˈpend] – v. hang freely: The secret police suspended their victims from the ceiling and beat them

suspension [səˈspenʃən] – n. a time interval during which there is a temporary cessation of something

suspicion [səsˈpiʃən] – n. an impression that something might be the case

suspicious [səsˈpiʃəs] – adj. openly distrustful and unwilling to confide

sustain [səsˈtein] – v. lengthen or extend in duration or space: We sustained the diplomatic negotiations as long as possible

swallow [ˈswɔləu] – v. pass through the esophagus as part of eating or drinking

swap [swɔp] – v. exchange or give (something) in exchange for

sway [swei] – v. move back and forth or sideways: the tall building swayed

swear [swɛə] – v. utter obscenities or profanities

sweat [swet] – n. agitation resulting from active worry: he’s in a sweat about exams

sweep [swi:p] – v. force into some kind of situation, condition, or course of action

sweet [swi:t] – adj. having or denoting the characteristic taste of sugar

swell [swel] – v. increase in size, magnitude, number, or intensity: The music swelled to a crescendo

swift [swift] – n. United States meat-packer who began the use of refrigerated railroad cars (1839-1903)

swiftly  – adv. in a swift manner: she moved swiftly

swim [swim] – v. travel through water: We had to swim for 20 minutes to reach the shore

swimming  – adj. filled or brimming with tears: swimming eyes

swing [swiŋ] – v. move in a curve or arc, usually with the intent of hitting: swing a bat

switch [switʃ] – n. an event in which one thing is substituted for another

sword [sɔ:d] – n. a cutting or thrusting weapon that has a long metal blade and a hilt with a hand guard

syllable [ˈsiləbl] – n. a unit of spoken language larger than a phoneme: the word `pocket’ has two syllables

symbol [ˈsimbəl] – n. an arbitrary sign (written or printed) that has acquired a conventional significance

symbolic  – adj. serving as a visible symbol for something abstract: the spinning wheel was as symbolic of colonical Massachusetts as the codfish

symmetry [ˈsimitri] – n. balance among the parts of something

sympathetic [.simpəˈθetik] – adj. expressing or feeling or resulting from sympathy or compassion or friendly fellow feelings; disposed toward: sympathetic to the students’ cause

sympathy [ˈsimpəθi] – n. an inclination to support or be loyal to or to agree with an opinion

symptom [ˈsimptəm] – n. anything that accompanies X and is regarded as an indication of X’s existence

syndrome [ˈsindrəum] – n. a complex of concurrent things: every word has a syndrome of meanings

syntactic  – adj. of or relating to or conforming to the rules of syntax: the syntactic rules of a language

synthesis [ˈsinθisis] – n. the process of producing a chemical compound (usually by the union of simpler chemical compounds)

system [ˈsistəm] – n. instrumentality that combines interrelated interacting artifacts designed to work as a coherent entity: he bought a new stereo system

systematic [.sistiˈmætik] – adj. characterized by order and planning: the investigation was very systematic

table [ˈteibl] – n. a set of data arranged in rows and columns: see table 1

tablet [ˈtæblit] – n. a number of sheets of paper fastened together along one edge

tackle [ˈtækl] – n. the person who plays that position on a football team: the right tackle is a straight A student

tactic [ˈtæktik] – n. a plan for attaining a particular goal

tail [teil] – n. the time of the last part of something: the tail of the storm

take [teik] – v. carry out: take action

takeover  – n. a sudden and decisive change of government illegally or by force

tale [teil] – n. a trivial lie

talent [ˈtælənt] – n. natural abilities or qualities

talk [tɔ:k] – v. express in speech: She talks a lot of nonsense

talking  – n. an exchange of ideas via conversation

tall [tɔ:l] – adj. lofty in style: he engages in so much tall talk, one never really realizes what he is saying

tank [tæŋk] – n. a large (usually metallic) vessel for holding gases or liquids

tap [tæp] – v. draw from or dip into to get something: tap one’s memory

tape [teip] – n. a long thin piece of cloth or paper as used for binding or fastening: he used a piece of tape for a belt

target [ˈtɑ:git] – n. a reference point to shoot at

tariff [ˈtærif] – n. a government tax on imports or exports

task [tɑ:sk] – n. a specific piece of work required to be done as a duty or for a specific fee: the endless task of classifying the samples

taste [teist] – n. a strong liking

tax [tæks] – v. set or determine the amount of (a payment such as a fine)

taxation [tækˈseiʃən] – n. charge against a citizen’s person or property or activity for the support of government

taxi [ˈtæksi] – v. travel slowly: The plane taxied down the runway

taxpayer [ˈtæks.peiə] – n. someone who pays taxes

tea [ti:] – n. dried leaves of the tea shrub; used to make tea: the store shelves held many different kinds of tea

teach [ti:tʃ] – v. impart skills or knowledge to

teacher [ˈti:tʃə] – n. a personified abstraction that teaches: books were his teachers

teaching [ˈti:tʃiŋ] – n. a doctrine that is taught: the teachings of religion

team [ti:m] – n. a cooperative unit (especially in sports)

tear [tɛə,tiə] – v. to separate or be separated by force

tease [ti:z] – v. annoy persistently: The children teased the boy because of his stammer

technical [ˈteknikəl] – adj. characterizing or showing skill in or specialized knowledge of applied arts and sciences: a technical problem

technically  – adv. with regard to technical skill and the technology available: a technically brilliant solution

technique [tekˈni:k] – n. a practical method or art applied to some particular task

technological [.teknəˈlɔdʒikəl] – adj. based in scientific and industrial progress: a technological civilization

technology [tekˈnɔlədʒi] – n. the practical application of science to commerce or industry

teenage  – adj. being of the age 13 through 19: teenage mothers

teenager [ˈti:n.eidʒə] – n. a juvenile between the onset of puberty and maturity

telecommunication [.telikəmju:niˈkeiʃən] – n. (often plural) systems used in transmitting messages over a distance electronically

telephone [ˈtelifəun] – n. transmitting speech at a distance

television [ˈteli.viʒən] – n. broadcasting visual images of stationary or moving objects

tell [tel] – v. express in words: tell me what is bothering you

telly  – n. an electronic device that receives television signals and displays them on a screen: the British call a tv set a telly

temperature [ˈtempritʃə] – n. the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment (corresponding to its molecular activity)

temple [ˈtempl] – n. place of worship consisting of an edifice for the worship of a deity

temporarily [ˈtempərərili] – adv. for a limited time only; not permanently: he will work here temporarily

temporary [ˈtempəreri] – adj. not permanent; not lasting: temporary housing

tempt [tempt] – v. dispose or incline or entice to: We were tempted by the delicious-looking food

temptation [tempˈteiʃən] – n. something that seduces or has the quality to seduce

tenant [ˈtenənt] – n. someone who pays rent to use land or a building or a car that is owned by someone else: the landlord can evict a tenant who doesn’t pay the rent

tend [tend] – v. have care of or look after: She tends to the children

tendency [ˈtendənsi] – n. an attitude of mind especially one that favors one alternative over others: a tendency to be too strict

tender [ˈtendə] – adj. given to sympathy or gentleness or sentimentality: a tender heart

tennis [ˈtenis] – n. a game played with rackets by two or four players who hit a ball back and forth over a net that divides the court

tense [tens] – v. increase the tension on: alternately relax and tense your calf muscle

tension [ˈtenʃən] – n. (psychology) a state of mental or emotional strain or suspense: he suffered from fatigue and emotional tension

tent [tent] – n. a portable shelter (usually of canvas stretched over supporting poles and fastened to the ground with ropes and pegs): he pitched his tent near the creek

term [tə:m] – n. a word or expression used for some particular thing: he learned many medical terms

terminal [ˈtə:minl] – adj. of or relating to or situated at the ends of a delivery route: freight pickup is a terminal service

terminate [ˈtə:mineit] – v. bring to an end or halt: The attack on Poland terminated the relatively peaceful period after WW I

terms  – n. status with respect to the relations between people or groups: on good terms with her in-laws

terrace [ˈterəs] – n. usually paved outdoor area adjoining a residence

terrible [ˈterəbl] – adj. exceptionally bad or displeasing: terrible handwriting

terribly [ˈteribli] – adv. used as intensifiers: terribly interesting

terrify [ˈterifai] – v. fill with terror; frighten greatly

territorial [.teriˈtɔ:riəl] – adj. of or relating to a territory: the territorial government of the Virgin Islands

territory [ˈteritəri] – n. a region marked off for administrative or other purposes

terror [ˈterə] – n. an overwhelming feeling of fear and anxiety

terrorist [ˈterərist] – n. a radical who employs terror as a political weapon; usually organizes with other terrorists in small cells; often uses religion as a cover for terrorist activities

test [test] – v. examine someone’s knowledge of something: The teacher tests us every week

testament [ˈtestəment] – n. a profession of belief: he stated his political testament

testing  – n. an examination of the characteristics of something: there are laboratories for commercial testing

text [tekst] – n. a passage from the Bible that is used as the subject of a sermon: the preacher chose a text from Psalms to introduce his sermon

textbook [ˈtekstbuk] – n. a book prepared for use in schools or colleges: his economics textbook is in its tenth edition

textile [ˈtekstail] – n. artifact made by weaving or felting or knitting or crocheting natural or synthetic fibers

texture [ˈtekstʃə] – n. the feel of a surface or a fabric: the wall had a smooth texture

thank [θæŋk] – v. express gratitude or show appreciation to

thanks [θæŋks] – n. an acknowledgment of appreciation

theatre [ˈθiətə] – n. the art of writing and producing plays

theft [θeft] – n. the act of taking something from someone unlawfully

theme [θi:m] – n. a unifying idea that is a recurrent element in literary or artistic work: it was the usual `boy gets girl’ theme

then [ðen] – adv. subsequently or soon afterward (often used as sentence connectors): then he left

theology [θiˈɔlədʒi] – n. the rational and systematic study of religion and its influences and of the nature of religious truth

theoretical [θiəˈretikəl] – adj. concerned primarily with theories or hypotheses rather than practical considerations: theoretical science

theorist [ˈθi:ərist] – n. someone who theorizes (especially in science or art)

theory [ˈθiəri] – n. a tentative insight into the natural world; a concept that is not yet verified but that if true would explain certain facts or phenomena: a scientific hypothesis that survives experimental testing becomes a scientific theory

therapist  – n. a person skilled in a particular type of therapy

therapy [ˈθerəpi] – n. (medicine) the act of caring for someone (as by medication or remedial training etc.): heat therapy gave the best relief

there [ðɛə] – adv. in or at that place: they have lived there for years

thereafter [ðɛəˈæftə] – adv. from that time on: thereafter he never called again

thereby [ˈðɛəˈbai] – adv. by that means or because of that: He knocked over the red wine, thereby ruining the table cloth

therefore [ðɛəˈfɔ:] – adv. (used to introduce a logical conclusion) from that fact or reason or as a result: therefore X must be true

thesis [ˈθi:sis] – n. an unproved statement put forward as a premise in an argument

thick [θik] – adj. having component parts closely crowded together: thick crowds

thief [θi:f] – n. a criminal who takes property belonging to someone else with the intention of keeping it or selling it

thigh [θai] – n. the part of the leg between the hip and the knee

thin [θin] – adj. lacking excess flesh: you can’t be too rich or too thin

thing [θiŋ] – n. a special situation: this thing has got to end

think [θiŋk] – v. judge or regard; look upon; judge: I think he is very smart

thinking [ˈθiŋkiŋ] – n. the process of using your mind to consider something carefully: thinking always made him frown

thorough [ˈθʌrə] – adj. painstakingly careful and accurate: our accountant is thorough

thoroughly [ˈθʌrəli] – adv. in an exhaustive manner: we searched the files thoroughly

though [ðəu] – adv. (postpositive) however: it might be unpleasant, though

thought [θɔ:t] – n. the content of cognition; the main thing you are thinking about: the thought never entered my mind

thread [θred] – v. to move or cause to move in a sinuous, spiral, or circular course

threat [θret] – n. something that is a source of danger: earthquakes are a constant threat in Japan

threaten [ˈθretn] – v. to utter intentions of injury or punishment against:: He threatened me when I tried to call the police

threshold [ˈθreʃhəuld] – n. the starting point for a new state or experience: on the threshold of manhood

throat [θrəut] – n. the passage to the stomach and lungs; in the front part of the neck below the chin and above the collarbone

throne [θrəun] – n. the chair of state for a monarch, bishop, etc.: the king sat on his throne

through [θru:] – adv. from beginning to end: read this book through

throw [θrəu] – v. move violently, energetically, or carelessly

thrust [θrʌst] – v. push forcefully: He thrust his chin forward

thumb [θʌm] – n. the thick short innermost digit of the forelimb

thus [ðʌs] – adv. in the way indicated: set up the pieces thus

tick [tik] – n. a metallic tapping sound: he counted the ticks of the clock

ticket [ˈtikit] – n. a commercial document showing that the holder is entitled to something (as to ride on public transportation or to enter a public entertainment)

tide [taid] – n. the periodic rise and fall of the sea level under the gravitational pull of the moon

tie [tai] – n. a social or business relationship: he was sorry he had to sever his ties with other members of the team

tiger [ˈtaigə] – n. a fierce or audacious person: he’s a tiger on the tennis court

tight [tait] – adj. closely constrained or constricted or constricting: tight skirts

tighten [ˈtaitən] – v. become tight or tighter: The rope tightened

tightly [ˈtaitli] – adv. securely fixed or fastened: the window was tightly sealed

tile [tail] – n. a flat thin rectangular slab (as of fired clay or rubber or linoleum) used to cover surfaces

timber [ˈtimbə] – n. the wood of trees cut and prepared for use as building material

time [taim] – n. an instance or single occasion for some event: this time he succeeded

timetable [ˈtaim.teibl] – n. a schedule listing events and the times at which they will take place

timing [ˈtaimiŋ] – n. the time when something happens

tin [tin] – n. metal container for storing dry foods such as tea or flour

tiny [ˈtaini] – adj. very small: tiny feet

tip [tip] – v. cause to tilt: tip the screen upward

tired [ˈtaiəd] – adj. depleted of strength or energy: tired mothers with crying babies

tissue [ˈtiʃu] – n. part of an organism consisting of an aggregate of cells having a similar structure and function

title [ˈtaitl] – n. a heading that names a statute or legislative bill; may give a brief summary of the matters it deals with

toast [təust] – n. a celebrity who receives much acclaim and attention: he was the toast of the town

tobacco [təˈbækəu] – n. aromatic annual or perennial herbs and shrubs

today [təˈdei] – n. the present time or age: the world of today

toe [təu] – v. drive obliquely: toe a nail

together [təˈgeðə] – adv. in contact with each other or in proximity: the leaves stuck together

toilet [ˈtɔilit] – n. a plumbing fixture for defecation and urination

tolerate [ˈtɔləreit] – v. put up with something or somebody unpleasant: he learned to tolerate the heat

toll [təul] – n. a fee levied for the use of roads or bridges (used for maintenance)

tomato [təˈmeitəu] – n. mildly acid red or yellow pulpy fruit eaten as a vegetable

tomorrow [təˈmɔrəu] – n. the day after today: what are our tasks for tomorrow?

ton [tʌn] – n. a British unit of weight equivalent to 2240 pounds

tone [tʌn] – n. the quality of a person’s voice: he began in a conversational tone

tongue [tʌŋ] – n. a mobile mass of muscular tissue covered with mucous membrane and located in the oral cavity

tonight [təˈnait] – n. the present or immediately coming night

tonne  – n. a unit of weight equivalent to 1000 kilograms

too [tu:] – adv. in addition: he has a Mercedes, too

tool [tu:l] – n. an implement used in the practice of a vocation

tooth [tu:θ] – n. hard bonelike structures in the jaws of vertebrates; used for biting and chewing or for attack and defense

top [tɔp] – n. the upper part of anything: the mower cuts off the tops of the grass

topic [ˈtɔpik] – n. the subject matter of a conversation or discussion: it was a very sensitive topic

torch [tɔ:tʃ] – n. a light usually carried in the hand; consists of some flammable substance

toss [tɔs] – v. lightly throw to see which side comes up

total [ˈtəutl] – v. add up in number or quantity

totally [ˈtɔt(ə)li] – adv. to a complete degree or to the full or entire extent (`whole’ is often used informally for `wholly’): a totally new situation

touch [tʌtʃ] – v. make physical contact with, come in contact with: She never touched her husband

tough [tʌf] – adj. not given to gentleness or sentimentality: a tough character

tour [tuə] – n. a journey or route all the way around a particular place or area: they took an extended tour of Europe

tourism [ˈtʊəriz(ə)m] – n. the business of providing services to tourists

tourist [ˈtuərist] – n. someone who travels for pleasure

tournament [ˈtuənəmənt] – n. a sporting competition in which contestants play a series of games to decide the winner

towel [ˈtauəl] – n. a rectangular piece of absorbent cloth (or paper) for drying or wiping

tower [ˈtauə] – n. a structure taller than its diameter; can stand alone or be attached to a larger building

town [taun] – n. an urban area with a fixed boundary that is smaller than a city: they drive through town on their way to work

toxic [ˈtɔksik] – adj. of or relating to or caused by a toxin or poison: suffering from exposure to toxic substances

toy [tɔi] – n. a nonfunctional replica of something else (frequently used as a modifier): a toy stove

trace [treis] – v. follow, discover, or ascertain the course of development of something: trace the student’s progress

track [træk] – n. evidence pointing to a possible solution

tract [trækt] – n. an extended area of land

trade [treid] – n. the commercial exchange (buying and selling on domestic or international markets) of goods and services: Venice was an important center of trade with the East

trader [ˈtreidə] – n. someone who purchases and maintains an inventory of goods to be sold

trading  – n. buying or selling securities or commodities

tradition [trəˈdiʃən] – n. an inherited pattern of thought or action

traditional [trəˈdiʃənəl] – adj. pertaining to time-honored orthodox doctrines: the simple security of traditional assumptions has vanished

traditionally  – adv. according to tradition; in a traditional manner: traditionally, we eat fried foods on Hanukah

traffic [ˈtræfik] – n. buying and selling; especially illicit trade

tragedy [ˈtrædʒidi] – n. an event resulting in great loss and misfortune

tragic [ˈtrædʒik] – adj. very sad; especially involving grief or death or destruction: a tragic face

trail [treil] – v. to lag or linger behind

train [trein] – v. develop (children’s) behavior by instruction and practice; especially to teach self-control: Is this dog trained?

trainee [treiˈni:] – n. someone who is being trained

trainer [ˈtreinə] – n. simulator consisting of a machine on the ground that simulates the conditions of flying a plane

training [ˈtreiniŋ] – n. activity leading to skilled behavior

trait [treit] – n. a distinguishing feature of your personal nature

transaction [trænˈzækʃən] – n. the act of transacting within or between groups (as carrying on commercial activities): no transactions are possible without him

transcription  – n. something written, especially copied from one medium to another, as a typewritten version of dictation

transfer [trænsˈfə:] – v. move from one place to another: transfer the data

transform [trænsˈfɔ:m] – v. change or alter in form, appearance, or nature: This experience transformed her completely

transformation [.trænsfəˈmeiʃən] – n. a qualitative change

transition [trænˈziʃən] – n. the act of passing from one state or place to the next

translate [trænsˈleit] – v. restate (words) from one language into another language: I have to translate when my in-laws from Austria visit the U.S.

translation [trænsˈleiʃən] – n. a written communication in a second language having the same meaning as the written communication in a first language

transmission [trænsˈmiʃən] – n. communication by means of transmitted signals

transmit [trænzˈmit] – v. transfer to another

transport [trænsˈpɔ:t] – n. the commercial enterprise of moving goods and materials

trap [træp] – n. a device in which something (usually an animal) can be caught and penned

travel [ˈtrævl] – v. undertake a journey or trip

traveller  – n. a person who changes location

tray [trei] – n. an open receptacle for holding or displaying or serving articles or food

tread [tred] – v. put down or press the foot, place the foot: For fools rush in where angels fear to tread

treasure [ˈtreʒə] – n. accumulated wealth in the form of money or jewels etc.: the pirates hid their treasure on a small island in the West Indies

treasurer [ˈtreʒərə] – n. an officer charged with receiving and disbursing funds

treasury [ˈtreʒəri] – n. the funds of a government or institution or individual

treat [tri:t] – v. interact in a certain way

treatment [ˈtri:tmənt] – n. the management of someone or something: the treatment of water sewage

treaty [ˈtri:ti] – n. a written agreement between two states or sovereigns

tree [tri:] – v. force a person or an animal into a position from which he cannot escape

tremble [ˈtrembl] – n. a reflex motion caused by cold or fear or excitement

tremendous [triˈmendəs] – adj. extraordinarily large in size or extent or amount or power or degree: tremendous sweeping plains

trench [trentʃ] – v. impinge or infringe upon: This matter entrenches on other domains

trend [trend] – n. a general direction in which something tends to move: the trend of the stock market

trial [ˈtraiəl] – n. the act of testing something: in the experimental trials the amount of carbon was measured separately

triangle [ˈtraiæŋgl] – n. a three-sided polygon

tribe [traib] – n. a social division of (usually preliterate) people

tribunal [traiˈbju:nəl] – n. an assembly (including one or more judges) to conduct judicial business

tribute [ˈtribju:t] – n. something given or done as an expression of esteem

trick [trik] – n. a cunning or deceitful action or device: he played a trick on me

trigger [ˈtrigə] – n. lever that activates the firing mechanism of a gun

trip [trip] – n. a journey for some purpose (usually including the return): he took a trip to the shopping center

triumph [ˈtraiəmf] – v. prove superior

trivial [ˈtriviəl] – adj. (informal) small and of little importance

trolley [ˈtrɔli] – n. a wheeled vehicle that runs on rails and is propelled by electricity

troop [tru:p] – n. a group of soldiers

trophy [ˈtrəufi] – n. an award for success in war or hunting

tropical [ˈtrɔpikəl] – adj. of or relating to the tropics, or either tropic: tropical year

trouble [ˈtrʌbl] – n. a source of difficulty: one trouble after another delayed the job

trouser  – n. (usually in the plural) a garment extending from the waist to the knee or ankle, covering each leg separately: he had a sharp crease in his trousers

truck [trʌk] – n. an automotive vehicle suitable for hauling

truly [ˈtru:li] – adv. with sincerity; without pretense: we are truly sorry for the inconvenience

trunk [trʌŋk] – n. the main stem of a tree; usually covered with bark; the bole is usually the part that is commercially useful for lumber

trust [trʌst] – n. certainty based on past experience: he put more trust in his own two legs than in the gun

trustee [trʌsˈti:] – n. members of a governing board

truth [tru:θ] – n. a fact that has been verified: at last he knew the truth

try [trai] – v. make an effort or attempt

t-shirt  – n. a close-fitting pullover shirt

tube [tju:b] – n. conduit consisting of a long hollow object (usually cylindrical) used to hold and conduct objects or liquids or gases

tuck [tʌk] – n. eatables (especially sweets)

tumble [ˈtʌmbl] – v. fall down, as if collapsing: The tower of the World Trade Center tumbled after the plane hit it

tumour  – n. an abnormal new mass of tissue that serves no purpose

tune [tju:n] – n. a succession of notes forming a distinctive sequence

tunnel [ˈtʌnəl] – n. a passageway through or under something, usually underground (especially one for trains or cars): the tunnel reduced congestion at that intersection

turkey [ˈtə:ki] – n. large gallinaceous bird with fan-shaped tail; widely domesticated for food

turn [tə:n] – v. change orientation or direction, also in the abstract sense: The mugger turned and fled before I could see his face

turnover [ˈtə:n.əuvə] – n. the ratio of the number of workers that had to be replaced in a given time period to the average number of workers

tutor [ˈtju:tə] – v. act as a guardian to someone

twice [twais] – adv. two times: I called her twice

twin [twin] – n. (astrology) a person who is born while the sun is in Gemini

twist [twist] – n. an unforeseen development

type [taip] – n. a subdivision of a particular kind of thing: what type of sculpture do you prefer?

typical [ˈtipikəl] – adj. exhibiting the qualities or characteristics that identify a group or kind or category: a typical American girl

typically  – adv. in a typical manner: Tom was typically hostile

tyre  – n. a port in southern Lebanon on the Mediterranean Sea; formerly a major Phoenician seaport famous for silks

ugly [ˈʌgli] – adj. displeasing to the senses: an ugly face

ulcer [ˈʌlsə] – n. a circumscribed inflammatory and often suppurating lesion on the skin or an internal mucous surface resulting in necrosis of tissue

ultimate [ˈʌltimit] – adj. furthest or highest in degree or order; utmost or extreme: the ultimate achievement

ultimately [ˈʌltimətli] – adv. as the end result of a succession or process: ultimately he had to give in

umbrella [ʌmˈbrelə] – n. a lightweight handheld collapsible canopy

unable [ʌnˈeibl] – adj. (usually followed by `to’) not having the necessary means or skill or know-how: unable to get to town without a car

unacceptable [ˈʌnəkˈseptəbl] – adj. not adequate to give satisfaction: the coach told his players that defeat was unacceptable

unaware [ˈʌnəˈwɛə] – adj. (often followed by `of’) not aware: seemed unaware of the scrutiny

uncertain [ʌnˈsə:tn] – adj. lacking or indicating lack of confidence or assurance: uncertain of his convictions

uncertainty [ʌnˈsə:tnti] – n. being unsettled or in doubt or dependent on chance: the uncertainty of the outcome

unchanged  – adj. not made or become different: the causes that produced them have remained unchanged

uncle [ˈʌŋkl] – n. the brother of your father or mother; the husband of your aunt

unclear  – adj. poorly stated or described

uncomfortable [ʌnˈkʌmftəbl] – adj. conducive to or feeling mental discomfort: this kind of life can prove disruptive and uncomfortable

unconscious [ʌnˈkɔnʃəs] – adj. not conscious; lacking awareness and the capacity for sensory perception as if asleep or dead: lay unconscious on the floor

uncover [ʌnˈkʌvə] – v. make visible

under [ˈʌndə] – adv. down to defeat, death, or ruin: their competitors went under

undergo [.ʌndəˈgəu] – v. pass through: The chemical undergoes a sudden change

underground [ˈʌndəgraund] – n. a secret group organized to overthrow a government or occupation force

underline [.ʌndəˈlain] – v. give extra weight to (a communication)

underlying [.ʌndəˈlaiiŋ] – adj. in the nature of something though not readily apparent: an underlying meaning

undermine [.ʌndəˈmain] – v. destroy property or hinder normal operations

underneath [.ʌndəˈni:θ] – adv. under or below an object or a surface; at a lower place or level; directly beneath: we could see the original painting underneath

understand [.ʌndəˈstænd] – v. know and comprehend the nature or meaning of: She did not understand her husband

understandable  – adj. capable of being apprehended or understood

understanding [.ʌndəˈstændiŋ] – n. the statement (oral or written) of an exchange of promises: there was an understanding between management and the workers

undertake [.ʌndəˈteik] – v. enter upon an activity or enterprise

undertaking [.ʌndəˈteikiŋ] – n. the trade of a funeral director

undoubtedly [ʌnˈdautidli] – adv. without doubt; certainly: it’s undoubtedly very beautiful

uneasy [ʌnˈi:zi] – adj. lacking a sense of security or affording no ease or reassurance: farmers were uneasy until rain finally came

unemployed [ˈʌnimˈplɔid] – n. people who are involuntarily out of work (considered as a group): the long-term unemployed need assistance

unemployment [ˈʌnimˈplɔimənt] – n. the state of being unemployed or not having a job: unemployment is a serious social evil

unexpected [ˈʌnikˈspektid] – adj. not expected or anticipated: unexpected guests

unexpectedly  – adv. in a way that was not expected

unfair [ʌnˈfɛə] – adj. not fair; marked by injustice or partiality or deception: used unfair methods

unfamiliar  – adj. not known or well known: a name unfamiliar to most

unfortunate [ʌnˈfɔ:tʃənit] – adj. not favored by fortune; marked or accompanied by or resulting in ill fortune: an unfortunate turn of events

unfortunately [ʌnˈfɔ:tjʊnətli] – adv. by bad luck: unfortunately it rained all day

unhappy [ʌnˈhæpi] – adj. experiencing or marked by or causing sadness or sorrow or discontent: unhappy over her departure

uniform [ˈju:nifɔ:m] – adj. always the same; showing a single form or character in all occurrences: a street of uniform tall white buildings

union [ˈju:njən] – n. an organization of employees formed to bargain with the employer: you have to join the union in order to get a job

unionist  – n. a worker who belongs to a trade union

unique [ju:ˈni:k] – adj. radically distinctive and without equal: Bach was unique in his handling of counterpoint

unit [ˈju:nit] – n. any division of quantity accepted as a standard of measurement or exchange: the dollar is the United States unit of currency

unite [ju:ˈnait] – v. become one

united [juˈnaitid] – adj. of or relating to two people who are married to each other

unity [ˈju:niti] – n. an undivided or unbroken completeness or totality with nothing wanting: he took measures to insure the territorial unity of Croatia

universal [.ju:niˈvə:səl] – n. (linguistics) a grammatical rule (or other linguistic feature) that is found in all languages

universe [ˈju:nivə:s] – n. everything that exists anywhere: they study the evolution of the universe

university [.ju:niˈvə:siti] – n. a large and diverse institution of higher learning created to educate for life and for a profession and to grant degrees

unknown [ˈʌnˈnəun] – adj. not known: an unknown amount

unlawful [ˈʌnˈlɔ:ful] – adj. not conforming to legality, moral law, or social convention

unlike [ˈʌnˈlaik] – adj. marked by dissimilarity: for twins they are very unlike

unlikely [ʌnˈlaikli] – adj. not likely to be true or to occur or to have occurred: legislation on the question is highly unlikely

unnecessary [ʌnˈnesisəri] – adj. not necessary

unpleasant [ʌnˈpleznt] – adj. disagreeable to the senses, to the mind, or feelings: an unpleasant personality

unprecedented [ʌnˈpresidəntid] – adj. having no precedent; novel: an unprecedented expansion in population and industry

unreasonable [ʌnˈri:znəbl] – adj. not reasonable; not showing good judgment

unrest [ʌnˈrest] – n. a state of agitation or turbulent change or development: social unrest

unsuccessful  – adj. not successful; having failed or having an unfavorable outcome

unusual [ʌnˈju:ʒuəl] – adj. not usual or common or ordinary: a scene of unusual beauty

unusually  – adv. to a remarkable degree or extent: she was unusually tall

unwanted  – adj. not wanted; not needed: tried to give away unwanted kittens

unwilling [ˈʌnˈwiliŋ] – adj. not disposed or inclined toward: an unwilling assistant

up [ʌp] – adj. being or moving higher in position or greater in some value; being above a former position or level: the anchor is up

update [ʌpˈdeit] – v. modernize or bring up to date: We updated the kitchen in the old house

upgrade [ˈʌpgreid] – n. an upward slope or grade (as in a road)

uphold [ʌpˈhəuld] – v. keep or maintain in unaltered condition; cause to remain or last

upper [ˈʌpə] – n. the higher of two berths

upset [ʌpˈset] – n. an unhappy and worried mental state: she didn’t realize the upset she caused me

upstairs [ˈʌpˈstɛəz] – adv. on a floor above: they lived upstairs

up-to-date [ˈʌptəˈdeit] – adj. reflecting the latest information or changes: an up-to-date issue of the magazine

upwards  – adv. spatially or metaphorically from a lower to a higher position: the fragments flew upwards

urban [ˈə:bən] – adj. relating to or concerned with a city or densely populated area: urban sociology

urge [ə:dʒ] – v. force or impel in an indicated direction: I urged him to finish his studies

urgency [ˈə:dʒənsi] – n. pressing importance requiring speedy action: the urgency of his need

urgent [ˈə:dʒənt] – adj. compelling immediate action: the urgent words `Hurry! Hurry!’

urgently [ˈə:dʒəntli] – adv. with great urgency: health care reform is needed urgently

urine [ˈjuərin] – n. liquid excretory product: there was blood in his urine

usage [ˈju:sidʒ] – n. the act of using

use [ju:z] – n. the act of using: he warned against the use of narcotic drugs

used [ju:zd] – adj. employed in accomplishing something: the principle of surprise is the most used and misused of all the principles of war

useful [ˈju:sfəl] – adj. being of use or service: the girl felt motherly and useful

useless [ˈju:slis] – adj. having no beneficial use or incapable of functioning usefully: a kitchen full of useless gadgets

user [ˈju:zə] – n. a person who uses something or someone selfishly or unethically

usual [ˈju:ʒuəl] – adj. occurring or encountered or experienced or observed frequently or in accordance with regular practice or procedure: grew the usual vegetables

usually [ˈju:ʒuəli] – adv. under normal conditions: usually she was late

utility [ju:ˈtiliti] – n. a company that performs a public service; subject to government regulation

utter [ˈʌtə] – v. articulate; either verbally or with a cry, shout, or noise: He uttered a curse

utterance [ˈʌtərəns] – n. the use of uttered sounds for auditory communication

utterly [ˈʌtəli] – adv. completely and without qualification; used informally as intensifiers: utterly miserable

vacant [ˈveikənt] – adj. void of thought or knowledge: a vacant mind

vacuum [ˈvækjuəm] – n. the absence of matter

vague [veig] – adj. not clearly understood or expressed: their descriptions of human behavior become vague, dull, and unclear

vaguely  – adv. in a vague way: he looked vaguely familiar

valid [ˈvælid] – adj. well grounded in logic or truth or having legal force: a valid inference

validity [væˈliditi] – n. the quality of having legal force or effectiveness

valley [ˈvæli] – n. a long depression in the surface of the land that usually contains a river

valuable [ˈvæljuəbl] – adj. having worth or merit or value: a valuable friend

valuation [.væljuˈeiʃən] – n. an appraisal of the value of something: he set a high valuation on friendship

value [ˈvælju:] – n. a numerical quantity measured or assigned or computed: the value assigned was 16 milliseconds

valve [vælv] – n. a structure in a hollow organ (like the heart) with a flap to insure one-way flow of fluid through it

van [væn] – n. the leading units moving at the head of an army

vanish [ˈvæniʃ] – v. get lost, as without warning or explanation

variable [ˈvɛəriəbl] – n. a quantity that can assume any of a set of values

variant [ˈvɛəriənt] – n. an event that departs from expectations

variation [.vɛəriˈeiʃən] – n. an instance of change; the rate or magnitude of change

varied [ˈvɛərid] – adj. widely different: varied motives prompt people to join a political party

variety [vəˈraiəti] – n. noticeable heterogeneity: the range and variety of his work is amazing

various [ˈvɛəriəs] – adj. of many different kinds purposefully arranged but lacking any uniformity: his disguises are many and various

vary [ˈvɛəri] – v. become different in some particular way, without permanently losing one’s or its former characteristics or essence

vast [vɑ:st] – adj. unusually great in size or amount or degree or especially extent or scope: at vast (or immense) expense

VAT [væt] – n. a tax levied on the difference between a commodity’s price before taxes and its cost of production

vector  – n. a variable quantity that can be resolved into components

vegetable [ˈvedʒitəbl] – n. edible seeds or roots or stems or leaves or bulbs or tubers or nonsweet fruits of any of numerous herbaceous plant

vegetation [.vedʒiˈteiʃən] – n. all the plant life in a particular region or period: Pleistocene vegetation

vehicle [ˈvi:ikl] – n. a conveyance that transports people or objects

vein [vein] – n. a distinctive style or manner: he continued in this vein for several minutes

velocity [viˈlɔsiti] – n. distance travelled per unit time

velvet [ˈvelvit] – adj. smooth and soft to sight or hearing or touch or taste

vendor [ˈvendə] – n. someone who promotes or exchanges goods or services for money

venture [ˈventʃə] – n. an investment that is very risky but could yield great profits

venue [ˈvenju:] – n. in law: the jurisdiction where a trial will be held

verb [və:b] – n. a content word that denotes an action, occurrence, or state of existence

verbal [ˈvə:bəl] – adj. communicated in the form of words: verbal imagery

verdict [ˈvə:dikt] – n. (law) the findings of a jury on issues of fact submitted to it for decision; can be used in formulating a judgment

verse [və:s] – n. literature in metrical form

version [ˈvə:ʃən] – n. an interpretation of a matter from a particular viewpoint: his version of the fight was different from mine

vertical [ˈvə:tikəl] – adj. at right angles to the plane of the horizon or a base line: a vertical camera angle

very [ˈveri] – adj. precisely as stated: the very center of town

vessel [ˈvesl] – n. a tube in which a body fluid circulates

veteran [ˈvetərən] – n. a serviceman who has seen considerable active service: the veterans laughed at the new recruits

viable [ˈvaiəbəl] – adj. capable of being done with means at hand and circumstances as they are

vicar  – n. a Roman Catholic priest who acts for another higher-ranking clergyman

vicious [ˈviʃəs] – adj. (of persons or their actions) able or disposed to inflict pain or suffering: vicious kicks

victim [ˈviktim] – n. an unfortunate person who suffers from some adverse circumstance

victory [ˈviktəri] – n. a successful ending of a struggle or contest: a narrow victory

video [ˈvidiəu] – n. the visible part of a television transmission

view [vju:] – n. a way of regarding situations or topics etc.: consider what follows from the positivist view

viewer [ˈvju:ə] – n. a close observer; someone who looks at something (such as an exhibition of some kind): television viewers

viewpoint [ˈvju:pɔint] – n. a mental position from which things are viewed: we should consider this problem from the viewpoint of the Russians

vigorous [ˈvigərəs] – adj. characterized by forceful and energetic action or activity: a vigorous hiker

villa [ˈvilə] – n. Mexican revolutionary leader (1877-1923)

village [ˈvilidʒ] – n. a community of people smaller than a town

villager  – n. one who has lived in a village most of their life

violation [.vaiəˈleiʃən] – n. a crime less serious than a felony

violence [ˈvaiələns] – n. an act of aggression (as one against a person who resists): he may accomplish by craft in the long run what he cannot do by force and violence in the short one

violent [ˈvaiələnt] – adj. acting with or marked by or resulting from great force or energy or emotional intensity: a violent attack

virgin [ˈvə:dʒin] – n. a person who has never had sex

virtual [ˈvə:tjuəl] – adj. being actually such in almost every respect: the once elegant temple lay in virtual ruin

virtually [ˈvɜ:tjʊəli] – adv. in essence or effect but not in fact: the strike virtually paralyzed the city

virtue [ˈvə:tju:] – n. the quality of doing what is right and avoiding what is wrong

virus [ˈvaiərəs] – n. a harmful or corrupting agency: bigotry is a virus that must not be allowed to spread

visible [ˈvizəbl] – adj. capable of being seen; or open to easy view: a visible object

vision [ˈviʒən] – n. a vivid mental image: he had a vision of his own death

visit [ˈvizit] – v. go to see a place, as for entertainment

visitor [ˈvizitə] – n. someone who visits

visual [ˈvizjuəl] – adj. relating to or using sight: visual powers

vital [ˈvaitl] – adj. urgently needed; absolutely necessary: vital for a healthy society

vitamin [ˈvaitəmin] – n. any of a group of organic substances essential in small quantities to normal metabolism

vivid [ˈvivid] – adj. evoking lifelike images within the mind: a vivid description

vocabulary [vəˈkæbjuləri] – n. a listing of the words used in some enterprise

vocational [vəuˈkeiʃənəl] – adj. of or relating to a vocation or occupation; especially providing or undergoing training in special skills: vocational school

voice [vɔis] – n. the distinctive quality or pitch or condition of a person’s speech: A shrill voice sounded behind us

voltage [ˈvəultidʒ] – n. the difference in electrical charge between two points in a circuit expressed in volts

volume [ˈvɔljum] – n. the amount of 3-dimensional space occupied by an object: the gas expanded to twice its original volume

voluntary [ˈvɔləntəri] – n. (military) a person who freely enlists for service

volunteer [.vɔlənˈtiə] – n. (military) a person who freely enlists for service

vote [vəut] – n. the opinion of a group as determined by voting: they put the question to a vote

voter [ˈvəʊtə(r)] – n. a citizen who has a legal right to vote

voucher [ˈvautʃə] – n. a document that serves as evidence of some expenditure

voyage [ˈvɔiidʒ] – n. an act of traveling by water

vulnerable [ˈvʌlnərəbl] – adj. susceptible to attack: a vulnerable bridge

wage [weidʒ] – n. something that remunerates: wages were paid by check

wagon [ˈwægən] – n. any of various kinds of wheeled vehicles drawn by an animal or a tractor

waist [weist] – n. the narrowing of the body between the ribs and hips

wait [weit] – v. stay in one place and anticipate or expect something: I had to wait on line for an hour to get the tickets

waiter [ˈweitə] – n. a person whose occupation is to serve at table (as in a restaurant)

waiting  – adj. being and remaining ready and available for use: waiting cars and limousines lined the curb

wake [weik] – v. stop sleeping

walk [wɔ:k] – v. use one’s feet to advance; advance by steps: We walked instead of driving

walker [ˈwɔ:kə] – n. United States writer (born in 1944)

walking  – n. the act of traveling by foot: walking is a healthy form of exercise

wall [wɔ:l] – n. (anatomy) a layer (a lining or membrane) that encloses a structure: stomach walls

wander [ˈwɔndə] – v. move about aimlessly or without any destination, often in search of food or employment: the wandering Jew

want [wɔnt] – v. have need of: This piano wants the attention of a competent tuner

war [wɔ:] – n. the waging of armed conflict against an enemy: thousands of people were killed in the war

ward [wɔ:d] – n. a person who is under the protection or in the custody of another

wardrobe [ˈwɔ:drəub] – n. a tall piece of furniture that provides storage space for clothes; has a door and rails or hooks for hanging clothes

warehouse [ˈwɛəhaus] – n. a storehouse for goods and merchandise

warm [wɔ:m] – adj. having or producing a comfortable and agreeable degree of heat or imparting or maintaining heat: a warm body

warmth [wɔ:mθ] – n. the sensation caused by heat energy

warn [wɔ:n] – v. notify of danger, potential harm, or risk: The director warned him that he might be fired

warrant [ˈwɔ:rənt] – n. a writ from a court commanding police to perform specified acts

warranty [ˈwɔrənti] – n. a written assurance that some product or service will be provided or will meet certain specifications

warrior [ˈwɔriə] – n. someone engaged in or experienced in warfare

wartime  – n. a period of time during which there is armed conflict

wary [ˈweəri, ˈweri] – adj. openly distrustful and unwilling to confide

wash [wɔʃ] – v. clean with some chemical process

waste [weist] – v. spend thoughtlessly; throw away: He wasted his inheritance on his insincere friends

watch [wɔtʃ] – v. look attentively: watch a basketball game

water [ˈwɔ:tə] – n. once thought to be one of four elements composing the universe (Empedocles)

wave [weiv] – n. a movement like that of a sudden occurrence or increase in a specified phenomenon: a wave of settlers

way [wei] – n. how something is done or how it happens: a lonely way of life

weak [wi:k] – adj. wanting in physical strength: a weak pillar

weaken [ˈwi:kən] – v. lessen the strength of: The fever weakened his body

weakness [ˈwi:knis] – n. powerlessness revealed by an inability to act: in spite of their weakness the group remains active

wealth [welθ] – n. the state of being rich and affluent; having a plentiful supply of material goods and money: great wealth is not a sign of great intelligence

wealthy [ˈwelθi] – adj. having an abundant supply of money or possessions of value: wealthy corporations

weapon [ˈwepən] – n. any instrument or instrumentality used in fighting or hunting: he was licensed to carry a weapon

wear [wɛə] – v. be dressed in: She was wearing yellow that day

weather [ˈweðə] – v. face and withstand with courage

weave [wi:v] – v. create a piece of cloth by interlacing strands of fabric, such as wool or cotton

wedding [ˈwediŋ] – n. the social event at which the ceremony of marriage is performed

wee [wi:] – adj. (used informally) very small: a wee tot

weed [wi:d] – n. any plant that crowds out cultivated plants

week [wi:k] – n. any period of seven consecutive days: it rained for a week

weekend [ˈwi:kˈend] – n. a time period usually extending from Friday night through Sunday; more loosely defined as any period of successive days including one and only one Sunday

weekly [ˈwi:kli] – n. a periodical that is published every week (or 52 issues per year)

weep [wi:p] – v. shed tears because of sadness, rage, or pain

weigh [wei] – v. show consideration for; take into account

weight [weit] – n. the vertical force exerted by a mass as a result of gravity

weird [wiəd] – adj. suggesting the operation of supernatural influences: the three weird sisters

welcome [ˈwelkəm] – v. accept gladly: I welcome your proposals

welfare [ˈwelfɛə] – n. governmental provision of economic assistance to persons in need: she lives on welfare

well [wel] – adv. thoroughly or completely; fully; often used as a combining form: The problem is well understood

well-known [.welˈnəun] – adj. widely or fully known: a well-known politician

west [west] – n. the countries of (originally) Europe and (now including) North America and South America

western [ˈwestən] – adj. of or characteristic of regions of the United States west of the Mississippi River

wet [wet] – adj. covered or soaked with a liquid such as water: a wet bathing suit

whale [weil] – n. a very large person; impressive in size or qualities

wheat [wi:t] – n. annual or biennial grass having erect flower spikes and light brown grains

wheel [wi:l] – n. forces that provide energy and direction: the wheels of government began to turn

wherever [wɛərˈevə] – adv. where in the world

while [wail] – n. a period of indeterminate length (usually short) marked by some action or condition: he was here for a little while

whip [wip] – v. defeat thoroughly

whisky [ˈwiski] – n. a liquor made from fermented mash of grain

whisper [ˈwispə] – n. speaking softly without vibration of the vocal cords

white [wait] – n. a member of the Caucasoid race

whole [həul] – adj. (of siblings) having the same parents: whole brothers and sisters

wholly [ˈhəulli] – adv. to a complete degree or to the full or entire extent (`whole’ is often used informally for `wholly’): he was wholly convinced

why [wai] – n. the cause or intention underlying an action or situation, especially in the phrase `the whys and wherefores’

wicket  – n. cricket equipment consisting of a set of three stumps topped by crosspieces; used in playing cricket

wide [waid] – adj. having great (or a certain) extent from one side to the other: wide roads

widely [ˈwaidli] – adv. to a great degree: her work is widely known

widen [ˈwaidn] – v. make (clothes) larger

widespread [ˈwaidspred] – adj. widely circulated or diffused: a widespread doctrine

widow [ˈwidəu] – n. a woman whose husband is dead especially one who has not remarried

width [widθ] – n. the extent of something from side to side

wife [waif] – n. a married woman; a man’s partner in marriage

wild [waild] – adj. marked by extreme lack of restraint or control: wild talk

wildlife [ˈwaildlaif] – n. all living things (except people) that are undomesticated: chemicals could kill all the wildlife

wildly  – adv. to an extreme or greatly exaggerated degree: the storyline is wildly unrealistic

will [wil] – n. the capability of conscious choice and decision and intention

willing [ˈwiliŋ] – adj. disposed or inclined toward: a willing participant

willingness [ˈwiliŋnis] – n. cheerful compliance: he expressed his willingness to help

win [win] – v. obtain advantages, such as points, etc.

wind [waind,wind] – n. a tendency or force that influences events: the winds of change

window [ˈwindəu] – n. a transparent opening in a vehicle that allow vision out of the sides or back; usually is capable of being opened

wine [wain] – n. fermented juice (of grapes especially)

wing [wiŋ] – n. a movable organ for flying (one of a pair)

winner [ˈwinə] – n. a gambler who wins a bet

winning  – adj. having won: the winning team

winter [ˈwintə] – v. spend the winter: We wintered on the Riviera

wipe [waip] – n. the act of rubbing or wiping

wire [ˈwaiə] – v. provide with electrical circuits: wire the addition to the house

wisdom [ˈwizdəm] – n. accumulated knowledge or erudition or enlightenment

wise [waiz] – adj. marked by the exercise of good judgment or common sense in practical matters: a wise decision

wish [wiʃ] – v. feel or express a desire or hope concerning the future or fortune of

 

COMMON Vocabulary Words